BAM. Century building or buried billions?


Diesel locomotive with a freight train at BAM


BAM. An abbreviation of three letters, familiar to almost every resident of our country who was born in the USSR. These three letters contained a huge time gap. stories of our state, billions of rubles spent, hundreds of thousands of fates of our compatriots who are inextricably intertwined with the construction of the Baikal-Amur Railway. The importance of this railway for the country, the profitability of the project and the need to build a highway continue to be debated in the XNUMXst century.

Regardless of the existing points of view about this construction site, it is necessary to remember that BAM is a grandiose phenomenon not only in Russian, but also in world history. This is objectively dictated by a variety of factors. The most obvious of which is distance. The length of the railway is huge, more than four thousand kilometers, most of the way passes through impassable and uninhabited areas that are hostile to humans, this is truly wild. From here a second image arises - geographical-romantic. It is enough to imagine all these amazing landscapes from Lake Baikal to the Amur River and the ports of the Pacific Ocean for a total of 4287 kilometers.

Grandiose this construction and the cost of work. Experts note that BAM is the most expensive construction site during the existence of the USSR. The project cost is estimated at 17 billion 700 million rubles in 1991 prices. Another factor in the grandeur of construction is the number of people of different nationalities involved in the work. The Baikal-Amur Railway is a truly all-Union construction project, people of 70 nationalities took part in the construction of the highway, and in all, up to two million people worked here in different years.

BAM. The beginning of the story


Many believe that BAM is exclusively a Soviet project, related mainly to the era of stagnation of Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, imagining first of all Komsomol volunteers who willingly pose against the amazing beauty of taiga landscapes. However, the idea of ​​building a railway in these places arose long before the construction teams appeared here and not even at the dawn of the birth of Soviet power in the 1920s. The first talk about the construction of a railway in these remote places dates back to the end of the 1887th century. The first ideas about building a railway in the area of ​​Lake Baikal date back to XNUMX. According to the initial plans, the Trans-Siberian Railway was supposed to go through the places where BAM was eventually built.


Laying the track on the Central Siberian Railway in 1898

Then two construction options were considered - the northern and southern routes. The southern route was much simpler, and the option of building a railway here is the most compelling. A well-known Russian engineer Orest Polyenovich Vyazemsky spoke for this option. Despite this, the northern option for the construction of a railway to the Pacific Ocean was also considered back in the XNUMXth century. In the places where BAM was built today, two expeditions were led by prospectors Ludwig Ivanovich Prokhaski and Nikolai Afanasevich Voloshinov. Researchers are faced with harsh climatic conditions and difficult terrain. According to their reports, the area here was unsuitable not only for the construction of the railway, but also for the future life of people here.

In the reports, the researchers who passed through the places of the future construction of the Baikal-Amur Railway noted that the road would have passed in areas “north of the line of successful cultivation”, they separately emphasized the fact that these lands cannot be considered as a reserve of land for settlement. All this will be confirmed in the future. Today, many towns and cities along the highway are emptying, people are massively leaving these places, in more suitable for living areas of our vast Motherland. But at the end of the XNUMXth century it was extremely difficult to even carry out prospecting work here. In fact, a real breakthrough here was achieved only with development aviation and the launch of satellites, which helped to carry out all the necessary research (aerial photography and space imagery of the area), this territory was so difficult for moving around the earth. Already at the end of the XNUMXth century, the decision to build a railway here was postponed, since the project was recognized as unrealizable in every sense and very expensive.

The construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway moved south. At the same time, arguments already sounded in the 500th century, which will often be encountered in the future. In particular, it was already noted then that the passage of the Trans-Siberian Railway along the current Bam route to the Amur River will be significantly shorter, by about XNUMX versts. Another argument for the construction of a road in inaccessible terrain was the strategic distance from the border with China. In the XNUMXst century, this argument only gained weight along with the multiple growth of the military-technical potential of our main eastern neighbor.

The first Soviet projects of BAM. Prisoner labor


In the late 1920s, they returned to the idea of ​​construction. In 1928, the presentation of the next version of the fantastic project of the Great Northern Railway Track was held, which was supposed to pierce the country from Murmansk to the Tatar Strait through Kotlas, Surgut, Yeniseisk. The author of the project was Alexander Alekseevich Borisov. The project was already recognized as impossible to implement due to the enormous labor and cost of work. At the same time, an alternative was adopted as a development of the Northern Sea Route (NSR).

BAM. Century building or buried billions?

Gulag prisoners on the construction of the railway

Over time, only BAM itself remained from Borisov’s project. This abbreviation first appeared in 1930. The decision that the Baikal-Amur Railway was really needed was formed precisely in the early 30s of the 1932th century. The decision to build BAM in the form in which it exists today was made in April XNUMX. This is a section of the railway from Taishet to Sovetskaya Gavan.

The construction of the road was justified by two main factors. Firstly, economic - the country felt the need for a large number of resources. The development of new mineral deposits, access to which could be ensured by the railway infrastructure, solved this problem in the interests of the national economy. Secondly, the strategic factor - BAM was necessary as a safe option for the transfer of troops and cargo to the Far East and from the Far East. The railway was pushed to a safe distance from the borders of the country. The Chinese seizure of the CER section in 1929 clearly showed the vulnerability of communications of the USSR. Add fuel to the fire and the increasing power of Japan, which in the 1930s unleashed a full-scale war in the Far East. Moreover, Tokyo's policy was frankly militaristic and unfriendly to the Soviet Union.

