Pavel Korin. "Alexander Nevskiy". The insoluble task of a restless soul

Pavel Korin. "Alexander Nevskiy". The insoluble task of a restless soul
There she is historical picture


... and I will give him My sword in my hand.
Book of the Prophet Ezekiel 30:24)


Art and history. Probably there is no such person in Russia who did not see or did not hold in his hands products from the village of Palekh. They are original, they are beautiful, it is pleasant to look at them. And then there are people who are born in Palekh and see all this beauty from childhood. There she is an ordinary thing, they talk about her at dinner there, they learn to draw Palekh in a local school at drawing lessons and in each other - in family workshops. But artists from Palekh painted not only lacquer miniatures. It was they who painted the Faceted Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin. And Palekh masters worked both in the churches of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra and in the Novodevichy Convent in Moscow. So for many, being born there was a real happiness, because in former times it guaranteed the right income.


So Alexander Nevsky was presented in the movie of the same name

Eisenstein dressed the prince in long-sex clothes, under which his shoes are almost invisible, and armor made of large, seemingly leather plates. The same lengths and clothes of his associates.


The figure turned out monumental


Some western knights are also quite realistic. For example, this knight was clearly copied from a miniature from the Codex of Manes. Tungsten von Eschenbach

Here is Pavel Korin, whose triptych, dedicated to Alexander Nevsky, we will consider today, was born in the same place - in Palekh. And first he studied painting at home, then at the Palekh icon-painting school, after which he was accepted as a student in the Moscow icon-painting chamber of the Donskoy Monastery, where Nesterov was also among his teachers. And he was a good teacher, because then Korin wrote about him: "You threw your flame into my soul, you are the culprit of the fact that I became an artist."


Kukryniksy. Group portrait of P. Korin

Then Nesterov insisted that Korin enter the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, which he graduated in 1912, become a real certified painter, and meet with the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fedorovna, at whose insistence he went to Yaroslavl and Rostov to study the frescoes of ancient Russian churches. And this princess was the sister of the empress, and her husband the terrorist Kalyaev killed right in the Kremlin. And then she founded the Martha-Mariinsky monastery, Mikhail Nesterov and Pavel Korin were to paint her temple.


And this is Marshal Zhukov, of course. But take a closer look: on all the canvases of the artist, the skulls of his characters are elongated in iconography. Or is it just that way?

Why is there such a detailed story about the biography of this artist? Perhaps, immediately proceed to the consideration of the triptych, perhaps one of the readers of VO will ask. The answer will be this: because it is in this case that it just matters. Because this was the formation of his worldview, and it is the key to understanding the paintings of so many artists.


Plafond of the Komsomolsk station. Also the work of P. Korin, familiar to millions


Alexander Nevsky from the mosaic panel of the Komsomolskaya station, close-up


Alexander Nevsky at the monument "Millennium of Russia." Moreover, it’s a bakhterets of the XNUMXth century

And then Korin began to live and work in Moscow, where in February 1917 he settled in the attic of house 23 on Arbat and lived there until 1934 - almost 17 years. He admitted: "Peeling the skin, I got out of the icon painting." And got out! He made a mosaic frieze for the Palace of Soviets “March to the Future”, mosaic panels of his work adorn the underground stations of the Moscow metro Komsomolskaya-Koltsevaya and Novoslobodskaya. On the instructions of the Bolshevik party and government, he painted portraits of the writer A.N. Tolstoy, artists Kukryniksy, artist V.I. Kachalov, proletarian writer Maxim Gorky, victory marshal Zhukov and many other famous figures of the USSR. And at the same time, it is known that all this time he remained a believer. He collected icons, but most importantly, he dreamed of writing a huge painting “Requiem”, inconceivable in the country of socialist realism, because there (and this is known from preserved sketches) he wanted to depict all the highest hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Assumption Cathedral of the Kremlin , and he pulled a gigantic canvas on a stretcher and for thirty years never made a single brushstroke on it, although he drew sketches. Soviet power was kindly. He became a laureate of the Lenin Prize, but ... most likely, he did not think anything good about this very government. Although on the other hand, after 17, he did not go abroad. And the reasons he had for this were serious. After all, it was his teacher, Mikhail Nesterov, who was arrested in 1938 on charges of espionage. His son-in-law, a prominent lawyer and professor at Moscow University, Viktor Schreter, was also accused of espionage and, of course, shot, and the artist’s daughter, Olga Mikhailovna, was sent to a camp in Dzhambul, from where she returned on crutches with an invalid. It is unlikely that he was happy with the “good work” of the Soviet security agencies. But he continued to write anyway. And then he too ... was accused of espionage in favor of either Poland or Japan.


The left side of the triptych

The famous triptych, in the center of which Alexander Nevsky is depicted, is a thing full of secrets even to a greater extent than Rembrandt’s painting “Night Watch”, which we examined here. However, judge for yourself. In the triptych, therefore, it is also a triptych, that is, something reminiscent of a church fold (!), There are three paintings. And each of them has its own name. And your plot. Here is the left part - “The Old Tale”, where we see a bent old woman and two strange men against the backdrop of a giant image of Nikolai Ugodnik. One of the old ones with the oslop - the butt of the club with nails, and the young rolling up sleeve, with a pistol and obviously non-Russian appearance. We read what the art historian writes about him: "the picture" suggests the rich history and culture of the Russian people. " Isn’t it nonsense? What kind of culture, when you see that the main thing in this canvas is the image of the saint, and the abundance of crosses on his vestments. He, the saint, stands behind all these people, because of that they look so ... obviously pleased. The grandmother clearly smiles (this is during a disaster), the bearded one also ... his mouth is pinched, and the young man looks “on my mind” - “I won’t miss my own.” But in the hands of the saint is a sword and some strange temple of God. If this is the history of the Russian people, then it is all imbued with the spirit of Orthodoxy, and ... somehow it got away with it, to see the time in the country was such that ... the authorities looked at such “pranks” through fingers, only painting raised people against the enemy .


The right side of the triptych

The right side, the Northern Ballad, is also somehow strange. Some vague and non-Soviet ideas are embedded in it. Well, a sword ... A sword, which the Russian soldiers never had, and it’s hard to understand who it belonged to. Although the handle is drawn well, correctly, and stupid ricaso. But ... well, with all these realistic details of the swords, there weren’t such proportions. This is what matters. And again - epic, fairy tale this picture adds. But ideology is not. By the way, he has knightly armor on his feet ... He, in general, who is this man with a gold ring on his finger? And it is not for nothing that we never liked to talk about these parts of the triptych.


The central part of the triptych


Prince Alexander close-up. The cloak is tied with a revolutionary bow. Where is the golden brooch?

But the central part of the triptych was liked by our art critics. And this is what they write about her. An official, so to speak: “While working on a triptych, the artist consulted with historians, employees of the Historical Museum, where he painted chain mail, armor, helmet - all the equipment of the protagonist, the image of which he recreated on the canvas in just three weeks.” And if all this is actually so, it would be better if he did not consult with them and did not go to the museum. Because in terms of epicness, again, everything is in order with this canvas, but historicity in it, well, right, except that it’s just a penny.


Here is the armor that Corinthian Alexander wears. This is Yushman of the late XV - XVI century, possibly Turkish, Istanbul. Length 81,3 cm, weight 10,07 kg (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)


A similar armor from the same museum of Iranian work

Moreover, without a doubt, the picture is icon-painted, epic and severe. From the point of view of historicity, it does not withstand any criticism and could only cause laughter both in the Vasnetsov brothers and in Surikov. The fact is that Alexander Nevsky dressed as an artist in strange and simply unthinkable for a Russian warrior of the XIII century, forged armor, armor, which at that time simply did not know in Russia. True, the prince’s head is covered with a gilded helmet, very similar to the helmet of his father, Prince Yaroslav, which he lost at the Battle of Lipitsa in 1216, was found by a peasant in a hazel bush and has survived to this day. However, the helmet in the picture to Alexander is clearly small and hardly comfortable for him. Just compare the commander’s face and the helmet sitting on his head ...


