The sad fate of the chieftains. The defeat of the uprising Kondraty Bulavin


Article "Whom" Kondraty grabbed " It was told about the chieftain Bulavin and the beginning of a new Peasant War. From this article we remember that at that moment the Donskoy Army area was surrounded on all sides by the lands of the Russian state, from where from three sides they were ready to march on the rebel government troops.


The sad fate of the chieftains. The defeat of the uprising Kondraty Bulavin
Land of the Don Army

Trying to prevent the tsarist army from entering the Don lands, the leader of the rebels made a mistake: he divided his forces into three parts.

Atamans Semyon Drany, Nikita Naked and Bespaly along the Seversky Donets went to meet the army of Prince Vasily Dolgoruky.

The detachments of Ignat Nekrasov, Ivan Pavlov and Lukyan Khokhlach headed east to cover the Don from the corps of Peter Khovansky Menshiy and his Kalmyk allies.

Kondraty Bulavin himself hoped to capture Azov.

In addition, the envoys of Bulavin rebelled the Borisoglebsky, Kozlovsky and Tambov districts, peasant unrest near Voronezh, Kharkov, Orel, Kursk, Saratov was noted. So, on September 8, 1708, after the death of Bulavin himself, in the Tambov district on the Small Alabug river, local peasants, 1300 "thieves' Cossacks" and 1200 "Cossacks from the pier" entered the fray with the tsar’s troops.

There were even performances far from the Don Nizhny Novgorod, Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Tver, Vladimir, Moscow and Kaluga counties, but it is difficult to say how far the peasant riots were associated precisely with the agitation of the Bulavins.


Lands in Rebellion by Kondratius Bulavin

The beginning of hostilities


Seversky "front" was headed by Simon Drany, whose army was about five and a half thousand Donetsk Cossacks and a thousand Cossacks. With these forces, on June 8, 1708, near the Urazova River (near the city of Valuyki) he completely defeated the Sloboda Sumy Cossack Regiment (his commander A. Kondratyev also died in battle). A regimental convoy, 4 cannons, hundreds of horses and guns was captured. After this, Simon Drany besieged the city of Tor, but he could not take it before the approach of the main forces of Prince Dolgorukov. Near the tract of Krivaya Luka, the army of this chieftain was defeated in a fierce, lasting all day, battle with superior forces of government forces. Semyon Drany fought in the most dangerous directions and personally led the Cossacks into cavalry attacks, but was killed not by a saber, but by a cannonball. For the rebels, his death was an irreparable loss: the military authority of this chieftain was undeniable, and after his death in Cherkassk they said that "all hope was on Drany." Having lost about one and a half thousand people, the rebels, now led by Nikita the Naked, retreated. The Bakhmut town, the chieftain of which was formerly Bulavin, was destroyed by order of Dolgorukov in such a way that “there was no stone on the stone”.


Liberties Troops of Zaporizhzhya, XVIII century. Above is Hetmanism and Slobozhanschina, below is the Crimean Yurt, to the left is the Ottoman Empire

Ignat Nekrasov, another famous ataman of the rebels, eloquently speaks about the character of the folk tradition that he had 4 rows of teeth: do not put such a finger in your mouth - you will bite off your hand!


Kiselev D. “Ignat Nekrasov”

This predatory "toothy" chose a different tactic: instead of field battles, he delivered sudden blows with large forces of the cavalry - and, if necessary, quickly retreated, not giving the tsarist troops the opportunity to start a "right battle". Joining the new detachments of the Cossacks, Nekrasov reached the Pristan Town on Khopr, from where he turned to the Volga. On May 13, 1708, he, along with Ivan Pavlov, captured Dmitrievsk (Kamyshin), and tried to seize Saratov. Unable to take this city, he broke through to Tsaritsyn. Having learned that Berner’s regiment was coming up from the Astrakhan, Nekrasov defeated him, attacking from two sides: the cavalry hit from the front, the foot “plastuns” from the rear. On June 7, after several days of siege, Tsaritsyn was also captured (during the fire, the archive of this city burned down). Voivode A. Turchaninov and the clerk who was with him were taken prisoner and beheaded.


R. Skoda. The capture of Tsaritsyn by Bulavin’s troops

After this, Nekrasov decided to return to the Don and led his troops to the village of Golubinskaya. The detachment of ataman Pavlov remaining in Tsaritsyn was defeated by government troops approaching the city on July 20, 1708. Many of his captured Cossacks were hanged along the Don Road. The survivors connected with the detachment of Nekrasov.

Bulavin himself, along with Colonels Khokhlach and Gaykin, at the head of a detachment of 2 thousand people, approached Azov.


Plan of the Azov fortress, 1736

The assault attempt was extremely unsuccessful, at the cost of heavy losses they managed to take only the suburbs, 423 Cossacks died in battle. The retreat was difficult and unsuccessful: pursued by the tsarist troops, about 500 Cossacks drowned in the Don and in the Kalancha River. 60 people were captured - their fate was terrible: at first their nostrils and tongues were pulled out, and then they were hanged by the legs on the fortress walls.

The death of Kondraty Bulavin


The news of the death of the ataman Drany and the defeat of Bulavin at Azov undermined the morale of the rebels. On July 7 (18), 1708, the Cossacks of the “pro-Moscow party” seized guns in Cherkassk and closed the gates in front of detachments retreating from Azov. Bulavin himself (who had arrived in Cherkassk earlier) and the three Cossacks who remained loyal to him were surrounded in the Ataman kuren. The Azov governor I.A. Tolstoy later reported to Moscow about the death of the rebel leader:

“And they shot the cannon and the rifle from the gun and took out his thief with all sorts of other measures.”

Having barricaded themselves, Bulavin and his associates killed six people during their last battle.


In the end, one of the cores broke through the wall of the building, the besiegers burst inside, and Yesaul Sergey Ananyin shot the ataman of the rebels with a pistol. According to another version, Ananyin was among the defenders of Kuren and killed the chieftain, hoping to receive forgiveness.

The circumstances of Bulavin’s murder are mysterious: the fact is that the shell-shocked ataman was shot at point-blank range - at the temple. Why did the conspirators not want to take him alive? For the Moscow authorities, the living leader of the rebels was a much more valuable “gift” than his corpse: he could be questioned “with partiality” and brutally executed on the frontal place - to intimidate his subjects, so that it would be disgraceful for others to rebel. Apparently, Bulavin had something to say about them in Moscow - at the investigation. And maybe in Cherkassk there were many supporters of this chieftain at that time, and the conspirators were afraid that they would release Bulavin, and that they themselves would be hanged or "put into water."