The first construction work began already in 1932, but by the fall the main thing became obvious - there weren’t enough workers at the construction site. This was also indicated by the very first surveys carried out at the end of the 25th century. The terrain was not only insurmountable, but also completely unpopulated, almost completely deserted. Workers and specialists had to be brought here from other regions of the country. An attempt to recruit 10 thousand workers for the construction failed, barely 1932 percent of the planned volume was gathered by volunteers. Then it was decided to use the labor of prisoners in construction. Already in October XNUMX, the issue of building the BAM was transferred to the OGPU. In the same year, BAMLAG was formed.


Monument to the BAM search pilots

At the same time, they really began to build BAM only by 1938. The first to begin work on approaches to the future road from the Trans-Siberian Railway. They were needed to deliver the necessary cargo to ensure the progress of the construction itself, we are talking about the sections of Bam-Tynda (here Bam is the name of the station on the Trans-Siberian Railway) and Izvestkovaya-Urgal. The Great Patriotic War left its mark on these works. The rails from the already constructed sections had to be exported to the European part of Russia for the construction of the Volga Rokada near Stalingrad. The railway from Ilovlya (near Stalingrad) to the station Sviyazhsk (near Kazan) was vital to the fighting country. The importance of this railway after the Germans reached the Volga increased even more.

The last "construction of the century" of the USSR


From the late 1930s to the end of the 1950s, construction on the BAM began or stopped again, the work was temporary. This was dictated both by understandable factors, the construction was seriously hindered by the war and the subsequent restoration of the national economy, and by the fact that the slave labor of prisoners is always not the most productive solution.

Seriously and at a new level, the issue of building the BAM was approached in the 1970s, and in 12 years the main work on the highway was completed. The new approach of the Soviet government was based primarily on encouraging builders as material wealth: high wages (the average salary of some workers reached 700-750 rubles), certificates for cars (it was necessary to work out continuously for at least 2,5 years), so and the best material and household provision for citizens: better supply of scarce goods, fruits / vegetables, access to foreign goods (clothing, household appliances and electronics).


Scheme of the Baikal-Amur Railway

Such measures together helped to attract hundreds of thousands of volunteer builders from all over the country and seriously reinforced the romantic component, which is best described by a line from a popular Soviet song: “And I'm going behind the fog, behind dreams and the smell of taiga.” But even in those conditions it was not possible to manage with the help of volunteers from numerous construction teams alone. The most difficult sections of the route, located east of Tynda, located in the most remote, deserted and inaccessible places were built by railway troops. Without the help of the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, building a BAM by 1984 by the forces of the "Komsomol-romantics alone" would have failed.

What was considered absolutely unrealizable at the end of the 1930th century seemed possible, but very labor-intensive in the 1972s, it was possible to carry out from 1984 to 1984. It was in 1989 that the so-called "golden link" was laid, connecting the route along the entire route. At the same time, the road was not commissioned to the Ministry of Railways only in 2003, and it was from this period that the highway started operating on a regular basis. And only in 15, the construction of the "Brezhnev" BAM was finally put to an end. The builders completed the longest tunnel in Russia - a 26-kilometer underground section, known as the Severomuisk tunnel. The construction of this site with interruptions took XNUMX years.


Wedding. BAM. Kuanda. photo: goskatalog.ru

To implement a very complex project in all respects for the construction of a railway, more than half of which takes place in the permafrost zone, crosses 11 large rivers, as well as a large number of mountain ranges, could only materially stimulate the labor of people. Over the entire BAM, there are more than two thousand large and very small bridges, so the joke that BAM is bridges connected by roads has become widespread. This joke also demonstrates all the difficulties of construction and the inaccessibility of the terrain on which large-scale construction was carried out.

BAM today and the prospects of the road


Today, BAM passes about 12 to 14 million tons of cargo annually. For comparison: the Trans-Siberian Railway - about 180 million tons every year. However, the road has potential. Compared with the landslide figures of the late 1990s, when the road almost died, the cargo turnover again grew 3-4 times and there are prospects for its increase. The development of the bowels to which the railway approaches is still relevant. Before the construction of BAM, it was simply impossible. The strategic importance of the highway for the country has not disappeared anywhere. The road is located at a serious distance from the Chinese border.


BAM. Kodarsky tunnel, east portal, photo: goskatalog.ru

Further development of the road involves first of all the construction of the second tracks, in those areas where it is possible, and the further electrification of the road, which for the most part is served by diesel vehicles. All these works are aimed at increasing freight traffic, on which the profitability and self-sufficiency of the highway directly depends. According to the prospects voiced by the Russian government, it is planned to increase the transportation of goods through the Baikal-Amur Railway up to 30-50 million tons per year, focusing on the passage of freight trains.