Another “historical work” is the sculpture of Svyatoslav by E.E. Lansere. Well, where did he get such armor from? And on the other hand, the Byzantine warrior hit him with a spear in the humerus, but could not put to death. And this means that it was not chain mail, but plate armor!

The very image of the prince is very controversial. In the year of the Battle of the Ice, he was only 21 years old. It also depicts a mature husband, who is clearly "many summers." That is, it is clear that the artist wanted to show a wise, experienced, confident person, but ... could not express it in the face of a 21-year-old man, or did not want to. After all, no one knew what Alexander really looked like. In 1942, when he drew it in three weeks, everyone saw only the movie “Battle of the Ice”, where Cherkasov played it. By the way, on the order of Alexander Nevsky it is he who is depicted in profile. And, apparently, Korin wanted to get away from the well-known "Cherkasy" image, moreover in facial features, and especially in clothing. And he did leave ... but ... he went very far. But he painted another image behind the prince - the image of the Savior Not Made by Hands. And again, how and why? After all, the “godless five-year-olds” just went on (they were called so) the image of the saints was not welcomed ... And here ... True, the saint has only one eye, but he looks so piercingly that he alone is enough to remember that without divine providence you won’t even kill fleas, and "who is against us if God is with us ?!"


Shot from the film "Alexander Nevsky." Look at the banners. No faces of saints. And Alexander himself didn’t mention God for the whole film, nor did he cross his forehead. So it was then ...


All “Russian warriors” lived according to the “Truth”

It is clear that the artist faced a very difficult task. It was necessary to depict Alexander so that he also did not resemble his cinematic double in clothes, and this was difficult. Eisenstein tried to show him in vestments not inferior to the knight's, although the plates of his scaly shell look like leather, not metal. And what was he to do? Put chain mail on him? After that, everyone would say that Alexander at Eisenstein looks richer ... to take the scaly shell, and to gilt, as he did on the mosaic panel in the subway? Yes, that would be a good decision if it were not for the image of the Savior over him, which is also “golden”. "Gold" in the center and "gold" on the right - does not look. So he, apparently, decided to dress him in a completely non-historical Yushman.


A picture of warriors in Yushmans from A.V. Whiskey

What about the legs? What about the legs? After all, they have typical plate greaves and knee pads, which were not peculiar to our soldiers. U A.V. Our warriors are depicted in chain mail pants, although they have not been found by archaeologists. And here again the problem. Eisenstein’s legs are covered by the prince’s long-laced old Russian clothing. But Yushman was short. Draw the prince in pants and morocco boots? Beautiful, but ... not severe! So he clothed them in bluish steel.


This is what the artist portrayed on the prince's feet! Relate to the year 1400. Made in Italy. Kelvingra Art Gallery, Glasgow)


Effigia from the castle of Carcassonne. Well visible loops of leggings and good shoes - plates riveted to some basis. It is possible that this is metal or thick leather, but the rivets themselves in any case should have been metal. It is believed that this effigy belongs to the era of the Albigensian wars of 1209-1229, although it is more likely to end than the beginning. That is, the Spanish knights already had such armor. But the effigies of the German knights do not show us anything



And there are many such effigies in Spain! Effigia don Alvaro de Cabrera the Younger of the Church of Santa Maria de Belpuy de las Avellanas, Lleida, Catalonia, 1299 (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

The sword should be said separately. The sword belt on it is quite consistent with that time and, most likely, Corin took it from the books of Viollet le Duc. But here’s the crosshair ... The fact is that its “horns” are turned inward, although they usually always bent outward or were straight. But ... "out" it is purely visual, always somehow aggressive. And the prince of Korin is a defender, not an aggressor, so he bent them to himself, that is, to the hilt, and not to the tip of the blade. The decision is psychologically correct, although again it doesn’t even smell historicism here.


Medieval sword from the city museum in Meissen


Sword of the X century from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Length 95.9 cm. Blade length 81 cm. Weight 1021 g.


The sword closest to the era reflected in the picture. France, XIII century. Total length 91.8 cm, blade length 75.6 cm, cross width 13.0 cm. Weight 850 g. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)


Sword 1400 g. Length 102.2 cm. Blade length 81.3 cm. Weight 1673 g. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)


And this is how the real two-handed swords of the Landsknechts of the XNUMXth century looked like. (Dresden armory Ward)

Well, as a result, we can say that the time was dramatic, the time was contradictory, which means that the art was the same, it simply could not be otherwise!


Portrait of P. D. Korin by M.V. Nesterov. 1925 year.

By the way, the work of Korin, which saw the light in 1943, just when the Soviet government went to reconciliation with the church, the priests were returned from the camps, the parishes in the churches, which had recently been the warehouses of the MTS and the granaries, were opened, ripened very on time and therefore was received with a bang ! A person fell into the trend, so to speak, and this also became the reason for his success. And the question is: what could his prince be in another image, historically more reliable? But who can say it today! The mystery of his images left with the artist ...
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  1. DMB 75 29 February 2020 05: 42 New
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    “Alexander failed to gather great strength. With his small Suzdal detachment and a few Novgorod volunteers, Alexander forced the march to the Neva and attacked the Swedish camp. In this battle, the Novgorodians and Suzdal covered themselves with eternal glory. So, one Novgorodian named Gavrila Oleksich on horseback burst into the Swedish boat, fought with the Swedes on their ship, was thrown into the water, survived and joined the battle again. The servant of Alexander - Ratmir heroically died, on foot fighting at once with many opponents. The Swedes who did not expect an attack were utterly defeated and at night fled on ships from the place of defeat. Novgorod was saved by the sacrifice and valor of Alexander’s comrades-in-arms. ”
    I add, not only Novograd was saved, all the Russian land was saved!
    1. kalibr 29 February 2020 07: 09 New
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      Quote: DMB 75
      I add, not only Novograd was saved, all the Russian land was saved!

      I don’t understand how ALL Russian land could be saved from 90 knights of the Teutonic Order. And the Swedes were there with a gulkin nose ...
      1. Boris55 29 February 2020 08: 38 New
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        Quote: kalibr
        I don’t understand how ALL Russian land could be saved from 90 knights of the Teutonic Order.

        They (bearing the cross) carried to Russia, however, as elsewhere, a new concept of governance. It was against this that A. Nevsky spoke in the north and at the same time in the south the army of the "Tatar-Mongol yoke" opposed them. The latter almost reached their lair - Rome ...

        They did not save Russia, Christianity won, but the battle was not over. Russia does not accept the slave concept.

        1. kalibr 29 February 2020 08: 44 New
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          I understand what they were carrying. But how much? How many Mongols and how many Germans? And to refer to this film is not to respect yourself. Yes, this is a classic of battle cinema. But this is not a story.
          1. Boris55 29 February 2020 08: 51 New
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            Quote: kalibr
            But how much?

            It does not matter. Against the word, the sword is powerless.

            The introduction of the new concept was mainly on an ideological level. They convinced the prince of Kiev that he and the governor did not need to be re-elected every year and that he would rule forever and transfer his throne to his heirs. This also applied to the clergy.

            As a recent example, the USSR was destroyed not by atomic bombs, but by ideology.
            1. Hantengri 29 February 2020 09: 36 New
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              Quote: Boris55
              The implementation of the new concept was not at the power level, but at the ideological level. They convinced the prince of Kiev that he did not need to be re-elected every year and that he would transfer his throne to his heirs. This also applied to the clergy.

