Air defense systems in the Russian Federation. SAM "Osa" and SAM "Tor"

Air defense systems in the Russian Federation. SAM "Osa" and SAM "Tor"

Do we have many air defense systems? In the second half of the 1950s. it became clear that anti-aircraft artillery, even with the use of gun-guided radar stations, could not provide effective protection of troops from jet combat aircraft. The first generation anti-aircraft missile systems were too bulky, had poor mobility and were not able to deal with air targets at low altitude.


SAM "Osa"



In the 1960s, simultaneously with the work on the creation of air defense systems for the battalion level (Strela-2 MANPADS) and regimental units (Strela-1 air defense systems and Shilka air defense systems), the design of the anti-aircraft missile defense system began Wasp". The highlight of the new air defense system was the placement of all radio equipment and anti-aircraft missiles on one chassis.

Initially, it was planned to use SAM systems with semi-active radar guidance as part of the Osa air defense system. However, in the development process, after evaluating the technological capabilities, it was decided to use a radio command guidance scheme. Due to the fact that the customer required high mobility and amphibiousness, the developers could not decide on the chassis for a long time. As a result, it was decided to stay on the BAZ-5937 wheeled floating conveyor. Self-propelled chassis provided the average speed of the complex on dirt roads during the day 36 km / h, at night - 25 km / h. The maximum speed on the highway is up to 80 km / h. Afloat - 7-10 km / h. The Osa air defense system included: a combat vehicle with 4 9M33 missiles, with launch, guidance and reconnaissance means, a transport and loading vehicle with 8 missiles, and loading means, as well as maintenance and control vehicles mounted on trucks.

The process of creating and refining the Osa air defense system was very difficult, and the development time of the complex significantly went beyond the given framework. In fairness, it is worth saying that the Americans could not bring to mind the conceptually similar SAM Mauler. The Osa air defense missile system was put into service on October 4, 1971, 11 years after the issuance of the decision to begin development.


Combat vehicle SAM "Osa"

Due to the fact that such complexes have not been in the troops for a long time, few people now remember that the wasp missiles of the first modification of the Osa air defense system did not have transport-launch containers. The 9M33 rocket with a solid-fuel engine was transferred to the troops in fully equipped form and did not require adjustment and verification work, except for routine spot checks at arsenals and bases no more than once a year.


9M33 missiles on a combat vehicle of the Osa air defense system at the Museum of Artillery, Engineering and Signal Troops

9M33 missiles, made according to the "duck" scheme, with a starting weight of 128 kg was equipped with a 15-kg warhead. The length of the rocket - 3158 mm, diameter - 206 mm, wingspan - 650 mm. The average speed in the controlled flight section is 500 m / s.


OSA combat vehicle at the Museum of Artillery, Engineering and Signal Corps

The Osa air defense system could hit targets flying at speeds of up to 300 m / s at altitudes of 200-5000 m in a range of 2,2 to 9 km (with a decrease in maximum range to 4-6 km for targets flying at low altitudes, - 50-100 m). For supersonic targets (at a speed of up to 420 m / s), the far boundary of the affected area did not exceed 7,1 km at altitudes of 200-5000 m. The course parameter was from 2 to 4 km. The probability of destruction of the F-4 Phantom II fighter, calculated according to the results of modeling and combat launches, was 0,35-0,4 at an altitude of 50 m and increased to 0,42-0,85 at altitudes of more than 100 m.

Due to the fact that the combat crew of the Osa air defense system had to deal with targets operating at low altitudes, the processing of their parameters and defeat should be carried out as quickly as possible. Given the mobility and the ability of the complex to operate offline, a number of new technical solutions were applied. Features of the Osa air defense system required the use of multifunctional antennas with high output parameters, capable of moving the beam to any point in a given spatial sector in a time not exceeding fractions of a second.

A radar for detecting air targets with an antenna rotation speed of 33 rpm worked in the centimeter frequency range. Stabilization of the antenna in the horizontal plane made it possible to search and detect the target during the movement of the complex. The search by elevation took place due to the transfer of the beam between three positions at each revolution. In the absence of organized interference, the station detected a fighter flying at an altitude of 5 m at a range of 000 km (at an altitude of 40 m - 50 km).

The centimeter-range target tracking radar provided automatic target tracking at a range of 14 km at a flight altitude of 50 m and 23 km at a flight altitude of 5 m. The tracking radar had a system for selecting moving targets, as well as various means of protection against active interference. In the case of suppression of the radar channel, tracking was carried out using a detection station and a television optical sight.

The Osa air defense command and control system used two sets of medium and wide beam antennas to capture and further enter into the beam of the target tracking station two anti-aircraft guided missiles at launch with an interval of 3 to 5 seconds. When firing at low-flying targets (flight altitude from 50 to 100 meters), the "hill" method was used, which provided the guided missile to approach the target from above. This made it possible to reduce the errors of launching missiles at the target and to exclude premature operation of the radio fuse when the signal was reflected from the ground.

In 1975, the Osa-AK air defense system entered service. Outwardly, this complex differed from the earlier model by a new launching device with six 9M33M2 missiles placed in transport-launch containers. The refinement of the radio fuse allowed to reduce the minimum height of the defeat to 25 m. A new missile could hit targets at a range of 1500-10000 m.

Thanks to the improvement of the calculating and resolving equipment, it was possible to increase the accuracy of guidance and to fire at targets flying at a higher speed and maneuvering with an overload of up to 8 G. The noise immunity of the complex has improved. Some of the electronic units were transferred to a solid-state element base, which reduced their mass, dimensions, power consumption and increased reliability.