The corpse of the rebel chieftain was taken to Azov, where the garrison doctor cut off and alcoholized his head to send to Peter I, while the body was hanged by one leg on the city wall. Then the corpse was cut into 5 parts, which were planted on poles and carried around the city. Bulavin’s head was kept in alcohol for 9 months. Finally, Peter I personally brought her to Cherkassk and ordered her to be planted on a stake.

Almost immediately, a legend appeared that the chieftain shot himself in order not to fall into the hands of enemies, and his wife stabbed herself with a dagger.

Others said that together with Bulavin she shot back to the end and it was not his wife who died, but the elder daughter of the chieftain - Galina.

This legend became the plot of G. Kurochkin’s painting “The Death of Kondraty Bulavin” (1950):


We know the name of the person who became the author of the version of Bulavin's suicide - foreman Ilya Zershchikov, who sent a report about the assault on smoking to the Azov governor Tolstoy.

Some believe that in this way they tried to discredit the leader of the rebels - since Christianity recognizes suicide as a sin. But Zershchikov was unlikely to think about such high matters then. Most likely, he wanted to absolve himself and his accomplices of blame for the murder of the chieftain - this crime, according to Cossack laws, was punishable by death. Having learned about Bulavin’s murder, Ignat Nekrasov sent a letter to Cherkassk in which, referring to this law, he threatened to “carry out a search” and kill all those responsible for his death:

“If you do not deign to notify for what guilt he was killed, and you will not release his old people (parents), and if the Cossacks (faithful to Bulavin) are not released, then we will go to you to Cherkassk with all the rivers and the assembled army” .

The report of Zershchikov also misled the English ambassador Charles Whitworth, who had already reported from Moscow on July 21 (August 1) in 1708 (commendable promptness!):

“Prince Dolgoruky defeated a group of rebels in Ukraine. The Azov governor, Tolstoy, acted even more successfully: he defeated another detachment, which was under the command of Bulavin himself, who, seeing that he was in a desperate situation and that the Cossacks themselves were ready to seize and hand him out after so many failures, decided to prevent the execution awaiting him, and killed himself with a pistol shot. Following this, the rebels went home. Bulavin’s head was chopped off and brought here, but his body was sent to Azov, where all his relatives are kept in chains. ”

Peter I found the news of Bulavin’s death in Mogilev, and the tsar joyfully ordered “to shoot” from guns and rifles.

On July 27, 1708, Dolgoruky’s army entered Cherkassk, 40 Cossacks suspected of sympathizing with Bulavin were hanged, Cossack foremen from the entire Don Cossack Army took the oath of allegiance to the Russian state, but this did not save anyone from repression.

Ignat Nekrasov: the path to the Kuban


Upon learning of the death of Bulavin, Nekrasov led his troops to Cherkassk. He did not have the strength to free the Don capital on his own. He hoped to meet with the remnants of the army of Semyon Dranogo, which was now led by ataman Nikita Galy. But they failed to join forces. Nekrasov was late to the city of Esaulov, who, according to Dolgoruky, was "strong and green, all around there was great water; only on one side is the dry path, and that one is cramped. ” The besieged rebels fought only a day, surrendering to the second, and taking the oath of allegiance to the king on the third. If they hoped in this way to appease Dolgorukov, they miscalculated. The prince later reported to Peter I that he had ordered the local chieftain and two “schismatic elders” to be quartered, another 200 Cossacks were hanged and rafts with gallows were launched down the Don.

The army of P. I. Khovansky coming from the Volga attacked a large detachment of rebels (4 thousand people “except for wives and children) near Panshin. The prince wrote to Peter I about this battle:

“There was a great battle with them, and I never remember that the Cossacks stood so tight, and moreover, I understand that the runaway dragoons and soldiers from the regiments stood tight”.

Despite fierce resistance, the rebels were “beaten, and they drowned others,” taking six banners, two badges, eight guns on the battlefield, and the Kalmyks “took over their wives and children, a considerable number of belongings.”

After this, Khovansky took and burned eight Don towns, thirty-nine others surrendered to him without a fight.

Now Khovansky was approaching the Cossacks of Nekrasov (about two thousand people with wives and children) from the north, and Dolgorukov from the south. Upon learning of the fall of Esaulov and the defeat of the rebels at Panshin, the ataman ordered the convoy to be abandoned and, crossing the Don at Lower Chir, led his detachment to the Kuban. Atamans Pavlov and Bespaly left with him. Later ataman Senka Selivanov “nicknamed Raven”, brought to him the Cossacks of the Nizhnechirskaya, Esaulovskaya and Kobylyansk villages along with their families.

The last battles of Nikita Naked


Nikita Naked, with whom there were about two and a half thousand people, was with Aydar. Pursued by government forces and the Cherkasy “ship and horse” army, sent by the elders there to Dolgorukov at the request of the prince, he went to the Donetsk town, whose Cossacks, after some hesitation, nevertheless joined him. The von Deldin and Tevyashov regiments chasing him retreated, not daring to enter the battle. Then the caravan of Colonel Bils (1500 soldiers and 1200 working people) was attacked and defeated by the rebels, who brought bread and 8 thousand rubles to Azov from the Proviant's order. It happened on September 27, 1708.

Meanwhile, Dolgorukov, having learned from prisoners that the Naked leader of the four-thousandth detachment had gone down the Don to the Ust-Khopersky town, attacked the rebels remaining in the Donetsk town (there were about a thousand people):

“And by the grace of God they threw them, thieves; and many in the Don rushed and drowned; and the dragoons beat them, thieves, on the water and alive took from a hundred and a half people, all of them were hanged. And the Donetsk chieftain Vikulka Kolychova, the brother of the European native Mikitka, and the punishable chieftain Timoshka Shcherbak, were quartered and put on stakes. And Donetsk, sovereign, they burnt out everything ”,

- the prince informed the king.

The last battle Nikita Naked gave at the Reshetovskaya village near the Donetsk town. At that time, some of the working people of the Bils caravan joined him, Cossacks from Aidar approached, atamans Prokofiy Ostafyev from the Kachalinskaya stanitsa and Zot Zubov from the Fedoseyevskaya stanitsa led their detachments. In total, under the supervision of the Naked, there were about seven and a half thousand people. According to Dolgorukov, the rebels lost over 3000 people killed in that battle, many drowned while crossing the Don, and Naked himself fled with only three Cossacks. Dolgorukov’s trophies were 16 rebel bunchuk and two guns. In addition, 300 officers and soldiers from the Bils regiment were released and four banners were recaptured. In November 1708, Nikita Naked was captured and executed.

