The general assault before which surrendered Berlin

The general assault before which surrendered Berlin

Commander of the 62nd Army V.I. Chuikov (left) and member of the military council K.A. Gurov during a conversation with the legendary sniper V.G. Zaitsev examine his rifle


120 years ago, on February 12, 1900, the future legendary commander of the Great Patriotic War, Marshal of the Soviet Union, twice Hero of the Soviet Union Vasily Ivanovich Chuykov, was born. The hero of the defense of Stalingrad and the commander in front of whom surrendered Berlin.

From young to commander


Vasily was born into a large peasant family in the village of Serebryanye Prudy of the Venevsky district in the Tula province. He studied at a parish school. He began to serve in 1917 as a young man in a training mine detachment of the Baltic fleet. In the spring of 1918 he joined the ranks of the Red Army. He entered military training courses, after graduation he was assigned to the Sivers Special Brigade (1st Ukrainian Special Brigade). As an assistant company commander, he fought with the Krasnoyarsk people, then transferred to Kazan on the Eastern Front, where he fought bravely with the Kolchakites. He served as assistant commander, regiment commander. In the spring of 1920, the 43rd Chuikov Rifle Regiment, as part of the 5th Division, was transferred to the Western Front against the Poles. After the war with Poland, along with the regiment remained on the western border, guarded the borders, fought with bandits.

In 1922, he continued his studies at the Military Academy of the Red Army, after graduating from the main faculty, he was left at the academy at the Oriental faculty (Chinese department). At the beginning of 1928 he was sent to China as a military adviser (in fact, a scout). Since 1929, the intelligence chief of the Special Red Banner Far Eastern Army. In 1932 he returned to Moscow as the head of the Advanced Training Courses for the intelligence personnel at the Headquarters of the Red Army. Until 1939, he sequentially commanded the 4th mechanized brigade of the Belarusian Military District, the 5th Rifle Corps, the Bobruisk Army Group, the 4th Army (participating in the Polish campaign of the Red Army), the 9th Army (Winter War), again the 4th Army .

In June 1940, Vasily Chuikov was awarded the rank of lieutenant general. From December 1940 to March 1942 he was again sent to the Celestial Empire, where he was a military attache at the Soviet mission and chief military adviser to Chiang Kai-shek. Chuikov helped the Chinese, who, in the conditions of the Japanese invasion, waged a war among themselves (the Kuomintang troops against the Communists), maintain a united front against Japan.


Military Advisor in China V. Chuykov. 1940 year

General Sturm


With the outbreak of World War II, the general repeatedly requested that his front be sent to fight against the Germans. In May 1942, he commanded troops on the fronts of the Great War. Commander of the 1st Reserve Army, transformed into the 64th. Since July 1942, Chuikov’s army fought stubborn battles in the Stalingrad direction. From September 1942 until the end of the war, Vasily Chuikov (with a short break in the fall of 1943) commanded the 62nd Army (it became the 8th Guards).

Glory came to Chuikov in Stalingrad. His words became legendary: “There is no land beyond the Volga for us!” The chief of staff of the 62nd Army, N. I. Krylov, recalled the words of the commander: “For the Nazis to be able to take Stalingrad, they need to kill us all!” In his memoirs, he also noted the commander as “alien to the stereotypes (in that situation, adherence to them could ruin everything), boldly bold in making decisions, possessing a truly iron will ... As a military commander, he possesses an extremely high degree of ability not to miss the moment when he needs to to do something important, the ability to anticipate complications and danger, when it’s not too late to prevent them to some extent. ”

The Germans were not able to dump the Chuykovites into the Volga. Toward the end of the defensive period of the Battle of Stalingrad, his army held the area north of the Stalingrad Tractor Plant, the Lower Village of the Barricades, part of the Krasny Oktyabr Plant and several blocks in the city center. Chuikov was a supporter of active combat, proved to be a master of urban battles, created assault groups (from platoon to infantry company). Soviet attack aircraft on ruins and underground communications penetrated the rear of the Nazis and delivered unexpected blows. This experience was later used to storm many other cities, including Berlin. Therefore, Chuikov was nicknamed the "general-assault."

