Military Review

Ainu: a long way through the centuries

Ainu: a long way through the centuries
Omusha. This diorama from the Aibu Museum of Nibutani in the city of Biratori recreates omusha, which occurs in the Aizu clan on Sakhalin in 1808. At first it was a celebration of meeting old friends or acquaintances, but gradually it was transformed into a political ceremony, during which rice, sake and tobacco were delivered to the Ainu, and the shogun's envoy read out new edicts. The Ainu elders sat in front of the house, and the messenger addressed them through an interpreter. The ceremony was usually followed by a banquet.

Among the eastern savages, the strongest are emisi.
Nihon Shoki. Japanese Chronicle 720

At the crossroads of civilizations. This material would have appeared on VO, as I promised to write it back in 2015. They are waiting for the promised three years, but here the expectation has stretched for as many as five years. But thanks to the perseverance of one of the participants in “VO”, the business moved forward and this article appeared. It is quite possible that it will be the beginning of a new cycle - because at the crossroads of civilizations in the past and in the present there was and there is much that can and should be told about.

Dogu: "clothes that close with the head." Belonged to the Neolithic culture of Jomon. One of the female dogu statuettes from the Paris Guimet Museum. It was these figurines that became the source of insinuations about the meeting of the ancestors of the Japanese with alien aliens

So Ainu. It is written about them in all books devoted to stories samurai, and in all these books reports about them are very abrupt.

For example, Samurai Mitsuo Kure. In the “Introduction” it is said that the government of Kyoto in the VI-VII centuries was engaged only in trying to break the resistance of emisi (ebisu), “barbarians” from the north of Honshu, who were experienced equestrian warriors and archery. And that prisoners and allied emissi often acted as mercenaries, protecting Kyushu from the invasions of the Chinese and Koreans, and even acquired all the rights of the samurai. And many noble clans just descended from the Emisi prisoners, as evidenced by the endings "be" in their names, indicating their status as prisoners or slaves - Abe, Mononobe, etc. The very word emishi (ebisu) is translated as "shrimp barbarians", that is, "shrimp eaters", but at the same time that this word is derived from Ainu emchu or enchu, which means "people", as well as Japanese e-fly - "Brave warriors." They were also called “hairy barbarians”, which makes them similar in description with the Ainu who are of interest to us, who were also “hairy people”. But are Ainu and Emisu the same thing or not? There is still no exact answer to this question. It is only known that when the ancestors of the Japanese, who belonged to the Altai language group, arrived in Japan, it was already settled. And they had to beat literally every patch of land suitable for rice cultivation from the natives, that is, they had to fight continuously. And the "Japanese" attacked the Aboriginal Emis, and the Emis attacked the "Japanese" in response.

Haplogroup D migration

The advantage was on the side of the latter due to the fact that their social organization was significantly higher in level. They already had a written language and a state, and the Emisu lived in a tribal system and did not know a written language. As a result, by the XNUMXth century, the "Japanese" captured the entire territory of Emisu's residence, except for the island of Hokkaido.

In general, it is believed that archaeological evidence suggests the closeness of the Emishi culture and the Neolithic culture of Jomon - this is, firstly. And, secondly, that it is close to the medieval culture of the Ainu that interest us. This allows us to consider emisi as a kind of intermediate link in the evolution of the indigenous population of the Japanese islands from the Neolithic era to modern Ainu. That is, the “hairy barbarians” of the Emisi are, as it were, the ancestors of later Ainu, and also “hairy”. But the latter were no longer horsemen, but fishermen and hunters, although they, of course, accurately shot from bows.

Book of A. B. Spevakovsky

According to the Soviet historian A. B. Spevakovsky, the newly arrived Japanese borrowed a lot from the same Ainu, including the ritual of “revealing the soul,” that is, hara-kiri. In his monograph Samurai, Japan’s Military Estate, Ezo (another name for Emishi) is the Ainu who lived in the north-east of the country and were forced out to the island of Hokkaido. That is, it can be considered that emisi (ezo) are either Ainu proper, moreover, very warlike, or some ethnic community, then transformed directly into Ainu. Well, modern historiography considers emisi a proto-Ainu community. That is such a “science” that is so complicated today for us, connected with this people.