The tragedy of the Cossack Don


Further actions of Dolgorukov on the Don can be safely called genocide. The prince himself reported to Peter:

“3000 people sat in Esaulov, and they were taken by assault and all outweighed, only from the mentioned 50 people they were released after infancy. In Donetsk, 2000 people were seated, they were also taken by storm and many were beaten, and the rest were all outweighed. 200 people were taken from near Voronezh, and in Voronezh all those mentioned were outweighed. In Cherkassky, about 200 people were hanged near the Donskoy circle and against the village huts. Also many parties from different towns and many of those parties are cut. ”

Destroyed Cossack towns and villages, this titled punisher does not even consider:

“According to Khopr, above from Pristannaya along Buzuluk - everything. On Donets, from above on Lugansk - all. By Medveditsa - by the Ust-Medveditskaya stanitsa, which is on the Don. According to Buzuluk - that's it. According to Aidar - that's it. According to Derkula - everything. In Kalitva and in other rivers beyond the river - everything. According to Ilovle, according to Ilovlinskaya, that’s all. ”

A. Shirokorad described the pogrom of cities and villages of the Don Army:

“The soldiers killed women and children (most often drowned in the Don) and burned buildings. Only Dolgoruky’s detachment destroyed 23,5 thousand male Cossacks — women and children were not counted. Moreover, the Orthodox tsar did not hesitate to incite hordes of Kalmyks against the Cossacks. Kalmyks slaughtered everyone, but, unlike Prince Dolgoruky, they did not keep records of their victims. And they haven’t killed women yet, but taken them away with them. ”

Peter I highly appreciated such zeal Dolgorukov, granted him the Starkovsky volost in Mozhaisk district, which brings about one and a half thousand rubles of annual income.


So we see Vasily Vladimirovich Dolgorukov in the portrait of George-Christopher Groot, stored in the State Tretyakov Gallery. He lived to be 75 years old, was twice arrested and deprived of all ranks and titles - in the case of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich in 1718 and for the “censure" of Anna Ioannovna in 1731. Empress Elizabeth returned him to court, reinstating him in the rank of field marshal and appointing him president of the Military College . He is the hero of V. Pikul’s novel “The Word and the Deed,” which put the following words into his mouth: “I don’t like Peter, he called the German to Russia. And he wanted to teach me. And I wasn’t a fool already ... From Peter I climbed paper longing into Russia: wherever you go, everywhere they write a piece of paper about you "

The fate of the Cossacks Ignat Nekrasov


At the beginning of 1709, the chieftains Nekrasov, Pavlov, and Bespaly took several thousand Cossacks (including women and children) to the right bank of the Laba (a tributary of the Kuban), which at that time was controlled by the Crimean khans. Here they met with Old Believers who fled from persecution for their faith in the 1690s. As he wrote in "Stories or the story of the Don Cossacks ”(1846) Major General A.I. Rigelman, the fugitives "multiplied themselves as Cossacks, as thieves (rebels) as they were."


Formerly quite loyal to the Moscow authorities, but thrown out of Russia by the power of official cruelty, greed and stupidity, these groups of Cossacks, united, formed a new army subordinate to the Crimean Khan, and received the name "Nekrasovites" ("Ignat Cossacks"). Crimean khans often used them to suppress internal unrest among the Tatars themselves.


Banner Nekrasovtsev

Quite quickly, they moved from the Kuban to the Taman Peninsula, where they founded the towns of Bludilovsky, Golubinsky and Chiryansky.

While Ignat Nekrasov was alive, the attitude of these people towards Russia and the Cossacks remaining on the Don was quite hostile, in the future, with the advent of new generations, the degree of hatred decreased significantly, and subsequently pro-Russian sentiments even began to spread among them. But in the first half of the XVIII century, this was still far away.

In May 1710, Nekrasov came to the Berda River with a three thousandth army of Cossacks, Kalmyks and Kuban Tatars. From there, he sent 50 Cossacks "to Little Russian cities for indignation and seduction among the people, so that they would go to him, Nekrasov."

In 1711, during the Russo-Turkish War, the Nekrasovites went camping together with the Tatars.

In 1713, they took part in the raid of Khan Batyr-Girey to the Kharkov province, in 1717 - to the Volga, Khoper and Medveditsa.

Nekrasovtsy conducted active propaganda, "beckoning" the Cossack Cossacks from the Don. The Old Believers of different Russian provinces fled to them and ran. As a result, since 1720, the agents of the Nekrasovites and those who harbor them were “instructed” to “execute without mercy”.

In 1727, according to the testimony of a fugitive soldier Serago, many Cossacks of the upper cities and villages were going to flee to the Nekrasovites, dissatisfied with the census and the introduction of passports.

In 1736, the Don Cossacks and Kalmyks burned three Nekrasov villages. Those, in turn, in 1737, together with the Tatars and Circassians ravaged and burned the Kumshatsky town on the Don. The Don and Kalmyks responded by burning the city of Khan-Tyube and stealing cattle belonging to the Nekrasovites.

Ignat Nekrasov died in 1737 and in the songs and traditions of his followers he soon turned into the main leader of the rebels - Bulavin and Drany began to be perceived as his assistants.

Nekrasov left about 170 “Testaments” (or “Commandments”) to his followers.


Code of Covenants of Ignat

Of these, 47 were reliably preserved, and the first was the following:

“The king does not submit. Under the tsars, do not return to Russia. ”

Therefore, the Nekrasovites rejected the invitation of Anna Ioannovna and refused to return to the lands controlled by the Russian government. The insulted tsarina ordered the military chieftain Frolov to ruin their villages, which he did for two years.

In 1762 they ignored the invitation of Catherine II, in 1769 they did not respond to the letter of General de Medem, who suggested that they move to the Terek.

But then they themselves began to turn to Petersburg with requests for permission to return to the Don - in 1772 and 1775. They rejected the authorities' offer to provide land on the Volga. In 1778 A.V. Suvorov tried to become an intermediary between them and Petersburg, but did not achieve success.

The first small groups of Nekrasovites began to move to the territory of the Ottoman Empire (in Dobrudja, on the mouth of the Danube and on the island of Razelm) back in the 40s and 60s of the 1780th century. The remaining, after Taman was occupied by Russian troops, retreated to the left bank of the Kuban. In XNUMX, they finally accepted Turkish citizenship and were relocated to the territory of the Ottoman Empire, eventually forming two independent colonies - the Danube and Mainos (near Lake Mainos), which the Turks called Biv-Evle ("A Village of a Thousand Houses"). Then the Cossacks moved to the Mainos colony, which the Turks originally settled near the city of Enos (coast of the Aegean Sea). It was the Maynos who preserved almost all of the “Commandments” of Ignat Nekrasov and their former way of life; the Danube Nekrasovites gradually assimilated with other immigrants from Russia, largely losing their identity.

But in the Maynos community, over time, there was a division into more prosperous farmers and fishermen. The first began to devote their priests in White Krinitsa (territory of Austria-Hungary), the second - in Moscow.