As of the second half of the 1970s, the Osa-AK air defense system was considered a fairly advanced complex, quite effective against tactical combat aircraft aviation operating at an altitude of up to 5000 m. However, with all its merits, this mobile complex of the division link could not with high probability disrupt the attacks of anti-tank helicopters of the armed TOW and HOT ATGMs. To eliminate this drawback, a 9M33MZ missile launcher was created with a minimum altitude of less than 25 m, an improved warhead and a new radio fuse. When firing at helicopters at an altitude of less than 25 meters, the complex used a special method of guiding an anti-aircraft guided missile with semi-automatic tracking of targets in angular coordinates using a television optical sight.


The Osa-AKM anti-aircraft missile system, which was adopted in 1980, had the ability to destroy helicopters hovering at almost zero altitude and flying at speeds of up to 80 m / s at ranges from 2000 to 6500 m with a heading parameter of up to 6000 m. This OSA-AKM got the opportunity to fire at helicopters with rotating propellers located on the ground.

According to the reference data, the probability of hitting the AH-1 Huey Cobra helicopter on the ground was 0,07-0,12, flying at a height of 10 meters - 0,12-0,55, hovering at a height of 10 meters - 0,12-0,38 . Although the probability of defeat in all cases was relatively small, launching a missile on a helicopter hiding in the folds of the terrain in most cases led to a failure of the attack. In addition, the awareness by pilots of combat helicopters that flying at extremely low altitudes no longer guarantees invulnerability from air defense systems had a considerable psychological impact. The creation in the USSR of the Osa-AKM mass mobile air defense system with a range of destruction greater than the ATGM firing range led to the acceleration of work on the longer-range AGM-114 Hellfire ATGMs with laser and radar guidance.


SAM "Osa-AKM"

The use of advanced technical solutions in the Osa family air defense systems provided them with enviable longevity. Due to the high energy ratio of the signal reflected from the target to the interference, it is possible to use radar channels to detect and track targets even in case of intense interference, and when suppressing radar channels - a television optical sight. The Osa air defense system surpassed all mobile generation anti-aircraft missile systems in terms of noise immunity.


The Soviet motorized rifle divisions had a regiment of the Osa air defense system, in most cases consisting of five anti-aircraft missile batteries and a regiment command post with a control battery. Each battery had four combat vehicles and a battery command post equipped with a PU-12 (M) command post. The regiment’s control battery included the control center PU-12 (M), communication machines, and a low-altitude radar detection station P-15 (P-19).

Serial production of the Osa family air defense systems was carried out from 1972 to 1989. These complexes were widely used in the Soviet Army. Until now, about 250 Osa-AKM are in the armed forces of Russia. However, unlike the air defense missile systems of the regiment Strela-10M2 / M3, the leadership of the Russian Defense Ministry did not consider it necessary to modernize the Osa-AKM air defense systems. According to available information, in the last few years, up to 50 complexes per year are decommissioned. In the near future, our army will finally part with the Osa-AKM air defense system. In addition to obsolescence, this is due to the deterioration of the chassis, radio equipment and the lack of spare electronic components necessary to maintain the hardware in working condition. In addition, all available 9M33MZ missiles have long been outside the warranty period.

SAM "Thor"



The first "alarm bells" regarding the need to improve air defense systems of the divisional level were made in the early 1970s, when it became clear that the first versions of the Osa air defense system were unable to effectively counter anti-tank helicopters using the "jump" tactic. In addition, at the final stage of the Vietnam War, the Americans actively used the planning bombs AGM-62 Walleye and missiles AGM-12 Bullpup with television, radio command and laser guidance. AGM-45 Shrike homing anti-radar missiles posed a great danger to airborne radar control systems.

In connection with the emergence of new threats, it became necessary to intercept combat helicopters before launching anti-tank missiles and guided aircraft weapons from them after separating them from the carrier aircraft. To solve such problems, it was necessary to develop a mobile anti-aircraft missile complex with a minimum reaction time and several guidance channels for anti-aircraft missiles.

Work on the creation of a divisional autonomous self-propelled air defense system "Tor" began in the first half of 1975. When creating the new complex, it was decided to use the vertical missile launch scheme, placing eight SAMs along the axis of the tower of the combat vehicle, protecting them from adverse weather conditions and from possible destruction by shell fragments and bombs. After changing the requirements for the possibility of speeding up water barriers by military anti-aircraft complexes, the main thing was to ensure the same speed and passability with tanks and BMP covered parts. In connection with the need to increase the number of SAMs ready for use and deploy a radio instrument complex, it was decided to switch from wheeled to a heavier tracked chassis.

The GM-355 chassis, unified with the Tunguska anti-aircraft gun and missile system, was used as a base. Special equipment was placed on the tracked vehicle, as well as a rotary antenna launcher with a set of antennas and vertical launchers for anti-aircraft missiles. The complex has its own power source (gas turbine unit), which provides power generation. The turbine’s exit time to operating mode does not exceed a minute, and the total time for putting the complex into combat readiness is about three minutes. Moreover, the search, detection and recognition of targets in the air is carried out both on the spot and in motion.


The mass of the air defense system in the combat position is 32 tons. Moreover, the mobility of the complex is at the level of the tanks and infantry fighting vehicles available in the troops. The maximum speed of the Tor complex on the highway reached 65 km / h. Cruising range - 500 km.

When creating the "Tor" air defense system, a number of interesting technical solutions were applied, and the complex itself had a high novelty coefficient. 9M330 anti-aircraft missiles are located in the launcher of a combat vehicle without TPK and are launched vertically with the help of powder catapults.


SAM 9M330

9M330 anti-aircraft missile with radio command guidance is made according to the "duck" scheme and is equipped with a device that provides gas-dynamic declination after launch. The rocket used folding wings, which were opened and fixed in flight positions after launch. The length of the rocket is 2,28 m. Diameter - 0,23 m. Weight - 165 kg. The mass of the fragmentation warhead is 14,8 kg. Loading missiles into the combat vehicle was carried out using a transport-loading machine. It takes 18 minutes to load new missiles into the launcher.