At the same time, in recent years, one more has been added to the national economic and strategic functions of BAM. The road is becoming an actual transit route, and not only for special cargo or military transport. It is also important to understand that the BAM is shorter than the Trans-Siberian Railway from Taishet to the seaports: Vladivostok - 200 km, Vanino - almost 500 km, to send goods to Sakhalin, Kamchatka and Magadan - 1000 km. In recent years, BAM has been increasingly used for transporting coal, which Russia is quite actively selling to different countries on the world market.
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  1. Andrey VOV 28 February 2020 05: 43 New
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    I still remember that with a hoarse voice of the radio host "For the builders of the Baikal-Amur Railway"! And then the best at that time songs of the Soviet pop))
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  3. apro 28 February 2020 05: 48 New
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    The construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline is the need of the Soviet economy, and then there were plans for the development of the region. And they were economically justified. Today, the situation is somewhat different. The demand for the main line depends on the absence of any clear goals for the ruling class in the main region.
    1. Svarog 28 February 2020 07: 37 New
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      Quote: apro
      the absence of distinct goals in the mainline region of the ruling class.

      Their goal is to clear the territory and sell everything ..
  4. Far B 28 February 2020 05: 53 New
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    Damn, these passages are seriously imposed in the teeth:
    prison slave labor is not always the most productive solution

    Authors using such turns would be nice to ask about the financial rewards of “slaves”, as well as other forms of encouragement. That the z / k had enough difficulties and deprivations, and the mortality rate was much higher than in the wild - no doubt, but the detention in the prisons is, as it were, by definition not a resort.
    In general, the construction of highways is always a blessing for any state, there is nothing to argue about.
    1. Lexus 28 February 2020 06: 03 New
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      Michael hiToday’s “not slaves” and their “not masters” will rush to prove that in those days “only galoshes were made in the USSR”. And we owe everything good only to the "fabulous", for he "raised Russia from the ruins." At the same time, they tactfully keep silent about what is being exported to the BAM right now and why Chinese junk to Central Russia is mainly delivered by sea via St. Petersburg.
    2. Deck 28 February 2020 06: 25 New
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      The most difficult sections of the route, located east of Tynda, located in the most deaf, deserted and inaccessible places were built by railway troops. Without the help of the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, to build the BAM by 1984 by the forces of only “Komsomol-romantics” would have failed


      The same free slave labor, but by forces of conscripts.
      1. bistrov. 28 February 2020 07: 27 New
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        Quote: Deck
        The same free slave labor, but by forces of conscripts.

        Well, why, in the military-building groups there was a self-financing system, there was an accrual of salaries for completed construction and installation works. The calculation was carried out according to the so-called ENIRs (uniform rates and prices) that were valid in all construction organizations throughout the Soviet Union. Then, the cost of food, uniforms, etc., was deducted from the accrued salary. The remainder went to the serviceman in a personal bank account. Upon dismissal, the soldier either received the full amount in his hands, or it was transferred to any place in the USSR. In addition, the citizen fulfilled his constitutional military duty, benefiting the Motherland and the people, while at the same time receiving payment. Some for the calculation received decent amounts of several thousand.
        Therefore, do not lie.
        1. Trilobite Master 28 February 2020 09: 53 New
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          Quote: bistrov.
          Some for the calculation received decent amounts of several thousand.

          A friend of his father in the early 70s served in the construction battalion and just participated in the construction of BAM. Demobilized with three thousand in his pocket. For a twenty-year-old village boy, the amount is simply astronomical.
        2. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 28 February 2020 11: 47 New
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          In the 1970s, an uncle from the Vladimir region served my term in a construction battalion and brought several thousand in a book, plus a profession: as a result, he worked as a builder (in civilian life) until retirement. True, he was not at BAM, but in Siberia it was unambiguous.
        3. ism_ek 28 February 2020 18: 54 New
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          "Komsomol" for several years earned an apartment and a car. Those. five times more.
          1. Siberian54 3 March 2020 15: 27 New
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            the apartment is free, the car is 4-5 tyr / rub. and where is five times more? By the way, my neighbor is a conscript on the street (a rural city with individual buildings from the time of the terrible Stalin) of six houses from the bam, not only five thousand on the book, plus a "cornfield" plus a wife.
            1. ism_ek 5 March 2020 18: 10 New
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              Free apartments were given only in Tynt))) People bought apartments in other regions for their own. A cooperative one-bedroom apartment in those years was worth 8 tr.
              Now, about the price of cars:
              ZAZ-968M - 5 rubles.,
              VAZ-2105 - 8 000 rubles.
              VAZ-2121 "Niva" - 10 300 rubles.,
              Moskvich-2140 - 7 500 rubles.,
              GAZ-24 - 11 rubles.
              But for the money, you could buy a car only after standing in line for several years.
              1. Kanaris 7 March 2020 10: 49 New
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                Since 1984, Moskvich cars were sold freely without a line, and since 1985 - in installments for 3 years ..
        4. hjvtp1966 14 May 2020 06: 55 New
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          You would be there ... There you would be shown both constitutional duty and ENIs and self-financing, and how, in the soviet performance, these beautiful terms replaced the word "slavery". For example, in our company there were about half of the previously convicted offhand, the situation was appropriate. That was the distinctive feature of the scoop, you read the menu - everything is beautiful, drooling! And how do you take a sip (if not the son of some great tangerine) - understanding comes ...
    3. Svarog 28 February 2020 07: 42 New
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      Quote: Far In
      Authors using such revolutions would be nice to inquire about the financial rewards of "slaves"