The soldiers loved and respected their commander. Chuikov himself noted:

“From personal experience I know that when you talk with the fighters in the trench, share the sorrow and joy with them, have a smoke, figure it out together, advise how to act, then the fighters will surely have confidence:“ Since the general was here, it means need to hold on! ” And the fighter will not retreat without an order, he will fight with the enemy to the last possible opportunity. ”

Subsequently, Chuikov’s guards as part of the South-Western Front (1943rd October Front from October 3) successfully fought in the Donbas, liberating Little Russia-Ukraine, Odessa in the battle for the Dnieper. In June 1944, the 8th Guards Army was withdrawn to the Headquarters reserve, then included in the 1st Belorussian Front. As part of the 1st BF, Chuikov’s army took part in the liberation of Belarus, Poland, fought on the Magnushevsky bridgehead, made a throw from the Vistula to the Oder. Then the guardsmen besieged and took Poznan, fought on the Kyustrinsky bridgehead, stormed Kustrin. The last operation of the 8th Guards Army was Berlin. It was at the command post of Colonel General Vasily Chuikov on May 2, 1945, the head of the German Berlin garrison, General Weindling, signed the surrender of the German capital.

Chuikov recalled the heavy fighting in Berlin:

“Each step here cost us labor and sacrifice. The battles for this last defense zone of the Third Reich are marked by the massive heroism of Soviet soldiers. The stones and bricks of the ruins, the asphalt of the squares and streets of the German capital were watered with the blood of Soviet people. Yes, what! They went to a mortal battle on sunny spring days. They wanted to live. For the sake of life, for the sake of happiness on earth, they paved the way to Berlin through fire and death from the Volga itself. ”



Commander of the 62nd Army Lt. Gen. Vasily Chuikov in Stalingrad


Army Commander V.I. Chuikov takes the banner of the guards banner of the 8th Guards Army


Colonel General V.I. Chuikov with officers discusses the upcoming operation near Odessa. April 1944

Could Berlin be taken earlier?


It is worth noting: Chuikov believed that our troops could take Berlin three months earlier. In the 60s, his memoirs were published, which caused fierce debate in the Soviet generals. Vasily Chuykov said that the Soviet army could take Berlin back in February 1945, that is, to end the war 2-3 months earlier than in reality. In his opinion, stopping the offensive in the Berlin direction was a gross mistake. “With regard to risk,” Chuikov wrote, “in a war one often has to go to it. But in this case, the risk was fully justified. ” This point of view was sharply criticized by other commanders of the Great War, including Zhukov.

During the Vistula-Oder operation, Soviet troops immediately crossed the Oder and captured a number of bridgeheads. It was only 70 km from the bridgehead in the Kinitz-Neuendorf-Refeld area to the German capital. German troops were linked by battles on the Western Front and in Hungary. Berlin remained open to strike by Zhukov’s armies. However, over the 1st BF front, the so-called. “Pomeranian balcony” - Army Group “Vistula”. The German high command was preparing flank attacks on the Soviet Berlin group. As a result, Stalin, the Soviet General Staff and the command of the 1st BF decided that first it was necessary to eliminate the threat on the flanks, and then to storm Berlin. That is, the Soviet Headquarters did not want to repeat the mistakes of the German command in the autumn of 1941. If the Germans could inflict a strong counterattack on the Zhukov group advancing on Berlin, then our troops would suffer even greater losses than in the real stories.


The commander of the 1st Belorussian Front, Marshal of the Soviet Union G.K. Zhukov (fourth from left in the front row), the commander of the 8th Guards Army, Colonel General V.I. Chuykov (fifth from the left in the front row) and the commander of the 4th Guards Rifle Corps Major General A.M. Andreev (sixth from left in the front row). Magnushevsky bridgehead. October 1944

Marshal of the Soviet Union


After the war ended, Chuikov still commanded the 8th Guards Army, which was part of the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (GSOVG). Then he was deputy commander of the GSOVG, since March 1949 - commander of the Soviet troops and head of the military administration in Germany. Since October 1949, the head of the Soviet Control Commission (CCM), which exercised control in the territory of the created German Democratic Republic (GDR).

After the death of Stalin, recalled to the USSR. Appointed Commander of the Kiev Military District. In March 1955 he was awarded the title of Marshal of the USSR. Since April 1960, the head of the ground forces of the USSR. In 1964, dismissed from the post of commander in chief of the ground forces. Since 1972 - Inspector General of the Group of Inspectors General of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR (in fact, an honorable resignation). Vasily Ivanovich Chuykov died on March 18, 1982. At his request, twice Hero of the USSR (1944 and 1945) was buried next to his fallen soldiers, on the Mamaev Kurgan in Stalingrad.