After receiving a command to launch a missile launcher, it is thrown out of the launcher by a powder charge at a speed of about 25 m / s. After this, the rocket deviates toward the target, and the main engine starts.


Since the solid-fuel engine starts already after the rocket is already oriented in the right direction, the construction of the trajectory is carried out without significant maneuvering, leading to a loss of speed. Thanks to the optimization of the trajectory and the advantageous engine operation mode, the firing range was brought up to 12000 m. Reach in height was 6000 m. Compared to the Osa air defense system, the ability to destroy targets at extremely low altitude was significantly improved. There was an opportunity to successfully deal with an air enemy flying at a speed of up to 300 m / s, at an altitude of 10 m. Interception of high-speed targets moving at a speed twice the sound was possible at a distance of 5 km, with a maximum height of 4 km. Depending on the speed and directional parameters, the probability of hitting aircraft with one missile is 0,3-0,77, helicopters 0,5-0,88, and remotely piloted aircraft 0,85-0,95.

On the tower of the combat vehicle of the Tor air defense missile system, in addition to eight cells with SAM, there is a target detection station and a guidance station. Processing of information about air targets is carried out by a special computer. The detection of air targets is carried out by a coherent pulse radar all-around viewing, operating in the centimeter range. The target detection station is capable of operating in several modes. The main one was the review mode, when the antenna made 20 revolutions per minute. The automation of the complex is capable of tracking up to 24 targets at a time. In this case, the SOC could detect a fighter flying at an altitude of 30-6000 m at a distance of 25-27 km. Guided missiles and gliding bombs are confidently taken for escort at a range of 12-15 km. The detection range of helicopters with a rotary propeller on the ground is 7 km. When the enemy sets strong passive interference for the target detection station, it is possible to blank signals from the jammed direction and the distance to the target.


In front of the tower is a phased array of coherent-pulse radar guidance. This radar provides tracking of the detected target and guidance of guided missiles. At the same time, the target was tracked in three coordinates and one or two missiles were launched, followed by their aiming at the target. The guidance station has a command transmitter for missiles.

Tests of the Tor air defense system began in 1983, and adoption was adopted in 1986. However, due to the high complexity of the complex, its development in mass production and in the troops was slow. Therefore, in parallel, the serial construction of the Osa-AKM air defense system continued.

Like complexes of the Osa family, the serial Tor air defense systems were reduced to anti-aircraft regiments attached to motorized rifle divisions. The anti-aircraft missile regiment included a regiment control point, four anti-aircraft batteries, service and support units. Each battery included four 9A330 combat vehicles and a command post. At the first stage, the “Tor” combat vehicles were used in conjunction with the regimental and battery control centers of the PU-12M. At the regimental level, in the future, it was planned to use the MA22 combat control machine in conjunction with the MP25 information collection and processing machine. The command post of the regiment controlled the air situation using radar P-19 or 9C18 "Dome".


Radar P-19

Immediately after the adoption of the Tor air defense system, work began on its modernization. In addition to expanding combat capabilities, it was envisaged to increase the reliability of the complex and improve ease of use. During the development of the Tor-M1 air defense system, the electronic components of the combat vehicle and the battery level control were primarily updated. The hardware of the modernized complex includes a new computer with two target channels and selection of false targets. During the modernization of the SOC, a three-channel digital signal processing system was introduced. This has greatly improved the ability to detect air targets in a complex jamming environment. The capabilities of the guidance station have increased in terms of escorting helicopters hovering at low altitude. A target tracking machine was introduced into the television optical sight. SAM "Tor-M1" was able to simultaneously shell two targets, with two missiles pointing at each target. The reaction time was also reduced. When working from a position, it was 7,4 s, when shooting with a short stop - 9,7 s.

For the complex "Tor-M1" was developed anti-aircraft guided missile 9M331 with improved characteristics of the warhead. In order to accelerate the loading process, a missile module consisting of a transport and launch container with four cells was used. The process of replacing two modules with TZM took 25 minutes.

The battery actions of the Tor-M1 air defense system are carried out from the unified command post "Rank" on the MT-LBu self-propelled chassis. The command vehicle "Rangier" was equipped with a set of special equipment designed to receive information about the air situation, process the received data and issue commands to combat vehicles of anti-aircraft systems. Information on 24 targets detected by the radar interacting with the Rangier was displayed on the indicator of the control room operator. It was also possible to obtain information from battery combat vehicles. The crew of a self-propelled command post, consisting of 4 people, processed data on targets and issued commands to combat vehicles.


Self-propelled command post "Rank"

SAM "Tor-M1" was adopted in 1991. But in connection with the collapse of the USSR and a reduction in the defense budget, very few modernized complexes were received by the Russian armed forces. The construction of the Tor-M1 air defense system was mainly carried out on export orders.

Since 2012, the Russian army began to receive air defense systems "Tor-M1-2U." Detailed characteristics of this complex were not announced. A number of experts believe that changes in the hardware mainly affected the means of displaying information and the computer system. In this regard, a partial transition was made to components of foreign production. There has also been some increase in combat performance. There is information that the Tor-M1-2U air defense system is capable of firing at four targets simultaneously, with two missiles pointing at each.

As in the case of the previous modification, the supply volumes of Tor-M1-2U to the Russian armed forces were small. Several complexes of the experimental series arrived in the Southern Military District in November 2012. As part of the State Defense Order for 2013, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation in 2012 concluded a contract with OAO Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol for the amount of 5,7 billion rubles. As part of this contact, the manufacturer undertook to transfer to the customer 2013 combat vehicles, four maintenance vehicles, a set of spare parts, 12 transport-loading vehicles, a set of equipment for testing missiles by the end of 12. In addition, the contract provided for the supply of battery and regimental control machines.