      The author is engaged in denigrating Soviet history, while not forgetting about her merits .. And indeed, BAM was an opportunity for young people to earn and make a career ..
      So now, three or four years ago, they announced a total modernization of BAM, talked about expanding branches, paths ... in general, they wanted to increase throughput capabilities .. And What? as usual, we just talked, dreamed and created a beautiful picture for the average man .. that's all .. and so we have everything ..
      1. Siberian54 3 March 2020 15: 29 New
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        Almost all of this has been done, a bottleneck remains - the Far Eastern tunnels, they do not allow the bam to become a real competitor to the Trans-Siberian East
    4. Arlen 28 February 2020 08: 22 New
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      Quote: Far In
      In general, the construction of highways is always a blessing for any state.

      BAM is a legendary construction site of the Soviet government. Throughout its history, BAM has gone from the Komsomol construction of the century to the decline, like all Soviet great undertakings, during the Yeltsin oligarchic dictatorship. During this period, BAM was commonly referred to as a sign of the inferiority of the Soviet economy. Currently, the potential of BAM is not fully disclosed. The reason is that there is a slow development of adjacent territories.
      In itself, the position of BAM is strategic. The potential of BAM is large and huge. BAM should be used by modern Russia. But the question of whether the potential of BAM will be used in the current conditions of the economic situation remains open.
      1. Dmitry V. 2 March 2020 10: 28 New
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        Quote: Arlen
        The reason is that there is a slow development of adjacent territories.


        To develop the territory, one road is not enough. As a rule, exporting minerals from such remote regions is not economically viable. It is necessary to build concentration plants and transport concentrate or a product. And for this, processing is needed - industrial enterprises, industrial enterprises need energy - that is, there are no fundamental industries and, most importantly, labor resources for the development of the region.
        1. Siberian54 3 March 2020 15: 34 New
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          In general, the "effective owners" are simply afraid to go with their money on a long road-mastering the new, they arrived in ten to twenty years, the bad dumb people, the stolen is poorly given away.
    5. Andrei Nikolaevich 28 February 2020 11: 34 New
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      Far B is an exhaustive answer!
    6. The comment was deleted.
    7. fuxila 28 February 2020 17: 40 New
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      Authors using such turns would be nice to ask about the financial rewards of "slaves", as well as other forms of encouragement.

      The Prosecutor General of the USSR, Vyshinsky, in a letter dated February 19, 1938 notified the People's Commissar Yezhov: “The Prosecutor of BAMlag, in a letter dated 26/1-1938, informed me the following about the conditions of detention of prisoners of the 14th division of this camp:“ Naked on solid bunks and like herrings in a hospital barrel (literally, without exaggeration). They do not drive to the bathhouse for weeks due to lack of linen. In some wards there are women (on trestle beds) in the same room as men. A patient with syphilis lies next to a patient with tuberculosis ... From the incoming stages, dead frozen are removed (Moscow stage). Arriving do not have any underwear, no boots, no clothes. Their body is covered with scabs ... and the undressed stages all go and go on a new track swollen, undressed, and we have 20-50 frosts. There is no housing. There is nothing to build housing. No tools, saws, axes ... The food situation is catastrophic. Now in the depths of the taiga to the thaw, 60-70 thousand s / c will be abandoned, and food will be provided for one month. People may find themselves without food, cut off from the world by impassable swamps until the month of November ... People look at animals and some are half-mad ... "
      Maybe, as you say, prisoners in the 30s. they accrued something for their work (what else needs to be checked), but they don’t write anything about it in their memoirs, moreover, General Gorbatov who worked at the same time in the Shalamov camps (the memoirs of the latter were published back in the Soviet era) time) write the opposite, that the relatives sent the money from their will, and even those took away camp urks from them, and they went hungry and undressed.
      So the author correctly writes that the work of slaves could not be productive, which is why they abandoned it and in the 70s prisoners, contrary to popular belief, were not used at the BAM construction site (I remember some satirist, somewhere at the end of 80 -h, retold this bike, they say there were prisoners on one side, and the building battalion on the other, and when they joined the Komsomol celebrated the victory).
      1. Jager April 13 2020 17: 44 New
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        My friend, Shalamov didn’t even sit in the area of ​​BAM construction! He sat in Magadan, and there, in the XNUMXst century, hundreds of kilometers of wild and uninhabited emptiness.
    8. Dmitry V. 2 March 2020 10: 39 New
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      If it works, and 10-20 million tons of cargo - the road does not even pay for itself, not to mention the return of colossal and useless construction costs. And whether it will ever pay off is not clear.
      At the same time, the nuclear forces are much more important for the economy - to connect Yakutsk by rail with Transib - the problem has not been completely solved - the construction of a bridge across the Lena is suspended.
      1. Jager April 13 2020 17: 46 New
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        Will they reach the branch to Yakutsk, so what? AYAM is a component of BAM.
  5. DMB 75 28 February 2020 06: 11 New
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    BAM is the great construction site of a great country! I am proud of the country and its people who are able to carry out such a difficult task. Much has been said about economic aspects, but there is another military aspect, it is not economic, but purely strategic. But it could also help to start the construction, especially in those days when our relations with China were very strained. The trans-sibling goes right along the Russian-Chinese border. That is, in case of war, it could be fired even from regimental howitzers. For example, we destroyed the one road, and the second will help out. The same purpose It was Khabarovsk tunnel near Amur. After the Japanese captured Manchuria, the Khabarovsk bridge was in direct reach of ordinary Japanese guns. This jeopardized the very possession of Primorye. Therefore, we urgently dug a tunnel. BAM was, is and will be the right railway, who would not say anything against .
    1. fuxila 28 February 2020 16: 13 New
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      You just read inattentively, the author also covered the strategic aspect.
      Another argument for the construction of a road in remote areas was the strategic distance from the border with China. In the XNUMXst century, this argument only gained weight along with the multiple growth of the military-technical potential of our main eastern neighbor.

