Russian lunar program: what hinders its implementation


Last Thursday, the Soyuz-2.1a rocket with the Meridian-M military communications satellite was launched from the Plesetsk cosmodrome. This launch was supposed to take place in January, but due to problems with the third stage of the rocket, the start was shifted almost a month “to the right”.


Where will we fly?


The Ministry of Defense reported that the launch of the rocket and the launch of the spacecraft into the calculated orbit took place as usual. Later RIA News commented on a source in the rocket and space industry. The interlocutor of the agency said that the launch of the military communications satellite "Meridian-M" could end in an accident.

According to the expert, due to the premature end of fuel, the third stage of the Soyuz-2.1a launch vehicle did not work for several seconds. “The accident was prevented by the Frigate booster block, which, thanks to its intelligent control system and fuel reserves, compensated for missile shortfalls,” RIA Novosti quoted its source as saying.

Such failures in our rocket and space industry will not surprise anyone. Last year, the head of Roskosmos, Dmitry Rogozin, as a great achievement, said that the launch of the carriers went without accident. Although the media noted: it was not without various kinds of overlays.

The case with the launch of Meridian-M is notable for the fact that the Soyuz-2 rocket (more precisely, its new version of Soyuz-2.1b) is the base for the first stage of the Russian moon exploration program, designed for 2021-2040. There is no other carrier for these tasks at Roskosmos yet.

The launch of the Angara-5 heavy rocket as part of the lunar program is expected only in 2027, that is, outside its first stage, limited to the period 2021-2025. These stages were presented to the public in November 2018 immediately after the joint meeting of the Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences for Space and Roscosmos.

Missions are feasible


Later they were given special names. The first stage was called "Sally." It involves the study of our distant satellite by automatic stations of the Luna series (Luna-25, 26, 27, 28), unmanned aerial flights of the Moon by the promising manned spacecraft Federation, the creation of a near-moon orbital station based on the elements of the Russian segment of the ISS. All these research missions will serve the solution of scientific problems, reconnaissance, preparation for the implementation of further stages of the program.

The second stage (2025–2035) was loudly called “Outpost”. Probably because it is supposed to place the first elements of the visited base on the lunar surface. The implementation of this part of the program should be ensured by manned flights with a long (up to 14 days) landing of astronauts on the moon.

The third stage (after 2035) - with the speaking name "Base". He intends to complete the construction of a full-fledged visited lunar base, including two astronomical observatories (for radio astronomy and cosmic rays), a shelter from radiation, and water ice mining infrastructure (to create oxygen-hydrogen fuel based on it).

Behind this brief annotation of the ambitious lunar program lies the great and difficult path of our rocket and space industry. She has to carry out serious design and research work, create new carriers and spacecraft, deploy in space groups of navigation satellites and communication satellites, and much more, useful and necessary.

Experts doubt


Experts doubting the implementation of the Russian lunar program, pay attention to several circumstances. So what is hindering the execution?

First of all, to finance the industry. It was decently reduced already in the framework of the Federal Space Program of Russia for 2016–2025.

Under the sequester’s knife, the development of a complex with a returning first stage for Russian missiles and technology for detecting asteroids threatening the Earth fell under the knife. Reduced from 95 to 70 vehicles (in the perspective of 2025), the Russian orbital group and a number of projects.

Experts name underfunding among the reasons due to which the already mentioned Soyuz-2.1b rocket has not yet received such statistics of successful launches so that this carrier can be used without restrictions. Now, for example, Soyuz-2.1b is not used for manned flights and other especially important missions.

The development of the manned spacecraft Federation is also being delayed. Declared for use in an unmanned version already at the “Sally” stage, the ship moved deep to the right. At least this January, at the XLIV Academic Readings on Cosmonautics in memory of S. P. Korolyov, the first deputy head of Roskosmos, Yuri Urlichich, announced that an unmanned aerial flight of the moon by the ship Orel (the new name for the Federation) is planned no earlier than 2028.

There is another threat to the Russian lunar program. Experts call it a drop in discipline and industry responsibility. Usually no living examples are given for this statement, but we have our own - very fresh.

Describing the problems with the recent launch of the Soyuz-2.1a rocket from Plesetsk, experts noted that the launch carried out military combat crews, which "could underfill fuel in the third stage when refueling before launch."

So the human factor is perhaps the main one among those that can delay the implementation of such an important program for the exploration of the moon for the country.
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  1. knn54 25 February 2020 08: 08 New
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    Not WHAT, but WHO.
    1. Vyacheslav Viktorovich 25 February 2020 08: 15 New
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      There will be no fulfillment. In 2028 they will be transferred to 2038, and in 2038 - to 2050. It is time to see an approximate pattern of how such things work. They wanted to finish the nuclear tug first by 2018, then transferred to 2030. In 2030 everyone will forget about it, because they will discuss the transfer of some Yenisei.
      1. Snail N9 25 February 2020 08: 31 New
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        Russian lunar program: what hinders its implementation

        This one heading already, causes an unhealthy smile ...
        1. Stas157 25 February 2020 09: 05 New
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          The era of high achievements in space and space pioneers left with the USSR.

          Judging by the rampant corruption, space leaders now have different tasks. All worries about their well-being, but the moon does not care.

          And no one expects from Roscosmos these interplanetary flights. Is not it?
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                    3. Serg65 25 February 2020 14: 05 New
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                      Quote: Stas157
                      Are you jealous?

                      Interested in. Nowadays, the Casanovas are somehow shallow, so it’s interesting how are you ........ are you managing women?
                    4. Svarog51 25 February 2020 19: 08 New
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                      Namesake hi And Navy officers have always been envious. And foreign envy, you are on a campaign, but they need to get there for their money.
                    5. Serg65 26 February 2020 09: 05 New
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                      hi Hi Serena! Yes, there is banal boasting, one hundred percent verified who on the world exposes himself Casanova, then in everyday life, a complete zero! bully
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  • Roman070280 25 February 2020 11: 40 New
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    What planet would you go to if you didn’t steal, say, 10% (prohibitively) of the annual budget?

    Now, if they had not stolen, then the budget would have been much more than 3 billion ..
    They only took Zakharchenko for 3 budgets .. and he alone - only a drop in the ocean ..
    So we don’t need here about the "beyond" 10% of what has not yet been stolen ..
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  • 210ox 25 February 2020 09: 20 New
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    There will certainly not be any. "Roskosmos" is now a holey pocket.
  • Sling cutter 25 February 2020 11: 52 New
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    Quote: Vyacheslav Viktorovich
    There will be no fulfillment. In 2028 they will be transferred to 2038, and in 2038 - to 2050.