Based on the latest serial modification of the Tor-M2 air defense system, several options have been created that differ in hardware and chassis. A dramatic increase in the combat characteristics of the new complex was achieved through the use of new radio equipment, anti-aircraft missiles with an expanded destruction zone. There was also the opportunity to fire on the go without stopping. The most noticeable external difference between the Tor-M2 SAMs from earlier versions is another antenna of the target detection station with a slotted HEADLIGHT. The new SOC is capable of operating in a complex jamming environment and is well placed to detect air targets with low ESR.

The new computing complex allowed expanding the capabilities of information processing and simultaneously tracking 48 goals. The Tor-M2 combat vehicle is equipped with an electron-optical detection system capable of operating in the dark. There was an opportunity to exchange radar information between combat vehicles within the line of sight, which expands situational awareness and allows you to rationally distribute air targets. Increasing the degree of automation of combat work has reduced the crew to three people.

The maximum range of hitting a target flying at a speed of 300 m / s when using 9M331D missiles is 15 m. Reach in height is 000-10 m. In terms of course, it is up to 10000 m. It is possible to simultaneously fire 8000 targets with guidance of 4 missiles. All equipment of the anti-aircraft complex, at the request of the customer, can be installed on a wheeled or tracked chassis. All the differences in combat vehicles in this case are only in the characteristics of mobility and operating features.


“Classic” is the “Tor-M2E” on a caterpillar chassis, designed to provide air defense to tank and motorized rifle divisions. SAM "Tor-M2K" mounted on a wheeled chassis, developed by the Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant. There is also a modular version - “Tor-M2KM”, which can be placed on any self-propelled or towed wheeled chassis of suitable load capacity.


LAW "Tor-M2DT"

At the Victory Military Parade on Red Square on May 9, 2017, the Tor-M2DT, an Arctic version of an air defense system with a combat vehicle based on the DT-30 two-link tracked conveyor, was presented. According to information voiced by the RF Ministry of Defense, 12 Tor-M2DT air defense systems are available in a separate motorized rifle brigade of the North fleet.

At the time of its appearance, the Tor air defense system surpassed all foreign and domestic anti-aircraft systems in its class. Abroad has not yet been created anti-air system with similar capabilities. At the same time, it is a very complex and expensive complex that requires constant qualified service and maintenance by specialists of the manufacturer. Otherwise, it is practically impossible to maintain the complexes existing in the troops in working condition for a long period of time. This is confirmed by the fact that the Tor air defense system, remaining after the division of Soviet military property in Ukraine, is now not operational.

According to The Military Balance 2019, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation has more than 120 complexes of the Tor family at its disposal. A number of open sources indicate that the Tor air defense system, built in the late 1980s and early 1990s, is still in active use after restoration and partial modernization. However, it should be recognized that after the Osa-AKM air defense system was removed from service in the air defense divisions of the divisional and brigade level of the Russian army, a deficiency of modern anti-aircraft systems could be able to combat air attack means in the dark and in low visibility conditions.

To be continued ...
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  1. Alien From 26 February 2020 18: 17 New
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    A very, very interesting topic is raised by the author! Thanks!
  2. honest people 26 February 2020 18: 48 New
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    The author is one of the few pros left in! good
  3. V.I.P. 26 February 2020 18: 50 New
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    The manufacturer of the TOPs had to put them on a wheeled chassis for a long time. Many countries operators would choose this option, rather than tracked .... And it is not clear why the Russian Defense Ministry wants to get rid of the tunguska, and not to radically modernize it. They have the same chassis with the TOP. It is economically profitable ... ... .. And the Osm AKM could be flashed to the Syrians, Haftaru and to Yemen))
    1. PSih2097 26 February 2020 20: 49 New
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      Quote: V.I.P.
      And it is not clear why the RF Ministry of Defense wants to get rid of the tunguska, and not radically modernize it.

      no one is going to refuse it, especially the MO is not going to refuse, at least until the Shell on the SV chassis becomes, although the chassis from the "OSA" will be the very thing for him if the goose is not made under it.
  4. knn54 26 February 2020 19: 03 New
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    Three years ago, information slipped that the Osa-AKM1 air defense system complex was developed. He will receive noise-resistant equipment, a new optical-electronic system with an infrared channel, and a GLONASS satellite communications and navigation system. Also modernization will take place and the radio control system ZUR 9M33M3.
    About 10 years will still serve.
    The next year marks half a century since the complex was adopted. And the modernization potential has not exhausted itself.
  5. Aag
    Aag 26 February 2020 19: 05 New
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    Yes, ah ... And here is not all, as I would like to be ... Thanks to the author, I knew a lot of things.
  6. Magic archer 26 February 2020 19: 32 New
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    To be honest, nothing new. Somewhere lies a book about all the air defense systems of the USSR and RUSSIA. There is not enough (in my opinion) history of the use of these systems. The same Wasp has extensive combat experience. But the author is plus hi
    1. Bongo 27 February 2020 02: 17 New
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      Quote: Magic Archer
      To be honest, nothing new. Somewhere lies a book about all the air defense systems of the USSR and RUSSIA. There is not enough (in my opinion) history of the use of these systems. The same Wasp has extensive combat experience. But the author is plus

      Vladimir, the combat use of Soviet air defense systems needs to be done in a separate cycle. In the near future I’ll do it. hi
      1. Grits 28 February 2020 06: 13 New
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        Quote: Bongo
        Vladimir, the combat use of Soviet air defense systems needs to be done in a separate cycle. In the near future I’ll do it.

        will wait
      2. IL-18 28 February 2020 10: 50 New
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        Quote: Bongo
        In the near future I’ll take care of