      Secondly, the strategic factor - BAM was necessary as a safe option for the transfer of troops and cargo to the Far East and from the Far East. The railway was moved to a safe distance from the borders of the country. The Chinese seizure of the Chinese Eastern Railroad section in 1929 clearly demonstrated the vulnerability of communications of the USSR. Add fuel to the fire and the increasing power of Japan, which in the 1930s unleashed a full-scale war in the Far East. Moreover, Tokyo's policy was frankly militaristic and unfriendly to the Soviet Union.

      The development of the bowels to which the railway approaches is still relevant. Before the construction of BAM, it was simply impossible. The strategic importance of the highway for the country has not disappeared anywhere. The road is located at a serious distance from the Chinese border.
  6. old_pferd 28 February 2020 06: 28 New
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    What is there to discuss the demand, if BAM is working at the limit of opportunity and modernization is underway.
  7. sergo1914 28 February 2020 07: 34 New
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    . Gulag prisoners on the construction of the railway


    Nice photo. He began to count the tortured by the Soviet regime. The second million lost.
    1. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 28 February 2020 11: 53 New
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      Yes ... we don’t see achievements, but convicts and shooting lists, yes! ... In the country in those years there was a continuation of the civil war. Plus intra-party struggle. And what - Stalin himself shot?!? You do not want to see his subordinates. Yes, there were excesses, but it was not only Stalin's fault. And the fact that half the population wrote denunciations to the other half, what do you say to that?!?
      1. Serg65 28 February 2020 12: 26 New
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        Quote: Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
        but it’s not just Stalin’s fault.

        what And who else?
        1. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 28 February 2020 15: 36 New
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          All! Do not make me angry!!! Most of all I can’t stand when people perfectly know the answer to the question, but pretend they don’t know, don’t understand, and so on ...
          1. Serg65 29 February 2020 10: 06 New
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            Quote: Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
            Do not make me angry!!!

            laughing Well, from chegozh not annoy? I really like to anger sectarians !!!
            Always touches to listen ..
            Quote: Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
            What - Stalin himself shot?!?

            Quote: Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
            there were excesses, but not only Stalin’s fault

            Stalin was an intelligent, powerful and cunning man, and without his permission no one would have lifted a finger! Or do you think that Menzhinsky, Yagoda, Yezhov, Beria, Merkulov, Abakumov, Ignatiev showed their personal initiative? laughing And all seven, regardless of the fate of the previous comrade?
            Quote: Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
            that half the population wrote denunciations to the other half, what do you say to that?!?

            What can I say, the system of denunciation created at the state level is an excellent method to solve their personal problems, which was used by citizens of the USSR who were not pure in heart and soul. But after all, many knocked for ideological reasons, and some in the struggle for their lives. But the worst thing is not that they knocked, but that those who examined these denunciations did not understand the essence of the problem, there is a routine, there is a signal, there is a person ... arrest-interrogation-sentence-Kolyma = order, position, rank privileges!
            1. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 2 March 2020 11: 03 New
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              Yes, I’m an old Stalinist sectarian, but you didn’t piss me off. Did not work out! Weaknesses You make me angry, and I'm at work already, not up to you to me ... Sorry. Have a nice day! Sincerely. A.N.
    2. Siberian54 3 March 2020 15: 40 New
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      Cho counted so little, and in general, where are the affairs of 100500 million?
    3. Jager April 13 2020 17: 47 New
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      Do not forget to count the babies eaten by Stalin. Well, another billion personally shot.
  8. rocket757 28 February 2020 07: 34 New
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    Indeed, the last global project that changed the fate of people, the face of the whole region.
    A real result has been achieved, which does not lose its significance now and tomorrow!
  9. Ros 56 28 February 2020 08: 04 New
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    Is this still a dumbass who needs to explain the meaning of BAM? Well, this will not even help Kashchenko. request
  10. Undecim 28 February 2020 08: 17 New
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    An interesting question is the material support of the BAM construction site.