The building of the Museum of Ainu Nibutani in the city of Biratori

As for the Japanese museums, (referring to the museums of the island of Hokkaido dedicated specifically to the Ainu), they are reported there almost everywhere the same thing: the Ainu are the indigenous population of Japan. In the Ainu language, “Ainu” means “human being”, that is, as it often happened to the culture of various nations, their self-name was identical to the concept of “people”. Ainu lived not only in Hokkaido, but also on Sakhalin (the Japanese name Karafuto), and on the Kuril Islands.

The decoration of the Nibutani Ainu Museum in Biratori is very modern. The exposition emphasizes that the island of Hakkaido for thousands of years has been a real crossroads of cultures. Mammoths came here from the north, and “Naumann elephants” from the south. Among the fossils, it is their teeth that are found most often

Here they are - these teeth!

Japanese scientists attribute the Ainu culture to the so-called Okhotsk culture, which between the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries spread from Sakhalin through the Sea of ​​Okhotsk to the Kuril Islands and the coast of Hokkaido, where they began to produce unique ceramics. However, a legitimate question arises, what was before this time and where did the Ainu come from on the islands of the Japanese archipelago and on the mainland. After all, if their culture correlates with the culture of the Jomon period, then this is such a hoary antiquity that little can be said about it at all.

Japanese swords of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

But this is the Ainu sword. Who didn’t borrow from anyone now ...

Makiri is a knife that is used not only for cutting, but also for scraping hides and cooking. Beautiful patterns are an indispensable attribute of the hilt and scabbard. Makiri was so convenient that the Japanese used it, and this made it a popular commodity.

Menokomakiri - Ainu female knife

Tacunepicoro - a short sword

We know about this time only from archaeological artifacts, but no more. The Ainu themselves can tell us a little. After all, they did not have a written language and all that they know about their past is just legends and traditions. And then, the Japanese practically did not study them in the past, since they saw in them their fierce enemies. Indeed, not only did they belong to the coveted lands, they were also typologically very different from them, but in ancient times people of a different physical type were almost always considered as “savages” and “enemies”.

But this is the material culture of the Ainu. It’s clear that the boat is a remake, but it was made from photographs that have come down to our time.

Clothing is displayed in such a way that it can be seen both in front and in the back.

It must be emphasized that the national clothes of the Ainu cannot be confused with anything!

As for the Europeans, they encountered the Ainu only in the XNUMXth century and were also very struck by their appearance, which was not so similar to the appearance of the "native" Japanese people they already knew. And they, too, were not in a hurry to study them, confining themselves to the fact that a tribe of people unlike the Japanese lives on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido, but it is not known where they came from.

Photo of an Ainu with a bow and dressed in plate armor. They were most likely bony, tied with leather laces.

Only modern science has made it possible to determine both the initial region of origin of the ancestors of today's Ainu and the route of their advancement to the place of modern residence. Thus, an analysis of their haplogroups showed that 81,3% of the Ainu population belongs to the haplogroup D1a2, which was preceded by group D. Well, it is very ancient and appeared in Africa about 73 years ago. Then, in Asia, about 000 years ago, the D60 mutation occurred. A subclass of its D000a1b1 was identified in a representative of the Jomon culture, who lived about 2-1 years ago in Japan. Well, at present, subclades of haplogroup D are noted in Tibet, the Japanese and Andaman Islands. A study of the genetic diversity observed in subgroup D3 in Japan shows that this group was isolated here between 500 - 3 years ago. That is, the Ainu all this time did not particularly mix with anyone, and their contacts with newcomers "Japanese" are relatively recent in comparison with these millennia.

Patterns on clothes, patterns on the handles of knives ... Apparently, the Ainu greatly appreciated the beauty of the things around them

A very strange artifact is a wooden stick with planed shavings. Many such wands were sacrificed to the temples of spirits

It is believed that in their travels through Asia, the Ainu ancestors reached Japan some 13000 years ago and created the Jomon culture there. Toponyms of Ainu origin say that they once owned the island of Kyushu, and that they also lived in Kamchatka, but for some reason they did not move to America via Beringia.