        Like a balm for the soul. Linnik Sergey is a brand. If you count on a grateful reader, then I am one of many. good
    2. sivuch 27 February 2020 09: 33 New
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      Yes, I tried to put an article on the combat use of Os. Failed due to computer illiteracy of the author. If you want to bring in God's form, then I can send.
    3. sivuch 27 February 2020 09: 57 New
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      https://forums.airbase.ru/2016/02/t83098_10--istoriya-razrabotki-zrk-osa.html
      The history of the development of SAM "Osa" -10
      post 04-12-2018 12-09
      Maybe you will find something new here, by the way, there is also a PSU.
  7. Aviator_ 26 February 2020 19: 46 New
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    Good article, respect to the author! I would like to know about the combat use of systems, at least "Wasps". It seems that its ship version was used by Georgian boats in the five-day war on 08.08.08/XNUMX/XNUMX.
  8. Svarog51 26 February 2020 20: 19 New
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    Sergei hi How all yours is excellent! good It is intelligible and detailed. Even to amateurs like me.
    P.S. With the past and with the coming Olga. drinks
    1. Bongo 27 February 2020 02: 18 New
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      Quote: Svarog51
      Sergei hi How all yours is excellent! good It is intelligible and detailed. Even to amateurs like me.
      P.S. With the past and with the coming Olga. drinks

      Sergey, thank you for your kind words and congratulations! Ole, I’ll give you a must! drinks
      1. Svarog51 27 February 2020 02: 37 New
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        Of the entire family of air defense systems, one saw with his own eyes, but I don’t know which one. It was dark, only the perimeter of the post was lit. But precisely on the tracked chassis and with three or four missiles. Our air defense airfield guard arrived. They had their own security. The missiles were on guides, not in containers.
        1. Bongo 27 February 2020 02: 41 New
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          Quote: Svarog51
          Of the entire family of air defense systems, one saw with his own eyes, but I don’t know which one. It was dark, only the perimeter of the post was lit. But precisely on the tracked chassis and with three or four missiles. Our air defense airfield guard arrived. They had their own security. The missiles were on guides, not in containers.

          If in the 80s, then most likely it was a “Cube".
          1. Svarog51 27 February 2020 02: 47 New
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            I also tend to this. There, my land was on guard, they agreed to remember my home, but they did not ask each other official questions. Two hours as one minute flew by. Their division was based somewhere nearby and the battery was sent periodically. As I understand it, they covered our division. Or maybe someone else, there were a lot of troops there.
            1. Bongo 27 February 2020 02: 54 New
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              Quote: Svarog51
              I also tend to this. There, my land was on guard, they agreed to remember my home, but they did not ask each other official questions. Two hours as one minute flew by. Their division was based somewhere nearby and the battery was sent periodically. As I understand it, they covered our division. Or maybe someone else, there were a lot of troops there.

              In Soviet times, the Kub regiment was usually attached to tank divisions, although there were tank divisions with Osa. SAM "Circle" with SPU on two missiles - this is the army and front line.
              1. Svarog51 27 February 2020 03: 00 New
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                The tankers were also nearby, we went to Zethain to shoot at them, if I'm not mistaken. We were based near Dresden.
                P.S. If you saved my mail - drop a word, the businessman has one thing.
        2. Grits 28 February 2020 06: 18 New
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          Quote: Svarog51
          Of the entire family of air defense systems, one saw with his own eyes

          I recently saw how the Vladivostok - Khabarovsk highway was taken on the Osu trailer. I was still surprised - I thought they were gone. I read, it turns out, that the Pacific Fleet is still in service with the Marine Corps.
      2. sivuch 27 February 2020 09: 58 New
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        Sergey, this is my plot am
        Seriously - as always, at the level
        1. Bongo 27 February 2020 10: 10 New
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          Quote: sivuch
          Sergey, this is my plot

          Hi!
          Igor, I’m not a competitor to you regarding digging depths. I’m so modestly on the tops. repeat
          Quote: sivuch
          If you want to bring in God's form, then I can send.

          Later, when I will make an article on the combat use of Soviet air defense systems, I will definitely write to you.
  9. Nikolay R-PM 26 February 2020 21: 33 New
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    It seems that it was not in vain that it was necessary to detect and point the missile at a helicopter with rotating NV on the ground. During the modernization of the wasp and the development of the torus, ours already analyzed the positive experience of landing American helicopter landings during the Vietnam War and understood that these tactical methods could be used by a potential adversary. it turns out that if it is not possible to hit the helicopter, then at least the intentions of the enemy are known.
    Is it interesting that a helicopter on the ground detect an air defense system should be located above it?
    I finally realized for myself that the radar channel for target detection usually has a duplicate optical one.
    Such a detailed and systematic review allows us to form a general idea of ​​the state-of-the-art air defense systems. Thank you very much Sergey!
    1. Bongo 27 February 2020 02: 22 New
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      Quote: Nikolai R-PM
      It seems that it was not in vain that it was necessary to detect and point the missile at a helicopter with rotating NV on the ground. During the modernization of the wasp and the development of the torus, ours already analyzed the positive experience of landing American helicopter landings during the Vietnam War and understood that these tactical methods could be used by a potential adversary. it turns out that if it is not possible to hit the helicopter, then at least the intentions of the enemy are known.

      Nikolay, here we are talking more about countering anti-tank helicopters hiding in the folds of the terrain.
      Quote: Nikolai R-PM
      Is it interesting that a helicopter on the ground detect an air defense system should be located above it?

      Not necessary. The main thing is that between the "Wasp" ("Thor") there should be no elevations and capital multi-storey buildings.
  10. Parsec 26 February 2020 22: 38 New
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    In the control battery (from the middle of the 80s the state control unit - the combat control group) wasp "Osa" of all modifications was not only the P-15 (P-19) radar, but also the P-18, P-40 radar and the PRV-16 altimeter.