    "Honored Builder of BAM" - Magírus-Deutz 232 D 19.
    By the mid-seventies, a serious problem with automotive equipment had arisen on BAM. On October 2, 1974, representatives of Magirus-Deutz and AutoExport in Moscow signed a contract worth 1,1 billion marks - the Delta project.
    The West German company was obliged in 1975-1976 to supply about 9 heavy dump trucks and cargo trucks, about 500 tractors, loaders and other construction equipment to the Magirus chassis in the USSR. The same contract provided for the supply of spare parts and equipment. The main part of the order was made up of two variants of cars: 1000-ton Magirus 14 D 290 K / L (26x6, 4 hp) and 290-ton Magirus 10 D 232 K / L (19x4, 2 hp). Up to 232 employees were additionally hired to ensure timely execution of orders for Magirus-Deutz enterprises. The equipment on the Magirus chassis (tipper bodies, concrete conveyors, liquid tanks, timber trailers, auto repair shops) was also produced by German companies: Kässbohrer, Klas, Kögel, Meiller-Kipper and others. On November 800, 19, the last truck of the Delta project was sent to the USSR.
    On the roads of the former USSR, you can still meet these trucks.
    By the way, the excavator that loads the rock, the Japanese - "Kato". The construction equipment of this company for BAM bought 800 units.
    1. Undecim 28 February 2020 08: 32 New
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      The Komatsu tractor is carrying a bulldozer of the same company at the BAM construction site.
      1. Essex62 28 February 2020 12: 37 New
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        I remember I was amazed when I went up to the bulldozer that was tight to the knife at the construction site of the Yenisei early warning station. We spoke of long-distance space communications, they secretly. The mirror is polished, huge.
        1. Undecim 28 February 2020 13: 16 New
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          I remember I was amazed to go up to the bulldozer’s tight knife

          The world's largest mass-produced bulldozer is the Komatsu D575A.
          It has a bulldozer blade with a height of 3,63 m and a width of 7,39 m, which allows you to move 69 cubic meters of soil per pass. The weight of the bulldozer depending on the modification is from 131 to 152 tons.
  11. Aviator_ 28 February 2020 08: 20 New
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    And where is the monument to BAM pilot-prospectors located? Also, the unique TB-1 on the float chassis was saved!
    1. Undecim 28 February 2020 09: 07 New
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      This is a full-size model, made at the Ulan-Ude Shipyard, was erected on a pedestal as a monument in the village of Taksimo to the dead prospectors of the Baikal-Amur Railway.
      Starting from 1937, a chain of hydraulic ports was built to map the BAM route. One of them was located on the Vitim River, near the village of Nelyat. On August 15, 1940, the ANT-4 aircraft with tail number USSR-Zh11 carried workers, food and cargo for the rig to the area of ​​Taksimo village. Landing on the lake ended tragically: with complete calmness in clear weather, the pilot could not accurately determine his height above the mirror surface of the water. The plane buried itself in water and collapsed. In the crash killed all those on board - 7 people.
      In the fall of 1981, fighters of the Komsomolets Buryatia construction team working in this area of ​​the BAM lifted a USSR-Zh11 plane onto the ice of the lake, which was subsequently taken to the Air Force Museum in Monino, which was severely damaged during transportation.
      1. Undecim 28 February 2020 18: 34 New
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        Judging by the minuses that appeared, seriously injured comrades pulled themselves up.
    2. Siberian54 3 March 2020 15: 43 New
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      Toksimo station
  12. Military Builder 28 February 2020 08: 54 New
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    17 billion 700 million rubles in 1991 prices

    I wonder if the Crimean bridge is cheaper or not?
    1. Alex_59 28 February 2020 09: 57 New
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      Quote: Military Builder
      I wonder if the Crimean bridge is cheaper or not?

      Crimean bridge is just a penny. Its cost is only 230 billion rubles. (including access roads, total length 19 km), the cost of the bridge on Russky Island is 80 billion rubles. (length 3,1 km) For comparison, the cost of the Sochi Olympics is 325 billion.
      In 2019 prices, BAM would cost 17,7 x 48,85 (the index of bringing prices from 1991 to modern) = 865 billion rubles.
      1. ccsr 28 February 2020 12: 27 New
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        Quote: Alex_59
        In 2019 prices, BAM would cost 17,7 x 48,85 (the index of bringing prices from 1991 to modern) = 865 billion rubles.

        This question is of course controversial and it can hardly be precisely determined, at least from the point of view of assessing the cost of labor of the military personnel involved in the construction of the BAM and serving prisoners. Well, the cost of military equipment used by military builders is unlikely to be accurately calculated, and which went to the troops at market prices. But there are indicative figures by which you can approximately understand how much BAM cost for our country, relative to the budget of that time. The official budget of the Moscow Region is officially 20 billion rubles. The cost of the Buran program is more than 16 billion rubles, i.e. almost comparable to BAM. The cost of "Typhoon" - from 1,2 to 1,5 billion rubles, an aircraft carrier - from 1,5 to 1,8 billion rubles.
        For reference to world prices, it is more convenient to use the cost of the Zhiguli plant, which cost us approximately $ 2,3 billion, which, when converted to our currency ruble, amounted to 1,5 billion foreign rubles.
        So BAM was a fairly inexpensive project for our country, but our great-grandchildren will also benefit from it. The then leadership of the USSR looked at BAM as a long-term investment, and thank them for that.
      2. Andobor 28 February 2020 20: 03 New
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        Quote: Alex_59
        Crimean bridge is just a penny. Its cost is only 230 billion rubles.

