How recruits appeared in Russia

How recruits appeared in Russia
Aleksey Kivshenko, “War games of the amusing troops of Peter I near the village of Kozhukhovo.” 1882 year


315 years ago, on February 20 (March 3, according to a new style) in 1705, the Russian Tsar Pyotr Alekseevich introduced recruiting service, a prototype of universal military service. We did not come up with this system from a good life. Peter mobilized the entire Russian power and people to the Northern War - the confrontation with Sweden for dominance in the Baltic.

The first military experiments of Peter


Young Peter began to create his army with "amusing" regiments in the 1680s. They recruited both volunteers (runaway, free, etc.), and by compulsory principle (guys from the palace servants, bonded peasants). These regiments became the core of the Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments, the future Russian guard. The officers were mainly foreigners; the service life for the soldiers was not determined. In parallel, there was an old Russian army — local cavalry, regiments of archers, soldier regiments of the new order, squadrons of gunners, etc. These troops were formed on a voluntary basis and received monetary and material rewards. The nobles were a service class, they were required to do regular service and they were called up during the war.

In preparation for the war with Sweden, in November 1699, Tsar Peter I issued a decree "On the admission to the Great Sovereign as a soldier of all kinds of free people." The new army was originally built on a mixed principle (like the first regiments of Peter). Free people were enlisted in the army and forcibly taken "subsistence" people - serfs belonging to landowners and monasteries. They took 2 recruits from 500 fit people. The recruit could be replaced by a contribution of 11 rubles. The soldiers took people from 15 to 35 years old. The soldiers were given annual salaries and provisions. During the recruitment of the “direct regular troops”, three divisions were formed. It was the beginning of regular cavalry - formed dragoon regiments.

Further events showed that such a system is imperfect. The protracted Northern War devoured many people, they were not enough. A large army was needed for military operations in the Baltic states and in the western direction (Poland). It is clear that more than 30 thousand recruits, which were recruited by decree of 1699, were not enough. There were few "free" ones. But the landowners and the church preferred to pay money; an adult worker was economically more profitable than a one-time contribution.

Recruitment Set


Therefore, on February 20 (March 3, NST) in 1705, Tsar Pyotr Alekseevich issued a separate decree “On the recruitment of recruits, from 20 yards per person, from 15 to 20 years of age”, which introduced a recruiting service in the country. Responsibility for the implementation of the decree rested with the Local Order, which was in charge of the service tenure in the country. The call was subject to single young people of all classes, including the nobility. But for the nobles it was a personal duty, and for the rest of the estates it was a community duty. Initially, the service was life-long. Conscription lasted in Russia until 1874. Recruitment sets were carried out irregularly by orders of the king, depending on the need.

Peter's methods were cruel, for example, before arriving at the duty station, each recruiting team lost up to 10% of its staff (dead, escaped, etc.), but effective and cheap for its time. For the first six sets, the army was replenished by 160 thousand people. This measure, along with others (Russification of command personnel, the creation of a system of officer and soldier schools, construction fleet, the development of military industry, etc.) gave its effect. In 1709, a radical change occurred in the war. The Russian army destroyed the "first army of Europe" near Poltava. After this, the losses of the Russian army in the war decreased, its combat qualities increased, and recruitment kits began to be reduced. The sixth set in 1710 was the last mass when they took one recruit from 20 yards. As a result, they began to take one recruit from 40-75 yards.

In 1802 (73rd recruitment), 2 out of 500 people took it. It used to be that recruiting recruits to the army were not carried out at all, the army did not require new soldiers. During wars, sets expanded. In 1806, in the conditions of the war with Napoleon, 5 out of 500 people were taken. In 1812, three recruitment recruits were conducted; in total, 18 out of 500 people were taken in a year. The empire had to set out 420 thousand souls in a year. The government also carried out the second mobilization in the eighteenth century (the first was in 1806), gathering up to 300 thousand warrior militias. And in 1816-1817. there were no common sets.

Gradually, military service began to encompass new population groups. So, if at the beginning the recruitment kits were conducted from the Russian Orthodox population, then later the Finno-Ugrians of the Volga region began to be recruited, etc. In 1766, the General Institution on the collection of recruits in the state and about the procedures that should be performed during recruitment was published. In addition to serfs and state peasants, recruiting conscription extended to merchants, domestic people, yasak, black-nosed, spiritual, people assigned to state-owned factories. The draft age was established from 17 to 35 years. Since 1827, Jews were taken into the army by soldiers. Since 1831, recruiting service was extended to “priestly children” who did not follow the spiritual line (did not study at theological schools).