              What is it like? The Teutons came to the prince of Kiev (what’s his name, can you tell me?) And they say, “My friend, you are behind the times with your elections. In civilized countries it’s a bad idea for a long time. "And you, in Kiev, every year, the Maidan, elections, two or more ... Wildness, the right word!". And the prince (remind the name), scratched his turnip and said: “Well, this is THOUGHT! And as I hadn’t guessed before! After all, with these maidans, yes, such a bogeyman ... One Golden Eagle eats dough - a guard ! And also the election campaign: advertising, there, all kinds of bribes ... And here - "I drove the ministers off the seats, I hung up the opposition and miss business all day." (C). Definitely a thought! " wassat laughing
              “The antires also causes such a cut” (c): If they imposed their concept on our princes, then why did they have a majorate, and we have a logistic right? What do you think, Boris?
              1. Trilobite Master 29 February 2020 14: 49 New
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                Quote: HanTengri
                How's that?

                Igor, you said that I just have nothing to add. You could say they ate all my tangerines. laughing But I do not mind if you need, take more! laughing
                I will now look forward to hearing from Boris. hi
                1. Boris55 1 March 2020 08: 07 New
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                  Quote: HanTengri
                  What is it like? The Teutons came to the prince of Kiev (what was his name, can you tell me?)
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  I will now look forward to hearing from Boris.

                  The Teutonic Knights, the conquistadors, the Socialist-Revolutionaries are the power structure of promoting the Biblical concept. Whether the coaxing Vladimir had security, I don’t know about that, but I think for sure. That time was dashing. So, of course, they were not persuaded by the Teutons (they were around the corner), but by the bearers of the principles of the new World device, in which we still live, but which is already cracking at all seams.
            2. vladcub 29 February 2020 14: 42 New
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              Boris, 100% agree with the top two comments, and disagree with the latter. NEVER Kiev princes or governors were elections. In Kiev, the prince could have been poisoned, staged a coup, but they were not elected.
              There was no Novgorod veche in Kiev
        2. Trilobite Master 29 February 2020 14: 42 New
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          Boris, you once again managed to surprise me, take off my hat. You will soon be able to compare with our mutual friend Pavel Timur, who is the Horde Bar in the number of broken bottoms. smile
          Now, in your opinion, the complete destruction of Russian cities and villages, the killing and stepping into the steppe of hundreds of thousands of Russian people, which drove the Old Russian state a hundred years ago, is it just a just struggle of the Russian people with an alien Christian culture?
          I was deeply moved by such a naive childish faith of an adult, it would seem, a man in the crazy fantasies of some irresponsible writer ... It’s time for some authors to tie a piano string to the scrotum and slowly live on Prime Channel in prime time to pull this a string up until the author begins to tell the truth - who and why decided to publish such nonsense, and then pull up a little more to listen to repentance and the promise to stop his anti-scientific activity.
          1. Astra wild 29 February 2020 18: 01 New
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            Trilobite’s master, and you’re a sadist: “tying the scrotum with a piano string and slowly live on prime channel in prime time, pulling this string to the top” it even pains me to read. Let's agree: You will warn me when you start to pull, and I will not turn on the TV that day. Suddenly accidentally hit when I switch channels
            1. Trilobite Master 29 February 2020 18: 57 New
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              Quote: Astra wild
              You are a sadist:

              I am not a sadist. A sadist would enjoy this process, but for me it would be hard work, due to severe necessity. How to punish a young son for misconduct: it is not known to anyone who is hurt, but it is necessary to do it. For his own good.
              Dear Astra, look at what people are turning into who believe and are inspired by ideas, for example, new successes. Do you feel sorry for them? And then, are you sure that if you do not show on the First Channel in time what I offer, then soon we will not be forced to watch what they offer on all channels? And this, in my opinion, is a much greater evil, as a result of this much more people will suffer and this damage is nothing compared to one or two remote scrotum.
      2. Errr 29 February 2020 10: 00 New
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        Quote: kalibr
        And the Swedes were there with a gulkin nose ...
        And comrade DMB 75 did not mean a battle on Lake Peipsi. He cited an excerpt from the chapter "Prince Alexander and Khan Batu" of Gumilev's essays "From Russia to Russia", which briefly describes the Battle of Neva in 1240.
      3. The comment was deleted.
    2. Hantengri 29 February 2020 08: 52 New
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      Quote: DMB 75
      I add, not only Novograd was saved, all the Russian land was saved!

      Based on what do you draw such a conclusion?
      1. Aleks2000 29 February 2020 10: 21 New
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        haha

        If you dig deeper, then skirmishes for land between the countries in that area went there annually ...
        Everyone beat everyone.
        And these battles simply strengthened Novodorod and Princes, weakened the Swedes and Germans, as ....
        there were simply few people, and nobles, and even minor wars were expensive ...

        How many knights are there? It seems a little ... but they were already a bit quite ...
    3. Caretaker 29 February 2020 19: 27 New
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      Quote: DMB 75
      Alexander was not able to gather great strength.

      How to say. Enough for the Swedes. Lucky for those aliens who were on the left bank. On the right, it seems, they did not take prisoners.
      The task "not to let Swedes go to Ladoga" was completed.
      This team could not reach Novgorod. Before the approach of the Novgorodians, they could burn and seize Ladoga, Korela, ruin almost the entire Vodskaya Pyatina, temporarily close the exit to Lake Ladoga.
      All of the above does not detract from the importance of the Neva battle and the feat of our soldiers.
      1. kalibr 29 February 2020 21: 17 New
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        You look at the dates how many times Alexander went on campaigns to Lithuania to the West, and how many Lithuania went on campaigns to the East, and how the city residents fought against the crusaders in a union ... In a word, life was so ... robbery.
        1. Caretaker 29 February 2020 21: 39 New
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          Quote: kalibr
          You look at the dates ...

          I looked. The descendants of Yaroslav the Wise considered the neighborhood of Yuryev and the territory to the town on the Kyumenne River to be their "fatherland and grandfather." And you talk about the internal regions of the Russian principalities.
    4. The comment was deleted.
  2. Edward Vashchenko 29 February 2020 06: 05 New
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    The artist has the right to say: I see ... Checkered laughing
    Vyacheslav Olegovich,
    thanks for such an article!
  3. Van 16 29 February 2020 06: 44 New
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    Thanks, very interesting! The triptych, of course, was seen, and he always liked it, but did not know such nuances and details. Very informative.
    1. Andrei Nikolaevich 29 February 2020 07: 25 New
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      WONDERFUL ARTICLE!
  4. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 07: 59 New
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    Thanks, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    Will there be material on the “Don cycle” of Glazunov?
    1. kalibr 29 February 2020 08: 13 New
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      Good morning Anton! I have to see ... I don’t know yet.
    2. Trilobite Master 29 February 2020 15: 12 New
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      Quote: 3x3zsave
      Will there be material on the “Don cycle” of Glazunov?

      You can also disassemble the "Grandchildren's Grandchildren" ...
      I would have taken Roerich and Surikov, would have added Vasnetsov, although we have already taken it apart, but there is still room for frolic. smile
      1. kalibr 29 February 2020 17: 45 New
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        A lot of things are planned ...
        1. Catfish 29 February 2020 19: 40 New
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          Greetings, Vyacheslav Olegich! hi
          I got into the famous "Battle of the Ice" here. The fact is that in the 70-80s I was quite actively engaged in underwater archeology, from antiquity to the Second World War, but I didn’t have to go under water on Chudsky, but I knew people who worked there in search of traces of this battle . So, two expeditions, with a time gap of several years, perfectly equipped with equipment and instruments, did not find anything there, although they scoured almost the entire water area. The second expedition took out two YuMO aircraft engines from under a meter-thick layer of silt - and that’s all. I have not followed the latest research, but do you have any information on this?
          Best regards, Your Cat. smile
          1. kalibr 29 February 2020 21: 13 New
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            Quote: Sea Cat
            I have not followed the latest research, but do you have any information on this?