    Of course it won't! By that time there would be not only promises, but also those who promised themselves. Jules Verne turned out to be more literate nefantast already than trampoline cannons with robots driven by a sledgehammer. Comrades, all our great achievements of victory and accomplishment have remained in our glorious socialist past, and now obscurantism and jazz.

    1. Svarog51 25 February 2020 19: 14 New
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      Well, pour so much dirt on the country. am You can’t be called a defender, but rather a fan cuff. They warmed, thawed, and crap. Not one paratrooper does this. They are ready for battle for the motherland, and you ... negative
  • Far B 25 February 2020 08: 28 New
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    Support.
    So who interferes with execution?
    Balabol like Rogozin. Perhaps the only position where he was in his place was Russia's special representative to NATO. It was just the language without bones and the ability to thickly troll was on hand. In manufacturing, this is a fat minus. "I think so!" (FROM)
    1. Loess 25 February 2020 08: 34 New
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      Quote: Far In
      Balabol like Rogozin.

      And what prevented the USSR, which had invested a lot of money in the lunar program and abandoned it immediately after the Americans landed on the moon? Also Rogozin? Or is it still the lack of expediency in continuing the program?
      1. Far B 25 February 2020 08: 48 New
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        Naturally the lack of expediency. All that was needed at that time was obtained with the help of moon rovers. What is characteristic, the Union did not refuse interplanetary research - Mars and Venus will not let lie. So the development was in full swing.
        One caveat - the then leadership did not run ahead of the engine with loud screams that we will build a garden city on the moon in a few years (in fact, xs how many times this will be “repeated”). The then leadership, in contrast, methodically performed its work and showed results. Which one could be proud of. Again, unlike.
        1. Loess 25 February 2020 09: 07 New
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          Quote: Far In
          One caveat - the then leadership did not run ahead of the engine with loud cries of

          That is the whole difference. "The then leadership" did what it deemed necessary without reporting to the people. Decided that it was necessary to land a man on the moon - invested folk money. Moreover, the development of the program was carried out immediately by two design bureaus - Korolev and Chelomeya. This is also an additional cost. The circumstances have changed and the future landing has lost its attractiveness - they have stopped financing and concentrated on other projects. No one knew anything. If the current leadership would keep everything a secret now, there simply would not be a topic for discussion. Otherwise, there is no difference. Time passes - priorities change.
          The only difference is that modern Russia announces its plans, while the USSR has kept secret all that is possible and impossible.
          China, for example, voiced plans to build a lunar base by 2021. However, apparently, it will not work. Does China also have its own Rogozin?
          1. Far B 25 February 2020 09: 13 New
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            "The then leadership" did what it deemed necessary without reporting to the people
            Does the current report strongly? laughing Oh yes:
            modern Russia announces its plans
            Only in my snotty childhood on such "announcements" was the saying: "But the hare will not be in a breeze!". Worthless such announcements.
            Concerning
            Moreover, two design bureaus led the development of the program at once - Korolev and Chelomei. This is also an additional cost.
            More than sure that the design of KB Korolev and Chelomei were not in vain, they were used in other projects. Because, as I said above,
            The then leadership, in contrast, methodically performed its work and showed results. Which one could be proud of. Again, unlike.
            1. Loess 25 February 2020 09: 19 New
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              Quote: Far In
              More than sure that KB design

              However, the Soviet astronauts never visited the moon. Does this fact make you doubt? And you still did not consider it necessary to answer which “Rogozin” prevented this, despite all the efforts of the USSR in this direction.
              1. Garysit 25 February 2020 09: 45 New
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                Read part 4 of the series of books by Boris Chertok "Moon Race" and find out what and who interfered. And the Americans, too, were not on the moon, this is a great Hollywood falsification.
                1. Loess 25 February 2020 09: 49 New
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                  Quote: GarySit
                  Read Part 4 of the Book Series

                  I’m interested in the opinion of the opponent on this issue.
                  PS There was a time I was quite seriously interested in the topic of Russian cosmonautics, although I did not read the book you recommended. At that time there was no Internet, and the possibilities of provincial libraries were rather limited.
                2. Buchenland 25 February 2020 12: 40 New
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                  About falsification - did you read this from Chertok? :)
          2. Roman070280 25 February 2020 11: 43 New
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            That is the whole difference. "The then leadership" did what it deemed necessary without reporting to the people.

            I would say - on the contrary ..
          3. Old Orc 26 February 2020 15: 44 New
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            In principle, TOMU management did not have to report. All the same, all the money spent went into their economy and not into yachts and cottages abroad. Everything that was done was done for the good of the state and not of the oligarchs. That is the difference actually.
            And the plan for the flight to the moon will not be fulfilled since there 1. There is no oil and gas 2. There is no one to pull the pipe and in addition there are no pipe layers.
        2. Mestny 25 February 2020 09: 18 New
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          They won’t give, yes.
          For a start:
          On October 10, 1960, the USSR launched the Molniya 8K78 launch vehicle from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, which was supposed to bring the Mars (1960A) Soviet automatic interplanetary station (AMS) onto the flight path to Mars. This was the first attempt in human history to reach the surface of Mars. Due to a launch vehicle (LV) accident the launch failed.

          October 14, 1960 in the USSR from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, the Molniya 8K78 launch vehicle was launched, which was supposed to bring the Soviet Mars (1960B) to the trajectory of flight to Mars. The flight program included the station reaching the surface of Mars. Due to the accident, the launch failed.

          On October 24, 1962, the USSR launched the Molniya 8K78 launch vehicle from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, which launched the Mars-1C (Sputnik-22) Soviet AMS into low Earth orbit.

          The launch of the station towards Mars did not take place due to the explosion of the last stage of the launch vehicle.

          On November 1, 1962, the Launch 8K78 launch vehicle was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the USSR, which brought the Soviet Mars-1 AMS to the flight path to Mars. The first successful launch towards Mars. The approach of the Mars-1 AMS to Mars came on June 19, 1963 (about 197 thousand kilometers from Mars, according to ballistic calculations), after which the station entered the trajectory of movement around the Sun. Communication with the AMS has been lost.

          On November 4, 1962, the USSR launched the Molniya 8K78 launch vehicle from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, which launched the Mars-2A (Sputnik-24) Soviet AMS into low Earth orbit. The launch of the station towards Mars did not take place.

