Whom "Kondraty had"

Whom "Kondraty had"

Article "The end of the Peasant War of Stepan Razin and the fate of the chieftains" we talked about the defeat of a grand rebellion under the leadership of this chieftain and the brutal repression that hit the inhabitants of the rebel regions. But how effective were these repressions, literally bleeding many cities and villages? Did they guarantee the stability of the tsarist regime, the loyalty of the Cossack Don and the quiet existence of landowners on the ground? And could the tsarist government, counting on the fear sowed among the people, continue the previous policy of widespread oppression and enslavement of its subjects?


The answer to this question is given by the uprising of the Don Cossacks led by Kondraty Bulavin, in which not "fathers" but "children" took part. The new leader of the rebels at the time of the execution of Razin was 11 years old. Representatives of the new generation knew very well about the cruelty of the Moscow authorities and remembered the numerous executions and tortures, but this did not in the least prevent them from rising again against the injustice of the new tsar - Peter I, the son of Alexei Mikhailovich.

Who is Kondraty Bulavin


It is believed that Kondraty Afanasevich Bulavin was born around 1660 in the town of Trekhizbyansky (now an urban-type settlement Trekhizbenka, Lugansk region). The version that Kondratius was born on the day of the execution of Razin is legendary and has a later origin.


The village of Trekhizbenka on the map of Lugansk region


Monument to Kondraty Bulavin in the village of Trekhizbenka

But there is another version based on the testimony of Semyon Kulbaki, who stated during the investigation that “Bulavin is a Saltovets, from the Russian people”, that is, a native of Saltov’s town, “Kharkiv Sloboda Cossack Regiment”.

One way or another, Kondraty Bulavin really lived in the Trekhizbyansky town, he got married here (his first wife was Lyubov Provotorova, who gave birth to two children - a son and a daughter).

His father was a peasant who fled to the Don, probably from Liven district (the territory of the modern Oryol region) - information about this family is available in the documents of the Local and Bit orders. Athanasius participated in some of Stepan Razin’s campaigns, and later there was even a legend that he was the keeper of this chieftain’s mace, and “Bulavin” was not a surname, but a nickname. Over time, he became a village ataman, and during the tragic events of April 1670, he was probably on the side of the elders and the "dominant Cossacks" who captured Stepan Razin.

Thus, Kondraty Bulavin on the Don was a stately and completely respected man and faithfully served the Moscow authorities: as a field ataman he participated in wars against the Tatars, in 1689 went to the Crimean campaign of Prince Vasily Golitsyn, in 1696 - to the Second Azov campaign of Peter I. In 1704, Bulavin was placed at the head of the Cossack village in Bakhmut (a city in the modern Donetsk region, in Soviet times it was called Artyomovsky).


Bakhmut on the map of the Novorossiysk province, 1800


Kondraty Bulavin, a bust in the city of Bakhmut

Bakhmut was considered a Don village, however, suburban Cossacks, Cossacks, and a number of fugitive peasants from the central provinces of Russia also lived in it and in the surrounding villages. There were saltworks - a strategic enterprise, in those days: duty-free production and sale of salt was traditionally considered a privilege and one of the main sources of income of the Don Army.


XNUMXth century Russian saltworks, drawing from Eric Palmquist's album

But in the country since 1700, there was a Northern War, and Peter I decided to replenish the state budget by introducing a state monopoly on the sale of salt, iron, wax, flax, bread, tobacco and some other goods. However, his omnipotent favorite, Alexander Menshikov, obtained a decree (dated October 13, 1704), according to which the proceeds from the Bakhmut saltworks were transferred to the Izyumsky Sloboda Cossack Regiment, commanded by the brigade leader Fyodor Shidlovsky, Danilych’s good acquaintance: “Those lands and lands in Bakhmut, Krasnaya and Stallion still own them, Izyumsky regiment foreman and the Cossacks. "

Evaluate the elegance of the combination: “justice is restored”, the income from saltworks is returned to the Cossacks, though not to the previous owners, but to the new ones — but the Cossacks are! Not Turks and Crimean Tatars. And Don Cossacks or Slobodskys - whoever is there, in Moscow or in St. Petersburg under construction, will understand.


Jacob Yesenev. Map of the lands of the Izyum Sloboda Cossack Regiment, 1725

Looking ahead, we say that such "business ties" of Shidlovsky were not brought to good. In 1711, he, in turn, decided to please the “Most Serene”: arbitrarily captured several villages that belonged to the Polish king, and ranked them among the adjacent estates of Menshikov. He violated the state border between Russia and the Commonwealth - no more, no less! ” He was arrested and deprived of all ranks and possessions. But, you understand: who would allow him, with such and such connections, to stay under arrest for a very long time? Szydlowski was released, the rank of Major General was returned, however, the estates that had ceded to the state were not returned: as they say, that has fallen, it has disappeared.

The beginning of the confrontation Kondraty Bulavin with the authorities


But back to a few years ago. Pursuant to the tsar’s decree, Szydlowski seized the Bakhmut saltworks, burned a village of indignant donors and at the same time robbed the local church - so as not to go twice. Then he raised the price of salt.

The recently appointed ataman of Bakhmut, Kondraty Bulavin, regarded such actions as a raider seizure and recaptured saltworks.

Szydlowski did not calm down and summoned the clerk Gorchakov to “describe the controversial Bakhmut lands." Bulavin arrested the clerk and sent him under guard to Voronezh. At the same time, he tried his best to look loyal to Moscow and tried to explain that he was not rebelling - in any case: restoring justice and hoping for an understanding of Moscow.

In 1707, Colonel Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgorukov was sent to the Don, who not only had to “genuinely search for the taxes and grievances that were previously repaired by the former Izyum regiment, Colonel and brigadier Fedor Shchidlovsky,” but also demand the extradition of all the fugitive peasants. And this already violated the old unwritten law, according to which "there is no extradition from the Don."