The Ainu house had an entrance in the east and did not have partitions inside. The dwelling on display here is a house restored on the orders of Mr. Yaichiro Hama (1916–1991), who was born and raised in Hirakaido, Iburi, Shiraoi. It was only slightly reduced to match the height of the ceilings of the museum. The hearth in the house occupies a central place, and there are places intended for sitting, sleeping and storing valuables or ritual instruments. They say that the coals in the hearth never cooled. Over time, the fire warmed the earth, and the walls and the roof of the reeds served as an excellent heater, protecting the inhabitants from the cold winters of Hokkaido

They did not engage in agriculture. And since hunting and gathering require large free spaces, the Ainu settlements were always far from one another. The Ainu religion is primitive animism and totemism, and the bear was considered the main totem animal. The Japanese even believed that the Ainu descended from a bear and therefore were not real people, which in their eyes was another reason why they could be killed. The hairiness of Ainu, their broad broad beards, which had to be maintained with special sticks during meals, and thick, curly hair on the head and body - all this terrified them. And here, in addition, is the cult of the bear, about which the Ainu themselves said that it was their ancestor!

Kaparimi - ainu kimono with traditional embroidery

And about Ainu women, for example, such a story was told. They usually wore overalls with a red fabric apron on the front of the belt. And so when they went to pick raspberries and met a bear in the thicket, they waved at these aprons and shouted: “Bear, bear, go away, but have you seen this?” The bear saw, was scared and left!

At the same time, the Ainu were very afraid of snakes (although they were not killed). They simply believed that if a person was sleeping with his mouth open, a snake could crawl into it and drive him crazy.

Embroidered hood

Bag for fire accessories

Another embroidered kimono

On the whole, both in appearance and in their customs, the aboriginal culture of Jomon and the culture of aliens from mainland Yayoi were extremely different from each other, which inevitably gave rise to their confrontation. But at the same time, the natives took over the metal from the aliens, and the aliens from the natives had horse riding skills in the mountains and, in fact, the cult of single soldiers, which later became the spiritual support of the Japanese samurai soldiers. And this is not surprising, because the confrontation of both of them lasted almost one and a half thousand years - a period more than sufficient for the interpenetration of even the most diverse cultures. Nevertheless, assimilation between them never happened, and the reason here again, most likely, was a purely ethnic factor.

Ainu Bow Arrow

Wicker sling

Saranip was a basket woven from tree bark and stems of various climbing plants. Due to the combination of different materials, the baskets were of various sizes and shapes. They were used to transport grain, for example, Japanese millet, wild plants and fish

The history of the Ainu is perhaps as tragic as the history of the American Indians. They were also driven into peculiar reservations, they were transported to the islands of the Kuril ridge, forced to engage in agriculture, that is, they broke their usual way of life. Rebellions against Japanese administration in Hokkaido and other islands crushed by force weapons. True, after the Meiji revolution, the Ainu began to build hospitals, canceled the most cruel decrees, but ... at the same time, they forbade men to wear their luxurious beards and women to have a traditional tattoo around their lips. That is, it was nothing more than an attempt on the traditional culture and its gradual destruction. True, according to the "Law on Patronage of the Aboriginal Population" adopted in 1899, each Ainu family was allocated a land plot with a 30-year exemption from land and local taxes and registration fees. Passing through the lands of the Ainu was possible only with the permission of the governor. Poor Ainu families were given seeds, and schools were being built in Ainu villages. However, on the whole, all this served one purpose: to make Aboriginal people live in Japanese. In 1933 they were converted to Japanese subjects with the assignment of Japanese surnames, while young Ainu were also given Japanese names. However, it must be said that the Ainu did not want to recognize themselves as Japanese for a very long time, they rejected Japanese culture, and came out with demands to create their own sovereign state.

In the museum you can try playing the Tonkori - a five-stringed instrument, a traditional musical instrument of the Sakhalin Ainu. Gently pinch the strings and you will hear the sound they make. The display shows how tokors need to be kept and played on it.

Currently, there are about 25 Ainu in Japan, but no more than 000 people speak their native language, and it is gradually forgotten. And only on June 200, 6, by the decision of the Japanese parliament, the Ainu were recognized as an independent national minority, which, however, didn’t affect their lives in any particular way. But now their culture is wholly and completely placed at the service of the tourism industry in Japan. Figurines of a bear carved from wood are sold in Hokkaido in almost every shop, and even in museums without fail, although ethnographers know that in the religion of the Ainu there was a ban on the image of their animal totem. Dressing gowns, characteristic bags, wooden carved plates, and much more are produced. The Ainu museums in Hokkaido, with the most modern design, open one by one, typical Ainu houses and entire villages are built, holidays with music and dancing are held. So, apparently, the culture of the Ainu seems to be preserved. But it, like the culture of the North American Indians, has long been hit by the rink of modern civilization, and basically it meets its requirements, and not the Ainu culture.