          November 5 1962 years Mars-2A satellite ceased to exist, entering the dense atmosphere
          .

          So really - they will not let me lie. About the gigantic successes of the USSR.
          And of course, the main question is who is to blame?
          Was Rogozin sneaking in there too?
          1. Far B 25 February 2020 09: 21 New
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            Well, you brought examples of fucking, from the era of the beginning of space flights (half of the examples are from the pre-Dagarin period). But didn’t they hook Tsiolkovsky? In general, missiles did not reach the geostationary orbit. That's a damn scoop, right?
            1. Mestny 25 February 2020 09: 25 New
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              What is characteristic, the Union did not refuse interplanetary research - Mars and Venus will not let lie.

              Your words?
              Well, so I gave you an example about Mars, so as not to lie. What does Mars have to do with it? Rather, the bottom of the ocean, as we like to joke megaexperts on Roscosmos.
              Here are American robots working successfully there. And they got there when there was still no Roskosmos and Rogozin.
              The ancients speak? Ok, fresher, let's continue:
              November 30, 1964 in the USSR from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, the Molniya 8K78 launch vehicle was launched, which brought the Soviet AMS Zond-2 to the flight path to Mars. Contact with the station was lost on May 4-5, 1965.

              March 27, 1969 in the USSR from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, the Proton-K / D launch vehicle (LV) was launched, which was to bring the Mars AMS onto the flight path to Mars. Due to the accident, the launch failed.
              On May 10, 1971, the Proton-K launch vehicle with the D-booster, which launched the Cosmos-419 satellite into low Earth orbit, was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the USSR, but the spacecraft did not switch to the flight path. May 12, 1971and the apparatus entered the dense layers of the earth's atmosphere and burned down.

              On May 19, 1971, in the USSR, a Proton-K launch vehicle with an accelerating block "D" was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, which brought the Soviet AWS "Mars-2" to the flight path to Mars. However, at the final stage of the flight, due to a software error, the onboard computer of the descent vehicle failed, as a result of which the angle of its entry into the Martian atmosphere turned out to be larger than the calculated one, and on November 27, 1971 crashed on the surface of Mars


              There are many more similar events, but let's move on to the final:
              On July 7, 1988, the Proton 8K82K launch vehicle with the D2 booster block was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the USSR, which brought the Soviet Phobos-1 satellite to the Mars flight path to study the Mars Phobos satellite. On September 2, 1988, Phobos-1 was lost on its way to Mars as a result of an erroneous command.

              On July 12, 1988, the Proton 8K82K launch vehicle with the D2 booster block was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the USSR, which brought the Soviet Phobos-2 AMS to the flight path to Mars. The main task is the delivery of descent vehicles (SKA) to the surface of Phobos to study the satellite of Mars.

              Phobos 2 entered the orbit of Mars on January 30, 1989. 38 Phobos images were obtained with a resolution of up to 40 meters, and the surface temperature of Phobos was measured. Communication with the device was lost on March 27, 1989. SKA failed to deliver.

              That’s the whole truth about the Soviet Martian program.
              1. Far B 25 February 2020 09: 30 New
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                Are you okay? Phrase
                What is characteristic, the Union did not refuse interplanetary research - Mars and Venus will not let lie.
                I answered the phrase of the opponent
                And what prevented the USSR, which had invested a lot of money in the lunar program and abandoned it immediately after the Americans landed on the moon?
                When did the Americans land on the moon? In the 1960s? Or 1962? Read the whole thread before expressing your valuable opinion, otherwise you look stupid.
                1. Mestny 25 February 2020 09: 32 New
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                  It is important that ours never landed there.
                  Read the same advice to you before you talk about the magical successes of the USSR in space, about which "Mars and Venus will not let you lie."
                  They do not care, but you should not.
                  1. Roman070280 25 February 2020 11: 53 New
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                    before talking about the magical successes of the USSR in space,

                    So they expressed themselves ... as if there were no successes either .. Or they were not truly magical .. Even without taking into account the time that has passed with you time ..
                  2. Arlen 25 February 2020 16: 59 New
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                    Quote: Mestny
                    It is important that ours never landed there.

                    Why is this important? The first Americans to land on the moon, well done. AND? It is important that no one was the first to land on the Moon; it is important how research and development of the Moon will develop in the near future. And who will be the leader in the "moon race".
        3. St Petrov 25 February 2020 11: 26 New
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          the then leadership did not run ahead of the engine with loud cries that we were in a few years build a garden city on the moon


          wassat they built another 70 years there. Not so distant and more mundane
          What is the result of construction? Are you talking about Garden on the Moon


        4. Serg65 25 February 2020 12: 20 New
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          Quote: Far In
          One caveat - the then leadership did not run ahead of the engine with loud screams that we were in a few years

          What about land for peasants, factories for workers, and Communism in 1980, and developed Socialism, and Socialism with a human face, and every Soviet citizen an apartment in 2000? Is it running behind a steam locomotive?
      2. Chaldon48 25 February 2020 09: 31 New
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        Let's start exploring the moon, amid falling living standards in the country?
        1. Mestny 25 February 2020 09: 42 New
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          And how comfortable they were.
          Let’s start to master the moon - they will shout that money was stolen from pensioners for an unnecessary project, bad power.
          Do not start - they will scream that money was stolen from space, bad power.
          Beauty.
    2. Amateur 25 February 2020 09: 20 New
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      Rogozin was able to organize an excellent service for monitoring negative reviews about himself and Roscosmos. Any negative statement is either negative or blocked at all. That is all he and his services do well. stop
  • Boris55 25 February 2020 08: 31 New
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    Quote: knn54
    Not WHAT, but WHO.

    In this one:

    1. Arlen 25 February 2020 12: 26 New
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      Quote: Boris55
      In this one:

      And who appointed him head of Roskosmos?
  • Bar1 25 February 2020 08: 43 New
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    underfunding and the fall of discipline. This is called in Russian mess and the collapse of space. And this, of course, is the fault of the country's top leadership; under them, our Russia is in decline.
    1. dSK
      dSK 25 February 2020 10: 40 New
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      President Vladimir Putin said that it is necessary to criticize subordinates so that they are “shaken” and that they feel their responsibility. The head of state said this in an interview with TASS in the framework of the project “20 Questions to Vladimir Putin”.
      1. Sling cutter 25 February 2020 11: 22 New
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        Quote: dsk
        President Vladimir Putin said that it is necessary to criticize subordinates so that they are “shaken” and that they feel their responsibility. The head of state said this in an interview with TASS in the framework of the project “20 Questions to Vladimir Putin”.