Also, service life was gradually reduced. Initially served for life, while there was strength and health. At the end of the reign of Catherine the Great, from 1793, soldiers began to serve for 25 years. In 1834, in order to create a trained reserve, active service was reduced from 25 to 20 years (plus 5 years in reserve). In 1851, the service life was reduced to 15 years (3 years in reserve), in 1859 it was allowed to release soldiers on “indefinite leave” (dismissed in reserve) after 12 years of service.


"Seeing the rookie." I.E. Repin. 1879 year

Reduced system performance


From the very beginning it was obvious that the recruitment system was causing damage to the country's economy. This was realized by many zealous owners. For example, the famous Russian commander Alexander Suvorov preferred not to give his peasants to recruits. He forced his peasants to take off for the purchase of a recruit from the side, he himself contributed half the amount (then about 150 rubles). “Then the families are not lounging, the houses are not going broke and the recruits are not afraid.” That is, the century of brilliant victories of the Russian weapons had its flip side. Millions of able-bodied hands were torn off from the economy, many folded their heads in foreign countries. But there was no other choice, it was necessary to mobilize the power and the people for a fierce confrontation with the West and the East. The empire was born in constant wars.

For ordinary people, recruitment was one of the worst disasters. At the age of 25, few went through the initial service. Major General Tutolmin noted:

“... the despair of families, the moaning of the people, the burdens of costs and the end in the continuation of a set of interruption of the economy and all industry. The recruitment time, according to the current establishment, is a periodic crisis of popular sorrow, and the inappropriateness of recruitment sets causes severe shock to the people. ”

The recruiter was not only difficult for the economy of the country and the peasantry, but had other shortcomings. The treasury incurred large expenses; it was necessary to maintain a large army in peacetime. The recruiting system did not allow having a large trained reserve, which was extremely necessary when drawing out and expanding the theater of war. No matter how great the army was in peacetime, but during the war it was always lacking. I had to carry out additional sets and put under the gun almost untrained people. In addition, due to the long service life, the accumulation of old soldiers took place. They were invaluable in terms of combat experience, but their health was usually undermined, their stamina is less than that of young soldiers. During marches, many soldiers lagged behind their units.

The big problem was the gradual narrowing of social groups affected by conscription. It was unfair. In 1761, Tsar Peter III issued a decree “On the Liberty of the Nobility”. Nobles are exempted from compulsory military service. She became voluntary. In 1807, merchants were freed from recruitment. Conscription did not extend to the clergy. There were territorial and national restrictions. The military burden of the empire was borne mainly by Russians and Orthodox, foreigners for the most part were freed from military service. As a result, the whole burden of military service and the wars of the empire fell on the working people (peasants and the lower classes). In addition, the soldiers were isolated from their previous lives, and after completing the service it was very difficult for them to find themselves in society.

All these shortcomings began to affect at the beginning of the XIX century. It is clear that many military and government officials saw and realized all this very well. Various reform projects have been developed. But in general, the government tried to act carefully, the main changes were associated with the service life, which was consistently reduced. In order to try to reduce the financial burden on the treasury, to create a “self-reproducing” army, under Alexander I began to create military settlements, where peasant soldiers were to be both soldiers and producers. However, this experiment did not lead to success. State economy did not work, it came to soldiers' riots. As a result, in 1874, the recruitment obligation was canceled and replaced with universal military duty.