            Of course, there is, as always. Recent research found the foundation of the church under water. Not far from the alleged battlefield. At a depth of 1 meter. So, in order to be able to go there, you need to reduce 2 meters, not less. This dramatically reduces the size of the lake and its depth. That is, it turns out that there was nowhere deeper than 1,5 in the 13th century. At the same time, the lake was supposed to freeze to the bottom. And failing and drowning in was simply impossible!
            P.S. And look in PM!
            1. Catfish 29 February 2020 21: 32 New
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              This fully explains the failure of the underwater expeditions in the area. I believe on something you can put an end to.
              1. kalibr 29 February 2020 21: 41 New
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                Quote: Sea Cat
                This fully explains the failure of the underwater expeditions in the area.

                Exactly! After all, the expedition of the Russian Academy of Sciences was the first to search there back in 1961-62. And I didn’t find anything.
            2. Caretaker 29 February 2020 21: 52 New
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              Quote: kalibr
              That is, it turns out that there was nowhere deeper than 1,5 in the 13th century.

              Frivolous reasoning.
              Firstly, the surface of the earth in these places has changed a lot over the past time. Koporye, for example. was on the seashore.
              Secondly, bottom sediments over the past 800 years have also contributed, some bays and bays could completely disappear, let alone the depths.
            3. The comment was deleted.
            4. ee2100 2 March 2020 15: 33 New
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              "found the foundation of the church under water" Can you get a link to the source?
  5. Olgovich 29 February 2020 08: 08 New
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    And the question is: what could his prince be in another image, historically more credible?

    You yourself, in fact, answered this question, Vyacheslav Olegovich.

    But the artist also succeeded: he saw so ...

    All “Russian warriors” lived according to the “Truth”
    Great photo: "connection of times" yes
  6. Knizhnik 29 February 2020 08: 20 New
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    At the first impression of the picture, for some reason a clear association arose with the appearance of the prince with the vestments of an astronaut .... apparently, something like this was already in the air
  7. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 09: 04 New
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    That is, the Spanish knights already had such armor.
    Belonging to the Spaniard, a knight, captured on the given effigii, raises some doubts. However, however, as is the origin of the sculpture.
    1. kalibr 29 February 2020 09: 56 New
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      Spanish coat of arms on the chest. What are the doubts?
      1. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 10: 34 New
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        I'm talking about de Montfort's effigy.
        1. kalibr 29 February 2020 12: 53 New
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          Anton, in Carcsson, it’s not Montfort ... He has a ramp lion on his coat of arms, and this one has a three-headed tower and a canvas along the edge of the shield ...
          1. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 14: 02 New
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            I know, but you yourself wrote that this effigy by the museum is positioned as a tombstone from its grave. We still debated about how this could be.
            1. kalibr 29 February 2020 14: 57 New
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              Not anymore. Now it’s just written under it that this is the effigy of the 13th century ...
  8. Aleks2000 29 February 2020 10: 14 New
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    Good article.
    And in such paintings, historicity is often sacrificed for epicism.

    And his relatives feel sorry for him ....
  9. Korsar4 29 February 2020 10: 15 New
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    Yes. How often does the central part of the triptych appear.

    Perhaps for the first time I looked more or less carefully at the extreme parts. Really mysterious.

    And the image of St. Nicholas is very unusual.
  10. Moskovit 29 February 2020 11: 48 New
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    In his youth, he was at the beautiful exhibition of Korin at the Central House of Artists on Krymsky Val. The impression of the picture is simply colossal. From the figure of Nevsky it blows with such power and strength .. Well, in general, the artist’s work is impressive.
    A big plus to the author of the article for the fact that he parses works of domestic art, but I think you should not blame the artist for his insufficient knowledge of the history of weapons and armor. His task is to write, and if he had delved into it, he would have painted one painting in his entire life)).
    1. kalibr 29 February 2020 12: 52 New
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      Quote: Moskovit
      then if he delved, then in his whole life he painted one picture

      Well, that is hardly ...
    2. Trilobite Master 29 February 2020 14: 56 New
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      Quote: Moskovit
      do not blame the artist for a lack of knowledge of the history of weapons and armor

      I agree, especially when the purpose of the work is not enlightenment, but the creation of an artistic image.
      But the goal of the article by Vyacheslav Olegovich is precisely enlightenment and the article corresponds to this goal as well as Korin’s picture corresponds to his own. So thank you all, all well done!
      Vyacheslav Olegovich, as always, my respect. hi smile
      1. kalibr 29 February 2020 17: 06 New
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        Quote: Trilobite Master
        as always, my respect.

        And to you from me!
  11. Trilobite Master 29 February 2020 15: 20 New
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    This is what the warrior-warrior of the time of Alexander Nevsky looked like according to the authors of the book "Horsemen of the War. Cavalry of Europe"

    Explanation of the picture:
    Here is a warrior-combatant of the Vladimir-Suzdal land of the period of internecine wars and the Mongol invasion of 1220-1240. He is dressed in chain mail with long sleeves according to European fashion, in chain mailings and a sphere-conical helmet with an oar bargain, which before the fight could be fastened or pulled together with a cord. Gold silk sleeveless cape is worn over the chain mail, similar to the European knights' cottages and the Byzantine epanoclibanions, which served to protect the armor from moisture and facilitate the identification of a warrior in battle. To the belt covered with gilded plaques, a characteristic Romanesque sword with a simple straight crosshair and a disk-shaped pommel is suspended. Armament is complemented by a spear and a small almond-shaped shield with a picture of a predatory beast (wolf or lion) standing on its hind legs - a traditional emblem of the Vladimir-Suzdal land. To control the horse on the warrior's legs there are small peak-shaped spurs of the pan-European type.

    There, a little higher there is such a remarkable phrase:
    The most complicated manufacturing and decorative techniques were submitted to unknown Russian craftsmen. Helmets were covered with gold sheets, covered with the finest engraving and toushing. Blackening, chasing, gilding, silvering - this is an approximate, far from complete list of ways to decorate armor. Some helmets are still considered masterpieces of art forging, for example, high hipped helmets with anthropomorphic visors - masks. They exported Russian armor to the West. So, the French chivalric novels of the XII-XIII centuries. repeatedly mention Russian chain mail, and with a constant excellent assessment of their qualities.

    Source: https://historylib.org/historybooks/DP--Aleksinskiy_Vsadniki-voyny--Kavaleriya-Evropy/30
    1. kalibr 29 February 2020 16: 08 New
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      The sword could have been drawn a little more, and so ... all "yes."
      1. Caretaker 29 February 2020 18: 27 New
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        Probably not".
        Shield does not match, sword, fastening the sword to the belt, helmet.
        Horse harness and ammunition are practically not drawn.
        Specifically, I advise you, Vyacheslav, to visit Russian museums.
        1. kalibr 29 February 2020 21: 04 New
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          Leonid, this is the last advice I would like to follow. There is little that can be changed to surprise. And least of all Russian museums. Is that in Pskov and Smolensk was not. I remember living in Kazan, how I went to work in their Kremlin, museum ... and here the exhibition "Joyful Horse". It seems so ... Well, I went ... And there is an exhibition of harness, a chic blanket ... and holsters with pistols ... Handles to the saddle! I am to employees - it is necessary on the contrary. They told me: "How do you know?" I explain to them popularly. They are to me - but where is the evidence? I give them the Osprey website. And they told me - so the British drew ... They didn’t agree to change ... And then I had not been to Vienna in Hovburg and had not seen bas-reliefs with the riders, and the pistol riders themselves. Or do you want to bring me a model of knights from the knight’s hall in the Hermitage? In vain. And about the harness ... find on the web my book in Osprey "Russian armies 1250-1500 gg" there all this is just with links to museums ...
          1. kalibr 29 February 2020 21: 42 New
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            I forgot completely. This book is also in Russian. The AST was published ...
          2. Caretaker 29 February 2020 22: 08 New
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            Quote: kalibr
            this is the last piece of advice I would like to follow. There is little that can be changed to surprise. And least of all Russian museums.