In 1674, the chieftain Semyon Buyanko called on the Don to "go to the Volga, to theft," and then rebels were called "thieves." The ataman wanted to "raise the Volga", to call the people "to the ax" - only three years after the execution of Stepan Razin! The Cossacks did not follow Buyanka, but when the Moscow authorities demanded that he be extradited, they answered:

“There is no law that it is impossible to give Cossacks from the Don, and it wasn’t possible under the former sovereigns, and now it’s impossible to give, and if you give it, Buyanko, then the bailiffs will send from Moscow, and their last Cossack brother.”

And the government was forced to retreat: then no one wanted a new war on the Don.

But the Don Voivode Pyotr Ivanovich Bolshoi Khovansky wrote in the Ambassadorial order in 1675:

“If the Don is not strengthened by many towns, and the Cossacks - Don don’t be enslaved by slaves, how we serve the great sovereign involuntarily, from them the truth will not continue. ”

Please note: the prince who wants to make the Don Cossacks "slaves" considers himself a slave to the king, but sees nothing shameful in this.

At the beginning of the 1695th century, the situation did not change for the better for the Don people, and in Moscow they were ready to recognize only those who came to the Don from the “internal” regions of Russia before XNUMX as Cossacks.

However, the Cossack foremen took from the runaway payment for concealment, and the bribes received from them made up a considerable part of their income. And therefore, the stolniki Pushkin and Kologrivov, sent in 1703 to the Don for the census of the fugitives, did not achieve much success.

Trying to curry favor, Dolgorukov acted in the most cruel way. His methods are preserved in the description of Bulavin (which neither contemporaries nor historians questioned):

“The prince with elders, being in the towns, burned many villages with fire and beat many old Cossacks with whips, cut their lips and noses, took their wives and girls on the bed and reproached them all, and hung children of our babies by the trees, chapels (probably Old Believers) all burned out. "

Well, truly, make ... "alternatively gifted" God pray - he will break his forehead. And, well, only myself. High-ranking corrupt officials, grabbers, blockheads, and Derzhimords diligently and purposefully pushed Don Cossacks, quite loyal to Moscow, to rebellion.

After all, Kondraty Bulavin was a man of a completely different warehouse than Razin. "Stenka" is the super-passionate leader of the "rebellious age", subordinating to his will and his charm all who were close to him. Standing in front of him, people felt an irresistible desire to kneel down, but Bulavin was just "the first among equals."

Razin in other circumstances could become the new Ermak, or he could become the second frantic archpriest Avvakum. In other countries and at another time, he would have a chance to repeat the exploits of Hillow Pedestrian, who “squeezed” Upper Normandy, Brittany, Caen and Er, the hero of the Reconquista Sid Campeador, Hernan Cortes, Jan ижižka, and even Napoleon Bonaparte. Bulavin appeared in the role of leader of a new rebellion quite by accident, leading a protest against apparent injustice. After the outbreak of active hostilities, when Prince Yu. Dolgoruky and the military chieftain Lukyan Maximov were killed and Bulavin occupied Cherkassk and was elected the new military chieftain there, he tried to enter into negotiations with Moscow, asking only for a return to the old order. Having not received an answer, he proclaimed the goals of the "liberation war": "To destroy those who do the untruths and live by a unanimous Cossack fraternity" (it was assumed that there are "kind" bosses and boyars, and even Tsar Peter, having figured it out, "did not order to ruin the Don towns and kill the Cossacks "). A folk song has been preserved, which emphasizes the "social" nature of his performance:

I didn’t naughty, good fellow,
I didn’t rob on a dark night,
And with my own I am here
All walked on the steppes, but walked,
Yes, he smashed the boyars, the king’s governor.
And for this, here are honest people
I will only say thank you.

That is, not the robber ataman Kondraty Bulavin, but the intercessor of the people.

Another song talks about the courage and daring of this hero:

On Aydar on the river, in Shulgin town
By chance, our Bulavin appeared,
Bulavin is not a simpleton, he is a dashing Don Cossack,
A brave warrior and Donetsk, he is a father for all.
He went to Turchin, beat a lot of unbelievers.



"Horse Don Cossack." Figure by Alexander Rigelman from the book "History or the story of the Don Cossacks "

Ignat Nekrasov and Semyon Drany were no less passionate than Bulavin, but Kondraty was more educated, smarter and “more flexible”, and therefore it was he who went down in history as the famous “thieves’ Don Ataman ”, becoming, in some way, the heir to Stepan Razin. S. M. Solovyov even called him “the new Razin,” G. V. Plekhanov “the titan of the people's revolutionary struggle.” And historians will talk about the Bulavin uprising, as about the "Third Peasant War."

1707 Autumn Campaign


But back to Yuri Dolgorukov: the self-confident prince then divided his detachment into four groups. The first operated from Cherkassk to Panshin, the second - according to Khopr, the third - according to Buzuluk and Medveditsa. For himself, Dolgorukov chose the area of ​​the Seversky Donets. In total, 3000 escaped peasants were “found” (about the same number managed to escape), and many “old-time Cossacks” were declared as such. This is already, as they say, "did not climb into any gate" and angered everyone to the extreme. That's when Kondraty "grabbed" Yuri Dolgorukov.

At the beginning of October 1707, the chieftain of the Bakhmutsky town Bulavin gathered Cossack elders in Orekhovy Bueraka on the “Troop Council Common to All Rivers”, which decided to engage in battle with the punitive of Prince Dolgorukov.