A large group of Turkish Nekrasovites lived until 1962 in the village of "Eski Kazaklar" ("Old Cossacks"), which they themselves called Minos - the Turkish name for the lake on which it was located ("Melkoe"). Now this village is called Koja-Gol, and the lake is called “Kush” (“Bird”), this is the territory of the National Park “Kush Jenneti” (“Bird Paradise”).


Kush Lake


Religious procession in Koja Göl, 1954

In the Turkish army, Ignat Cossacks often served as scouts. They were also usually entrusted with guarding the banner of the Sultan and his treasury.

Following the "Precepts" of Ignat Nekrasov, the descendants of the Cossacks of the Maynos community retained faith, language, customs, traditions and clothing. Among these "Testaments" were the following:

“Do not connect with the Turks, do not communicate with non-believers. Communication with the Turks only when needed (trade, war, taxes). Quarrels with the Turks are prohibited ”(2 Testament).
“Ataman is elected for a year. If he is guilty, he is shifted ahead of schedule ”(5) and“ Atamanism can last only three terms - the government spoils a person ”(43).
“All earnings must be handed over to the army treasury. From it everyone receives 2/3 of the money earned, 1/3 goes to kosh ”(7).
“For robbery, robbery, murder - by decision of the circle, death” (12).
“Shinks and taverns should not be kept in the village” (14).
“Hold, keep the word. Cossacks and children must be old-fashioned ”(16).
“A Cossack does not hire a Cossack. He doesn’t receive money from his brother’s hands ”(17).
“There shall be no beggars in the village” (22).
“All Cossacks adhere to the true Orthodox old faith” (23).
“For the betrayal of a husband, 100 lashes are beaten to him” (30).
“For a wife’s treason, bury her neck in the ground” (31).
“If a son or daughter raised a hand to their parents - death. For resentment to the elder - whip ”(36).
“He who does not fulfill the precepts of Ignat will perish” (40).

Perplexity is caused by the 37th "Testament", which reads:

“In a war, do not shoot Russians. Do not go against the blood. "

It is not entirely clear how he agrees with the data on the participation of Nekrasovites in the campaigns of the Krymchaks and Turks directed against Russia. Probably, this "Testament" is only attributed to Nekrasov and appeared much later than the rest when the Nekrasovites began to think about returning their ancestors to their homeland.

Nekrasovtsy and Transdanubian Sich


In June 1775, by order of Catherine II, the last (eighth in a row) Pidpilnian Sich was liquidated. The Cossacks, as you know, then divided into two parts. Most of the Cossacks in 1787 became part of the new Cossack army - the Black Sea. In 1792 he was granted lands from the right bank of the Kuban to the Yeisk town. On this occasion, the military judge of the Black Sea Cossack Army Anton Andreevich Golovaty wrote a famous song, the text of which can be read on the pedestal of the monument in Taman:


Monument to A. Golovaty in Taman, opened on October 5, 1911 on the eve of the 200th anniversary of the formation of the Kuban Cossack Army


Monument to A. Golovaty in Taman, an inscription on a pedestal

Lyrics by A. Golovaty:

Oh, we are cursing,
It’s time, by the way.
Waited from the Tsaritsa
Pay for the service.
Gave Bread, Strength and Literacy
For the service,
From now mi, dear brother,
Forget all the need.
To live in Tamanі, to serve virno,
The border of the grip
To catch a robe, drink a drink,
We’ll be buggies.
Yes, you need to get married,
I hliba robiti,
Hto come to us from nevirnykh
That, like an enemy, beat.
Glory be to God the Queen,
I rest to the hetman!
They told us in our hearts
Great wound.
Thanks to Emperatritsa,
Praying to God
Scho pointed us
To Taman road.

But some of the Cossacks, of those who were organically incapable of peaceful labor, went to the territory of the Ottoman Empire, establishing the Trans-Danube Sich. The Nekrasovites, who until then got along well with Muslims and people of other nationalities, were extremely unfriendly to their fellow Cossacks, who were close to them in language and blood, who answered them “in return.” Probably, on the part of the Nekrasovites, this was a manifestation of the primordial hostile distrust of the strong masters towards the inconspicuous "people walking": "To earn good only by labor. A true Cossack loves his work, ”says the 11th“ testament ”of Ignat Nekrasov. And from the side of the Cossacks there was no less traditional contempt of “thieves” for “peasants”.

The Nekrasovites and Cossacks clung tightly, almost to death: in regular skirmishes, both of them sometimes crucified opponents and did not even spare women and children. As a result, some “Danube Nekrasovites” were forced to move to a Asia Minor colony near Lake Mainos. But the Cossacks Nekrasovites pressed very much. This confrontation continued until 1828, when during the next Russian-Turkish war, most of the Cossacks returned to Russia, the rest were resettled in Edirne.

Return to Russia


Nekrasovites began to return to Russia only at the beginning of the 1911th century. The first of them left to avoid military service in the Turkish army in 1918. They were settled in Georgia, but the persecution to which they were subjected from the Menshevik government of this country in XNUMX forced them to move to the Kuban - to the village of Prochnokokopskaya.

In 1962, 215 families of Nekrasovites (about a thousand people) from the village of Koja-Gol (Mainos) returned from here to the USSR. They were settled in the Levokumsky district of the Stavropol Territory.


Turkish newspaper Hürriyet, 1962, in the center - photographs of departing nekrasovki

224 Nekrasovites in 1963 emigrated to the United States.

A little more than 100 descendants of the Nekrasovites remained in Turkey, their children do not already know the Russian language, and only some of the items that they inherited from their grandfathers and great-grandfathers recall that their ancestors once lived in Russia.

And the descendants of the Nekrasovites who found themselves on the territory of Romania are now part of the Lipovan community - Old Believers who moved there after the persecution of them began under the patriarch Nikon.
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  1. Same lech 18 February 2020 05: 10 New
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    Thanks to the respected author for this article ... he wrote very fascinatingly ... he died on the history of our ancestors on the tonsils ... he swallowed at a time.
    How many descendants of our people are scattered throughout the world after all these uprisings and wars can not be counted.
    Ignat Nekrasov was interested in ... a colorful personality.
    1. rich 18 February 2020 06: 36 New
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      Excellent article. good Read in one go. thank
    2. Horde1 18 February 2020 08: 43 New
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      in today's Ukraine, they prohibit the Russian language, kill Russian people and rewrite history, but the local historian Ryzhov uses any Russophobic materials for his statues to emphasize once again the significance of this version of the story. What is the name of cooperation with the enemy?
      It is clear that Ukrainians will not write the truth, because they need somewhere to gain their worthless history, but on our sites, I think it is unacceptable to use false facts.
      1. Trilobite Master 18 February 2020 12: 24 New
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        Quote: Horde1
        rewrite history

        So hate our history, as the novogronolosov hate it, it is still svidomye can learn. And who can explain to me how any conditional Vyatrovich differs from our guru of new cultivation with his Tartary and other hordes, or from Samsonov with his superethnos?
        1. Pane Kohanku 18 February 2020 13: 23 New
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          and other hordes, or from Samsonov with his superethnos?