    Due to the high energy ratio of the signal reflected from the target to the interference, it is possible to use radar channels to detect and track targets even with intense interference, and when suppressing radar channels - a television optical sight.


    The energy ratio is not applicable in the context, and in your opinion, the "signal is reflected to interference" if you read your proposal according to the rules of the Russian language. From your thesis, it follows that due to the "high energy ratio of the signal reflected from the target to the interference" when suppressing radar channels, "it is possible to use a television optical sight." If the radar channels are suppressed, what is the difference, what was the energy ratio there ... You describe air defense systems, you need extreme accuracy of formulations and their correct display by means of the language in which you broadcast.

    It will be more correct to talk about the potential of the station, i.e. the ratio of transmitter power to receiver sensitivity, which is one of the best for Osa air defense systems. In fact, the Osa-AK BM target detection station can detect a fighter target at a range of 200 ... 250 km, provided the antenna rotational speed is 6 revolutions per minute.

    "Learning the unknowable, teaching the unfaithful, and divining on tortoise shells is punishable by chopping off the head." (c) Qin Shihuangdi.
    You just fall under the second paragraph.
    1. Bongo 27 February 2020 02: 25 New
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      Quote: Parsec
      In the control battery (from the middle of the 80s the state control unit - the combat control group) wasp "Osa" of all modifications was not only the P-15 (P-19) radar, but also the P-18, P-40 radar and the PRV-16 altimeter.

      This is the staff of the radar company, a separate RTB army submission. EMNIP in the battalion had three radar and company communications.
      1. Parsec 27 February 2020 09: 07 New
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        My thesis is that the cat has four legs.
        Your answer is a dog, because EMNIP has four legs in a dog.
      2. sivuch 27 February 2020 11: 07 New
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        Sergey, in fact, the opponent just served on the Wasps. So, in 1987, the zrp included a burr-battery of the radar reconnaissance control, after 87, the unit became known as the gbu - the combat control group, which consisted of a command post (command post) and an emergency command post (emergency command post). I’m going to tell you more about OSB GB below in the section on organizing an air defense system; for now, it’s enough to say that the KP usually had 2 radars - P-18, P-40 and PRV-16 altimeter, and ZKP – 1 P-19 radar. Each KP also had PU-12 and KShM R-142, as well as radio stations. In addition, it was possible to obtain radar from the head of the air defense division, although more often it was the other way around, since the latter had only 2 radars at its disposal, most often the P-19. Typically, the KP was located 10-15 km from the batteries. By Toram will be separate wink
  11. Parsec 26 February 2020 22: 45 New
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    Quote: Nikolai R-PM
    that the radar channel for target detection usually has a duplicate optical one.

    Usually a television channel duplicates an accompanying channel.
    The helicopter has a specific target, but at the ranges of the use of weapons it can also be detected by a television channel.
  12. VictorStar 26 February 2020 22: 48 New
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    Thanks for the tour.
    For completeness, the reference to 334 items is lacking
  13. Orkraider 26 February 2020 23: 21 New
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    Sergey, be healthy!
    hi
    Elegant!
    Simple and affordable, understandable and clear.
    I track and wait for each article, it's nice to read. And it’s written cool, I don’t know how laughing
    Thank you!
    1. Orkraider 26 February 2020 23: 40 New
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      Sergey,
      A small question, why didn’t you write about the contract for M2019 concluded in 2?
      If the contract from 2012 was 5,7 billion, and included a set of funds for the anti-aircraft missile division, then the new contract is 100 billion rubles. This is a minimum of 10 divisions, but rather about 14 ..
      About 120-168 combat vehicles, instead of retiring the OS.

      You don’t just miss nothing; the question is lol
      The Russian Ministry of Defense has signed a long-term state contract with the Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol for the supply of Tor-M2 and Tor-M2DT anti-aircraft missile systems.
      The agreement was concluded in the presence of Russian President Vladimir Putin.
      Earlier on Thursday, the head of state at a meeting of the military-industrial complex announced that the price of work would be about 100 billion rubles. He noted that these air defense systems will be produced and delivered to the troops from 2019 to 2027.
      1. Bongo 27 February 2020 02: 27 New
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        Quote: Orkraider
        Sergey,
        A small question, why didn’t you write about the contract for M2019 concluded in 2?

        Hello! I don’t know how this contract is implemented ... request
      2. Sergei1982 27 February 2020 18: 46 New
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        Quote: Orkraider
        About 120-168 combat vehicles, instead of retiring the OS.

        Not only, on Varoflin Poles conducts a piecemeal calculation of what and where it came from. Information on 120 Torr in the RF Armed Forces is outdated at what for a long time (its military Balance does not change 8 already.)
        The real figure is closer to 300.
        Last year, seven regiment and division sets of Tor-M7 reported closing the contract.
        All this explains why the Wasps are disabled.
  14. Romario_Argo 26 February 2020 23: 24 New
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    SAM Tor-M2 has an ammunition load of 16 missiles - its main feature, and only then the radar
    1. Bongo 27 February 2020 02: 34 New
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      Quote: Romario_Argo
      SAM Tor-M2 has an ammunition load of 16 missiles - its main feature, and only then the radar

      I fixed the minus, but you are not quite right. no
      The increase in ammunition and the use of new missiles - this is of course very important. But the main increase in the combat characteristics of the Tor-M2 occurred mainly due to the introduction of new hardware: radar, mid-range radar, optoelectronic system and computer complex. Thanks to this, it was possible to increase the noise immunity and the ability to detect targets with low ESR, as well as to increase the number of simultaneously fired targets.
      1. Romario_Argo 27 February 2020 12: 43 New
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        increase the number of simultaneously fired targets.

        I agree (+). channel increased to - 4.
  15. asv363 27 February 2020 05: 00 New
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    There was also the opportunity to fire on the go without stopping.