"Don Cossack Troops". Drawing from the book of A. I. Rigelman “History or narration of the Don Cossacks”


"Troops of the Don Esaul." Drawing from the book of A. I. Rigelman “History or narration of the Don Cossacks”

Late in the evening of October 9, 1707, in the town of Shulgin (currently the village of Shulginka, Starobelsky district, Lugansk region), the dragoons and Cossacks Dolgorukov were cut out during a sudden dashing attack, the head of the prince was personally cut down by Bulavin:

On Aydar on the river, in Shulgin town
By chance, our Bulavin appeared.

Now do you understand what events the folk song quoted above alludes to?

According to another version, Kondraty “grabbed” the prince and his subordinates during the crossing of the Aidar River.

So there was a famous phraseologism, which is now more often pronounced as "konfrashka enough."

Other tsarist groups that copied the "runaway servants" along the Don, Khopr, Medveditsa and Buzuluk were almost completely destroyed.


Don Cossack in battle with a soldier of the army of Peter I, lubok of the XVIII century

Troopers I. Kvasha, V. Ivanov, F. Safonov, village chieftains F. Dmitriev and P. Nikiforov were killed for helping punitive troops.

However, Cherkassk, Zakotny town, Osinova Luka, Old Aydar, Kobansky town and Krasnyanskaya village did not support this speech. A small circle of Cossack foremen in Cherkassk instructed army chieftain Lukyan Maximov to "bribe" the Bulavins - in order to avoid the invasion of new regular units of the Russian troops on the Don. Kalmyk prince Batyr also took part in the campaign against the rebels.

On October 18, 1707, Bulavin was defeated on the Aidar River near the Zakotnensky town, ten esaul and centurions were hanged on the trees by the legs, 130 Cossacks were “cut their noses”, many were sent “to other Ukrainian cities”.

Then a report was sent to Moscow that "the theft of Kondrat Bulavin was eradicated and it is safe to be quiet in all Cossack towns."

In response, the government sent 10 rubles to Don foremen, and 000 to Prince Batyr.

But Kondraty Bulavin was not killed and was not captured. At the end of November 1707, with 13 Cossacks loyal to him, he reached the Zaporizhzhya Sich. On December 20, on his initiative, a Rada was convened, at which Bulavin asked the Sachevs to join "the outrage of the riot in Great Russian cities." At the same time, the ataman Taras Finenko read out the imperial letter in which Peter I demanded that the “Don rebel” be issued.

The Zaporozhian Cossacks answered the tsar that in their army "it never happened, so that such people, rebels or robbers were given out." And what other answer could be expected from robbers and pirates?

But the ataman of the Cossacks at that time were interested in good relations with the Russian authorities, and Finenko persuaded everyone to postpone the decision to help Don until spring - "when the roads dry out."

Bulavin and his supporters did not wait for spring, and in February 1708 they organized a new parliament, which Foshenko “fired,” but nevertheless did not dare to enter into a confrontation with Russia, limiting herself to permission to go to the Don to the Cossacks, who themselves wish it .


N. Ovechkin. “Cossack with an earring in his left ear”, sketch for the panorama “Rise of the Cossack poor in the Sich”

Return to Don


In March 1708, Kondraty Bulavin organized a new Cossack Circle in the Pristan Town on Khopre. Among others, Colonels Leonty Khokhlach, Ignat Nekrasov, Nikita Goly and the chieftain of the Old Aidarsky town Semyon Drany came to him - it was his opponents who were most afraid of all others. It was decided to go to Cherkassk to kill the “ugly foremen” who “sold the river”.


The village of Starocherkasskaya (formerly Cherkassk) on a map of the Rostov Region

Already on April 8, Semyon Drany without a fight captured Lugansk town. And the army chieftain Lukyan Maximov, meanwhile, gathered a detachment of grassroots Cossacks, to which the Kalmyks joined, and, joining the detachment of the Azov colonel Vasiliev, went towards the rebels - to the Liskovatka river. Here, on April 9, 1708, a battle took place near the city of Panshin, during which many Cossacks of Maximov sided with Bulavin. The rest fled, leaving 4 guns, a convoy and a military treasury in the amount of 8 thousand rubles.

On April 26, 1708, Bulavin approached Cherkassk. It was a fairly strong fortress, located on an island formed by the Don River, Protoka and Tankin Yerik, and on the fourth side a moat was dug. On its walls were more than 40 guns.


The general plan of the city of Cherkassk

However, the chieftains of five of the six villages of Cherkasy Island took the side of the rebels, the city was surrendered. On May 6, it was decided to execute ataman Maximov and four foremen on the Army Circle, their supporters were "put in the water" (Ludwig Fabricius describes this execution as follows: "they tied a shirt over his head, poured sand there and threw it into the water").


N. Ovechkin, “Volnitsa”. Museum of the History of the Don Cossacks

The new military chieftain was elected Kondraty Bulavin. One of his first orders was orders to confiscate the church treasury and reduce the price of bread.


Ataman of the Don Cossacks. Drawing from the book of A. I. Rigelman “History or narration of the Don Cossacks”

Bulavin also tried to enter into negotiations with Moscow, asking that "everything was as it was before." If the authorities had entered into negotiations with him, it would probably have ended there: the new military chieftain would have led the Cossacks against the Tatars and Turks, sent the "villages" to the Ambassadorial order, asked for more lead and gunpowder to be sent to the Don, wrote letters of demand issuing runaway - everything is as usual. But the greed and stupidity of government officials, it was decided to correct the brutality of the military. The authorities responded to Don’s letter with the formation of an invasion army, led by the younger brother of Yuri Dolgorukov, Vasily, who was killed by Bulavin. The order given personally to Dolgorukov by Peter I on April 12, 1708 read:

“Walking through the towns of Cossack villages and which will be molested, and burning them without a trace, and cutting people, and breeders - on wheels and stakes, because this saryn (rabble) can not be eliminated except for obvious cruelty.”