      2. Svarog 25 February 2020 13: 35 New
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        Quote: dsk
        President Vladimir Putin said that it is necessary criticize subordinates,

        It is necessary not to criticize, but to deprive the RFP, position .. and other benefits .. From criticism they sit as exactly as without it ..
    2. Serg65 25 February 2020 12: 35 New
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      Quote: Bar1
      with them, our Russia is in decline.

      what In the greed after what?
  • Carnifexx 25 February 2020 11: 32 New
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    Well, yes, yes, looking for extreme ones has always been the most effective way to solve problems, because there can’t be such a problem in the industry in its structure and that powers are distributed on the basis of loyalty, not competency ??
  • Million 25 February 2020 14: 07 New
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    If instead of Rogozin, Roscosmos will be led, for example, by Olga Buzova, then we’ll master the moon faster
  • svp67 25 February 2020 08: 08 New
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    Russian lunar program: what hinders its implementation
    Same as a bad dancer dancing.
    1. Nasrat 25 February 2020 08: 47 New
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      Quote: svp67
      Russian lunar program: what hinders its implementation
      Same as a bad dancer dancing.

      Agree that on the moon now there’s nothing to do .... except for the alleged prestige .. quickly disappearing along with the money supply ...
      Now there is something to do first of all ...

      the title of the video is pompous, do not pay attention to it, but interesting things slip
      1. pmkemcity 25 February 2020 12: 18 New
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        The guy lucidly explained. I just think that the satellite from our satellite does not run away from the fact that it smells bad, but from ours, for example, revealing a sheet in front of the lens, or letting out bunnies, and if that happens, it might even make some paints from the spray can. wassat
        Now it became clear why Medvedev was translating time! It was necessary to move the Earth's axis a little bit, and all of their JPs would be covered.
  • Hwostatij 25 February 2020 08: 13 New
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    The lack of economic meaning hinders - there is nothing to do there with the current level of technology
    1. Uncle lee 25 February 2020 08: 22 New
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      Quote: Hwostatij
      at the current level of technology

      In the Union were ... I wonder where they went?
      1. Boris55 25 February 2020 09: 03 New
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        Quote: Uncle Lee
        In the Union were ... I wonder where they went?

        Even the question posed about this (judging by the minuses) in some causes a terrible dislike laughing
        1. Uncle lee 25 February 2020 09: 08 New
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          Quote: Boris55
          terrible dislike

          Right! Technologies have been lost, and with them the ability to think intelligently among some visitors to the VO site! hi
      2. Mestny 25 February 2020 09: 12 New
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        It was not in union.
        They never flew to the moon.
        Were in the USA.
      3. Carnifexx 25 February 2020 11: 48 New
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        Yes, the USSR did things and did first, but there are nuances.
        The USSR spent the first flight past Mercury, and the United States was 4 months late (sort of) and it looks obvious - the USSR is steering! BUT, that span was an uncontrollable piece of iron, and the United States sent a controlled space station with equipment.
        The technological lag (very significant) of the USSR does not do honor to the system, but does honor to people who dodged under such restrictions, but with the lunar program it didn’t work out quick wit. Given the fact that the Russian Federation sets tasks that the USSR could not yet, it is important to ask the question “what is Russia doing to not be the same backward country?” Answer: NOTHING! Substitution is voluntary sanctions, conflict with the West is voluntary sanctions, and because of these sanctions it is simply impossible to catch up with what the USSR still needed.
        It will be so for a very long time until the Russian Federation is an institutionally backward state.
      4. Svarog 25 February 2020 13: 37 New
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        Quote: Uncle Lee
        Quote: Hwostatij
        at the current level of technology

        In the Union were ... I wonder where they went?

        So everyone poherili or almost everything ..
    2. Lontus 25 February 2020 17: 38 New
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      Quote: Hwostatij
      The lack of economic meaning hinders - there is nothing to do there with the current level of technology

      And in small barrels in orbit spinning means there is an economic sense?

      For the money spent on the meaningless ISS, it was long ago possible to build a base on the Moon.
      And the return would be orders of magnitude greater - both scientific and economic, and even military.
  • Amateur 25 February 2020 08: 21 New
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    The development of the lunar program in the USSR / Russia is carried out (starting with H-1) not by the brain, but by the spinal cord. Original source - Chertok B.E. Rockets and people. Lunar race. militera.lib.ru ›explo / chertok_be / index.html
  • lucul 25 February 2020 08: 23 New
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    Quote: Hwostatij
    The lack of economic meaning hinders - there is nothing to do there with the current level of technology

    More precisely - that from the moon you can fuck ....
    1. Fan-fan 25 February 2020 10: 02 New
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      Only prestige and all. But the people basically do not need it. People need: good salaries, good and not expensive medicine, inexpensive services, goods, decent housing, and the Moon, well, to hell with this Moon. When there will be a worthy life, then you can think about the Moon.
      1. Sling cutter 25 February 2020 11: 20 New
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        Quote: Fan-Fan
        and the moon, oh well, damn this moon. When there will be a worthy life, then you can think about the Moon.

  • akunin 25 February 2020 08: 28 New
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    Russian lunar program: what hinders its implementation
    I can say even who - Rogozin is one of them
  • BAI
    BAI 25 February 2020 08: 37 New
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    what prevents its implementation

    Rogozin and the affiliated effective managers.
  • rudolff 25 February 2020 09: 00 New
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    It's a shame. They had such achievements in space and were not even able to maintain the achieved level, not to mention development. Balabalism amid total degradation.
    1. Sling cutter 25 February 2020 11: 15 New
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      Quote: rudolff
      It's a shame. They had such achievements in space and were not even able to maintain the achieved level, not to mention development. Balabalism amid total degradation.

      We now even have Gagra’s rockets falling or flying with holes, but there’s a super secret weapon and a pipe in the world.
      1. Svarog51 25 February 2020 19: 25 New
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        You have a machete in your hands - that's chopped sugarcane. Leave the rockets to the professionals. Before arguing with rudolff, at least ask who you are dealing with.
  • Vasily Ponomarev 25 February 2020 09: 00 New
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    here is a fairly detailed overview of the Roskosmos policy https://zelenyikot.livejournal.com/145854.html
  • Vasily Ponomarev 25 February 2020 09: 06 New
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    "First of all, to finance the industry. It has been decently reduced already in the framework of the Federal Space Program of Russia for 2016–2025." -To understand the size of funding for our space, the entire Roskosmos budget is slightly more than the annual increase to the NASA budget in 2021 ($ 2.6 billion) https://kiri2ll.livejournal.com/1411347.html
  • Maks1995 25 February 2020 09: 10 New
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    Already tired of reading the same thing ....
    We didn’t even think about fulfilling the first pri-Putin promise of a landing in 2015, the rest also failed and failed ...