    A short video of the Tor-M2 combat training launches, including in target movement:
  16. IL-64 27 February 2020 07: 23 New
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    If I remember correctly what our teachers (who fought against the Israelis) told when the grass was greener and the birds sang louder, the use of TOV on medium-range air defense systems with a large number of clear days, which is characteristic of certain parts of the planet, was very effective . Especially when you consider that the use of TOV allows you to hide the very fact of the radar guidance and its radio frequency characteristics. And all the same, only those divisions survived that, contrary to the commands of the Arab commanders, immediately after application curtailed and went to reserve positions. I think there is no need to explain that the “violators” were the divisions under the control of the Soviet military “advisers”. But at short ranges, the use of TOV is greatly limited by the qualifications of the operators and the reaction time of the human body. But this is not accurate (s)
  17. Vladimir_2U 27 February 2020 08: 07 New
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    Thank you, interesting article.
  18. Pavel57 27 February 2020 11: 20 New
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    The modernization potential of the OSA is far from exhausted. But it is always more pleasant to buy new, and money is not always for new.
  19. sivuch 27 February 2020 12: 08 New
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    I made extracts from Courage. The phrases themselves, of course, refer to the holy war of the peat against the panzerophile. Mr. Zhigunov himself belongs to the first, but tries to maintain objectivity.
    In order to reassure you, there is a reliably confirmed fact that if the shell is captured by optics, the probability of their defeat by ZURka is 80%
    I will answer on the first message. In order to understand the problem with SOC, you need to know what she sees at all ... In a first approximation, this happens something like this, first a packet of radio pulses is emitted to the target in the allotted time. The received signal from the target passes through the device for suppressing local objects and passive interference, each reflected pulse in its discrete range relative to the neighboring ones (the noise level is calculated, relative to which we will select the mark) passes the threshold processing. If the threshold is low, then a high probability of false alarms; if high, then a low probability of detection. Then, a calculation is made of how many received (reflected) pulses from the radiated burst exceeded this threshold, if there is enough quantity, then this will be the mark that is processed further in the computer system during the next rotation of the antenna. For two turns of the antenna, the aircraft can calculate where the mark will be in the third revolution, if the position of the mark coincides with the calculated data, the tracks are tied up and it begins to be displayed on the indicators of the operator or commander as a target. The alignment of the tracks does not always occur on time or does not occur at all due to the fact that some of the conditions is not fulfilled. To avoid this, you need to use the primary information, the conclusion of which must be provided. In general, display everything that is currently happening on the air without any data processing. The operator or commander would always have the opportunity to double-check the displayed suspicious mark with other systems (MRS or ECO). The minimum detection range of SOC for the Shell is 1000m. Therefore, in the video, when he shot a quadrocopter from cannons at a range of 250-650m, detection did not occur, but a search was performed using the ECO. Looking for a goal in the ECO's responsibility sector is a long-running process, because the field of view is still narrow and the volume of space is large ...
    A balloon with suspensions or a flying lawn mower, for example, flying against the wind, will be lightly choked by a device for suppressing passive interference ...
    The carapace has the ability to deflect the radar beam by +/– 45 degrees relative to the normal. The question arises, with what step does the SFM take to ensure the necessary accuracy of tracking targets and missiles. By the way, at maximum deviation angles, the level of output power will decrease and the level of the side lobes of its radiation pattern will sharply increase. In order to produce a missile launcher for a second target located in a different direction, he needs to deploy a launcher on it and still have to accompany the target and the missile from the first direction. I have no confirmed data on the successful combat work of the Carapace on targets entering at the angles of the maximum beam deflection of the HEADLIGHTS in the sector +/– 45 degrees. If the BR carry out missiles only with the help of the ECO, then the Shell becomes single-channel. Volley fire missiles provided in radar mode
    http://otvaga2004.mybb.ru/viewtopic.php?id=2208&p=5
    So about Tor-M1, which accompanies 2 goals, they wrote that these goals should be in the sector of 15 degrees and exit from it = a / s failure. About Tor-2 they write this
    https://vpk.name/library/f/tor-m2.html
    Guidance Station (CH):
    Antenna type passive phased
    Scanning beam, pencil shape, 0,8 x 0,8 deg
    Scanning beam sector, degrees - 30 x 30 in azimuth and elevation
    The number of targets followed, pcs - 4
    The number of missiles simultaneously aimed at the target, pcs - 6
    Although this, of course, is not about the last Torah with 16 missiles. And most importantly - I’m not sure that the scanning sector is equal to the sector where it should be. goals i.e. the second may be less.
    Tor-M2U, Tor-M2 +/- 15 degrees relative to the normal in azimuth and elevation, that is, 30x30 azimuth and elevation are electronic scans, there are also mechanical drives. narrow beam +/- 0,4 degrees relative to the equal-signal direction, that is, a full radiation pattern of 0,8 degrees in azimuth and elevation. Thor has a full-fledged channel in range, where the low-order unit is measured in centimeters and a full-fledged speed channel where the low-order unit is measured in Hz units. There is a channel based on spectral analysis, which displays a frequency-range portrait of the target and all these channels interact with each other through the sun ... Thor perfectly distinguishes group targets flying wing to wing ...
    If we work for a paired target, then it is possible to launch 2 SAMs for the first target and 2 for the second, if for 4 goals, then one SAM for each target, the launch of the following SAMs is possible after the release of the missile channel, that is, can be in the beam of the HEADLIGHT more than 4 ZURok
    They said the standard deviation for Tor-M1 is 0,3 du at a range of 12 km, when it was converted to milliradians it received 0,3 mrad :-). It seems to me that for the millimeter range of the day, the Shell has a wide, but on the other hand, the beam can be deflected by +/- 45 degrees, but why, the launcher is still turned in the direction of the shot ...