Nikolay Nevrev. The return of the soldier to his homeland. 1869
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https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. rich 23 February 2020 09: 23 New
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    After the introduction of the recruiting system of manning the armed forces, all regiments were divided into field and garrison. Garrison regiments were training and reserve, and for replenishment of field units - reserve.
    Peter I developed a system in which each recruit had to go through field regiments, garrison regiments (garrison battalions since 1764), service in civilian departments (watchman, delivery man, since 1764 in a disabled team), settlement, dismissal for his own maintenance, or to a monastery, an almshouse. The purpose of the recruitment system is to maximize the use of human resources.
    Each recruit was supposed to have clothes, shoes and food. The delivery of recruits to the duty station was ensured by the "tutors": Cossacks allocated by the voivode office, and soldiers' teams. According to the rules of 1766, two old soldiers relied on 10 recruits, 20 recruits - one non-commissioned officer, and 50 recruits - one chief officer.
    They were supposed to move to the duty station with “direct paths”; in good weather, it was supposed to go 20-30 miles. In bad weather, transitions were halved. Every third day was allotted for rest. Twice a day roll call was carried out. To prevent escapes, the Senate in 1738 introduced the practice of cutting foreheads at county recruitment centers. Upon arrival, a medical examination was carried out. Up to 10% of recruits recruited were unsuitable for service due to illness or young age (cases of 14-year-old recruitment are known).
    Prior to being distributed among the regiments, military articles were read weekly and daily trained in combat and rifle techniques. In the barracks it was commanded "money and provisions should not be lost and not drunk".
    As a rule, single people were recruited into recruits, but recruit wives were allowed to follow their husband to the duty station. During the service, a private could marry with the permission of the regimental authorities. In 1798, 29% of the soldiers had families in the Irkutsk garrison regiment. Soldier children from 2 to 6 years old received state support. Maintenance of the boys was paid up to 7 years of age, girls up to 12 years. Since 1764, the widows of soldiers received a pension of 2 rubles per year and 3 rubles per child.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 February 2020 09: 46 New
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      A valuable addition! Thanks!!!
      1. DMB 75 23 February 2020 12: 00 New
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        Thanks to the Author and Rich, thanks to their joint efforts, a very interesting article was obtained for reading! All former and future recruits on the Defender of the Fatherland Day!
    2. fk7777777 23 February 2020 12: 03 New
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      It’s interesting, but it’s humanly impossible to organize life, delivery, movement, service?
      1. CTABEP 23 February 2020 12: 18 New
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        How, by train with three meals a day?
      2. Rey_ka 25 February 2020 09: 29 New
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        there were no reserved trains in 1800, fortunately ....
    3. Undecim 23 February 2020 16: 53 New
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      To prevent escapes, the Senate in 1738 introduced the practice of cutting foreheads at county recruitment centers.
      To prevent escapes, from the very beginning of the recruitment service, shackles were introduced in which the recruits were forged, and the convoy that accompanied them.
      In March 1711, 2588 soldiers of the Moscow garrison were allocated to accompany 208 recruits from Moscow to Riga. The spectacle of almost three thousand soldiers in shackles made such a strong impression on Western European merchants that even the "Governor of Livonia and Estonia" Alexander Menshikov, a man who was not at all inclined to humanism, wrote a letter to the Senate asking him to handle recruits better so as not to disgrace the country before foreigners . The Senate took into account the request and ordered the recruits to be shackled only for the night, but in order to complicate it, it was prescribed by special decree to label the recruits with tattoos - “crosses on the left hand with a needle and rub with gunpowder”.
      In the spring of 1719, out of the 2008 recruits sent from the Moscow "recruiting stations" to St. Petersburg that were destined for the army fighting in Finland, 499 people died on the way — one in four. Most of the dead accounted for the ensign Zverev. The investigation revealed that a third of the food received for the recruiting team was sold by Ensign Zverev back in Moscow through the mediation of the clerks and clerks of the Moscow Provincial Chancellery, who arranged this corruption scheme for a percentage of the sale.
      The salary, which was due to the recruits on the road, the ensign also did not give out fully. According to the investigation, he simply drank the money stolen in this way.
      Emperor Peter I sentenced the commander of the convoy and his most savage noncommissioned officer Kindyakov to the recruits to death - they were wheeled right in front of the Moscow provincial office for the edification of corrupt officials.
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 February 2020 09: 52 New
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    These regiments became the core of the Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments, the future Russian guard.

    A common misconception. The Butyrsky regiment was formed at the same time as the guards. There were regiments of the New system with General Gordon, the opponent of the amusing Peter! Later, it was they who became the backbone of the Lefortovo and Life Guards Izmailovsky regiments. The uniqueness of Peter's time is the massive emergence of a social elevator!
    Regards, Vlad!
    1. Astra wild 23 February 2020 11: 39 New
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      About Butyrsky regiment, even in the novel: "Peter 1" can be read. It is strange that Samsonov does not know all this.
  3. Rebus 23 February 2020 10: 57 New
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    The government also carried out the second mobilization in the 1806th century (the first was in XNUMX),