    Even the cheers-zhurnalyugi with cursing amerovskih programs already shut up ...
  • Mestny 25 February 2020 09: 11 New
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    Later, RIA Novosti commented on its source in the rocket and space industry. The interlocutor of the agency said that the launch of the military communications satellite "Meridian-M" could end in an accident.

    An unknown source said it could. Everything went fine, but it could.
    Faithful dear yellow press. Congratulations to VO.
    And this only then, what would once again give an opportunity to arrange in the comments a festival of choral singing about Roscosmos?
    1. Svarog 25 February 2020 13: 39 New
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      Quote: Mestny
      An unknown source said it could. Everything went fine, but it could.
      Faithful dear yellow press. Congratulations to VO.

      Now the yellow press has become more truly official .. that’s the paradox ..
  • Ross xnumx 25 February 2020 09: 11 New
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    Russian lunar program: what prevents its implementation

    LACK OF A GOAL VALIDATING THE MEANS ...
    Judge for yourself what purpose may be in the exploration of the moon? Probably, the construction on the surface of the base for the development of rare minerals on Earth. Surely an intermediate launch pad or some early warning station of something ... belay
    Is there anyone who wants to invest in this? Here mercantile desires are much more real and closer, which outweigh all nobility, prestige, scientific research ... This is today's “fabulous” life.
    1. Sling cutter 25 February 2020 11: 09 New
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      Quote: ROSS 42
      Surely an intermediate launch pad or some early warning station of something ...

      In principle, everyone considers the Moon as a platform for the exploration of deep space, in any case, they officially declare this. While the closest to success are the Americans and China, the Indians are in third place.
      For the time being, we are only declaring with the mouth of the batutych about the great changes, but in the long term, but for now, on the site of the Khrunichev NGO, we will build a phaloid design based on miracles to compactly place all the officials from the ragozraspilcosmos. It is from the top of this building, armed with Zeiss binoculars, Ragozinians and they will consider cosmic distances for the study of objects of cuts and kickbacks.
      1. Loess 25 February 2020 11: 58 New
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        Quote: Stroporez
        While the closest to success are the Americans and China, the Indians are in third place.

        Uh ... This is from whose "statements" you made a similar conclusion?
        1. Sling cutter 25 February 2020 13: 07 New
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          Quote: Less
          Uh ... This is from whose "statements" you made a similar conclusion?

          Kamrad, google it.
          1. Svarog51 25 February 2020 19: 31 New
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            Where did you get the comrade? You didn’t serve in the GSVG, you weren’t even there. There are other expressions in Afghanistan and you don’t use them. Have you been there? Ales, you can’t make a fuss, the answer is optional.
  • The comment was deleted.
    1. Sling cutter 25 February 2020 10: 46 New
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      Quote: GGC1
      they won’t find astronauts of corresponding growth.

      Well, why, and in the picture hto? It is possible and in space one way.
      1. Svarog51 25 February 2020 19: 32 New
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        Plus! good You can.
    2. betta 25 February 2020 10: 59 New
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      I think if they began to make such toys, then things would go. You can make money on it. Yes, let out science fiction, about space exploration. Or maybe it’s going to this? belay
    3. Svarog 25 February 2020 13: 41 New
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      they won’t find astronauts of corresponding growth.

      But you can’t say that they lowered their hands laughing Recently, there was an article saying that the requirements for astronauts were significantly reduced .. wassat
  • Mikhail3 25 February 2020 09: 26 New
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    What prevents?
    On Thursday, in my opinion, the report of road cars that lay asphalt in the Krasnodar Territory got on the network. Smart machines, modern ones, maintain a network protocol ... In general, real work was carried out for 800 thousand rubles. 168 million rubles were spent on this. That is, to spend 1 million rubles on WORKS AND EQUIPMENT, it is necessary to allocate 200 million from the budget .. So the program is financed tens of times more than it needs.
    Of course, no more reasons are given in the article. Delaying the deadlines, accident rate, etc., etc., all this is a simple consequence of the fact that in our entire anecdotal state, to spend one ruble on work, you need to put 200. What is able to slightly shift this proportion? The real need for this particular job.
    Real, and not like in the lunar space program, because the Moon at this stage in the development of cosmonautics, earthlings need as an umbrella fish. Understanding that besides dubious prestige, there is nothing to take from the Moon, our officials calmly steal money, dismiss something engineers who are buzzing about the efficiency and quality, and generally behave like in all other sectors of our phantom economy.
    I do not understand the indignation ...
    1. Amateur 25 February 2020 09: 30 New
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      On Thursday, in my opinion, the report of road cars that lay asphalt in the Krasnodar Territory got on the network.

      Will they not work on Friday? or disappear "like dust, like morning fog." Or do you not look so far?
      1. Mikhail3 25 February 2020 09: 30 New
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        The work is completed. Hehe ...
  • Air force 25 February 2020 09: 36 New
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    The whole potential of mankind goes to confrontation with each other, Russia, if given 20 years of peace, could make a breakthrough, not to mention if the countries began to work together on this. But this is a utopian picture, the power of this world is not profitable to conquer outer space, in particular, it is not beneficial to the “hegemon”, they have a bid to be “kings of garbage,” unfortunately it is garbage, because in 100-150 years the Earth will turn into garbage, without water, forests and minerals. The hegemon has no brains to conquer space, but he has so far the strength not to let individual states concentrate on this. Why does the hegemon need space, in his sore head is the dream of the "golden billion" and the sole domination of the Earth. But Russia simply does not have enough strength for such projects and this is not Russia's fault, but of course you can shout corruption, theft, nepotism, etc. certainly not without it, but how can one resist the collective west, terrorists, sanctions, perpetual injections and stabs in the back, an arms race that in fact never ended, an all-round encirclement with NATO bases, and at the same time nothing was successfully implemented lunar program. “It’s not a matter of fat here, I’d be living,” therefore the terms are being shifted, but how else?
    1. mat-vey 25 February 2020 10: 56 New
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      Quote: Air Force
      , Russia, if given 20 years of peace, could make a breakthrough,