        Yes, the Olympic road Adler - Krasnaya Polyana, the same, but then the ruble was twice as heavy
        40 km, half tunnels and bridges. But without the Olympics, the Crimean bridge could not be built, in these terms and for little money.
  13. Million 28 February 2020 09: 32 New
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    Today’s hucksters can’t do such construction.
    1. Military Builder 28 February 2020 11: 16 New
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      Why do you think so? In my opinion, on the contrary, the current huckster is like a pump - it would be from where to pump out funds. and they are even ready to stretch the railroad to the moon to Antarctica
      1. Million 28 February 2020 11: 32 New
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        If from this position, then yes. By force.
      2. Siberian54 3 March 2020 15: 47 New
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        That AYAM in flight to Yakutsk goes ...
        1. Jager April 13 2020 17: 51 New
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          Already arrived, it remains only to build a bridge across the Lena.
  14. Olgovich 28 February 2020 09: 56 New
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    BAM. Century building or buried billions?

    Any railway is an absolute plus for the development of the region where it runs.

    Once it lives and develops, it means it is in demand and built correctly.
  15. Undecim 28 February 2020 10: 30 New
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    BAM. Century building or buried billions?
    The USSR was a transcontinental country, so is modern Russia, the length of which from west to east is about 10 km. With such a geography, the presence of transcontinental transport arteries such as the Trans-Siberian and BAM is not even economic, it is a political necessity.
  16. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 28 February 2020 11: 56 New
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    BAM is a breakthrough into the future! And in no way buried money of the USSR ...
  17. fuxila 28 February 2020 15: 51 New
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    Many times I was at work at BAM and left a heavy impression. Large stations were built at the stations with the expectation that the villages will develop, the population will grow in them, the roadbed in two sections will be built up in two ways, it was assumed that the traffic will be quite intense over time and the single track will not cope with it, for example, the bridge over Zeya is single-track, and the bridge supports are arranged under two paths. In the 90s everything was abandoned, and even the road itself as an independent unit was disbanded - it is now divided between the East Siberian and the Far Eastern. As a memory of the past, a huge building of the former road administration rises in Tynda. True, over the past 10 years, BAM has again begun to invest, ways are being reconstructed, new routes are opening, a new 4-kilometer tunnel has been punched in the Vysokogornaya area, it all came out ... So let's hope that BAM will find a new life.
    1. ccsr 28 February 2020 18: 45 New
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      Quote: fuxila
      . In the 90s everything was abandoned and even the road itself as an independent unit was disbanded

      You probably forgot that then the USSR ceased to exist, and there was no money for the development of BAM from the word at all. So what is the point of your claims to the then state of the road and the underdeveloped infrastructure? Now it is already working along its entire length, but not fully loaded - so it's too early to bury BAM.
      1. fuxila 29 February 2020 16: 37 New
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        If you read carefully, I didn’t make any complaints to anyone, but simply wrote about what I saw, without accusing anyone of them. And I don’t bury BAM either ...
  18. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 28 February 2020 15: 59 New
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    Personally, I graduated from a construction university in Ukraine in 1984 and dreamed of working on the construction of the BAM, but ... after graduation, we had to work the required three years. And graduates from Ukraine were not sent to that part of the country: although KISI was of union subordination to us, only the European part of the USSR (Ukraine + Non-Chernozemye) and a couple of Central Asian republics (Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) were in the distribution. And do not even dream of going to Siberia and the Far East ... Alas.
  19. fuxila 28 February 2020 16: 03 New
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    In the places where BAM was built today, two expeditions were led by prospectors Ludwig Ivanovich Prokhaski and Nikolai Afanasevich Voloshinov.

    The full name and surname of the prospector (engineer of communications) sound like Prokhaska Ludwig-Alfred Ivanovich. Often his last name is spelled as "Prohasko", so, by the way, one of the stations of the Far Eastern Railway was named after him. In fact, he was a Czech by nationality and Prohaska means "walk". I do not know his further fate, but by 1917 he was the chief engineer of one of the railway lines under construction. His comrade Voloshinov was an officer of the General Staff and in these investigations so undermined his health that after some time he died ...
  20. Tests 28 February 2020 16: 10 New
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    In addition to money, there was also a medal "For the construction of the Baikal-Amur Railway." A guy studied with me that from Murmansk he got an conscript on the construction of BAM in 1981. As he said: day and night, they drove in shifts, drove, rode — they transported gravel from the factory to the railroad workers — they laid the railway. the embankment. A month before the demobilization, the general and the entire author came, from the commander to the ordinary driver, and this was awarded more than 60 people with medals. Giggling while studying, and today Volodya is glad - that medal made it possible to get the title "Veteran of Labor".
  21. Tests 28 February 2020 21: 27 New
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    Andrei Zhdanov-Nedilko (Andrei Zhdanov-Nedilko), dear, nevertheless the USSR was a small country, according to the rule of 6 handshakes we will definitely find friends! My cousin graduated from KISI in 1980. True, I got to Kiev, one might say, from BAM, he was born and raised in Sovetskaya Gavan. As I honestly said, Kiev chose him, not Kiev, he was the CCM in swimming. They left him in Kiev as a foreman, after receiving a diploma, his daughter was soon born, but the postponement of the draft is not eternal - for 2 years he got into a building battalion with a jacket, and built a strip under Buran in Baikonur.
  22. Dedok 2 March 2020 08: 01 New
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    Quote: bistrov.
    Quote: Deck
    The same free slave labor, but by forces of conscripts.