          Michael, you confuse concepts. stop There was no Mongol. Because the "Mongols" were part of a superethnos. hi
          Thus, in Russia, two fragments of the great northern civilization, the legendary Hyperborea, the late Great Scythia, descended in the battle of the Titans. Ruses of Ryazan, Vladimir and Kiev fought with the late Scythian clans of the Asian part of the northern tradition. Anthropologically and genetically late Scythians-Horde were the same Rus-Russians as the Russians, who lived in Suzdal or Chernihiv. Outwardly, they differed in the dialect of the Russian language (like today's Russians and "Ukrainians"), in faith they were pagan- "trashy", in the style of clothing and life ("Scythian-Siberian animal style"). Therefore, the Horde (from the Russian words “kin”, “glad”) did not bring much to Russia and relatively quickly (historically) became part of the united Russian Empire, which was finally formed in the era of Ivan the Terrible.
          taken from here:
          https://topwar.ru/137167-nikakih-mongolov-na-rusi-xiii-xv-vv-ne-bylo.html
        2. Horde1 18 February 2020 13: 27 New
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          Quote: Trilobite Master
          our story


          no, do not confuse not our history, but your history. I showed the cards that the Belgorod Horde on another card Russian tartars, you, as it were, cheerfully began to answer in a stamp, but then full snickers, and
          questions remained.
          Chatting next to and instead of this does not mean that answering questions.
          1. Trilobite Master 18 February 2020 14: 29 New
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            Reread again what I wrote and what you wrote. Or, better, ask someone to read more cleverly and explain to you at the level available to you. Actually, even your cards, which you publish with manic persistence here, refute your infantile constructions with a little deeper analysis, and they refute them in one wicket, but you cannot even understand this. You see, in order not to understand that where the “Scale” is written, comparative measures of length are given, and not the absolute distances between any points - it is necessary to have dementia already on the verge of imbecility ... fool laughing
            I understand that you may not know about Belgorod Tatars, you may not have an idea about such an entity as the Budzhak horde, you may not think about the fact that different people speaking different languages ​​call the same things in completely different ways, meaning it’s the same thing, but don’t understand it after they explain it to you at the simplest level ... In my opinion, this is already hopeless.
            Honestly, I would be ashamed of appearing at VO for at least another six months if I only wrote such nonsense once that you publish here regularly and were so frankly and ruthlessly smeared by any of your colleagues, you continue to wrap around proud view. laughing
            I am simply convinced that you are writing your comments here, sitting on a pile of broken glass with your hands cut many times. wassat
            1. Horde1 18 February 2020 14: 49 New
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              Quote: Trilobite Master
              Bujak Horde

              Ruska Tartaria, where Belgorod Horde is what is on the map?
            2. karabass 18 February 2020 17: 47 New
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              Don’t take it to heart, historians and archaeologists, on the contrary, welcome such faithful fools, gasp, assent, insult and approve of nonsense. The most chic is to infiltrate them, "open your soul" and send on foot the emotionless idiot behind the booze to the nearest settlement from the excavations. As he leaves, or they leave, get a stash and drink "FOR NONSENSE"
            3. 3x3zsave 18 February 2020 18: 23 New
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              Michael, my respect! hi
              You know, I thought here ...
              The resource, on which our respected colleague Artur Praetor regularly publishes his materials, in the world of Artem (the author of remarkable articles on the history of Spain), positions himself as a site devoted to AI. The architecture of the site includes the heading "Maps". However, not all such resources openly declare their subject. There is a suspicion if your opponent draws “inspiration” from there.
              1. Trilobite Master 18 February 2020 20: 01 New
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                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Does your opponent get "inspiration" from there

                Anton, dear, if ...
                A person who sees painted "houses" on a map and seriously believes that it was there and exactly such houses that stood in reality (follow his link, look, it's worth it), doesn’t need any alternative resources, he doesn’t need anything then to fit on something on paper - everything is adjusted by itself directly in his head. I think in psychiatry there is a name for such an effect (installation?), But now I google laziness.
                This is the case when you show a person a tomato, and he says "cucumber", if you object, it will require evidence, present evidence, the fake will say. And for proving the identity of concepts, it’s enough that in both words there is the letter “o”.
                1. 3x3zsave 18 February 2020 20: 27 New
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                  I know these "houses". Through the prism of Yandex Navigator, they are similar to Zmiev shafts. "Ships" are colloquially referred to.
            4. vladcub 18 February 2020 18: 26 New
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              Michael, oh you and the wickedness: “so that someone smarter reread and explain at the level available to you” they smeared and trampled
        3. vladcub 18 February 2020 18: 16 New
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          Michael, are you not afraid that Fomenko will anathematize you?
          It happens that I read another Fomenkovets and think: like normal people, everyone studied in a normal Soviet school, and where did so much nonsense come from? In captivity, I begin to believe in magic
          1. Trilobite Master 18 February 2020 20: 03 New
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            Quote: vladcub
            Fomenko anathema will betray you

            Well, honestly, if one day I receive a letter from him with curses, I will mark this day until the end of my life as the greatest Day of my personal Victory. drinks
      2. Leshy1975 18 February 2020 12: 54 New
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        Quote: Horde1
        in today's Ukraine, they prohibit the Russian language, kill Russian people and rewrite history, but the local historian Ryzhov uses any Russophobic materials for his statues to emphasize once again the significance of this version of the story. What is the name of cooperation with the enemy?
        It is clear that Ukrainians will not write the truth, because they need somewhere to gain their worthless history, but on our sites, I think it is unacceptable to use false facts.

        Yes, what are the false facts? When Bulavin’s uprising passed in particular along the territory of the Voronezh region. And the tsarist troops left Ostrogozhsk in the town of Donetsk. This is our story (I myself am Voronezh lands). And I always wanted to find the place where this very town stood. As I understand it, this place is somewhere in the current Bogucharsky district. One needs to know one’s own hysteria, and not abandon it. hi
        1. Horde1 18 February 2020 13: 51 New
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          Quote: Leshy1975
          Yes, what are the false facts?

          Ryzhev, as an illustration of the political situation of that time, uses the modern Ukrainian map, and this is his political mistake.

          Quote: Leshy1975
          One needs to know one’s own hysteria, and not abandon it.