      Somewhere about peace has already sounded.
      1. Air force 25 February 2020 11: 16 New
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        They say that P. Stolypin said so: "Give the state 20 years of external and internal peace and you will not recognize Russia." PS Only it seems to me in the whole history of Russia, so much time of peace and tranquility of the external and internal it did not have. The truth may be in this lies the power, the eternal mobilization, the struggle does not allow to relax and become a flabby and snobby country, which will begin to degenerate and rages with fat. The rhetorical question of course. And in this rhetoric, unfortunately, there is little room for space exploration.
        1. mat-vey 25 February 2020 11: 18 New
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          Quote: Air Force
          The truth may be in this lies the power, the eternal mobilization, the struggle does not allow to relax and become a flabby and swaggering country

          And Stolypin “mobilized” strongly? Although, given the fact that before the “October” the country and its actions were brought, then yes.
          1. AU Ivanov. 25 February 2020 12: 02 New
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            And what did Stolypin manage to do? He was blocked by both left and right. If the Stolypin reforms were really carried out, then there would be neither February nor October.
            1. mat-vey 25 February 2020 12: 05 New
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              Quote: AU Ivanov.
              If the Stolypin reforms were really carried out

              Yes, yes .. did not give the Herods 20 years of peace ...
          2. Air force 25 February 2020 12: 21 New
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            And where does Stolypin? He did not talk about mobilization, he talked about 20 years of peace. And I wrote a comment in the context that if Russia had 20 years of peace, it could make a breakthrough into space, instead of defending itself from the attacks of vultures. And the fact that Russia still has not been able to conquer the moon is not the fault of Russia, but the fault of its enemies, one has to be distracted by the neutralization of both external and internal enemies. Spray time and energy and money. And shouting about the fact that everything is about ... Wed (asleep) while they are trying to spoil from all sides, it is incorrect and tantamount to standing on the same side with the shitting enemies of Russia. But as for me, no matter how hard the West is trying, no matter how hard it is now, the cosmos will be Russian, I believe in it. PS And about mobilization, this is a rhetorical digression from the main topic, in response to your comment that you have already heard this somewhere.
            1. Sling cutter 25 February 2020 12: 25 New
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              Quote: Air Force
              And the fact that Russia still has not been able to conquer the moon is not the fault of Russia, but the fault of its enemies, one has to be distracted by the neutralization of both external and internal enemies.

              You, too, are being pushed along the way. My friend, if Russia had not been plundered in such a barbaric way, then the country could be rebuilt twice in the stolen trillions, and the space subway will be launched onto the moon, and you’ll explain everything about “vorogov”.
              1. Air force 25 February 2020 12: 45 New
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                So you read carefully, well, or thoughtfully about the "vorogov" external and INTERNAL written.
                1. Sling cutter 25 February 2020 13: 02 New
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                  Quote: Air Force
                  So you read carefully, well, or thoughtfully about the "vorogov" external and INTERNAL written.

                  The traitor, dressed up as a patriot, is worse than the enemy, and it is this traitor who launches a bogey about external enemies, in order to steal and plunder more under the smokescreen of false patriotism, thereby working just to support the "partner" economies.
                  1. Svarog51 25 February 2020 19: 37 New
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                    You would cut the slings in the first jump (if there was such a thing), so you would become a samurai who made a seppuku.
            2. mat-vey 25 February 2020 12: 42 New
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              There was no rest day in the USSR, but only how did these guys manage to win the war and go out into space ... and we’ve been eating a lot for 30 years.
              1. Air force 25 February 2020 13: 06 New
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                And no one argues with this, only in the USSR there were 15 republics, and now independent countries, that was the cooperation. Now Russia alone is working on this program, and if you imagine cooperation from 15 countries that are working on a lunar project and all with dedication. That and the result will be different. Why is Baikonur far to go in independent Kazakhstan, which occupies the 9th place on the planet in terms of area, and used to enter the USSR, Ukraine is "maidanit" and its industry does not contribute to the Russian Lunar Program, and everyone else is doing their own thing, and before everyone worked as a single organism, on one project, here is the result. And then they always compare the USSR with Russia, and the fact that these are 15 republics for some reason forget everything, human capital, minerals were all in one country, and the result was different.
                1. mat-vey 25 February 2020 13: 09 New
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                  I’ll say - you won’t believe, these territories were also part of the Russian Empire, there were even more. But they didn’t even make bearings, and the electrical and vacuum industry was so “advanced” ...
      2. Svarog 25 February 2020 13: 43 New
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        Quote: mat-vey
        Quote: Air Force
        , Russia, if given 20 years of peace, could make a breakthrough,

        Somewhere about peace has already sounded.

        So Putin loved for the time being .. to quote Stolypin for a while .. they say give Russia 20 years (that is, Putin) and you won’t recognize Russia .. you gave .. we’ll still know .. Now the truth is not quoting anymore .. it’s not clever. Although he probably doesn’t have that feeling ..
        1. mat-vey 25 February 2020 13: 47 New
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          Quote: Svarog
          still find out ..

          And the picture is getting closer to the times of Stolypin ....
          1. Svarog 25 February 2020 13: 49 New
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            Quote: mat-vey
            Quote: Svarog
            still find out ..

            And the picture is getting closer to the times of Stolypin ....