But this is the flag of the Kuril Ainu, which differs from the flag “just Ainu” in color (that blue!) And the image of a chain of islands along the edge. For centuries, the Kuril Islands belonged to the Ainu, they say, that is, both Russians and Japanese, when they argue about these islands, it should be borne in mind that we lived here long before they arrived. There you go!

* * *

The site administration and the author express their heartfelt gratitude to the Directorate of the Ainu Nibutani Museum in the city of Biratori and personally to Mr. Amy Hiroka for the opportunity to use photographs of their exhibits and information.

I must note that in my practice for the first time the administration of the museum, with which I contacted on the subject of obtaining permission to use his photographs, reacted to this in such a thorough way. An email address was requested to familiarize himself with the content of his materials, then the title of the article, my professional details, and also copies of borrowed photos. Only after that the contract was drawn up, which I signed, sent to the museum by e-mail, where it was stamped.

In this way, in fact, all the museums of the world should work. But it often happens like this: you ask permission and they answer you: ok, take it! Or do not answer at all. In the first case, this, of course, saves time; in the second, it is extremely impolite. As a result, I was once again convinced of the responsible and extremely conscientious attitude of the Japanese to their work. Well, the result of such an attitude is before you today.

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  1. svp67
    svp67 24 February 2020 06: 01
    Thanks. Ainu are mysterious "hairy people" of a mysterious civilization ...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 24 February 2020 07: 32
      Five years in anticipation of an article is not a deadline !!! It is especially pleasant when you read those gray-haired comments that inspired Vyacheslav Olegovich to write today's article.
      So, special thanks for the fact that the Author accompanies his work, tries to follow the aspirations of his readers, and probably the most important thing is our criticism!
      Remembering Vyacheslav Olegovich on his 100th and 500th article and comparing it with this article, you realize that these are two different people! At first, an intolerant, sharp on criticism and sometimes arrogant professor (with whom everyone was in a circle, even I am sinful), today he is sensitive, with a subtle sense of humor and principled outlook on life credos. A kind of Santa Claus. Why? All of us old-timers living in VO have managed to receive personalized gifts during this time. I personally have a series of medieval images of cats, the rest who have an article on a topic, or even a series of articles !!! The real example is above! Five years!!!
      Vyacheslav Olegovich, I admire you! Thanks a lot!!!
      1. kalibr
        24 February 2020 08: 49
        Thank you Vladislav! It's nice that you are smart and have taken everything apart so well. And ... you are right, information changes a person. When you write for others, you write for yourself. And every article changes you. I did not know 5 years ago what I know about knights today. Didn't know the same about rifles ... Didn't get in touch with museums all over the world. In a word, he was much less educated. And VO teaches communication. Does not divide into "friends" and others. And there are many very erudite people on Wo, there are those who have a good syllable, and I try to learn from them. Many have expressed interesting thoughts, and I ask them to allow their comments to be used as epigraphs. Then you think all the time. You think how it is easier and more accessible to write, how best to present the material. So: you teach others, others teach you! I read about it, now I checked it on myself. Therefore, VO readers too ... thanks! I learned a lot from them.
        Well, I also have a present for them. At one time I wrote the novel "People and Weapons". A number of materials were published from it here. But ... both EKSMO and AST refused to publish it. Marketing research has shown that it is not profitable. Not the most marketable topic. But I found a way out. I posted it on the authors website. today. There you can read the annotation for it and download it. Not free, alas. But also the price of 150 rubles. quite small in our time. So everyone who is interested, I invite you to watch it. Still, there is more to be said in the novel than in the article. All the best to you, dear friends!
  2. bessmertniy
    bessmertniy 24 February 2020 06: 12
    It seems that the whole history of modern Japan is connected with the genocide of the Ainu and their ancestors. The 25 remaining with the country's population of about 000 million - this is almost complete destruction of the people. Although, of course, there was serious assimilation, mixed marriages, etc. But, how many Japanese are today with Ainu roots, probably no statistics are kept. what
    1. kalibr
      24 February 2020 07: 07
      If there is "bae" in the surname, but the ancestors of the Ainu!
      1. bessmertniy
        bessmertniy 24 February 2020 07: 22
        And how much are these "b" - 5-10 million? As far as I understand, Premier Abe also has the same roots?
        1. kalibr
          24 February 2020 07: 27
          With the prime minister, it’s obvious. But, of course, there are few Ainu left in every way ...
    2. antivirus
      antivirus 24 February 2020 09: 15
      work for JSoros - autonomy of the Ainu in Hokkaido.
      and in Moscow to create a "committee to support the traditional culture of the Eastern Islands" headed by retired generals from the Far East Military District + the Chinese to connect there.
      What will partners say about Korea?
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 24 February 2020 07: 03
    с apron from red fabric in front on a belt. And so when they went to collect raspberries and met a bear in the thicket, they waved at him with these aprons and shouted: “Bear, bear, go away, and here it is - you've seen?" The bear saw, was scared and left!