            Judging by the fact that in St. Petersburg only the “Knight's Hall” is mentioned and that was limited to several prefabricated knightly armor - the Russian expositions are not familiar to you.
            Probably in other Russian museums you were just as attentive.
            1. kalibr 1 March 2020 08: 55 New
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              You, Leonid, wanted my comment to turn into a detailed narrative, where, when, in which halls, what exhibits, with which scientific staff, for how long and for what purpose did I visit? So what? Why did I write about Kazan to you? To write how I lived in Saratov, Samara, Rostov, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kharkov, Minsk, Sevastopol ... already there is not enough memory, where else. Do you need another museum in Uryupinsk or Muhosk? Vienna and Paris are not suitable? And yet, do not write, “probably”, “apparently” - these children's games of objectivity are not needed. It is necessary directly: "do not know about the harness." "She's not in the picture." And these pseudo-intellectual games are tiring to the point.
              By the way, there are a lot of interesting materials on horses now: articles by Grishakov V.V., Sedyshev O.V. on excavations of one of the burial grounds, about the equipment of the Mongolian horse article - Akmatova K. T. so there are a lot of interesting articles. E-lab - at your service!
          3. Caretaker 29 February 2020 22: 21 New
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            Quote: kalibr
            And about the harness ... find on the web my book in Osprey "Russian armies 1250-1500 gg"

            If your book has illustrations of the same level as in the picture under discussion, then looking for it does not make sense.
            Otherwise, you yourself will notice errors in the discussed image, incl. on harness and ammunition.
            1. kalibr 1 March 2020 08: 36 New
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              Quote: Caretaker
              If your book has illustrations of the same level as in the picture under discussion, then looking for it does not make sense.

              And if you do not guess, but see, huh? Or is the Osprey level unknown to you? There was my article here, Leonid, how to write there. There were copies of sketches of the work of D.Nikol, including osbrennyh horses. It's silly to sweep away everything that others say.
              1. Caretaker 1 March 2020 08: 55 New
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                Quote: kalibr
                And if you do not guess, but look, eh? ... There were copies of sketches of the work of D.Nikol, including osbrennyh horses.

                And if you bring the evidence in a comment, citing a source? usually do this when discussing.
                1. kalibr 1 March 2020 09: 00 New
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                  Leonid, and before whom to try and why? You open the Osperey publication or ours - that’s all there, and a list of references and captions for each picture. I know, just too lazy to prove something to someone. You are lucky that I generally answer you. Something in the morning "verse" found this.
                  1. Caretaker 1 March 2020 09: 08 New
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                    Quote: kalibr
                    You are lucky that I generally answer you. Something in the morning "verse" found this.

                    Do not believe it, mutually.
                    1. kalibr 1 March 2020 09: 11 New
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                      Leonid, you do not understand. I don’t care what you write. It's like a dog barking at a wall. But clicks matter. I answer you, you answer ... the site is good. As the saying goes, with a black sheep even a shred of wool! So it is here. See how much we both wrote haha!
                      1. Caretaker 1 March 2020 10: 12 New
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                        Quote: kalibr
                        Leonid, you do not understand. I don’t care what you write. It's like a dog barking at a wall. But clicks matter. I answer you, you answer ... the site is good. As the saying goes, with a black sheep even a shred of wool! So it is here. See how much we both wrote haha!

                        The answer to your comments is like a reaction to obscene inscriptions on the fence. As they say, the family is not without a freak.
                        You answer ... the site is good ... with a black sheep even a shred of wool.
                      2. kalibr 1 March 2020 14: 18 New
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                        The difference is that the site benefits - this is primarily useful to me ...
          4. kalibr 1 March 2020 08: 57 New
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            Quote: Caretaker
            You yourself will notice errors in the discussed image, incl. on harness and ammunition.

            I do not want to celebrate anything. VO is not a scientific journal, but a site of popular science information. For 80% of readers this is enough. And 20% know where to look for more than that. This picture is quite an acceptable average level.
      2. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 22: 17 New
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        Mnnneee, it was somehow forgotten, Shpakovsky personally knew Piotrovsky ... Well, by the way. With the late Gorelik, he was completely friends. Thus, "do not teach your father to itch"!
  • Undecim 29 February 2020 15: 43 New
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    And then she founded the Martha-Mariinsky monastery, Mikhail Nesterov and Pavel Korin were to paint her temple.
    Korin did not paint the temple. He painted the underground tomb, in which Elizaveta Fedorovna bequeathed to bury herself. The frescoes “The Path of the Righteous to the Lord” are the only ones created by Korin. He did not create frescoes either before or after. Art historians suggest that this is generally the last temple painting, performed in pre-revolutionary Moscow.

    Currently, the frescoes are in poor condition, destroyed by mold. Destroyed and building structures on which the frescoes are located.
  • vladcub 29 February 2020 15: 49 New
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    V. Oh, I read your work with interest. Many times I saw reproductions from the triptych, but somehow I did not think about it, but now I thought about it.
    1) "Northern balad" it is quite possible that this is the ts "family portrait" of some noble Varangian. How many were in the service of Novgorod. Maybe this is the Pskov Prince Dovmont, and Korin portrayed Rurik? It is quite appropriate because Alexander Nevsky was Rurikovich.
    2) the "old tale" here is entirely allegory: Nikolai Ugodnik as a symbol of Orthodox Russia, an old woman - a peasant, a man with a club, Mikula Selyaninovich, and a young guy - a waijag who found his homeland in Russia.
    What does the old lady smile? It is quite possible that some adversaries wanted to make money, and then Mikula Selyaninovich and the Varangian came up.
    1. Caretaker 29 February 2020 18: 39 New
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      Quote: vladcub
      Maybe it's the Pskov prince Dovmont