            Yes, according to the level of education, medicine and the economy itself, which from the industrial again becomes agrarian oil and gas .. back to the past .. to the feudal state ..
            1. mat-vey 25 February 2020 14: 11 New
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              So it seems and the boyars are planned ..
          2. AU Ivanov. 25 February 2020 18: 51 New
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            At the time of Stolypin, Russia was on an economic upswing. In terms of national income growth, the Russian Empire was ahead of many countries, including the United States.
    2. Mikhail3 26 February 2020 09: 20 New
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      Your cliches are very pretty, but it's cliche anyway. As for the confrontation, you are right ... and not right) Confrontation is the engine of existence. When there is nobody and nothing to resist, the object stops. And the stop in our universe is death. That is, the object begins to disintegrate, so that those who wage a fierce struggle for existence at their level move. Death of a higher life for putrid microbes to live.
      The Golden Billion is a fairy tale for this very billion to help the United States in a fight with its main competitor - the USSR. There is no USSR, and Trump began to openly gut the bulk of the stupidly relaxed billion, acting completely like our bandits - drive the loot for the roof! I’ll tear it apart when I find out that you don’t have democracy, and you are against the environment!
      The USSR had 30 years of peace, which he used to completely rot, decompose, betray and sell everything sacred ...
  • Mestny 25 February 2020 09: 39 New
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    The article and comments are a great example of how brainwashing works and what a properly trained audience is.
    We must manage this - write about a successful launch in such a way that it would look like another failure of the hated government.
    Is this exactly a Russian site? Not the Echo of Moscow?
  • JonnyT 25 February 2020 09: 50 New
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    The mundane goals of leadership interfere with the exploration of the moon and outer space as a whole. They need big houses and beautiful expensive cars, not abstract space.
    Space in itself at this stage of development will not bring profit. What kind of development can we talk about if everyone in our country is busy making money. Now it is not communism with its high ideals and goals.
    1. Mestny 25 February 2020 09: 56 New
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      The United States managed to build beautiful houses, drive expensive cars, and at the same time successfully master space.
      And this is under capitalism. How so? Why is capitalism necessary for the capitalist? (as we think).
      So yes, until the moon. People first want to eat their fill, ride in expensive cars. Tired after 70 years of high ideals in holey harnesses.
      1. JonnyT 25 February 2020 10: 07 New
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        And how did they successfully master it? In addition to automatic devices and telescopes, they have nothing to brag about! Capitalism is busy plundering the planet and more. They need space only for military advantage!
        In orbit, they do not know how to live on their own, the ISS is exclusively Soviet technology, modernized under modern realities.

        In general, apple trees will not bloom on Mars under capitalism
        1. Mestny 25 February 2020 10: 10 New
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          So far, it’s precisely the robots created under capitalism that plow the expanses of Mars and fly to the borders of the solar system
          Probably with the goal of sacking the Kuiper belt.
          1. JonnyT 25 February 2020 10: 17 New
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            Yes, you still add to the list of achievements the roadster mask, but what after this launch, the shares rose.

            So, only Soviet communists, for the time being, possessed the technologies of long-term stay in orbit. And now, out of kindness (or betrayal), there is the ISS, on which capitalists learn to survive in space.
            A fact is a fact, a socialist system is much more effective for space exploration than a capitalist one. With incomparably lower costs, under socialism in space exploration a much better result was obtained.
            1. Mestny 25 February 2020 10: 20 New
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              The results of these - - only 2.
              The first satellite and the first man in space. And then, managed to overtake literally a little bit.
              Quote: JonnyT
              A fact is a fact, a socialist system is much more effective for space exploration than a capitalist one.

              What space? She could not master the Earth, died miserably.
              1. JonnyT 25 February 2020 10: 27 New
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                Oh sure. They told you on TV that you couldn’t, then this is the truth. And the fact that the USSR began to collapse from the beginning of the 50s does not count of course.

                Then I see how capitalism Syria Libya and Ukraine is mastering - very successfully. Yes, and about the saints of the 90s in Russia, too, should not be forgotten.
                The first artificial earth satellite
                The First Man in Space
                First spacewalk
                The first long-term orbital station.
                All these are achievements of socialism, moreover, of the post-war period.

                At this time, the fat capitalists were only able to make a sub-orbital flight and launch several blanks
  • depressant 25 February 2020 10: 18 New
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    What hinders the lunar program? Change in goal setting, state priorities. The lunar program is like a ritual with a long forgotten original meaning. The ritual, which, according to custom, must be performed, but why - the government does not remember. But we have to. And the people are telling legends about themselves: there was a time, they flew, moon rovers rode along the moon, the vehicles sat on Venus. “What are you!” The young generation makes round eyes, “this cannot be!” And we him - pictures, chronicles. But young people already have eyes on the moon and other cosmos do not burn. Loans would pay back. And it turns out, a country that draws. Where it turned, it happened. Unless the defense against space is somehow annoying. But space is such, it requires a fair amount of inexpedient, impractical romanticism, a fanatical belief in its necessity. Without this, he is a poorly performed ritual conducted using fake church oil in a poor church.
  • Pavel73 25 February 2020 10: 25 New
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    The lunar program for Russia only makes sense as an ideological continuation of the ISS. That is, only in an international format. Collaboration instead of rivalry. And by no means a new "moon race", who will surpass whom. This is a guaranteed failure. Yes, and in the international format you can participate only on condition that it will be at least on the same rights as in the ISS. That is, their own means of delivery of astronauts from Earth to the Moon and from the Moon to Earth, its own module at the international lunar station, its own spacesuits, lunar rover, and other VKD means.
  • Klingon 25 February 2020 10: 26 New
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    Quote: Vyacheslav Viktorovich
    There will be no fulfillment. In 2028 they will be transferred to 2038, and in 2038 - to 2050. It is time to see an approximate pattern of how such things work. They wanted to finish the nuclear tug first by 2018, then transferred to 2030. In 2030 everyone will forget about it, because they will discuss the transfer of some Yenisei.

    by then * Federation * / the Eagle will evolve and become the Millennium Falcon, and instead of Rogozin, Obi Wan Kenobi will chair Roscosmos wassat about where D. Vader will be modestly silent laughing
  • Pavel73 25 February 2020 10: 29 New
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    The lack of a clear and concise understanding of why Russia has a moon interferes. And generally manned astronautics.
  • Mathafaka 25 February 2020 10: 31 New
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    The Americans will build a lunar orbital station. There and fly.
    Remember my words.
  • Klingon 25 February 2020 10: 33 New
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    Quote: Stas157
    The era of high achievements in space and space pioneers left with the USSR.

    Judging by the rampant corruption, space leaders now have different tasks. All worries about their well-being, but the moon does not care.

    And no one expects from Roscosmos these interplanetary flights. Is not it?

    well written.
    now one Tovarisch will pester you, from here I was already proving with foam at my mouth and listing the successful launches of Roscosmos over the past year (everything was "put into orbit, put into orbit") so I wrote about the same as you, that we haven’t been able to fly anywhere further than the orbit, and we will fly into orbit, but only as long as there is still something on the ground of the USSR
    1. Mestny 25 February 2020 10: 52 New
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      Spectrum RG
      The launch of the scientific observatory was successfully completed on July 13, 2019 by the Proton-M launch vehicle from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.
      What is not a successful project MORE than orbit, as you put it?
  • Clueless 25 February 2020 10: 38 New
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    Well, yes, the big powers with the economy more than ours are united at times to fly to the moon, and we like - we ourselves .. circus with horses
  • Clueless 25 February 2020 10: 40 New
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    Quote: Air Force
    The whole potential of mankind goes to confrontation with each other, if Russia had given 20 years of peace, it could have made a breakthrough, not to mention if the countries had begun joint work on this.