    belayGhm-hmm ....

    Wow, "scarecrow"! recourse request
    1. bessmertniy
      bessmertniy 24 February 2020 07: 23
      And what could a bear see so terrible under the apron that it was running away !? belay
      1. kalibr
        24 February 2020 07: 28
        And you think!
        1. bessmertniy
          bessmertniy 24 February 2020 07: 31
          As I imagine, it's scary to think! wink
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 24 February 2020 07: 35
        Quote: bessmertniy
        And that this bear could see such a terrible thing under the apron

        So, and I about the same ...

        Oh, come on! belay request
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 24 February 2020 09: 31
          Quote: bessmertniy
          And what could a bear see so terrible under the apron that it was running away !? belay

          Sitting in the room of the district commissioner on Iturup a bear and squeaks a statement to the police. I went for breakfast to eat raspberries, and then, as the women ran in, waved their aprons, barely strayed! With fear even that winked a bearish surprise has occurred. recourse
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 24 February 2020 09: 51
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            Sitting in the room of the district commissioner on Iturup a bear and squeaks a statement to the police. I went for breakfast to eat raspberries, and then, as the women ran in, waved their aprons, barely strayed!

            And there was another case:

            went a man with his woman for raspberries. Suddenly, once! —And the bear in front of them (and, alas, they did not know about the apron).
            . A man is standing, preparing, and a woman ... let go. belay