And without this order on the Don, it was clear to everyone what methods this prince would act. Therefore, already at the end of May 1708, Bulavin, in fear of the death penalty, was talking about bringing the confessor to Peter I.

Sometimes you have to read that Bulavin was an "accomplice" of the hetman Mazepa, who had long conceived a betrayal. Even Pushkin writes about this in the poem Poltava:
Secretly sow poison everywhere
His sent servants:
There are Cossack circles in the Don
They muddied with Bulavin.

However, we remember that the Zaporozhye chieftains refused the war with Moscow, but Mazepa was still completely devoted to Peter I, moreover, he then allocated two Cossack regiments to help Dolgoruky.

Mazepa's betrayal was described in an article The Russian Campaign of Charles XII, we recall that the hetman made the final decision on switching to the side of the Swedish king only in October 1708, learning about the movement of his army to Ukraine, this decision was not very easy for him, and he regretted it long before Poltava.

Preparing for war, Bulavin, like many of his predecessors, sent out “lovely letters” in which he wrote:

"Son for father, brother for brother, for each other, and dying for one ... and with which thin people and a prince and boyars and a profiter and a German, they would not be silent for their evil deed."


Donskoy Army Region at the beginning of the XNUMXth century


The situation of the rebels was unenviable. Even under Tsar Boris Godunov, the construction of fortresses began, covering the lands of the Don Army on all sides. Gradually, from Voronezh to Astrakhan, a system of fortified cities appeared, dividing the territory of the Don Army and the Yaitsky (Ural) Army. And the fortresses built from Bryansk and Belgorod to the upper river Medveditsa made it possible to control the communication of the Don with the Zaporizhzhya Sich.


Land of the Cossack troops


Land of the Don Cossacks

The last link in this chain appeared in 1696 - it became the Russian fortress of Azov, for which the Cossacks themselves fought with the Ottomans for 15 years (from 1637 to 1641). Its significance was so high that in 1702 it was forbidden for Cossacks to fish from this fortress to the mouth of the North Donets, as well as "on the Sea of ​​Azov and on the rivers beyond the river." The possible consequences of the thoughtless implementation of this decree were clear even to government officials who quietly worked on it: the severity and cruelty of Russian laws was once again compensated by the non-bindingness of their implementation.


"Cossack coastal villages." Drawing from Rigelman’s book “The History or Narrative of the Don Cossacks”

In February 1706, another royal decree was issued: the Cossacks were forbidden to occupy the “empty” lands in the upper reaches of the Don: state peasants began to settle here. Also, landowners who brought their serfs began to rent plots of this land.

Now in the north of the region of the Don Army there were Russian troops of the stolnik I. Telyashov and Lt. Col. V. Rykman. In the east, near the Volga, stood the corps of Prince P.I. Khovansky (Lesser), who had just crushed the Bashkir uprising. The Kalmyk detachment of Khan Ayuki joined his troops. The mouth of the Don was locked by the Azov fortress with a strong garrison commanded by I.A. Tolstoy - the brother-in-law of Tsar Fedor Alekseevich (elder brother of Peter I), great-great-great-grandfather of F.I. Tyutchev. From the west was approaching the twenty-thousandth army of Vasily Vladimirovich Dolgorukov.


On the way to the army of Dolgoruky, 400 dragoons from Voronezh and the suburban Cossacks of the Akhtyrsky and Sumy regiments joined, led by the familiar Izyum colonel Shidlovsky. Thus, by the time the hostilities began, the total number of Dolgorukov’s troops alone reached 30-32 thousand people. The army of rebels was 20 thousand.

In the next article, we will talk about the battles of government troops with the armies of the rebels, the death of Kondraty Bulavin and his chieftains, as well as the fate of the Cossacks who left with Ignat Nekrasov in the Kuban.
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  1. Korsar4 15 February 2020 06: 20 New
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    Surely our whole story consists of two stages: "1. Still have the strength to endure. 2. It is time to rebel"?

    And here it was not without Menshikov. "Kondraty Bulavin" as a child read. It seems like it's time to re-read.
    1. Horde1 15 February 2020 07: 10 New
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      the cards do not correspond to the text, the rebellion of Bulavin is the beginning of the 18th century, and the cards of the article or the end of the 18th century or even the 19th century.
      1. Horde1 15 February 2020 07: 44 New
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        here are the cards of the beginning of the 18th century.
        see
        -Yurts of the Don Cossacks
        -Belgorod Horde, which later became known as the Budzhaksky Horde i.e. Bug Horde
        -Small Tartaria is exactly in place of the Zaporizhzhya Sich, Zaporizhzhya Cossacks


        Here was such a picture at that time i.e. all these Razin uprisings, Streltsy revolts, Bulavin uprising, Pugachev uprising are not peasant riots, but the war of Tartaria / Dardaria with Romanov’s Russia captured by the Germans i.e. with all of europe.
        1. Kronos 15 February 2020 12: 37 New
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          No Tartaria existed calm down already
          1. Horde1 15 February 2020 13: 05 New
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            Quote: Kronos
            No Tartaria existed calm down already

            funny people, do you really think that someone will already believe you? After all, there is evidence of the sea both in documents and on the ground in the names.
            1. Kronos 15 February 2020 13: 09 New
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              Yes, I saw "evidence" in the style written on the map as they called Russia in the west, so Tartaria existed
              1. Horde1 15 February 2020 14: 28 New
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                Tartaria had not only its capital cities shown in encyclopedias of that time, for example, Britannica of 1771, but even its own units of distance along with other countries of that time, Tartar miles.
                Tartar miles with arabesques, which makes up 655.9 French Touazes



                there wasn’t such a country, but units of distances have been preserved.
        2. Trilobite Master 15 February 2020 17: 50 New
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          Quote: Horde1
          here are the cards of the beginning of the 18th century