    The error signal at the target’s AS for the Shell is determined by azimuth, elevation and range, for Thor azimuth, elevation, range, speed and spectral analysis is still performed on a separate FFT channel. According to the ZURka, the Shell's azimuth, elevation, and Thor's azimuth, elevation, range ...
    In general, it seems that the Pantsir’s quantity of missiles fired goes into quality, while Thor’s quality is, but too expensive for the military ...
    For those who do not know what a remote control is, this is the angle formed between an object 1 m high and an object of observation at a distance of 1000 m, that is, the opposite leg is 1 m, and the hypotenuse is 1000 m ...
    I know very well where the receiving and transmitting antennas are in the 9M331 and 9M338K missiles, but in the armor missiles, I found only the receiving antennas ... And what prevents the use of a semi-active missile? The cost of the design has not been canceled yet ...
    the continuous operation time of the product is prescribed in IE and is at least 24 hours.
    numbered maintenance, seasonal maintenance is carried out upon reaching the operating time of the equipment, mileage of the chassis of the specified indicators, but not through the vague concept of "total operating time of the complex"
    in particular, for СОУ 9А310М1 - Continuous operation time from a gas turbine engine is 24 hours with a break of 2 hours (from a running engine no more than 4 hours with a mandatory mileage of 30 minutes),
    for Tunguska - the time of continuous operation of the ZSU for at least 24 hours, including at least 8 hours in motion;
    Everything is correct 24 hours of continuous operation, but if you work regularly in this mode, then the resource of electro-vacuum devices will be quickly exhausted ... And you have to work in constant detection regularly.
    So there (in Syria), radars of different complexes are simultaneously working to detect. In the Shell, if true, part of the BM is tuned for UAVs, and part on the MLRS (most likely algorithmically). Radar Torah has established itself very well. There was a case where they could not understand what he was detecting and for what purpose he was producing ballistic missiles. In general, they took the optics of another complex (they talked about Horizon, but I recognized Sapsan-Bekas in it) his ZURka for auto tracking and looked at where it was flying, only then we understood for what purpose it worked. An alternative method of control is always more reliable, if one relies on the radar of only one of the complexes.
    With regards to the transmitter SOC for Thor. Work with high voltage is carried out without a time limit, there is only the resource of his tube amplifier.
    With regards to the transmitter for CH. In addition to the resource, restrictions on continuous operation are imposed on it, that is, the magnitude of the time of work with a high voltage and the time of its operation with the high voltage turned off (break) are indicated. If this regulation is not followed, then the life of the tube amplifier decreases sharply and over time, the power of the SN transmitter will decrease or in general it will fail.
    Thor has his own optical system, did not cope with the designation?
    Each complex has its pros and cons. Optics is not their thing ...
    Thor's EIA is an auxiliary tool, and not separately, independently performing their functions as a device. It does not have its own drives and is mechanically attached to the HEADLIGHT
    - The Israeli Defense Ministry published a video of the defeat of the Syrian Shell. You studied this episode, why did they manage to destroy it?
    This "Shell" of the Syrian armed forces managed to hit eight targets, and he simply no longer had rockets. Battle crew left the car and stood nearby
    this case is not interesting, the case of single-channel carapace operation is interesting, the miss and BM defeat (this is another t-sh, also a peat and panzerophobe, but more frank - but he does not deny the first case)
    1. KVIRTU 6 March 2020 23: 01 New
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      For Tor without m, SOC formed up to 8 partial rays simultaneously of 4 degrees in a vert plane each, or all power of 2, 4 rays per revolution, only 32 degrees max in elevation, its main tactical drawback, a large dead funnel. But his ant system, as it is now, just with a frequency scan in the vert plane weighs 200 kg, with the Shell with needle beams under a ton. Because of the controlled phase shifters and so on. Imagine what will happen to this ton if you turn it sharply. Therefore, Thor shoots on the go, there is no carapace.
  20. sivuch 27 February 2020 12: 10 New
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    To the two classic guidance methods, like that of the Shell, I would add three more modified ones, but in fact there are more ... On Tor-M1 they are written on one of the blocks in the operator compartment, their number has increased on M2U ...
    Of course, the speed of SAM missiles reduces the error, but if you invent a hardener of a radar beam, it will be more efficient :-)
    If with regards to the case at the Banquet, then the Carapace tried, and the Torah was ordered to finish off the target, which he hit at a distance of a little less than 12 km. Although, when there were training firing, then the Shell successfully hit her. By the way, they also gave the order to finish off the E-95 when the Shell was fired from cannons, but Thor did not do this because when the target reached the position, it was turned off high, that is, it did not detect and did not take the Shell target at the speakers at their combat work. SOC Torah has a minimum detection range of 3 km, that is, when they worked from cannons, turning on the high one made no sense. The target turned over the positions, and the Shell hit it with a ZURka to catch up.
    I mean, you can always set the flight path of a target along which the Shell cannot work. The same can be said about Tor ..
    like this, 3 km ??. And where to put the near border of the affected area 1km ??
    The type of signal in SOC does not allow detection closer. And with speakers there are 3 types of signal that allow you to work at different ranges, including up to 1km ...
    The minimum range is determined by the duration of the emitted pulse ...
    In the notorious Arab Republic, Thor hit several MLRS at a distance of even less than 1km. What I was very surprised.
    I would suggest using the CBSs (a command of relative speeds between the target and the SAM) for the Armor of the Shell, as was done by TORovskaya. This would allow us to vary the fragmentation field when detonating SAMs, when it flies to the target ...
    Also, in some cases, separate guidance on the beta and epsilon channels, i.e., use one guidance method along the azimuthal coordinate, and another along the elevation angle.
  21. Dimonk 20 March 2020 12: 04 New
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    Tell me, what about the situation with complexes BUK BUK?