      The sword is not like the Dovmont.
      To expect from the artist compliance with historical realities is problematic. is he so sees.
  • Undecim 29 February 2020 16: 01 New
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    Here is the left part - “The Old Tale”, where we see a bent old woman and two strange men against the backdrop of a giant image of Nikolai Ugodnik.
    One of the peasants, who is with a oslop, is very famous. This is the Monk Martyr Theodore (in the world Oleg Pavlovich Epiphany) - a symbol of the spiritual stamina of a Russian person.
    And also Pavel Korin - an outstanding restorer. After the war, Korin, as the main restorer of the Pushkin Museum im. A.S. Pushkin, headed the restoration of paintings by the Dresden Gallery, among them - "The Sistine Madonna" by Raphael (1945-1955).
    1. Astra wild 29 February 2020 18: 09 New
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      Twelfth colleague, or maybe you know the one who is depicted in: "Northern Balade"?
      1. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 18: 33 New
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        My respect, Beautiful Stranger! "Colleague of the twelfth" name is Viktor Nikolaevich.
        1. Astra wild 29 February 2020 18: 42 New
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          Anton, you are always gallant.
          1. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 18: 49 New
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            I try not to disappoint the beautiful half of humanity. You have enough frustrations ...
            1. Astra wild 29 February 2020 18: 59 New
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              Anton, if other colleagues were at least a little polite and gallant. I would be happy
              1. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 19: 27 New
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                Not you are the first, Beautiful Stranger, alas ... Two years ago, the smartest woman, known by the nickname "ruskih", left the forum, unable to withstand the frankly invective vocabulary of one of the users, untracked by moderation.
                Fortunately, we still communicate!
                Meanwhile, your presence on the site perfectly dilutes our contingent.
                My admiration! love
      2. Undecim 29 February 2020 19: 56 New
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        Firstly, I want to fix the error. Reading your comment, I just noticed that I wrote "which with a flop", what's wrong. Hieromonk Fedor - which with a mace.
        Who is depicted in the "Northern Balad" I do not know. We must look at the literature. Korin in his works sometimes used the ecstasy of portraits for Requiem. Perhaps one of them.
    2. Undecim 29 February 2020 19: 58 New
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      I apologize for the typo in the text, instead of which with a flop should read which with a mace.
  • vladcub 29 February 2020 16: 11 New
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    “I looked at such“ pranks “through the fingers” there is an explanation for this: Stalin, as you know, studied at the Theological Seminary in his youth and was going to become a priest, which means that he considered religion to be byak, it was N. Khrushchev who was an ardent atheist, and most importantly, Stalin was a man practical. If religion helps the fight, then let people believe
  • Fishery 29 February 2020 17: 29 New
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    yes, the artist probably must have personal sympathies for the knightly image) and it’s apparently inconvenient when the Russian hero is more like a Persian or an Iranian)))
  • faterdom 29 February 2020 17: 38 New
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    Debunking stereotypes.
    After all, how do we imagine Ivan the Terrible? And a kind of old man resembling Kashchei, with his bearded up, killing his son with a stick. Although, contemporaries describe the king as a very stately, strong, military-dressed man, in his youth, even an epic-handsome man.
    About Alexander Yaroslavovich - probably had a standard appearance for the prince-leader of the squad, he looked probably worthy, in defense and armament of his time, but not so epic - this would be noticed and noted by contemporaries. But no.
    Peter from the film - “Peter I” - is also stereotypical, but Shemyakinsky in Petropavlovka does not look much like him, except for growth.
    So, the "fellow travelers", of whom hundreds have divorced in our literature, actually run the risk of not recognizing historical characters "there." And it is better to never recognize their characters in reality, for example, the very Vladimir Svyatoy by today's standards is simply the leader of a very brutal organized criminal group by all indications. With all the attendant "amenities." And he would most likely hang any suspicious "fellow". Well, for prevention, so as not to upset and embarrass.
    1. Caretaker 29 February 2020 18: 48 New
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      Quote: faterdom
      ... And it is better to never recognize their characters in reality ...

      By our modern standards, assessing the characters of leaders of past eras is not correct. Everyone will look like villains.
  • Astra wild 29 February 2020 18: 40 New
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    Colleagues,, until today I have not seen the triptych in its entirety. And therefore I am especially interested.
    I wanted to make out: "Northern Ballad." In the foreground is a kind of noble warrior, possibly a prince, he makes a warning gesture with his right hand: “Stop. No further steps or you will not be greeted,” says a huge sword. He deliberately bared it so that it was more visual. The woman gullibly clings to him, she is sure that she will be able to protect her home too.
    Perhaps a somewhat romantic reading, but I'm a woman
  • Astra wild 29 February 2020 19: 15 New
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    Question to Vyacheslav Olegovich, how do you explain that in the film "Alexander Nevsky" on the banners of Alexander there are no crosses, and Korin has an icon. Perhaps Esenstein was an atheist?
    1. kalibr 29 February 2020 20: 51 New
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      Quote: Astra wild
      Perhaps Esenstein was an atheist?

      Not Einstein was an atheist, but there was a time of atheists. Alexander in the film never crossed his forehead, and others at least once swore ...
  • Catfish 29 February 2020 19: 15 New
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    Good evening to all friends, thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich! hi
    It turns out funny: here there is a certain picture that you have known since childhood and are used to it, like old family photos in the album. And then you are forced to take a closer look and so much new and unknown comes up that you are simply amazed. And one pulls the other. So here, the article itself is good and interesting, but comments on it are no less interesting and informative.
    Vyacheslav again Thank you from the bottom of my heart! good !
    1. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 19: 44 New
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      Bravo, Konstantin!
      1. Catfish 29 February 2020 19: 52 New
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        Hello Anton! hi
        I was already completely bored here, well, nothing interesting on the site, and then suddenly a gift! Well, how not to rejoice. smile
        1. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 20: 04 New
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          I still didn’t get to your estate in Ryazan province ... Then it will not happen to be bored!
          1. Catfish 29 February 2020 20: 10 New
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            As it was with the Strugatsky:
            "Meanwhile, it dawned ..." How did you sleep, brother Kiris? " - "Thanks to the Lord, calmly, brother Tika. The night has passed, and thank God." - "And someone was breaking through our windows. Noble Don Rumata, they say, they walked at night." - They say they have a guest. ” "Yes, do they really walk now? When I was a young king, I remember walking - they didn’t notice how they burned half a city." - "What can I tell you, Brother Tika. Thanks be to God that we have such a don in our neighbors. Once a year, they go for a walk, and then a lot of..." laughing
            1. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 20: 58 New
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              See "Bylina about a quiet don" laughing
    2. Hantengri 29 February 2020 20: 44 New
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      Quote: Sea Cat
      It turns out funny: here there is a certain picture that you have known since childhood and are used to it, like old family photos in the album. And then you are forced to take a closer look and so much new and unknown comes up that you are simply amazed.

      Better not say!
      1. Catfish 29 February 2020 20: 59 New
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        Thanks Igor. smile drinks
    3. kalibr 29 February 2020 20: 54 New
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      Dear Konstantin! Go to your PM. I wrote you a letter there!
      1. Catfish 29 February 2020 20: 58 New
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        Dear Vyacheslav! I eached in PM and wrote you the answer.
        1. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 21: 08 New
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          You both now so mutually respect that I will either start to openly scoff, or cover me with obscene words!
          In the end: I’m banned, and both of you will be upset ... crying
          1. Catfish 29 February 2020 21: 34 New
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            No, we’ll not be upset, but we will morally support you. I have something in the refrigerator, Olegitch, I think, too. Well, for autocratic Russia! drinks drinks drinks good
            1. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 21: 40 New
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              Haha, three times! Are you catophiles, a dog lover, will you morally support ???
              1. Catfish 29 February 2020 21: 42 New
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                Yes! We are not dogophobes even once, but because: “all cats and dogs are brothers! (And sisters)”! love
                1. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 21: 48 New
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                  Yeah, sometimes even godparents, named and dairy. laughing
            2. kalibr 29 February 2020 21: 47 New
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              I wish you all, Konstantin, in the refrigerator ... I’m sitting here, I’m fighting museums. Share, I write to them, the property ... with the people of Rasei. And they are most often silent, or they say we will answer ... in 10 days! While you wait, the whole fuse passes ...
              1. Catfish 29 February 2020 21: 49 New
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                ... while you wait, the whole fuse will pass ...