          Painfully familiar words ... laughing
          Hello Paul, you are with us again ... I won’t say that I’m very happy, but as they say, you won’t erase words from a song, yet you are an objective reality of our world, the existence of which you have to put up with, since there are legal ways to I do not see to get rid. wink
          Let's deal with your card. Normally, humanly, as objective researchers. You will not refuse readers of VO, whom you are trying so hard to enlighten, in such smallness.
          To begin with, I would ask you to inform the public about what this card is, who its compiler, when and by whom it was issued and where the original is stored.
          The second, no less important question is where exactly did you get it. The fact is that there are a lot of Internet resources that are gaining popularity by putting up for discussion fake information, fake or deliberately modified artifacts. We must be sure that we are discussing a truly existing (or at least existing) map without any distortions - intentional or unintentional.
          If you can give clear answers to these questions, we can start a discussion of the contents of the map - this will already have a certain meaning.
          Just please, let's try to keep up with our research today, at most until mid-tomorrow, because I’m not sure that the goals of educating the public that you are pursuing can be achieved by posting comments on branches that almost no one visits.
          1. Horde1 15 February 2020 18: 59 New
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            Hello, although I can’t tell you that I am glad to see you, and this is solely because, as an interlocutor, you’re sorry for the small amount, although you have more posts than others.
            here are links to maps
            Map of Amsterdam’s Ivan Tessing from the time of Peter the Great.

            https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b53040729z/f1.item.zoom

            French map with translation into Polish, numerous units of distances are interesting, named for different peoples. This, by the way, is not accurate, miles must be named exactly from a point on the map.

            https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b53192167z/f11.item.zoom
            1. Trilobite Master 15 February 2020 21: 02 New
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              Thank you, read it.
              I’m ready to admit that the maps are completely authentic and really exist in the form in which we can see them using these links.
              What will we see on them?
              Let's start with
              Quote: Horde1
              French map with translation into Polish, numerous distance units named for different peoples are interesting

              Do not you read French? I can do a little bit. So:
              We read from above in large letters échelles. What is it? Nothing special, it means "scale" or "grid" or can be used in the meaning of "scales". Some kind of tool for comparing something with something.
              Next, read what is emphasized by you. I will not bother you with transcription, just translate: "or the miles of Tartaria, estimated as 655,9 French marine (?) Fathoms." We look at the Polish translation, here it is simpler: "He is a soot of the Tatar (no Tartaria!) Is expressed in 655.9 ...", etc. need a translation?
              Do you understand your mistake? Here we are not talking about distances, but about the ratio of measures of length French and Tatar, nothing more. Next time, be careful.
              Further, on a geographical map.
              The map is certainly interesting, but how I can conclude from the information available on it that there is some Tartary or Horde at war with the Romanov empire is not clear. And all the more it is not clear how it can be concluded that Tartaria or the Horde consisted of Russians.
              The inscription “Yurt of the Don Cossacks” that you underlined only indicates that the Don Cossacks lived in the indicated place, but no one denies this. And including me.
              The inscription "Belgorotsky Horde" speaks of a certain entity, which was so named. Moreover, it is absolutely not necessary that this was an independent state - just an area inhabited by some people. We know the city of Belgorod-Dniester, by whose name this horde is named, its other names are known - the Budzhak or Akkerman (depending on whether we speak Turkish or Tatar) horde, the ethnonym "Belgorod Tatars" is also known. There is no news in history and this is not your discovery.
              And finally, the most precious thing for you is a direct mention of the word "Tartaria". Look at the area that is marked with this name. Lower left bank of the Dnieper, river basin Mius and r. Kalmius. What is there? Steppes. But if you look closely, along the coast of the Dnieper we will see several badges in the form of a circle with a crescent moon at the top and eloquent signatures along with purely Russian names: "Islam", "Tatar", "Mechetatar". And what does a normal, non-alternative story tell us about what was in those places at that time?
              It's simple: this steppe territory was controlled ... tadam! ... Crimean Tatars! Which were Muslims, professed Islam and built mosques. What? Personally, it seems more logical to me to assume that the name "Tartaria" came from the name of the people living on its territory - the Tatars. By the way, they are still in the Crimea.
              You ask why, then, "Small Tartaria"? I will answer. The Great Tartaria, that is, the territory where the Tatars live, but in greater numbers, was east of it and can also be seen on some maps. And here, in the Black Sea steppes, there were relatively few of them, so "small."
              Try to object?
              1. Horde1 15 February 2020 21: 36 New
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                Quote: Trilobite Master
                We read from above in large letters échelles

                you wouldn’t bother yourself so much, I can use a translator.

                Quote: Trilobite Master
                are the miles of Tartaria, estimated at 655,9 French fathoms?

                the translator didn’t take my tuazes from me, but this French unit of measurement is not translated like a sazen, the tuaz only equals 1 fathom. By the way, sazhen is a Russian dimension, but it is also in the English fleet.

                Quote: Trilobite Master
                He is the soot of the Tatar (no Tartaria!) Expressed at 655.9 ...


                illiterate, as you write it is not soot, but soot and it is tartaria that was written, not tataria. Right out of the blue you are trying to deceive, eye, eye, do you seem to be a lawyer?

                Quote: Trilobite Master
                Do you understand your mistake?

                laughing Yeah...



                Quote: Trilobite Master
                And all the more it is not clear how it can be concluded that Tartaria or the Horde consisted of Russians.


                What's not clear? If Tartaria is in place of the Zaporizhzhya Sich, then it is clear to anyone that this is one and the same, but Cossacks, even according to Taras Bulba, are Russian.