The words of the legendary Soviet commander sound like a real testament to the descendants and the entire Russian people:

“The main fortress of our state is man. Convincing evidence of this is the steadfastness and indestructible faith of our soldiers in victory, even when, it seemed, there was nothing to breathe and death pursued at every turn. For Hitler’s strategists, the origins of this phenomenon remained unsolved. Moral forces, as well as the capabilities of the mind of a person who is aware of responsibility before time, before his people, do not know the dimensions, they are evaluated by accomplishments. And the long-awaited happened - having stood, we went west and reached Berlin! ”



The Commander-in-Chief of the GSVG, Chuikov, transfers control functions in the Soviet occupation zone to the Minister of Justice of the GDR. November 11, 1949
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/, http://waralbum.ru/
Ctrl Enter

Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter

34 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Dmitry Potapov 12 February 2020 04: 53 New
    • 8
    • 0
    +8
    Thanks for the article about the great man!
    1. Olgovich 12 February 2020 07: 32 New
      • 8
      • 6
      +2
      Stalingrad is a title forever.

      And with the storm of Berlin in February 45, I think he was wrong: from the north, from Pomerania, such a strong group hung that it took two whole fronts to destroy it.

      Leaving her in the rear and on the flank was very risky ,,,,
      1. Alexey RA 12 February 2020 10: 48 New
        • 5
        • 0
        +5
        Quote: Olgovich
        And with the storm of Berlin in February 45, I think he was wrong: from the north, from Pomerania, such a strong group hung that it took two whole fronts to destroy it.

        This moment was understood by Isaev in Berlin-45. In short, Chuikov was facing a new 9th army, whose formations were better equipped than ours. And surrounded by fortresses continued to sit in the rear, blocking communications and delaying our forces.
        Nevertheless, on February 10, the GKZH turned to Headquarters with a plan for the Berlin offensive operation, which even took into account the possibility of transferring 6 TA SS to the Berlin direction.
        According to the assessment given in the report of G.K. Zhukov, the preparation of the operation could be carried out within a few days: “Regrouping of forces and assets from the right flank of the front to p. I can start the Oder only with the transition of the 2nd Belorussian Front to the offensive, i.e. from 10.2.45, and I will finish it on 18.2.45. In this regard, the troops intended for operations on Berlin will only be prepared for the offensive on 19–20.2.45. The offensive on Berlin can begin on 20.2.45 g . ".
        The enemy defense breakthrough according to the plan of operation proposed by G.K. Zhukov was supposed to be carried out in narrow sections (5–7 km) with artillery concentration with a density of 250–300 barrels per kilometer of the front. The 47th Army, the 5th Assault Army, the 8th Guards Army, the 69th Army and the 33rd Army were involved in the offensive in the Berlin direction. Actually, the 8th Guards, 69th and 33rd armies were to enter Berlin. After the breakthrough of the enemy’s defense, the 5th shock and 47th armies were to bypass Berlin in order to cover the assault of the city from enemy counterattacks from the north-west direction.
        The 1st and 2nd Guards Tank Armies were supposed to be introduced in the breakthrough areas of the 5th Assault and 47th Armies, respectively, "with the advance of infantry by 2 km." 1st Guards the tank army received the task on the second day after entering the breakthrough to take control of the eastern and north-eastern parts of Berlin. 2nd Guards the tank army was to break into Berlin from the northwest.

        In pursuance of the plan, the transfer of 47 A.
        But the attack on Berlin had to be postponed - on the too long right flank of the front, the concentration of German forces began, which on February 16, 1945 went on the offensive.
        ... under the command of the 11th Army in Pomerania, in the first half of February 1945, the XXXIX Panzer Corps, III SS Panzer Corps and X SS Corps were assembled. Headed the army Felix Steiner, who previously commanded the III SS Panzer Corps. (...) In total, in February 1945, under the command of Steiner’s army, there were seven fully-equipped divisions and five understaffed. Most of the formations belonged to the SS troops and therefore the army was SS not only by name. Steiner originally planned to go on the offensive on February 22, but Guderian convinced him to start before concentrating all his forces on February 16.

        As a result, in order to avoid the repetition of such a thing even at the time of the assault on Berlin, it was decided to first deal with the problems of the 1st BF on the right flank - in Pomerania. And finally pull up the 2nd BF. To do this, I had to use the forces previously planned for an attack on Berlin. Unfortunately, these operations were not without losses - so in order to replenish them, the attack on Berlin had to be postponed.
        1. Olgovich 12 February 2020 11: 06 New
          • 4
          • 6
          -2
          Quote: Alexey RA
          The attack on Berlin can begin on 20.2.45. "

          Thank you, an interesting moment!
          Quote: Alexey RA
          But the attack on Berlin had to be postponed - on the too long right flank of the front, the concentration of German forces began, which on February 16, 1945 went on the offensive.