    Yeah, dreams;) 20 years we would have been robbed by our own officials and their friends, what we are actually doing now, only on a smaller scale compared to this "mythical term"
  • sergo1914 25 February 2020 10: 49 New
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    The absence of a heavy carrier interferes. No at least 100 tons - no moon.
  • Klingon 25 February 2020 11: 07 New
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    Quote: Mestny
    Spectrum RG
    The launch of the scientific observatory was successfully completed on July 13, 2019 by the Proton-M launch vehicle from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.
    What is not a successful project MORE than orbit, as you put it?

    Spectrum RG - Russian-German ORBITAL Astrophysical Observatory. I still have not forgotten how to read. Geostationary or whatever else I do not care, this is the orbit around the earth, so the Spectrum of the WG is not an AMS ...
    well, let's list in a new way for me what Roskosmos successfully brought to orbit with Proton or Trampoline, no difference wassat
  • Klingon 25 February 2020 11: 08 New
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    Quote: Pavel73
    The lack of a clear and concise understanding of why Russia has a moon interferes. And generally manned astronautics.

    how for what? for the same as always - for cutting dough wassat
    and unfortunately another fact: there is no clear understanding because there is no GOAL, there is not that enthusiasm that designers had and indeed ordinary people in the USSR. Mask, whatever one may say, has both. But what goals does Mr. Rogozin have for me is not clear
  • Blue fox 25 February 2020 11: 39 New
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    Describing the problems with the recent launch of the Soyuz-2.1a rocket from Plesetsk, experts noted that the launch carried out military combat crews, which "could underfill fuel in the third stage when refueling before launch."
    Sorry, but if the warriors from the military calculation make such mistakes, then this is a very, very alarming sign. And here the problem is clearly not in financing, money allowance and other buns in the form of special meals, etc. for combat crew numbers at the cosmodrome, they are now very, very worthy, especially when you consider the Zvyozdochka, which is quite comparable in importance, in comparison with civilian salaries in the same Arkhangelsk region.
    1. remal 25 February 2020 13: 25 New
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      Well, actually for this article was written. Take a look at the combat crew, repeat once again the excuses of Roskosmos. Here is the keyword "could" and a link to anonymous experts, forgetting to mention that in addition to underfilling, the cause may be another problem in the third stage.
  • remal 25 February 2020 12: 21 New
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    The author is disingenuous about underfunding, for about 8 years Roskomos has definitely received budget money in an increased amount, and often they are simply not mastered by Roskosmos and returned to the budget, or transferred to enterprises, then R&D does not produce results, fines are imposed, which aggravates an already deplorable state astronautics.
  • honest people 25 February 2020 17: 08 New
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    Quote: JonnyT
    Yes, you still add to the list of achievements the roadster mask, but what after this launch, the shares rose.

    So, only Soviet communists, for the time being, possessed the technologies of long-term stay in orbit. And now, out of kindness (or betrayal), there is the ISS, on which capitalists learn to survive in space.
    A fact is a fact, a socialist system is much more effective for space exploration than a capitalist one. With incomparably lower costs, under socialism in space exploration a much better result was obtained.

    In the meantime
    Upcoming launches:
    - March - Falcon 9 - CRS-20
    - Not earlier than March 11 - Falcon 9 - Starlink-5
    - Not earlier than March 20 - Starship SN1 - flight for 20 km
    - March 30 - Falcon 9 - SAOCOM-1B and Smallsat Rideshare Program-1
    1. Lontus 25 February 2020 17: 50 New
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      Quote: honest people
      - Not earlier than March 20 - Starship SN1 - flight for 20 km

      You slander the Great Mask !!
      six months ago, he said that in March 2020 there will be a not insignificant jump of Starship on 20 km,
      and full orbital flight !!

      And in 2018, he sent a manned dragon around the moon.

      Zatolbali haters Mask, can not accept his achievements.
      For example, with the genius Hyperlup.
  • nikvic46 25 February 2020 18: 23 New
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    I worked on a machine tool in Kazakhstan. “You want to see what we are doing?” He talked to the guard because I didn’t have permission. After the heat in our workshop, we got into a cool room. And we saw her. Machine. I had a lot of familiar installers. Perhaps because they shot a smoke at me. They had no pockets in their overalls, but they ran far behind the smoke. The regime was very strict. Each seal in the pass indicated access to a particular object. On the street 34 degrees at night, but nevertheless we went out to breathe. Baikonur should serve us for a long time. And for this we need to launch one or two Kazakh cosmonauts. So that the Kazakhs felt involvement in space.
  • Sklendarka 25 February 2020 21: 30 New
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    Quote: knn54
    Not WHAT, but WHO.

    Apparently all the lack of Article 58 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR ...
  • Was mammoth 25 February 2020 22: 27 New
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    What is in the way? Capitalism.
  • A.TOR 25 February 2020 22: 48 New
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    I repeat:
    There are no problems with the “legacy” and so on. There is a lack of interest in space as an object of research for decision-makers about financing. In Soviet times, interest was fueled by the ideological component of educating youth ("there will be apple trees on Mars ...", etc.) Naturally, society was interested in and indirectly created pressure on the government, which often had to allocate considerable funds for purely scientific programs. Science took advantage of this and got opportunities.
    Now this is not, no influence - there is no talk of pressure! - the society does not directly or indirectly render, because now capitalism and people, of course, are completely occupied with the survival problems.
    In the United States, the situation is fundamentally different - there science is far from being 100% funded by the state, and besides, it has always been extremely financially independent due, firstly, to the interest of private companies (and there are an absolute majority) in research results to increase competitiveness of goods and services, and secondly, through funds created back in the 19th century by various rich people to support - targeted - specific universities and specific areas of research.
    In addition, American society is much richer than Russian society, there are, so to speak, "surpluses" there, which are with appropriate and very effective pressure on the Finnish. legislators - sent to these same studies.
    And, of course, to a tremendous extent, the system of very quickly introducing the achievements of space hi-tech into commercial products - and many of the ideas for new products become "belts" of space programs, works very effectively in terms of "knocking out" space funds.
    In the Russian Federation, all this does not work and cannot work, because There is no own commercial interest in new technologies, only in the military-industrial complex, but everything is specific and classified there.
    And goods can also be purchased in China: according to my "long-term observations", the country's leaders have long ceased to believe in the possibility of Russian business becoming innovative. True, there is a very important nuance in the misunderstanding of some points, but this is politics ...