                But for this, a refrigerator exists! Opened, relieved stress, closed, and attack in a new way! Put "front-line" 100 grams. wink
              2. 3x3zsave 29 February 2020 21: 59 New
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                That's right, Vyacheslav Olegovich! Sometimes you think: tomorrow morning I will pile the "imperishable" !!! Tomorrow morning comes, with the understanding: to whom did these revelations come up?!?!
            3. vladcub 1 March 2020 11: 02 New
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              Konstantin, I’ll correct you a little “For Holy Russia and the Tsar of the Orthodox,” it seems like this sounded
              1. Catfish 1 March 2020 11: 13 New
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                Hi Svyatoslav! hi
                Most likely it sounded like you wrote, but I quoted my late dad, an impenetrable communist from the cohort of “old Bolsheviks”. So he, raising the first glass at a feast with this toast, and began: "Well, for autocratic Russia!" smile drinks
  • Senior seaman 1 March 2020 17: 09 New
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    In the inscription to ethigia "alright shoes"
    Probably still laтnaya
  • Nikolai Korovin 1 March 2020 17: 42 New
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    In the comments to the article, there are doubts that the Battle of the Ice was at all. To the extent that they call it the so-called “Battle of the Ice.” This point of view, apparently, corresponds to modern Western historiography. But the expedition of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which, by the way, worked until 1961, and after 1962, still I found something, and even quite a few. Those interested are addressing the book "The riddle of Lake Peipsi." Authors GN Karaev (Major General) and AS Potresov. Moscow, Young Guard, 1976.
    Here is what the authors write directly about the course of the battle, relying on the domestic chronicle and translation of the Livonian rhymed chronicle (I give it with notes, omitting the lyrics for the weakly savvy reader, correcting the grammar in accordance with the notes).
    On April 5, 1242, the army of Alexander Yaroslavich took up a skillfully chosen defensive position, forcing the German knights to act in conditions unfavorable to them.
    A decisive battle was preceded by a deep reconnaissance in the territory of the Livonian Order west of Uzmen ("distant watchman" - the authors of these words do not have) After making sure after the battle the Domash and Kerbet detachment sent "to disperse" that the main forces of the order had come out of Dorpat, Alexander "took to the lake", that is, he went to Uzmen, on its eastern shore ...
    The chronicler recorded ... that "boa (warriors) of Grand Duke Alexander filled with the spirit of the ratnago, byakhu their hearts aki lvom. "
    Alexander ... "having set up a regiment on Lake Chyudskoy, on Uzmen, near Voroney Kameni", off the coast of the present Cape Sigovets, not far from the then widely known landmark - Raven Stone (consisted of sandstone, and for more than 700 years it was completely washed away, the base was preserved and was found by the expedition) .... And the Livonian chronicler, speaking of the Battle of the Ice, called it “the battle on Uzmen near Peypus Lake”, emphasizing with this indication that it happened in that part of Uzmen (the so-called “Warm Lake” connecting Pskov and Peipsi lake), emphasizing this indication, emphasizing this indication that it happened in that part of Uzmen, which is adjacent to Lake Peipsi. (So, rummaging through the bottom of the entire Lake Peipsi is a strange idea. With the same success, you can scour the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. By the way: in the Historical Museum you can see what the armor of that time looked like, lying in the ground. And water, as you know, is the most versatile solvent. So if something fell under the ice, and could get a little, which is a little lower, hardly unalloyed or slightly alloyed steel could survive for such a period. Moreover, they were not looking there.)
    In the annals there is no indication in which battle order the Russian army met the advance of the enemy. It can be assumed that this was a multi-line building, wide in front ... The Russian cavalry, the basis of which was the squads of Alexander and his brother Andrei, most likely, was built behind the left flank of the infantry battle formation, and maybe even along the coastal thickets, without betraying their location.
    There is no reliable information about where Alexander Yaroslavich was during the battle ...
    .
    (The battle began at sunrise.)
    “And we’re on a German regiment and a miracle,” says the Russian annals, “and wounding a pig through a regiment.” ... The word "pig" should be understood as a compact battle order of the knight’s army, which he usually used against infantry. “It was visible,” we read in the Livonian chronicle, “as the banners of the brothers (knights) entered the ranks of the Russian infantry. "
    Usually in such cases there was confusion in the ranks of the infantry and its further beating, but in this case this did not happen (reduction of the author's text).
    "And the cross of evil is great and great by the German and miracle, and the coward from the mines is breaking and the sound from the sword cross section, as if moving by the frozen sea, and without seeing the ice, it was covered with all the blood."
    ... The Livonian chronicler adds: "All those who were in the knightly army were completely surrounded." (Presumably, the chivalrous army was not related to such a knight and was on foot - my comment).
    ... Having broken through the battle formation of the Russian infantry, the knightly heavy cavalry faced a wooded, thick-willed willow tree and the shore of Uzmen covered with deep snow and was forced to stop. The forest and deep snow did not allow her to turn around. This short stop turned out to be fatal for the knights, the Russian infantry hit them from the flanks ... The knights broke their battle formation and were forced to move from the offensive to the defense ... At a decisive moment, Alexander led the attack of the Russian cavalry ... Under the blows of the warriors knights also hit the foot cavalry following the enemy’s heavy cavalry (see above).
    "The Germans are that scum, and a miracle is a slap” (she took flight - approx. In the book) (or simply put, drapanula - commentary and italics mine). ... The swordsmen continued to fight back. As for the miracle, it, as a less stable part of the knight’s army, rushed to run, exposing the rear at a critical moment. The paths to the retreat of the knights were completely cut off. Surrounded on all sides, they continued to fight ...
    “The brothers fought steadfastly, but were defeated on the grass,” the Livonian chronicle notes sadly, confirming, thus, the Russian chronicles description of the battle. ... Noteworthy is the indication that the knights "fell on the grass." The fact is that the wide shallow water located on the eastern shore of the Warm Lake and now (written 55 years ago) is abundantly covered with reed thickets in summer (so the knights could not drown - my additional comment). ... These thickets continue to stick out in the winter under the snow and are very similar to the high coastal grass. Thus, the evidence of the Livonian chronicler confirms that the battle took place in the immediate vicinity of the east coast.
    Both sources, both the Russian annals and the Livonian chronicles, point to the persistent resistance exerted by the German knights. Most of them were killed. The Russian chronicle text also reports on the flight of a miracle, which was mainly persecuted on the wide icy surface of Uzmen. (7 versts) .... The Livonian chronicler is silent about this ... In the Russian annals of persecution it is said in some detail: "And Dasha hath the mercenaries of her shoulder, and secrecy chasing aki on aer (as in the air - approx. In the book) and do not have them camo consoling and beating them at seven miles on the ice to the Subolic shore, and the pade of Germany 500 (in other chronicles - 900 - approx. in the book), and miracles are countless ... (presumably several thousand - my comment) and flood the water, and the evil ulcers (badly wounded - approx. in the book) - bysha and run back. "(That is, a certain number of knights nevertheless escaped from the environment. "50 deliberate governors" (noble knights) were taken prisoner - the book does not mention this - my comment).
    An indication that part of the fleeers drowned gives reason to believe that, pursuing the enemies, the Russian soldiers managed to direct them onto the weak ice of the whitefish (vast area of ​​the lake with submarine keys northwest of the battlefield, the borders of which were quite clearly identified by the expedition) It must be assumed, however, that there were few drowned, for this is not mentioned in all the chronicles, and the words "and ineh" mean - "few." (Moreover, it was a lightly armed man, so it was unlikely that anything could be preserved at the bottom. Knightly armor from the ice, of course, was picked up to the last piece of iron - my comment).
    Well, and a small addition. Burials of men with traces of violent death were found, including both mounds and local ones. The total number of people buried is not indicated, but clearly does not correspond to the "minor skirmish". The scale of the XIII century is, of course, a very large battle.
    So, it turned out pretty fair compilation article. I thought it would be shorter. If I didn’t convince any of the doubters that the Battle of the Ice was possible, I would recommend finding the rhymed Livonian chronicle in the original and independently translating the corresponding fragment, and posting the results of this search on the website.
    1. kalibr 1 March 2020 18: 17 New