    1806, as well as 1812, is the XNUMXth century, and not the XNUMXth.
  4. fk7777777 23 February 2020 12: 01 New
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    It is very interesting and informative, it confirms once again that the country never needed a normal person, it always needs a bunch of ghouls and cannibals, and the more shit the country made this horse, the more holy it is. Maybe you just need to connect these to the high-voltage, but what will be holy in the dark ....
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 February 2020 13: 09 New
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      If you are about the Antichrist Pete, then he literally did not live two centuries before the first high-voltage line! winked
      That’s a “reptile,” I think it’s necessary for his sins, to put the whole of St. Petersburg under the asphalt, the fleet to the bottom, burn the Ural plants, etc. What else is good to do for the good old days! belay
      Personally, I advise you to stop drinking coffee in the morning, shave, eat potatoes and stop reading IN! The newspaper was also the first to be released by “The Ghoul Petka First”!
      Now seriously! Peter the Great, made a large number of mistakes in his life, but I personally liked “Tsar the Carpenter”, “Tsar the Shipbuilder”, “Tsar the Scorer-Captain”, who could go out in a storm on a boat to save people, could lead his people go boarding and storm the wall, head the fire brigade and personally chop the beards and heads of the traitors than the passion-bearer and family man Nikolai 2! The first left behind the Empire, the second Civil War !!!
      P.S. Alverds !!! Sometimes I only regret that Peter ruined the tradition after a dinner sleep !!!
      1. vladcub 23 February 2020 14: 16 New
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        It is well said: “I personally like:“ the king is a carpenter ”,“ the king is a shipbuilder ”,“ the king is a scorer-captain ”do you know how many such monarchs? I don’t remember others like that.
        1. Rey_ka 25 February 2020 09: 32 New
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          look at Nicholas 1 Alexander 3
      2. Marine engineer 23 February 2020 16: 34 New
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        And I personally don’t like the “Tsar Carpenter”, “Tsar Shipbuilder”, “Tsar-scorer-captain” who after Poltava battle, instead of pulling up Renshild Karl Gustovich on the nearest bitch, is drinking with him.
        1. Astra wild 23 February 2020 17: 37 New
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          Put the king in the corner! A drunkard and a despot occupied the throne.
      3. Marine engineer 23 February 2020 17: 14 New
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        “.... he could at the head of his people ......... personally chop the beards and heads of traitors,”

        Of course he could, especially when the enemy was broken physically and unarmed, and if not, he preferred to drape in the back to his laurel.
      4. Grim Reaper 23 February 2020 20: 19 New
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        Shaving in the morning is horrible. I wear a beard. Coffee is a black poison card .. Well, it's debatable. Under Peter it was not widespread. About VO and with the rest I agree.
        drinks
        Happy holiday, you!
        1. Rey_ka 25 February 2020 09: 33 New
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          by the way turnip is more useful than potato especially raw in itself I know
      5. Avior 23 February 2020 22: 56 New
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        Sometimes I only regret that Peter ruined the tradition after a dinner sleep !!!

        But didn’t he just start it?
        "Admiral's Hour" is just his idea.
        And why ruined? As it was before 1917, it is in the Navy.
        We met her when the foreman from the fleet came to us, transferred to the Air Force for some personal reasons, introduced this with us, the company was not against it, the news was for us that they were sleeping in the fleet after dinner.
    2. vladcub 23 February 2020 14: 07 New
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      And who would you recommend instead?
      1. fiberboard 23 February 2020 15: 38 New
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        There is one here trying to fight
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 February 2020 16: 08 New
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          Quote: fiberboard
          There is one here trying to fight

          Buddy The History section does not accept “political hamsters”, mainly “evil cats” and “wolfhounds” live here !!! So, with the slogans for you on the news thread, they will receive you there and they will give the marshal ahead of schedule !!!
          On the branches of "History" and "Armaments" in politics and play is not accepted !!! Considered a bad monkeyton!
          If you want to discuss the past century, you are welcome! The present age - fire a friend.
          hi
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 February 2020 16: 01 New
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        Vlad! To be honest, in the first place among the first monarchs, I put Alexander the Third! Perhaps this is the only monarch whose life style and the results of rule in me cause understanding and sympathy! Regards, Vlad!
        1. vladcub 23 February 2020 16: 22 New
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          I myself really like him: a man without tricks could simply send mother Volga along. In fact, over the many centuries-old history of Russia, such rulers can be counted on the fingers
        2. Rey_ka 25 February 2020 09: 34 New
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          and Nicholas 1 was the same way
          1. vladcub 25 February 2020 12: 21 New
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            I almost agree, but with a little clarification: Alexander 3 loved popular cuisine, and most importantly sent to *, to * and to *.
            "Europe will wait for the Russian Tsar to fish."
            It is a coincidence that during the reign of Alexander 3, Russia did not fight, but the whole of Europe listened to the word Alexander 3
          2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 February 2020 18: 41 New
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            Quote: Rey_ka
            and Nicholas 1 was the same way