          I understand that you never found a town, but you say you need to know. To know and have a big difference.
          You better study the Zmiev shafts and think about how it was that runaway peasants such as Cossacks were able to fill such huge structures, otherwise academic science will turn its nose on such realities.
          Here is a map of Speed ​​John 1776. It is evident that this shaft is shown as a chain of residential buildings. It is known about the Zmiev Shafts that they were west of the Dnieper, and here from the Dnieper to the Volga and nothing is known about them, that’s what they would do if they live there.



          https://geoportal.rgo.ru/record/113
          1. Trilobite Master 18 February 2020 15: 12 New
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            Quote: Horde1
            Here is a map of Speed ​​John 1776. It is evident that this shaft is shown as a chain of residential buildings.

            laughing wassat laughing
            Mommy, is there a limit to human stupidity?
            No, sometimes it seems to me that you are simply trolling here, but then, once again, I am convinced that no, this is not trolling. This is a clear demonstration of what folk history brings to the people in its worst manifestation - new succession.
            No guys, if anyone was too lazy - look at the map after all ... Link Zmievy shafts ... From Kiev, through Oryol, Tula and to Saratov ... In the form of houses with gates ... A continuous chain ... Aw, well done Englishman John Speed, aw, well done and you, my dear interlocutor, I don’t know what to call you - Is it a bar, a Horde with which digital index ... So it was like that as a foreign tourist painted? The houses stood close to each other, sometimes there was a gate between them and all this was Zmiev’s ramparts ... From Kiev to Saratov, it’s about 1200 km. A kind of sickly town ... Oh, hold me seven ...
            Pooh ... No, really fun ... I don’t owe you money for such a fun, an hour?
            Colleagues, there on the map REALLY is drawn something similar to multi-storey houses with numerous windows and with gates between them - from the Dnieper to the Volga, with a solid wall! I'm serious! But the most interesting thing is that the opponent is also serious. I suppose he believes that the drawing was made from nature. Soon we are likely to expect a fundamental study, which I ask the site administration to certainly publish here, if the author suggests. A study on the theme of "Architecture of Zmievy Shafts. Construction of multi-storey panel houses in Russia in the XVII century. Based on the materials of the map of John Speed."
            No, I'm going to drink tea. With a cookie. And tell colleagues, let them neigh too. laughing
            1. Pane Kohanku 18 February 2020 15: 29 New
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              Pooh ... No, really fun ... I don’t owe you money for such a fun, an hour?

              to him - no. stop If there are any superfluous, give me back, I’ll go to do laboratory work on the material of yesterday by Mr. Samsonov. soldier
              No, I'm going to drink tea. With a cookie.

              What, a tangerine zovsim dumb more? wink drinks
              1. Trilobite Master 18 February 2020 16: 42 New
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                Quote: Pan Kohanku
                I’m going to do laboratory work on yesterday’s material of Mr. Samsonov

                In the middle of the week? belay
                Personally, I, perhaps, will postpone these studies until the 23rd. Or until the 22nd, as it goes. And there we will explore the whole country. smile
                And tangerines are tilki new rick ... smile
                1. Pane Kohanku 18 February 2020 17: 23 New
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                  Personally, I, perhaps, will postpone these studies until the 23rd. Or until the 22nd, as it goes. And there we will explore the whole country.

                  I will postpone it too, but you yourself are scattering money! request
                  And tangerines are tilki new rick ...

                  new rick .... what I was looking for an old document on the computer now, I found my photo ten years ago ... over the years, we are definitely not getting better .. crying drinks
  2. Rust 18 February 2020 06: 15 New
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    I am joining. Great article. Very interesting. I hope to continue the cycle.
  3. rich 18 February 2020 06: 32 New
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    In 1962, 215 families of Nekrasovites (about a thousand people) returned from Turkey to the USSR from the village of Koja-Gol (Mainos). They were settled in the Levokumsky district of the Stavropol Territory.

    Vasily Parfirevich Sanichev with his family (the last chieftain of the Cossacks-Nekrasovites)

    Cossacks "Nekras" - settlers 1962








    1. Olgovich 18 February 2020 07: 46 New
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      Quote: Rich
      Cossacks "Nekras" - settlers 1962

      and how many kids in the photo!

      Preserved traditions.

      I wonder what remains of today ...
    2. vladcub 18 February 2020 20: 57 New
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      RICH, and the first photo periodically met as an illustration of the peasant life of the 900s
  4. Lamata 18 February 2020 07: 10 New
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    Author, take off my hat hi Great, and thanks for the photo. There was not much about the Nerkas people in Soviet literature.
  5. Korsar4 18 February 2020 08: 34 New
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    Cruel was the raid Dolgoruky. I remember for a long time. And the fate of the Nekrasovites is amazing.
  6. Trilobite Master 18 February 2020 09: 26 New
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    Valery, thanks for the material. The adventures of the Ignat Cossacks are certainly impressive.
    Amused:
    Atamans Semyon Drany, Nikita Naked and Bespaly along the Seversky Donets went to meet the army of Prince Vasily Dolgoruky.
    Units of Ignat Nekrasov, Ivan Pavlov and Lukyan Khokhlach headed east

    Directly criminal chronicle.
    "The brigades of Semyon Dranoy, Nikita Goly and an unidentified person nicknamed Bespaly were sent to the northeastern regions of the region in order to establish control over commercial structures and extend the influence of the Bulavinsky organized crime group to previously uncontrolled territories, which led to clashes with a number of city organized crime groups Moscow, mainly “Dogorukov’s.” As a result of several clashes with the use of weapons, including a gunshot, the Dranogo brigade, in view of the liquidation of the latter by the “Longorukov", broke up. shiysya establish control over the port and port infrastructure enterprises Azov Bulavin, met with fierce opposition from the local gang and eventually also was eliminated in his country house in Art. Starocherkasskaya. "
    1. Pane Kohanku 18 February 2020 10: 46 New
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      Brigades Semyon Dranoy, Nikita Naked

      and if they united, would it be the Golden Division? what
      "You generally live in the world by proxy! <...> You don’t have anything - you are a starving man!" laughing (Anatoly Papanov, "Watch out for the car") drinks
      but in general, Mikhail, they described everything very culturally! good
    2. vladcub 18 February 2020 18: 42 New
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      Mikhail, you’re definitely a masochist: Fomenkovists, and now you are setting communists against yourself
      1. Trilobite Master 18 February 2020 19: 46 New
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        Quote: vladcub
        Communists against yourself

        Those "communists" whom such a message can be set against themselves are not communists at all. So it’s not scary. smile
  7. Pane Kohanku 18 February 2020 10: 13 New
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    Panah kohanku Valery, - "my duty thanks" for the next article, which pleases! good
    Plan of the Azov fortress, 1736

    I was interested in the bastion system, and I flipped through Laskovsky’s album - a monumental pre-revolutionary material on Russian fortification.
    Here is a plan for the siege of Azov in 1696.