            -Hey, round, woman: the bear is still faster than you running!
            -And I don’t have to run faster than a bear. I need to runfaster than you! yes
  4. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 24 February 2020 07: 28
    Sakhalin is the territory of the Ainu in the past. In fact, the Ainu disappeared from Sakhalin only in the forties after its liberation in 1945. "After the war," Japanese citizens were repatriated from Sakhalin and the Kuriles to Japan ... those who did not want to remain on Soviet territory. The Ainu were considered subjects of Japan, in addition, the Japanese culture, traditions had already managed to penetrate the Ainu population ... (for example, the reason for the voluntary resettlement of the Ainu to Hokkaido was also named: rice, which became habitual in the diet of the Ainu ... or rather, its absence (or insufficient quantity of it ...) in the food imported from the Union to the island ... In any case, there was (is) such a "legend" ... We must also take into account the fact that many Sakhalin Ainu had relatives on Hokkaido! As a result, nowadays the Ainu are on Sakhalin - one, two times, and the memory of the Ainu is preserved in the expositions of the Museum of Local Lore in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk ... to understand a lot ... to get answers to some questions Personally, I think that the "Ainu theme" is not sufficiently "covered" in the museum's expositions, but this is my personal opinion ...
    Ain shell.
    Ethnographic section.
    2MB. The liberation of Sakhalin.
    Fauna of sakhalin
    PS For a long time I had an idea: to invite a number of Ainu from Hokkaido and settle them in "ethnic" villages on Sakhalin or the Kuril Islands .. But now I don’t know ... About 50 years ago, it may have made some sense. ..but now...... what request
    1. kalibr
      24 February 2020 07: 51
      A very good addition! Thanks! I have already contacted the Museum of Local Lore in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. I got permission from them to publish their photographs. Museum quality photographs without glare. But she will linger a little ... But they have a great interactive tour ...
      1. Nehist
        Nehist 26 February 2020 01: 28
        I advise you to directly contact Igor Anatolyevich Samarin, he has a lot of material on the Ainu. (my first history teacher by the way)
        1. kalibr
          26 February 2020 10: 57
          Dear Alexander! Thanks, of course, but, meaning? I wrote an article. There will be one more. ALL! For a magazine publication, I don’t need more and I’m not interested in this topic at all.
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 24 February 2020 08: 01
      Nice museum.
  5. Same lech
    Same lech 24 February 2020 07: 42
    Thank you Vyacheslav Olegovich for an interesting article and the elimination of illiteracy in the history of the Aina people ... very interesting ..
    1. kalibr
      24 February 2020 07: 48
      Glad you liked it. I was asked and I did. There will be another article, but there ... you need to wait a bit.
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 24 February 2020 13: 08
    This material would have appeared on VO, as I promised to write it back in 2015. They are waiting for the promised three years, but here the expectation has stretched for as many as five years. But thanks to the perseverance of one of the participants in “VO”, the business moved forward and this article appeared. It is quite possible that it will be the beginning of a new cycle - because at the crossroads of civilizations in the past and in the present there was and there is much that can and should be told about.
    I think, Vyacheslav Olegovich, that this article is, let's say, a contour map to the "Ainu" theme, moreover, it is quite large-scale, since this topic is very complex, and for the author too.
    Even the question of ebis and Ainu can draw more than one article, since the name of emisi, according to recent studies, unlike Ainu, does not seem purely ethnic.
    Approximately from the moment of the founding of the Yamato state and as the national identity of the Japanese was formed, which was strongly influenced by the Korean and Chinese cultures (the Nara (710–794) and Heian (794–1185) eras), the population of territories outside the field of Yamato's field of vision was considered how barbaric. The "barbarians" of various lands of the Japanese archipelago in the annals of that time were called by different words, including emii or ebisu.
    According to one of the Ainu legends, "there was a time when the first Ainu descended from the Land of Clouds to the earth, fell in love with it, took up hunting and fishing to eat, dance and bear children." And the ancient Japanese chronicle says: "When our august ancestors descended from the sky by boat, on this island they met several barbarian tribes, the most ferocious of which were the Ebisu."
    That is, the Emishi are one of the many "barbarian" tribes that inhabited Japan.
    I will not delve into the topic, for those who are interested in the issue I recommend this book. From what there is about Ainu in Russian for non-specialists, this is perhaps the best.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 24 February 2020 13: 15
      As for the life of the Ainu, I can recommend the work of the Japanese artist Bezan Hirasawa, who lived for a long time among the Ainu of Hokkaido and in his watercolors depicted the traditional way of life of the Ainu. By the way, the largest collection of his watercolors is in the funds of the Omsk Museum of Fine Arts. M.A. Vrubel.

      Hunting for a bear that lifted a lost horse.
      1. kalibr
        24 February 2020 13: 36
        Quote: Undecim
        By the way, the largest collection of his watercolors is in the funds of the Omsk Museum of Fine Arts. M.A. Vrubel.