            With all the external similarities, far from it! Nikolai Pavlovich, was a knight. Perhaps the last monarch knight of Europe!
        3. Korsar4 25 February 2020 18: 53 New
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          Close perception. But you won’t get out of your head that the heir is Nicholas II. The Monomakh Hat is heavy.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 February 2020 18: 59 New
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            Good evening!
            Alexander III, passed away early. In essence, the shock of the beginning of the 20th century should be his destiny, but History has no syllable!
            Regards, Vlad!
  5. fk7777777 23 February 2020 12: 05 New
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    Yes, ah, and mg - 34,42, and there clearly wasn’t enough Kalush kalash,))) ...
  6. Nikolaevich I 23 February 2020 12: 49 New
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    Also, service life was gradually reduced. Initially served for life, while there was strength and health. At the end of the reign of Catherine the Great, from 1793, soldiers began to serve for 25 years. In 1834, in order to create a trained reserve, active service was reduced from 25 to 20 years (plus 5 years in reserve). In 1851, the service life was reduced to 15 years (3 years in reserve), in 1859 it was allowed to release soldiers on “indefinite leave” (dismissed in reserve) after 12 years of service. In the 18th century, “auxiliary” landmilitia troops were formed on the territory of the Kiev province! Since the beginning of the 60s, service in the landmilitia ("landmilic" formations ...) was established at 15! At the end of the 50s of the 19th century they were released on “indefinite leave” even after 10-11 years of service .... in the 60s there were frequent cases when soldiers were “released” after 7-8 years of service!
    In addition, due to the long service life, the accumulation of old soldiers took place. An interesting character is described in the book "Bayazet": an 80-year-old soldier ... He was fired from service, but he could not get along in a "peaceful" life (or did not want to ...) and "arbitrarily" returned to the army! The military burden of the empire was borne mainly by Russians and Orthodox, foreigners for the most part were freed from military service Here is still a catch! I heard that to a large extent Ukrainians were freed from military service in the 18th century ....
    1. Freeman 23 February 2020 14: 10 New
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      Nikolaevich I (Vladimir) Today, 12: 49
      An interesting character is described in the book "Bayazet": an 80-year-old soldier ... He was fired from service, but he could not get along in a "peaceful" life (or did not want to ...) and "arbitrarily" returned to the army


      Here is a real, not a "literary" soldier.
      / Although, Pikul, could take as a basis, the biography of a real soldier /

      Vasily Nikolaevich Kochetkov (1785 - 1892)
      - a Russian military man who lived 107 years and participated in 10 wars, a soldier of three emperors (Alexander I, Nicholas I, Alexander II), a participant in the Patriotic War of 1812, the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829, the war with the Polish rebels in 1830-1831, The Caucasian War in 1844-1849, the Crimean War, the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 and other wars of its time.
      Years of service 07.03.1811-31.05.1892


      Biography
      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Кочетков,_Василий_Николаевич
      1. Nikolaevich I 23 February 2020 14: 41 New
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        Quote: Freeman
        Vasily Nikolaevich Kochetkov (1785 - 1892)

        Yes, the fact is that the biography of Kochetkov, apparently, inspired more than one famous writer! The 80-year-old soldier comes to life in other literary works ... for example, about the Crimean War ...
    2. vladcub 23 February 2020 14: 28 New
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      Byad that our Samsonov forgets this, but remembers the evil matrix
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 February 2020 16: 13 New
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        Quote: vladcub
        Byad that our Samsonov forgets this, but remembers the evil matrix