    We don’t see anything particularly outstanding here.
    And here is the plan of the Azov fortress for the 1710th year. That is, the bastions under Peter were clearly improved! hi
  8. Konstantin Shevchenko 18 February 2020 10: 24 New
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    It is not said about the reason for the rebellion of the Cossacks. Moreover, the uprising was organized not from the landlord yoke. Peter 1 will never be king of the people, as soon as they did not try to whitewash and justify his cruelty during the USSR. After Peter returned from Europe, the Russians for Peter were animals. And there are those who justify his attitude to Russian and Russian "but how can you be? He is the boss!"
    1. VLR
      VLR 18 February 2020 11: 03 New
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      About the causes of the uprising: read the first article
      1. Konstantin Shevchenko 18 February 2020 14: 25 New
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        Thank you read. Yes, I really missed it. Thank you for your work!
  9. Starshina wmf 18 February 2020 10: 40 New
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    They also say about the communists that they destroyed the Cossacks. There, under tsarism, they cut them even steeper.
  10. albert 18 February 2020 13: 52 New
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    Great article! Dragged to bookmarks. Interesting about the Pugachev uprising will be a cycle?
    1. Pane Kohanku 18 February 2020 14: 07 New
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      Interestingly about the Pugachev uprising will be a cycle?

      I will support, and I'm not alone! drinks Hmm .. in place of Valery, I would politely demand a bottle for the satisfaction of our aspirations! wink
  11. Fishery 18 February 2020 14: 50 New
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    “The king does not submit. Under the tsars, do not return to Russia ”
    I completely agree here
  12. Engineer 18 February 2020 16: 23 New
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    The article refreshed the information obtained by reading Solovyov S. M.
    The brutality of government troops is striking. No amnesties, collective responsibility. In the midst of the Northern War, thousands of Cossacks are being destroyed not by hearsay familiar with military affairs. There is not even an attempt to have mercy, convert them into soldiers and send them to a real war. Cherry on cake Kalmyks crushing villages.
    Still, Peter the executioner is 100%, no matter how progressive he seems
  13. faterdom 18 February 2020 16: 45 New
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    Nekrasovites have interesting songs. Cossack, but with a thick oriental flavor. In general, how many Cossacks genocide is something, and they turned out to be the most stubborn white bulwark in the Civil War.
    But only a particle of their energy conquered Siberia, mastered and explored the Far East, but only from the time of Suvorov they began to receive not only on the neck, but gingerbread, in the form of benefits, general ranks and some kind of respect for their ways.
    I believe that our Romanovs, for two hundred years, simply did not appreciate correctly what kind of power God sent them, and by their tyranny they had more minuses than pluses from the Cossacks. Discord, infringement, riots, genocide ... and so on in a circle.
    Or they could ... Yes, North America would be mastered and the Yankees would sit in their Boston and meow. Or for the Turks - it would be stronger, but to the Persians.
  14. Seal 18 February 2020 17: 48 New
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    Quote: Trilobite Master
    So hate our story, as the new settlers hate it
    What are the New Martyrs, what the Old Martyrs are one canoe. The novokhronolazhites - "Great Tataria", the novokhronolazhites - "Great Mongolia". Although, we must honestly admit that the novokhronolozhets relate to the history of Russia is much more humane than the old nokhronolozhet. Indeed, among the Novokhronolazhs, their "Great Tataria" does not establish a "yoke" in Russia. But the old-timers hate Russia and our history so much that by the forces of their "Great Mongolia" they establish in Russia a heavy "Tatar-Mongolian" (option - "Mongol-Tatar") yoke.
    1. Trilobite Master 18 February 2020 20: 08 New
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      Quote: Seal
      heavy "Tatar-Mongolian" (option - "Mongol-Tatar") yoke.

      That is, since when you first discussed this nonsense at the VO, such as “there were no Mongols,” you have not bothered to find out what real historians really say and write about this period? Maybe it's time to grow up, get out of school age?
  15. vladcub 18 February 2020 19: 40 New
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    Valery, thank you very much for your work. I bastard from your stories like a cat from valerian ..
    I have a habit: if the story is interesting, I swallow it, and then re-read it 2-3 times in order to better understand. So I’m going to chew on "Codratia" "and" Razin’s little foot "
  16. vladcub 18 February 2020 20: 32 New
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    “left about 170“ commandments ”I don’t remember where I read such a version that Nekrasov left not 170, but no more than 20“ commandments ”, and everything else is late speculation and editing. The author himself partially agrees with this.
  17. vladcub 18 February 2020 20: 35 New
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    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Quote: Seal
    heavy "Tatar-Mongolian" (option - "Mongol-Tatar") yoke.

    That is, since when you first discussed this nonsense at the VO, such as “there were no Mongols,” you have not bothered to find out what real historians really say and write about this period? Maybe it's time to grow up, get out of school age?

    And if you do not want to get out of childhood? I would gladly return to childhood
    1. Trilobite Master 18 February 2020 20: 58 New
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      Quote: vladcub
      I would gladly return to childhood

      If we believe the Buddhists we’ll all be there, I mean in childhood.
      Indians came up with a good religion
      That we, having given ends, do not die for good

      smile
  18. vladcub 18 February 2020 20: 38 New
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    [quote = Boss Trilobite] [quote = vladcub] Communists against yourself, configure [/ quote]
    Those "communists" whom such a message can be set against themselves are not communists at all. So it’s not scary.
    They, like Fomenkovtsy, are very loud
  19. vladcub 18 February 2020 20: 49 New
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    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Horde1

    He will not send it on purpose: his faithful followers will inform him of your desire and he will remain silent
  20. WHAT IS 18 February 2020 21: 36 New
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    Thank you, I enjoyed reading the cycle.
  21. Seal 19 February 2020 09: 10 New
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    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Maybe it's time to grow up, get out of school age?
    So I say that it may be time to already grow up and stop believing in Santa Clauses, grandmothers Ezhek, "Great Tatars"; "Great Mongolia" ???
    Your argument in defense of your Great Mongolia and the appeal to certain "serious historians" are in fact absolutely identical to the arguments in defense of your Great Tataria. Only while the old-timers have an array of "serious historians" more than the new-timers. But everything flows, everything changes. Who can guarantee that in 50 years there will not be the other way around?
    1. Trilobite Master 19 February 2020 23: 32 New
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      Quote: Seal
      Your argument

      And yours?
      The existence of the Mongol empire and its conquests is evidenced by many diverse and completely independent sources, both written and material. Modern historians rely on them, reconstructing events.
      As an objection, supporters of an alternative story lay out mainly three arguments: how to feed horses, where are the genetic traces and where are the Mongolian graves in Russia. More advanced ones also refer to the lack of steel mills among the Mongols, as if in Russia and in Europe their heaps, cities and scripts, although the Mongols had both, you just need to ask. It’s just that most of these “supporters” apparently attended school back in the 60s and 70s. (they still talk about 300 thousand Mongols) and the rest studied the school history course as early as the 80s. (they talk about 150 thousand) and the level of historical knowledge they have not risen above the fourth or fifth grade of high school, while life experience is far from childish.
      Read, for example, Anton Gorsky "Russia and the Horde." Or Denis Khrustalev "Russia from the invasion to the yoke." According to the Mongols, there is still a strong author, Roman Khrapachevsky, "Military Power of Genghis Khan." See how and to whom the authors refer, what they rely on, documents, archeology, run through the links, everything is checked, everything can be found.
  22. Old26 19 February 2020 21: 40 New
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    Quote: Olgovich
    I wonder what remains of today.