    Well, why, in the military-building groups there was a self-financing system, there was an accrual of salaries for completed construction and installation works. The calculation was carried out according to the so-called ENIRs (uniform rates and prices) that were valid in all construction organizations throughout the Soviet Union. Then, the cost of food, uniforms, etc., was deducted from the accrued salary. The remainder went to the serviceman in a personal bank account. Upon dismissal, the soldier either received the full amount in his hands, or it was transferred to any place in the USSR. In addition, the citizen fulfilled his constitutional military duty, benefiting the Motherland and the people, while at the same time receiving payment. Some for the calculation received decent amounts of several thousand.
    Therefore, do not lie.

    To fuck
    Have you been there in winter?
    In a tent stoked with a potbelly stove all night? and the hat freezes to what can be called a pillow?
    Money?
    When five years later it turned out to be a chronicle - and money is not needed - doctors can not do anything
    Therefore, it is correctly written - due to the health of conscripts
    1. Jager April 13 2020 17: 55 New
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      Five years on an urgent basis, a pillow to a hat froze? Even Novodvorskaya was not capable of such opuses.
  23. Vitas 4 March 2020 15: 40 New
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    Amateur movie. BAM studio. Dashing 90s. I recommend to view!
  24. Pilat2009 5 March 2020 07: 26 New
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    Quote: Far In
    Damn, these passages are seriously imposed in the teeth:
    prison slave labor is not always the most productive solution

    Authors using such turns would be nice to ask about the financial rewards of “slaves”, as well as other forms of encouragement. That the z / k had enough difficulties and deprivations, and the mortality rate was much higher than in the wild - no doubt, but the detention in the prisons is, as it were, by definition not a resort.
    In general, the construction of highways is always a blessing for any state, there is nothing to argue about.

    I did not understand your idea. What financial incentives for prisoners are we talking about?
  25. Jager April 13 2020 18: 13 New
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    BAM is my small homeland. And quite by accident, by the will of fate, he again ended up in Tynda, after almost a quarter of a century. Whoever says anything, but BAM still gives work. And not only to those who work directly on it. Our research institute was the developer of a series of diesel locomotives 2TE25A with asynchronous drive of traction motors - this is a breakthrough in the world of modern locomotives. There were no such cars in Russia. And now almost 60 locomotives created specifically for harsh operating conditions are working on the BAM. And they work at the training ground, where in the summer +45, in winter - 50, the most difficult track profile plus heavy trains. And this development gave the Institute a chance to successfully survive to the present time and with profit. Retain staff and educate young engineers. And how many BAM did the machine-building plants give? And to other industries? Even the indirect existence and influence of BAM on the life of the country is enormous, not to mention the direct influence.
    By the way, the project of the Severomuisk tunnel was given to the Japanese - and they admitted that they could not implement it. Too difficult and unpredictable conditions. The Germans and Italians could not. Ours - built. How many builders have died there over all the years is beyond count.
    By the way, liberal gentlemen with the VO, vilifying the "bloody scoop for the slave use of conscripts", forgot who built the branch bypassing Ukraine to the Crimean bridge - the Railway Troops. Because - and why are they needed then at all?
    To the builders of BAM - glory!
  26. realist 5 May 2020 08: 19 New
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    Quote: bistrov.
    Quote: Deck
    The same free slave labor, but by forces of conscripts.

    Well, why, in the military-building groups there was a self-financing system, there was an accrual of salaries for completed construction and installation works. The calculation was carried out according to the so-called ENIRs (uniform rates and prices) that were valid in all construction organizations throughout the Soviet Union. Then, the cost of food, uniforms, etc., was deducted from the accrued salary. The remainder went to the serviceman in a personal bank account. Upon dismissal, the soldier either received the full amount in his hands, or it was transferred to any place in the USSR. In addition, the citizen fulfilled his constitutional military duty, benefiting the Motherland and the people, while at the same time receiving payment. Some for the calculation received decent amounts of several thousand.
    Therefore, do not lie.

    He repaid his homeland in the construction battalion, 1986-88, Cherepovets. you write everything correctly, there is one “but”, there are road jobs and there are cheap jobs. expensive work was given to their own, free. and for cheap and hard work they drove a construction battalion. I ended up leaving 650 rubles on a book, paid for all the uniforms, a bathhouse, and travel home. but I’m not complaining, I consciously chose this path, for me it was a field trip, it turned out to be priceless. I then already finished the 2nd year of the construction university before the army and to this day I work in construction.
    1. agond 25 May 2020 18: 19 New
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      It is interesting to compare in Germany the length of the railways is only half as much as ours, and China is building them faster than anywhere else, with regard to the further development of the road network in our east, we need to build faster, and not as the BAM was built, today it’s possible to sections of future roads to assemble large bucket-wheel excavators with mining dump trucks of the BelAZ 75710 type and level landscapes with them