          in February 45, the German army was still a dangerous and formidable enemy ...
          1. dzvero 12 February 2020 15: 19 New
            • 3
            • 0
            +3
            Yes, and in April, too, snarled - the battles of Bautzenm. It seems that the direction is secondary to the Red Army, but there were recent cases of encirclement of divisions and the capture of prisoners by the Germans. I read the description of those fights at Isaev - "Berlin-45"
    2. DMB 75 12 February 2020 10: 24 New
      • 13
      • 0
      +13
      Thank you for continuing to publish articles about people, thanks to whom we all live today!
      1. Reptiloid 12 February 2020 21: 50 New
        • 0
        • 0
        0
        Quote: DMB 75
        Thank you for continuing to publish articles about people, thanks to whom we all live today!

        Learn more about the biographies of Soviet Heroes
  2. Hunter 2 12 February 2020 05: 16 New
    • 15
    • 1
    +14
    Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov, according to his will, was buried on Mamaev Kurgan, along with his fallen soldiers! This says a lot ....
    1. novel66 12 February 2020 07: 29 New
      • 4
      • 0
      +4
      with the legendary sniper V.G. Zaitsev examine his rifle
      But do snipers give their weapons into the wrong hands ?? big ones! hi
      1. Hunter 2 12 February 2020 07: 34 New
        • 9
        • 0
        +9
        Welcome hi Here Roma is not the case when you can refuse. In general, Photo - staged for newspapers, what he actually looks at there request unknown
      2. neri73-r 12 February 2020 08: 56 New
        • 3
        • 0
        +3
        Quote: novel xnumx
        with the legendary sniper V.G. Zaitsev examine his rifle
        But do snipers give their weapons into the wrong hands ?? big ones! hi

        Another time, other morals, and SUCH A Man!
      3. Den717 12 February 2020 14: 38 New
        • 2
        • 1
        +1
        Quote: novel xnumx
        But do snipers give their weapons into the wrong hands ?? big ones!

        It is the duty of the squad commander and above to personally inspect the weapons of subordinates. So the transfer of the rifle into the hands of the army commander is a completely ordinary situation. You are confused with the sentry, who according to the charter does not have the right to give up weapons even to persons to whom he is directly subordinate.
  3. Fitter65 12 February 2020 06: 14 New
    • 8
    • 0
    +8
    120 years ago, on February 12, 1940, the future legendary commander of the Great Patriotic War, Marshal of the Soviet Union, twice Hero of the Soviet Union Vasily Ivanovich Chuykov, was born.
    Thank you for the article, but Marshal Chuykov could not be born in 1940, please correct the date at the beginning of the article.
    1. The leader of the Redskins 12 February 2020 08: 03 New
      • 2
      • 2
      0
      Exactly. At five years old, they do not command armies. Please correct the typo.
  4. Lamata 12 February 2020 08: 10 New
    • 7
    • 1
    +6
    He is the hero of Stalingrad, and this is the most important battle in his life. The Air Force reported that Stalingrad had absorbed the Nazi armies, Hitler captured Polsha in 28 days, the Germans in Stalingrad, captured only a few houses in 28 days, France fell in 38 days, in Staligrad, in 38 days the Germans managed to cross from one street to another.
  5. Dedok 12 February 2020 08: 14 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    120 years ago, on February 12, 1940, the future legendary commander was born ...
    Maybe I do not understand what is written?
    Or does an article begin with a typo?
  6. BAI
    BAI 12 February 2020 08: 48 New
    • 5
    • 0
    +5
    With regard to risk, wrote Chuikov, “in a war one often has to go to it. But in this case, the risk was fully justified

    The main thing in the offensive is to stop during. Only the repetition of the Kharkiv encirclement near Berlin was not enough for us in 1945. A reasonable risk has already passed. Bad ended. It is good that Zhukov insisted on his decision.
  7. Andrey VOV 12 February 2020 09: 57 New
    • 7
    • 0
    +7
    "In May 1942, he commanded the troops on the fronts of the Great War" .... citizen Samsonov, actually the Great Patriotic War ... and nothing else.
    1. Alexey RA 12 February 2020 10: 49 New
      • 8
      • 0
      +8
      Quote: Andrey VOV
      "In May 1942, he commanded the troops on the fronts of the Great War" .... citizen Samsonov, actually the Great Patriotic War ... and nothing else.