        The namesake is getting worse! Few people know such subtleties. Basically, this is the lot of professional circles, but in fact, in essence, what scenario is missing !!!
    3. valdissumy 24 February 2020 11: 31 New
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      Indeed, in the second half of the 17th century and until 1767, Russian citizens living in Sloboda Ukraine (later in the Kharkov province) were not subject to draft in the army on recruiting basis. Residents of this region of the Orthodox faith, suitable for military service, were enrolled in suburban Cossack regiments (Sumy, Akhtyrsky, Kharkov, Izyumsky, Ostrogozhsky, Balakleysky and Zmievskaya), and the rest of the inhabitants were assigned to the so-called "sub-assistants" - persons who provided for the Sloboda regiment weapons, horses, uniforms, provisions, and also provided for the families of the Cossacks when they were on campaigns, and the families of the dead in the battles of the Cossacks. For each Kozak there were from 2 to 8 sub-assistants, depending on the position of the Kozak.
      In the middle of the 18th century, in connection with the removal of the empire’s borders to the south, the suburban Cossack regiments were liquidated; instead, hussar or ulan regiments were created. The Kozaks, who were “reduced”, were offered to either move to serve in the Pribuzhsky Cossack Regiment, or to the Sumy Hussar Regiment, or to remain in the city and switch to another class. For the transition to the merchants it was necessary to have significant capital. Philistinism was not attractive. Most of the Cossacks and helpers went to the military inhabitants who were allocated land. In the 19th century, the military inhabitants were transferred to the estate of state peasants.
      Studying my pedigree, I came across documents on recruitment in the Kharkov province and counties. I was struck by the high executive discipline of recruitment officials. The accuracy of the recruitment lists. It turns out that the recruiting set includes not only the selection and delivery of recruits to a clearly indicated military unit, but also the obligation of local authorities to provide the military unit where the recruits are sent with food on the list, food for horses, and cash. Studying these documents, I enjoyed more than reading a book.
      Studying historical documents (Kozakov registers, revision tales, metric books, various lists), I was able to trace my family tree from myself, my father, grandfather, to a direct relative of the Kozak Sumy Sloboda regiment according to the register for 1664.
      I learned interesting information about my relatives belonging to the recruiting set. So, my relative Yakim, born in 1796, was taken into recruits in 1828 and at that time he already had three children. His son Stepan, born in 1824, was also recruited in 1846. Apparently, shortly after the call, Yakim died, because in the “Search Book of the Prophet-Elias Church of the city of Sumy” for January 17, 1734 there is a record of a search of the retired soldier of the Velikolutsk jaeger regiment Kirill Golovanev and soldier Akilina Fedorovna .. "of the wife of the deceased soldier. In In historical documents I managed to establish another 5 relatives who were recruited by recruitment at the end of the 18th and first half of the 19th century.
      1. Nikolaevich I 24 February 2020 15: 59 New
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        Very interesting ! You are well done that you are interested in history, the origin of a kind; and you have achieved a lot, learned a lot! Usually this is what people who have someone to pass the pedigree to ... who don’t need to persuade "have children" ... hi
  7. Falx 23 February 2020 13: 47 New
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    Recruitment is certainly a heavy burden for the people, but better than someone else's yoke or Troubles a hundred years before Peter.
    You need your own army, it must be toothy and fanged, you need it at all costs. for the absence of an army will certainly cost any society more than the army itself. this is an axiom!

    For comparison, recall how many people took the Crimeans into slavery ... and compare this with one man from 20 yards .. hmm ...

    All the defenders of the Fatherland with the Holiday!
    1. vladcub 23 February 2020 14: 33 New
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      Mutually. Happy holiday and you
  8. faterdom 23 February 2020 14: 53 New
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    The officers were mostly foreigners

    Alexander, please correct the "officers", I think you did not want to give this word a derogatory meaning.
    1. fk7777777 23 February 2020 22: 17 New
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      Yes, I also think that when the name Piotr doesn’t leave, does it?
  9. Gato 23 February 2020 17: 25 New
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    I think that the recruitment of 1 person from 40-75 yards is still more humane than the methods of manning the "civilized" European armies of that time or, for example, the English fleet, even in peacetime. When the war was declared, all waterfowl citizens of the crown were mobilized, who were unlucky to be in British ports.
    It would be nice to have an article on this topic - for comparison.
  10. fk7777777 23 February 2020 22: 15 New
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    All the same, the greats we have are only Ilyich, Edmundych, Vissarionych, Palych, ... the rest can be great if the whole country was completely marginalized with them.