        I know about this, but ... it’s very time consuming to contact all museums.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 24 February 2020 13: 51
          I would like to note one more point. Among the creators of Ainology as a science, there is Russian Orientalist Nikolai Aleksandrovich Nevsky. After graduating from the Faculty of Oriental Languages ​​of St. Petersburg University in 1915, Nevsky was seconded by the university to Japan for an internship - with the expectation of further using it as a teacher - and for conducting research work.
          In 1917, for well-known reasons, the university stopped paying maintenance, and Nevsky had to enter the service in order to have a livelihood. In 1919, he received a position as a teacher of the Russian language at the Higher Commercial School in Otaru in Hokkaido. There were few students, there was time for science, and here he came into contact with the language and folklore of the Ainu island natives. In those years, global Ainology was only in its infancy, there were only a few specialists. For three years in Hokkaido, Nevsky managed to join the ranks of leading Ainologists, and in 1922 he was invited to lecture at Kyoto University.
          Since 1922, Nevsky is a professor of Russian at the Osaka Institute of Foreign Languages. When Nikolay Alexandrovich returned to his homeland in 1929, he was already a recognized international authority in Ainology and Tangutology.
          Well, then 1937.
          Rehabilitated in 1956. In 1962, Nikolai Nevsky was awarded the (posthumous) Lenin Prize for deciphering the Tangut script.
  7. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 24 February 2020 14: 17
    About ten years ago I came across the work of Harvard University professor Richard Joseph Fulstamp on the ethnogenesis of penguins. It has several lines about Ainu. I quote a lengthy quote from his work:
    There is a widespread belief that penguins are found in Antarctica. Yes and no. Of course, there are penguins in Antarctica, but they are also in Africa. According to authoritative publications, this explains their dual black and white nature. The snow-white Antarctic snows plus the temperament of the African natives certainly created this monochrome effect. It is obvious that during mating games, the female penguin lying on the snow with his back upwards attracts the male in such a contrast, and the snow-white belly of these birds provides them with disguise during the remaining periods of their hectic life. However, can we limit ourselves to a simple statement of this fact? Of course not. The nature of penguins is so complex and diverse that it requires much more in-depth research.
    Emperor penguins are superior in growth to all their other brethren and have bushy bushy eyebrows of yellow-orange and, in some individuals, even red. These are undoubtedly the brightest representatives of the species we are considering, and nevertheless, most researchers ignore the origin of these same eyebrows, which in the scientific literature has not received enough coverage.
    We conducted a number of studies in this direction and came to unexpected conclusions. Similar eyebrows in mass are found only in representatives of some tribes of the indigenous population of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. We noted the most bushy eyebrows among the Ainu, a small people living in the north of Hokkaido and the small islands adjacent to it. We have put forward a hypothesis about the mixed origin of emperor penguins at the same time from the natives of South Africa and the islands of the northern part of the Pacific Ocean. In a detailed study of the life and customs of the Ainu, our hypothesis was brilliantly confirmed. We have reliably established that at least three times a year, Ainu holidays are celebrated by all sexually mature members of the community and these days Ainu men paint their eyebrows in bright yellow or orange, and some (note!), Even in red. Such a coincidence is amazing!
    This gave us a starting point for further research, during which we found some more striking coincidences that cannot be accidental. Almost all Ainu can swim. This skill is very related to them with penguins. The cry of an angry Ain that fell into the hot spring that abounds in the land of Hokkaido is strikingly reminiscent of the cry of a wounded emperor penguin. We came to the conclusion that the genetic predisposition among Ainu and penguins to live in cold latitudes is the same. And finally, the penguin, squinting in the sun, is strikingly reminiscent of Ainu, if you mentally attach a penguin beak to his face. Thus, the theory of the origin of penguins from the indigenous inhabitants of the Japanese islands can be considered proven.
    Of course, at some point in the evolution of the path of penguins and Ainu diverged. Snow-white penguins left their homeland and went south, lingered for some time in South Africa (having inherited a little black from the local population), after which they continued their journey to the shores of Antarctica. Unfortunate Ainu remained on the inhospitable cold shores of Hokkaido. Currently, their number does not exceed five thousand, while penguins found a second homeland in the cold Antarctic and their population has increased significantly.

    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 24 February 2020 16: 40
      Is this a sequel by A. France "Penguin Island"?

      (I didn’t read the truth, to my shame. It didn’t go in childhood. And then I didn’t get it).
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 24 February 2020 17: 27
        Quote: Korsar4
        Is this a sequel by A. France "Penguin Island"?

        Almost laughing
        It was in 2011 that I composed, as they say, "on the instructions of the editorial board" - I was proving to one of my acquaintances that within three hours I could write a coherent text uniting two unrelated concepts of her choice. She chose the terms "penguin" and "Japan". laughing
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 24 February 2020 17: 36
          I tried to understand where such associations and penguins came from.

          There was a muse.
        2. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 24 February 2020 23: 51
          I can easily prove that penguin colonies in Antarctica are
          gradual devolution (reverse evolution) of the population of polar stations.
          And walking "like a human" with the body upright, and general meetings,
          very similar to human. There are no Ainu needed in confirmation. smile
  8. Operator
    Operator 24 February 2020 15: 05
    Haplogroup D stood out from the ancestral BT haplogroup in Southwest Asia (and not in Africa) 60 thousand years ago. Currently, the highest concentration of carriers of haplogroup D is observed in Tibet (90%), the Andaman Islands (70%), the Korean Peninsula (50%) and the Japanese Islands (50%).