    Yes, almost nothing in the way has changed. As they were original, they remained
  23. Seal 20 February 2020 18: 47 New
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    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Read, for example, Anton Gorsky "Russia and the Horde." Or Denis Khrustalev "Russia from the invasion to the yoke." According to the Mongols, there is still a strong author, Roman Khrapachevsky, "Military Power of Genghis Khan." See how and to whom the authors refer, what they rely on, documents, archeology, run through the links, everything is checked, everything can be found.
    I’ve probably told you 10 times already, let's look at documents written in the first person, clearly dated precisely by that “time”. And it is not known when and by whom the narrative actually written is unknown.
    Your spells that "the existence of the Mongol empire and its conquests are testified by many diverse and completely independent sources, both written and material" - for decades remain only spells.
    Modern historians rely on them, reconstructing events.
    What historians, such a reconstruction. No less funny that Fomenko with Nosovsky.
    Show at least one genuine document (a photocopy of course), commercials until the 16th, which featured some "Mongols" who attacked Russia and Europe.
    1. Seal 20 February 2020 18: 55 New
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      Section "Bibliography" of the book "Military Power of Genghis Khan". Not a single document. The book itself also does not have a single photocopy of the document.
      Again one narrative.
      1. "The autobiography of Timur and the heroic legends about Genghis Khan and Aksak-Temir", M. - L., Academia, 1934.
      2. “Annals of the Burton Monastery” // V. I. Matuzova. English medieval sources of the 1979th – XNUMXth centuries M., Science, XNUMX.
      3. "Annals of the Waverley Monastery" // V. I. Matuzova. English medieval sources of the 1979th – XNUMXth centuries M., Science, XNUMX.
      4. 4. Anninsky S. A. Izvestia Hungarian missionaries. XIII – XIV centuries about the Tatars in Eastern Europe // "Historical Archive", vol. III. M. — L., Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1940.
      5. "Armenian sources about the Mongols." M., Publishing House of Oriental Literature, 1962.
      6. Bichurin N. Ya. Collection of information about the peoples that lived in Central Asia in ancient times, vol. I. M. — L., Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1950.
      7. Roger Bacon. The Great Composition // V. I. Matuzova. English medieval sources of the 1979th – XNUMXth centuries, M., Science, XNUMX.
      8. “Ancient Turkic Dictionary”, L., Science, 1969.
      9. “Spiritual and contractual letters of the great and specific princes of the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries.”, M. — L., Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1950.
      10. Ye Lun-Li Qidan Gozhi (History of the Khitan State). M., Science, 1979.
      11. "Amended and newly approved code of the motto of the reign of Heavenly prosperity", book 2. M., Science, 1987.
      12. Giovanni del Plano Carpini. The history of the Mongols // "Travel to the eastern countries of Plano Karpini and Rubruk." M., State Publishing House of Geographical Literature, 1957.
      13. "Kartlis Tskhovreba" (fragments) // "Chronicles and Chronicles. 1980 ". M., Science, 1981.
      14. Kirakos Gandzaketsi. History of Armenia. M., Science, 1976.
      15. "The book of Marco Polo." M., State Publishing House of Geographical Literature, 1955.
      16. Kozin S. A. The Secret Legend. M. — L., Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1941.

      ..................
      208. Ke Shao-min. Xin Yuan Shi (The New History of Yuan) // Yuan Shi, Taipei, 1966.
      209. Zhang Bi-bo, Dong Guo-yao. Zhongguo gudai beifang min-zu wenhuashi (Ancient Chinese culture history of the northern peoples of China). Harbin 2001, "Heilongjiang Renmin Chubanyne."
      210. Zhou Wei. Zhongguo Bingqi Shigao (History of Chinese weapons). Beijing, 1957, "Shenho Soul of Xinzhi Shudian Chuban."
      211. “Zhongguo Junyi Shi” (History of the Military Affairs of China), vol. II. Beijing, 1986, Jiefangjun Chubanyne.
      212. "A literary and historical atlas of Asia." London - New York, 1910.
      213. FW Cleaves The Historicity of the Baljuna Convenant // Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 18e 1955.
      214. John K. Fairbanlc, Edwin O. Reischauer, and Albert M. Craig, East Asia: Tradition and Transformation. Boston, 1978.
      215. Aleksey Martyniouk Die Mongolen im Bild: orientalische, westeuropäische und russische Bildquellen zur Geschichte des Mongolischen Weltreiches und seiner Nachfolgestaaten im 13. – 16. Jahrhundert. Hamburg, 2002.
      216. Ig. de Rachewiltz and Nakano Miyako Index to biographical material in Chin and Yuan literary works. Canberra, 1970.
      217. “The Jenghiz Khan miniatures”, Spring books. London, 1963.
  24. Seal 21 February 2020 16: 17 New
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    Quote: Trilobite Master
    According to the Mongols, there is still a strong author, Roman Khrapachevsky, "Military Power of Genghis Khan."
    This "strong author" is completely carried to the feathers and feathers by your fellow traditionalists.
    https://www.proza.ru/2013/08/19/1113
    This fact, coupled with citing the obsolete works of classics, suggests that the author of the book under review became a victim of the well-known in sociology of science, "Matthew Effect", described by Robert Merton.

    Having carefully examined the reports of Karpini himself, we did not find such a figure, therefore this message is a speculation or a mistake by V.V. Kargalov Khrapachevsky R.P. also does not provide a link to Karpini, just refers to the figure of Kargalov V.V. Thus, he repeats the mistake of Kargalov V.V.

    Returning to the general characteristics of the work, it can be argued that the goal of science is the production of new knowledge and the search for truth. If the researcher's goal is to produce new knowledge and search for truth, then he will not ignore most of the works on his subject. Ignoring works on their subject can have two explanations:
    1. The incompetence of the author, by virtue of which he simply did not know about the existence of these works.
    2. Intentionally ignoring the historiography of the issue. If the researcher intentionally ignores the experience of others and the work of other researchers, then naturally it will turn out not science and the production of new knowledge, but "scientific feudalism." Within the framework of “scientific feudalism,” the researcher is trying to occupy a niche and not let it go to “his” territory and ignore other researchers, which is a source of symbolic rent for him.