                Quote: Trilobite Master
                "Yurt of the Don Cossacks" only says that Don Cossacks lived in the indicated place, but no one denies this


                that's just that none of the historians ever made out what Cossack yurts are. Cossacks never lived in felt wagons in which nomads lived, because they did not wander, but always lived in houses and built the cities of Azov, Novocherkask, a lot of things. Therefore, what is the point the word yurt is not clear.

                1. Trilobite Master 15 February 2020 22: 46 New
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                  That is, you continue to assert that on the sheet where “scale” is written and conditional topographic data are decoded (below), distances are indicated, and not comparative characteristics of length measures? Did I understand you correctly? Is it the distance from Tartaria to France and is it equal to 655,9 something there?
                  If the French text is not clear to you, at least Polish look, or something ...
                  And by the way, about
                  Quote: Horde1
                  fathom and it is tartaria written

                  look carefully, you can probably do it all the same. deep intelligence is not required for this. It is written "Sazina Tatarska" The line first goes the French text, then the ruler, then the Polish. Carefully.
                  Further,
                  Quote: Horde1
                  Tartaria on the site of the Zaporizhzhya Sich

                  The territory of the Zaporizhzhya Sich was located to the west, exactly where Small Russia is indicated on the map and its borders went along the Dnieper. Sich itself, located where the city of Zaporozhye now stands, was an outpost against the attacks of the Krymchaks and a base for reciprocal attacks.
                  Cossack yurt - a concept that still exists, it means an analogue of our concept of "village". Cossack life has been studied relatively well, it is a pity that you did not familiarize yourself with these works before declaring the identity of the concepts “Cossack yurt” and “nomad yurt”.
                  Finally, at least admit to yourself that to build any conclusions you are sorely lacking two components absolutely necessary for this - education (you need to read more and preferably different sources, for example, I read Fomenko) and intelligence (there’s nothing can not be helped, unfortunately). You, apparently, are simply not able to study any subject deeper than "extremely superficially."
                  1. Horde1 16 February 2020 08: 34 New
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                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    That is, you continue to assert that on the sheet where “scale” is written and conditional topographic data are decoded (below), distances are indicated, and not comparative characteristics of length measures? Did I understand you correctly? Is it the distance from Tartaria to France and is it equal to 655,9 something there?


                    driving a fool is like a way to answer questions, a familiar manner on this site.
                    the map is French and translated into Polish, so it’s better not to break the Tatar and Sazhin language, but to read in French TOISES AND TARTARS.
                    As for comparisons, do not bother your head with secondary questions.

                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    If the French text is not clear to you, at least Polish look, or something ...
                    And by the way, about


                    what impudence, you are definitely a lawyer.

                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    Cossack yurt - a concept that still exists, it means an analogue of our concept of "village"


                    those. Is this a vast area of ​​the map such as the “village of Don Cossacks?” And were there no cities of Cossacks there? By the way, the name -Yurts of the Don Cossacks crossed across the Don and is located behind the Don.

                    a link to the studio where it is written that yurts are villages.

                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    The territory of the Zaporizhzhya Sich was located to the west, exactly where Small Russia is indicated on the map and its borders went along the Dnieper.


                    no, not there, but here, where the Chertomlyk river i.e. exactly where Tartaria is written




                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    You, apparently, are simply not able to study any subject deeper than "extremely superficially."


                    Well, you, as usual, together with Ryzhim sculpt a hunchbacked out of the blue.

              2. Horde1 15 February 2020 22: 33 New
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                Quote: Trilobite Master
                The inscription "Belgorotsky Horde" speaks of a certain entity, which was so called


                the last time in the academic editions of the Horde is the Golden Horde, which ended in the Olympics in the 15th century, but on the map of the 18th century it is the Horde that is based in the Russian city of Belgorod, so everything is clear with this Horde.
                Here is another map already written in 1757 by the Tartars of the Russian Belgorod on the Danube.




                https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b53192143b/f1.item.zoom


                Quote: Trilobite Master
                Lower left bank of the Dnieper, river basin Mius and r. Kalmius.

                By the way, these rivers had other names that everything is so renamed? Someone really needed it.

                Quote: Trilobite Master
                It's simple: this steppe territory was controlled ... tadam! ... Crimean Tatars!


                well yes, what else can you say? The fact is that there are LOTS of maps where all these types of Tatar territories are overlapped by other names such as these.
                for example, the 1606 map of Gerard Mekator can be seen on the site of the Don Cossacks the name Part of Tartaria. So the connection of tartars and Cossacks is simply obvious.


                https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b53040677r/f1.item.zoom
    2. Catfish 15 February 2020 18: 40 New
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      Hello, Sergey. hi , there is still a third category, when “everything is according to figs” and “my hut is on the edge”.
      1. Phil77 15 February 2020 19: 10 New
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        This category is the most numerous. Why? Well, by golly, not everyone should be passionaries, right ?!
        1. Catfish 15 February 2020 19: 14 New
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          Why? I do not know. Probably someone is more comfortable living like that. request
          1. Phil77 15 February 2020 19: 37 New
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            And who does not want a normal, quiet life? Who?
            1. Catfish 15 February 2020 19: 44 New
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              Yes, there is such a category in which it constantly swells in one place. Their overwhelming minority, but they, like that Poltaburetka, start the whole dog pack, which is scary. I saw what was happening in Moscow when the tanks beat the White House. Madness.
      2. Korsar4 15 February 2020 19: 37 New
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        Still, people are so different, Konstantin, that you can’t put this category on the shelves.

        "No longing, no love, no sadness,
        No anxiety, no chest pain
        Like a whole life behind you
        And just half an hour ahead "(c).

        We discussed here. It became less violent, hiding in the corners.
        1. Catfish 15 February 2020 19: 49 New
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          It is clear that we are all different, but how could it be otherwise. Only then it wouldn’t work out like this:.