      Rejoice that at least the troops are named by soviet. smile
      1. Reptiloid 12 February 2020 21: 40 New
        • 0
        • 0
        0
        I see the author’s phrase “The Great War” in relation to the Great Patriotic War not the first time, recently it was also. I didn’t want to make a comment, because I like them in the articles. I thought maybe a little one ????? But the sediment .....
        Some authors say so about 1MB
  8. chenia 12 February 2020 10: 32 New
    • 4
    • 0
    +4
    One of the most beloved military leaders in the SA. And the first swindler in the sun (he did not swear, he talked obscenely). And he wanted to lie not in the Kremlin wall, but among his fighters on the Mamaev Kurgan.
    1. Lamata 12 February 2020 11: 23 New
      • 3
      • 1
      +2
      It was about him. His daughter went to university in Moscow, and passed the history exam, and failed him. Chuikov, blazing with righteous anger, came to sort out who and how dare to fill up his daughter. The teacher who took her exam suggested Chuikov to ask his daughter who and whose troops defended Stalingrad. Daughter, go down answered - Zhukov !!! Let’s drop the curtain of mercy and Chuikov’s rueaction after her answer))))))))))))))
  9. maksbazhin 12 February 2020 12: 02 New
    • 1
    • 0
    +1
    Untold article. We ran through the tops of the biography, I want more ...
  10. Den717 12 February 2020 14: 49 New
    • 3
    • 0
    +3
    Vasily Ivanovich was a very difficult person. With ambition and conceit. One of those who demanded the repression of the families of those soldiers and officers who arbitrarily left their positions. He could even face the subordinate general with his fist. The inhuman condition of war demanded inhuman ways of subjugating other people to their will. What allowed him to successfully lead the army in battle complicated relations with him in peacetime.
  11. The comment was deleted.
    1. Lamata 12 February 2020 16: 20 New
      • 3
      • 1
      +2
      There are dupe about how they studied the influence of the mat on the understanding and execution of orders.
      1. Reptiloid 12 February 2020 21: 47 New
        • 0
        • 0
        0
        Quote: Lamata
        There are dupe about how they studied the influence of the mat on the understanding and execution of orders.

        It used to be here. 3-4 years ago, mention of the best impact of short words in extreme situations. I will not say more precisely.
        1. Lamata 12 February 2020 22: 49 New
          • 2
          • 1
          +1
          Yes, its essence is simple, Americans, after what time after 2 MB did a series of studies of the causes of victories and defeats. It turned out that the commands given in the Aglitz contain fewer letters and words and therefore are more quickly perceived by the soldier, which leads to a faster reaction to the situation. And the Japovian teams are longer, which slows down the reaction. conditionally - in the Amer team 5 letters, dzhaposkoy 7. Ours also conducted such a study and found out that our teams are still longer than Amer’s, conditionally the Amer has 5 lessons for us 6. But here the unaccounted factor came in, if ours used profanity, the team was perceived twice as fast. laughing
  12. Altai72 12 February 2020 17: 24 New
    • 6
    • 1
    +5
    One of the key figures in the Second World War.
    1. Lamata 12 February 2020 18: 41 New
      • 0
      • 1
      -1
      with all due respect. he was hardly a key figure. because he didn’t even command the front.
  13. Altai72 12 February 2020 17: 28 New
    • 5
    • 1
    +4
    One of the few to receive the United States Distinguished Service Cross. Three Polish orders, three Mongolian.
    1. Lamata 12 February 2020 20: 38 New
      • 3
      • 1
      +2
      For Stalingrad it was possible and a medal of Congress. My cousin died. And the native aunt of the wife of my own uncle was a medical instructor in Stalingrad, in the end she also wounded, but she remained alive and reached Breslau. wounded there again. Moreover, she had awards for the defense of Leningrad and the defense of Stalingrad.
  14. fk7777777 12 February 2020 21: 32 New
    • 0
    • 1
    -1
    Stalingrad, yes, it is sacred, to rename back, as it should. My question is just about Chuikov’s tactics in the defense of the city, if only (I don’t argue, because after the knowledge), instead of the Mamaev Kurgan, the defense center would be shifted to the elevator. Indeed, a really more advantageous situation in the defense of the city was outlined. Even the German 88 mm anti-aircraft guns could not do anything with the elevator, so they poked a bit. But on the Mamaev Kurgan it really turned out mochilovo.
    1. Lamata 12 February 2020 22: 51 New
      • 1
      • 1
      0
      I read that Volgograd residents are mainly against renaming back. And Mamaev saw the mound, attack him from the bottom up, it !!!! This is just a nightmare.
  15. itarnmag 12 February 2020 22: 43 New
    • 0
    • 1
    -1
    I saw Chuikov in Volgograd either in 1972 or in 1973