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      Nikolay! You are breaking through the open door. Here on the site there was a whole cycle of my articles devoted to the Slaughter, starting from the analysis of all annalistic sources in chronological order and inconsistencies in them, and ending with the analysis of the weapons of warriors based on ... That is, everything was considered, and everything is there. You can find it through my profile or through a search engine, at the end of the articles there were links to previous materials, so the whole "chain" of articles can be pulled.
      1. Nikolai Korovin 1 March 2020 18: 30 New
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        Sorry, Vyacheslav. Well, yes, I broke it. Maybe it really turned out a little weak. But after all, some strive to close this door. And even as if quite peremptory. I could not resist, betrayed that I know. And on the site I just recently, still by the way I do not know what is on it and what is not.
        1. kalibr 1 March 2020 18: 35 New
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          Well, I thought so, and there is nothing criminal here that you tried to give out what you know, it's good even. Just look recommended. There is a very interesting book by D. Nicolas "The Battle of Lake Peypus" (Osprey-Engl.), There is an article in TM "The Name of the Prince", in principle about the same ... there is a lot of everything ... And no one here in VO Doors does not close doors. On the contrary, we are glad for those who are trying to write ... But they also judge strictly, do not blame me.
        2. kalibr 1 March 2020 18: 41 New
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          And yet ... when you read the annals, look, when the phrase "flood water" appeared, and also ... a distance of seven miles, where is it on a large-scale map of the lake? And then remember the Russian sayings- "seven miles to heaven ...", "seven miles - not a village", "beyond the threshold - seven roads." Chroniclers often used significant numbers. One of them was just seven.
          So there was something so battleful there, of course. But to write that it was a landmark battle is a clear exaggeration.
          By the way, do you know how many castles there were in the lands of the Teutonic Order and how many brothers died a year before in the Battle of Legnica?
          1. Nikolai Korovin 1 March 2020 19: 18 New
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            Vyacheslav, thanks for the directions. I will consider. Regarding the castles of the Teutonic Order - right, they have perplexed me. There are a few things with the orders ... After all, they united in 1237, if I am not mistaken? So - consider Livonian at the same time? And indeed, to be honest, not in the know. I will consider this as homework. As for "the year before," I’m not sure that Legnica is right, it seemed to me Lignica. What city is it now - I don’t know. I supposed that the Czech-Polish army fought with the Mongols there, and whether the brothers participated in it was not in the know. True, I will say for John Urdyuy Pete, but this is generally some kind of incomprehensible condottiere, I do not know if he is a brother? Whether he survived after this battle is not in the know. Of course, given the fact that Poland and the Czech Republic at that time were populated much more densely than Russia, the scale of this battle was certainly greater than the Battle of the Ice. Honestly, I was somehow not specifically interested in them - I once noted for myself that there was such a fact. But for Russia, the Battle of Ice, although it is smaller in scale, I believe several times, was much more important than this battle of Legnica-Lignice for Poland and the Czech Republic, especially considering the state of Russia immediately after the invasion. It seems to me that the Mongols felt Europe so, and decided that the game was not worth the candle. Troublesome. A lot of heavy cavalry. Mountains with defile at every turn. It was easier with him before Russia. Therefore, it was considered that the last sea is the Adriatic. It's time to turn the horses to their native steppes.
            1. kalibr 1 March 2020 19: 21 New
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              That's good! When a person finds information himself, he appreciates it more. Locks can be counted even according to 1291 ...
              1. Nikolai Korovin 3 March 2020 23: 20 New
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                Good evening, Vyacheslav! I can’t give exact answers to your questions, but I want to assure that you touched me for a living - it turns out that I very simplistically presented the whole picture. So I'm slowly eliminating my illiteracy.
                The castles along with the Livonian Order, or Swordsmen, which I confused - who is who, I think, is about 10-12. I did not have time to calculate exactly. I thought a lot more. Did not take into account the specifics of the Order.
                Legnica - Lignica. Since it was in Poland, Legnica, I agree, more precisely. Lignica is a Germanized name. Probably also “a” at the end would be nice to remove, but they don’t. Apparently, a lot of brothers fell, but hardly more than 1000. He was mistaken - he did not know that they participated. I did not have time to clarify. The Czech army, to my surprise, was late for the battle - for one day. Looks like a trip to Czech Budejovice. Features of a national character. The path to the Bug, gentlemen, lies through Sokal. True, it is not said which Bug. Maybe South? Or, colloquially, Yubug. But still a hefty hook. The legend that the Czech army destroyed the separated part of the Mongols after the battle, in the source that I looked on this occasion, recognized as bankrupt.
                I see that a very solid source of the 1947 edition, which I trusted, can be said entirely, although, of course, it is, in any case, very incomplete, let me down a little.
                Perhaps in the domestic chronicles the number of knights killed is somewhat overstated, in any case, 500 is closer to the truth than 900, and something I doubted that 50 were actually taken prisoner. Perhaps this is rounding. I did not have time to check about 7 versts, but in any case, on a map on a scale of 1: 2 500 000, which I now have, if I correctly set the place of the battle and the direction of the pursuit on it, just something in this spirit is obtained. True, we must take into account that the lake has become wider, but the correction to the value of 7000 m should not exceed 1000-1500 m. I can clarify this later. Deep places were filled with sediments of two rather large rivers flowing from both the western and eastern shores, and the gentle banks were flooded. The average depth, presumably, decreased, but not increased, as some commentators believe. So to search for something at the bottom is more than thankless task, it is just absolutely useless.
                I repent - I have not reached your articles. But I will definitely do it if I have the time. But a little later.
                1. kalibr 4 March 2020 09: 32 New
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                  Dear Nicholas! I am very pleased that you took my recommendations so seriously. All the troubles are just from incomplete knowledge. And to the sources of 1947-48. I would not trust at all. The issue of the Pravda newspaper dated April 5, 1942 is very indicative in this regard. Her editorial is very different from the one below. In one of my articles there were photocopies ... The politicization of our history caused such ... fluctuations. And there are few educated people. I read a man a book, then the "truth" was revealed to him. But in fact it’s not so. I wrote about locks on purpose. At the end of the 13th century, there were 90 or so. Each castle had a master, a master - a knight. The assistant, the castellan, also had knightly armament, but most often did not go on hikes with the seigneur. And here's the deal: 90 castles - 90 knights, someone died under Legnica, someone suffered from wounds, someone was sick with diarrhea ... That is, not everyone went to fight Novgorod. They drove the chud - men with hornets ... and how many really knights fought on Lake Peipsi? And fell? By the way, in the earliest annals 400 was indicated. 500 became later!
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    3. ee2100 4 March 2020 10: 33 New
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      Nikolay Korovin (Nikolay) Good afternoon! You do not analyze a piece from the annals of the so-called "Battle of the Ice", but everything that preceded it. All of this is in the annals. And the fact that the chronicler transferred the battle to the lake, so he is an artist, he saw her so
  • Lieutenant 7 March 2020 13: 30 New
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    Alexander Nevsky exaggerated figure. His image as a brilliant commander and patriot is greatly exaggerated in Russian history. In reality, he was a power-hungry and cruel man. The scale of the Livonian threat of Russia and the real military significance of the clashes on the Neva and Lake Peipsi is doubtful. There was never a serious threat from the German knights. The battle of ice was not a major battle. The example of Lithuania, into which a number of Russian princes passed with their lands, showed that a successful struggle against the Mongols was quite possible. Alexander deliberately entered into an alliance with the Mongols in order to use them to strengthen personal power. In the long run, his choice predetermined the formation of despotic power in Russia.
    1. ee2100 8 March 2020 10: 50 New
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      I agree with you in many ways. All the rulers of that time were power-hungry and cruel. But for what merits the Russian Orthodox Church ranked him as a saint, no one, m. except the Russian Orthodox Church, does not know. They give us the so-called The battle of ice for the landmark battle that supposedly stopped the Order's invasion of Russian lands, and as can be seen from the Annals, Alexander went to avenge the knights for a separate peace treaty between Pskov and the Order. And who did he stop? The knights simply defended themselves.