          "There will be gentle rain, there will be the smell of earth,
          Twitter brisk swifts from dawn to dusk,
          And the night roulades of frogs in the ponds,
          And plum blossoms in the white orchards.
          The fire-chested ball will fly to the fence,
          And robins trill weave voiced pattern.
          And no one and no one will remember the war -
          Experienced, forgotten, tedious to nothing.
          And neither a bird nor a willow will shed tears,
          If the human race disappears from Earth.
          And spring ... and spring will meet a new dawn,
          Not noticing that we are no longer there. "
          (Sarah Tisdale)
          request
          1. Korsar4 15 February 2020 20: 02 New
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            "Seven bloodthirsty clans fought
            For her beautiful lips "(c).
            1. Catfish 15 February 2020 20: 07 New
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              "Do not wander us at night
              Though the soul of love is full
              And still beams
              Silver expanses the moon

              The sword will erase the sheath of iron
              And the soul exudes breasts
              Eternal flame is impossible
              The heart needs to rest

              May the beams of love
              A month stretches to the ground
              Do not wander around at night
              In the silvery moonlight ... "
              (Byron)
              Sergey is right, we are already old.
              1. Korsar4 15 February 2020 20: 14 New
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                "Everything will pass like smoke from white apple trees
                Gold withers engulfed
                I will not be young anymore "(c).

                "Barons are also fighting" (c).

                Or as Talkov sounded: "This is a halt."
                1. Catfish 15 February 2020 20: 26 New
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                  "Barons are also fighting" (c).


                  "War is the most exciting activity, because it most fully meets the true nature of man, predatory and selfish."
                  (S. Lieutenant Siegfried Gardenburg. "The Young Lions" by Irwin Shaw.) soldier
                  1. Korsar4 15 February 2020 20: 29 New
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                    "A pack of people" (c).
        2. Phil77 15 February 2020 19: 50 New
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          Yes! If you recall those rallies, many thousands !!!! in the early 90's and now? Pension reform. A pitiful semblance of the people * do not approve *. My God !!!! And we are the generation of winners? What's wrong with us ???? Well, I'm old, many on the site are old, and young !!!! what do they think? have we grown up? And after all, everyone says that mine are not like that! And we? are exactly the same as they saw us? Question! Is there an answer ????
          1. Korsar4 15 February 2020 19: 59 New
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            Picture in my head: as if the world was being cut like a circle, then one line, then another, leaving corners, and even then standard, inanimate.

            “Both dresses, hair, and minds are short” (c).
            1. Phil77 15 February 2020 20: 05 New
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              Sergey! Namesake! With all due respect, but all this ... so ... jokes. The main question: what happened to us ???? After all, you can ask anyone and the answer will be the same: in our family, the norm! Question- -What's wrong with us?
              1. Korsar4 15 February 2020 20: 12 New
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                Yes, no jokes.

                I’ll insert a quote again: “Can I tell a soul?” (with).

                Probably everyone has their own. But here you look both the person himself and his environment. Circle of reading, circle of communication.

                And the message of all: “Blind guides for the blind” (c) are too often met.

                I do not shy away from the answer, but the question is too abstract.
                1. Phil77 15 February 2020 20: 20 New
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                  Here !!!! No answer. Scary.
                  * Change
                  We are waiting for changes*
                  1. Korsar4 15 February 2020 20: 22 New
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                    This song came with changes. Then they disentangled.

                    I don’t know who sees the whole picture of the world.

                    "Yes, and we remember him
                    In trouble or in vain ”(c).
                    1. Phil77 15 February 2020 20: 26 New
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                      No, Sergey! There is no answer, we are not them.
                    2. Phil77 15 February 2020 20: 34 New
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                      Yes, they were waiting, then they were waiting for changes! Was it? It was. But ... everything went wrong
  2. Hunter 2 15 February 2020 06: 35 New
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    Great article again! To the author - My respect hi .
    Now I really want to on the topic of Peasant riots 1861 - 1863 ... on the abolition of serfdom. The topic is not much disclosed ... but it is very interesting, and even close in time.
  3. sergo1914 15 February 2020 06: 45 New
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    In vain, a map of the Novorossiysk province was posted. Now the Ukrainians will see-blaze.
    1. Lipchanin 15 February 2020 07: 30 New
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      Quote: sergo1914
      In vain, a map of the Novorossiysk province was posted. Now the Ukrainians will see-blaze.

      And I would lay out with a question every day
      "So whose Crimea"?
      1. Olgovich 15 February 2020 08: 18 New
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        Quote: Lipchanin
        And I would lay out with a question every day
        "So whose Crimea"?

        Aya would ask every day: "Why is all this-NOT Russia?"

        What kind of war did she lose?
        1. Lipchanin 15 February 2020 08: 34 New
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          Who? Who gave these lands by Sumer, have already died
          1. Olgovich 15 February 2020 10: 56 New
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            Quote: Lipchanin
            Who? Who gave these lands by Sumer, have already died

            So there are lots of individuals even here who APPROVE those crimes against Russia.

            By the way, even the name of the center of Novorossia was then NOVOROSSIYSK (Ekaterinoslav), today's Dnieper
  4. The comment was deleted.
  5. Phil77 15 February 2020 07: 00 New
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    Good morning to the respectable public! Thank you Valery for an interesting article, I managed to read it before the start of the working day / alas and ah! /. The descendants of the Nekrasovites now live in the village of Novokumsky in the Stavropol Territory.
    1. karabass 15 February 2020 14: 33 New
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      And I watched the program about them (descendants of the Nekrasovites) now live in Turkey, they don’t speak Russian, less than 200 are left, carefully preserve the hereditary artifacts
      1. Phil77 15 February 2020 16: 07 New
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        Uff, it worked! You know, our Nekrasovites preserved customs, folklore and, of course, faith! Many returned in 1962 on the ship * Georgia *. Nowadays, public holidays are often held in the village. Yes, they brought some notes of Turkish cuisine from a foreign land. Good evening everyone!
  6. Lamata 15 February 2020 07: 18 New
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    The author is rickety, sort of interested in history, but I read very little about this uprising. . Thanks.
  7. BAI
    BAI 15 February 2020 09: 42 New
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    But how effective were these repressions, literally bleeding many cities and villages?