    Ainu (82% D) are the first settlers of the Japanese islands, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, dating back to 40000 years ago. 2500 years ago, Chinese residents began to migrate to the Japanese islands - carriers of haplogroup O, who possessed a higher level of civilization (agriculture, metal processing, horse-drawn transport, cattle breeding, a pottery wheel, a loom, writing, etc.), which were assimilated in the linguistic , culturally and biologically, Ainu, who were hunter-gatherers with stone and bone tools.

    By the 19th century, the Ainu proper were preserved in Hokaido, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. The Japanese (as well as Koreans) are classic mestizos - half carriers of haplogroup O, half carriers of haplogroup D.
  9. Pashhenko Nikolay
    Pashhenko Nikolay 24 February 2020 15: 50
    Vyacheslav Olegovich didn’t say a bit that Ains and Sakhalin were not treated in the best way. And there not only the Japanese, but we had a hand. But what to do. As the Indians in America did not fit, so to speak, into modern civilization. peoples similarly went into oblivion.
    1. kalibr
      24 February 2020 16: 03
      Quote: Pashhenko Nikolay
      a little bit

      There will be more material ...
  10. Catfish
    Catfish 24 February 2020 17: 34
    Greetings to all good friends! Happy holiday to you!
    Vyacheslav, of course, thank you very much! I read somewhere about Ainu, but only now I have learned specifically. I will not comment, because it’s completely off topic, I’m best of all to read and I’ll gain my mind. smile
    True, the kettle, after the last two days, cooks with difficulty. As usual, sitting down at the table, I forgot to "look at my passport." request
    I’ll say one thing: the things of the Ainu struck me with their distinctive and unmatched beauty.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 24 February 2020 18: 15
      Nanai people also made clothes from pink salmon skin.
  11. sakh64
    sakh64 26 February 2020 16: 01
    A few comments.
    Emisi was not so much a people as a community, which included both the Ainu and the fugitives to the north of the Japanese.
    Dzemon, like proto-dzemon, is, of course, protoaines (mixed with other cultures, some of which are still incomprehensible), since, as directly, the Ainu people began to form only in the middle of the last millennium, and before that there were Kuvei and Proto-Kuwais. Then, under pressure from the south of the Japanese, they began their expansion to the north - to the "Ainu lands" - Ainumusori. On Sakhalin they were stopped in this movement by the Nivkhs, in Kamchatka by their distant relatives of Itelmen.
    That is why the Ainu did not go to America.
    But nobody forcibly brought the Ainu to the Kuril Islands. Moreover, when the Russians went to Kamchatka and went south, they met exactly the “shaggy smokers” on the islands and converted them to Orthodoxy right up to Kunashir. The tragic history of the resettlement of the Ainu is already connected with the 1945th century, when the Japanese, indeed, took all the Ainu to Shikotan, where in XNUMX only their Orthodox cemetery remained.
    But the Okhotsk culture, although, of course, interacted with the Jomon, was by no means Ainu. This is the expansion of the black-footed moss - the ancestors of the Bohai, Jurchen, and present Manchurian.
    And the path of the Ainu to the Japanese islands on the map is not correct. They were from that first wave of modern people who left Africa about 70 thousand years ago, went along the coast to Southeast Asia and were cut off by the explosion of the supervolcano Toba. These are Australian aborigines, residents of New Guinea, etc. But the Ainu, apparently, did come to point D1. Denisov's genes made them hairy ...
    In principle, all these studies in the Far East have long been carried out. But a short comment does not fit them))
    Regards for your interest in our area.
  12. sakh64
    sakh64 26 February 2020 16: 14
    And, in order not to be unfounded, I will draw your attention to a sufficiently detailed Sakhalin historians. He, of course, is primarily about the Kuril Islands, but in fact about the whole south of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, and, of course, about the Ainu.
    Once again with respect.
  13. tanit
    tanit 28 February 2020 17: 39
    Great article. The same comments .. This is just some kind of holiday.
    TANKISTONE 23 May 2020 15: 30
    I wish Ainam to issue Russian passports, conduct a course of lectures on their past, talk about the Japanese invaders, apologize for Orthodox Christianization, and allot land (they say, live in your homeland)! Maybe the Japanese would not try to return the islands ... Oh, what a world provocation would have turned out! After the collapse of the USSR-such a sucker to the capitalists !!! I mean that the land needs a master.