    Obviously not effective.
    This question must be raised after the last major uprising - the Pugachev uprising.
    1. icant007 15 February 2020 10: 36 New
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      Quote: BAI
      But how effective were these repressions, literally bleeding many cities and villages?

      Obviously not effective.
      This question must be raised after the last major uprising - the Pugachev uprising.


      In the Don Cossacks, repressions nevertheless yielded an effect. The rebellion in the Don was over.
      But the uprising of Pugachev is basically a continuation of the revolt of the Yaitsky Cossacks. And the same for economic reasons: redistribution of salt and fisheries.
  8. icant007 15 February 2020 09: 52 New
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    Its significance was so high that in 1702 it was forbidden for Cossacks to fish from this fortress to the mouth of the North Donets, as well as "on the Sea of ​​Azov and on the rivers beyond the river."


    I would like to ask the author, what is the relationship between the value of Azov as a fortress and the ban on fishing?
    By my natural stupidity I can not understand)

    Can anyone explain?
    1. karabass 15 February 2020 14: 34 New
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      Cossacks banned access to the sea
      1. icant007 15 February 2020 14: 45 New
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        And why did the ban extend, including to the Don, to the mouth of the Seversky Donets?
        1. karabass 15 February 2020 14: 51 New
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          I don’t know this, it’s only possible to assume what kind of cockroaches lived in the head of crazy Peter
          1. icant007 15 February 2020 14: 58 New
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            Maybe Slobozhane (raisins) shoved the idea)

            They will not fish, salt will not be needed. You see, they will engage in tillage)

            But practice shows that undermining the economic base of the people always leads to an unhealthy situation.
  9. Aviator_ 15 February 2020 10: 23 New
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    Good stuff, respect to the author. He first learned that Bulavin started as an anti-corruption, against excesses in the field, and not like the new Stepan Razin.
  10. Senior seaman 15 February 2020 10: 56 New
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    But Khokhlach wasn’t called Lukyan *
  11. Fishery 15 February 2020 14: 44 New
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    good material, in general, sympathy is on the side of the Cossacks, and in Moscow, as usual, corruption, violation of agreements, and punitive khan formations, then of course it is worth saying that the Cossacks were loved by the Cossacks periodically)
  12. Sergey79 15 February 2020 15: 16 New
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    Quote: Kronos
    Yes, I saw "evidence" in the style written on the map as they called Russia in the west, so Tartaria existed

    Why so categorically? But what about the cards of F. Godunov?
  13. Sergey79 15 February 2020 15: 26 New
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    Many thanks to the author for the series of articles. In this style, I would like to read an analysis of the sources of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
  14. bandabas 15 February 2020 16: 57 New
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    History repeats itself. There are no telegraph poles, but others remained.
  15. revnagan 15 February 2020 20: 06 New
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    Everything is of course very interesting, but it’s only the author who “walks” the Zaporozhye Cossacks in his articles, calling them “robbers and pirates.” Is this such “propaganda quietly” to create a negative image of the Cossacks in the Russian people? Cossacks, who “nibbled” along rivers, went to Persia and robbed Persian ships — not robbers and pirates, but Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, who did the same in the Crimean-Turkish direction and covered the south of Russia — completely “robbers and pirates”? ? Why so biased, the engagement Because Peter was forced to lose Azov and was defeated by the Turkish-Tatar forces, was forced to pay off, but the Zaporozhye Cossacks repeatedly went to the Crimea and Turkey, smashed them. Avenged raids on Russia, freed prisoners "and the Crimeans were afraid of them like fire? I don’t understand where the author got such an attitude ....
    1. Fishery 15 February 2020 22: 12 New
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      Well, the line of the party so far))) some pirates, others carrying light and civilization to the Siberian khanates)
  16. Graz 16 February 2020 03: 51 New
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    Well, after the murder of Prince Dolgorukov, it was clear that the authorities would not tolerate this from the Cossacks and would punish him to the end, this was a mistake of the Cossacks, and Peter needed to centralize all power in his hands
    1. fk7777777 16 February 2020 12: 45 New
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      It turns out the dictatorship, I couldn’t do it differently, with the people ...
  17. fk7777777 16 February 2020 12: 40 New
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    Well, Petruha was also led by a straightforward effective McDonald’s manager, during the war he could also arrange a civil war ..., he generally did not count people as ordinary people, he created a parasitic class of nobles, Mr. Don he’s still the one and the grandmother wasn’t sickly slipped into the type of “Swede”, yeah, only everything was different than the “Orthodox” Jew ...
  18. Molot1979 23 March 2020 09: 00 New
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    Strange logic: here we have a war, the tax payers are running away, well, right, there is nothing for the state to serve, the Cossacks are right around. And with what means the king was supposed to contain the army? Or do we not need her at all? Are the peaceful European nations all the time, dreaming of living with us in peace? Here either the right to run and rebel, or a great country and great achievements. Which never by themselves fell from the sky, they always had to pay dearly.
  19. Molot1979 23 March 2020 09: 00 New
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    Strange logic: here we have a war, the tax payers are running away, well, right, there is nothing for the state to serve, the Cossacks are right around. And with what means the king was supposed to contain the army? Or do we not need her at all? Are the peaceful European nations all the time, dreaming of living with us in peace? Here either the right to run and rebel, or a great country and great achievements. Which never by themselves fell from the sky, they always had to pay dearly.