How the Brest Fortress defended


The most important monument of the Great Patriotic War is the Brest Fortress. This unique fortification is a symbol of heroic resistance and the courage of its defenders. During the week, the garrison of the fortress in the amount of 3,5 thousand people restrained the 45th German infantry division, supported by artillery and aviation. The defense of this fortress was the first eloquent lesson for the Germans, showing them what lies ahead.


A major role in perpetuating the memory of the heroes of the Brest Fortress and in covering this topic during the Soviet period was played by the writer, military documentary, participant of the Great Patriotic War Sergey Smirnov. In modern times, his work was already continued at a new serious level by the historian Rostislav Aliyev, a researcher of the defense of the Brest Fortress.

In the studio of the Archival Revolution program, Rostislav Aliyev will answer many questions regarding the defense of the Brest Fortress:
- Why were Aliyev’s notes by Major Gavrilov a discovery?
-What was the real balance of power in the battles for the Brest Fortress?
- What were the strength of the defenders of the fortress?
- How did the events of the first day of the battle for the Brest Fortress unfold?
- What did the Germans do to quickly capture the fortress?
- How was the assault?
“How long did the resistance last in the fortress?”
- When did the Germans manage to destroy the last centers of resistance?

All details of the defense of the Brest Fortress:


Photos used:
VK / Brest Fortress
Ctrl Enter

Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter

31 comment
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Alexga 11 February 2020 14: 57 New
    • 5
    • 0
    +5
    Aliyev’s books on the defense of the Fortress really contain a lot of information from the German side, photographs, orders ... Smirnov didn’t have access to such issues at all, they bore the heading “secretly”. But without Smirnov, even the citizens of the USSR for the most part did not know about the events. Reliably there is still no information about those who managed to break out of the Fortress. The rest were killed or captured. You can talk a lot, but I advise you to read Aliyev.
    1. tihonmarine 11 February 2020 15: 51 New
      • 5
      • 1
      +4
      Quote: AlexGa
      Reliably there is still no information about those who managed to break out of the Fortress.

      I knew one such thing, the younger political instructor Afanasyev (I don’t remember his name), he was captured in the first hour of the siege of the fortress. He and my father started the war at 4 a.m. 22.06.1941/XNUMX/XNUMX.
      1. Alexga 11 February 2020 15: 58 New
        • 2
        • 0
        +2
        I meant those who were able to break out of the Fortress on being captured. There was mention of a group that was able to break through, but probably mentioned a group from the Brest station. After a few days, they were able to quietly leave through the cargo station. Something about this was in the memoirs of V. Korzh. But I could be wrong, I would like to hear from those who know.
        1. tihonmarine 11 February 2020 16: 22 New
          • 5
          • 0
          +5
          Quote: AlexGa
          I meant those who were able to break out of the Fortress on being captured. There was mention of a group that was able to break through, but probably mentioned a group from the Brest station.

          Who was in Brest, those few managed. I can’t say exactly where, but my father managed to get out and walked away to Kobrin.
          1. Operator 11 February 2020 16: 36 New
            • 0
            • 1
            -1
            Most of the soldiers of the Red Army (several thousand people), who were in the Brest Fortress on the night of June 21 to 22, 1941, were able to leave it within an hour from the attack of the Wehrmacht units, as provided for in the defense plan of the Brest fortified area.

            Those who remained in the fortress could not leave it because of the quick exit of the Germans to the evacuation routes.
            1. tihonmarine 11 February 2020 16: 40 New
              • 1
              • 0
              +1
              Quote: Operator
              Those who remained in the fortress could not leave it because of the quick exit of the Germans to the evacuation routes.

              Branderburg-800 managed to distinguish itself there. They dressed in Soviet uniform before 4 in the morning and occupied the approaches to the Brest Fortress.
              1. Operator 11 February 2020 16: 43 New
                • 3
                • 1
                +2
                These in this case have nothing to do with - the approaches were occupied by them from the west, and the escape routes were in the east.

                The problem was in the command of the Belarusian military district, which for some reason identified the Brest Fortress as the location of many units of the Red Army and the NKVD, without calculating the time for the units to leave the fortress.
                1. Alexga 11 February 2020 16: 50 New
                  • 2
                  • 0
                  +2
                  Andrei, Sandalov explained this by the fact that there was simply no way to equip the places of deployment. Therefore, the troops were stationed where there were barracks.
                  1. Operator 11 February 2020 16: 51 New
                    • 1
                    • 3
                    -2
                    This is an excuse: the best place in the summer is a field camp.
                    1. Zeev Zeev 11 February 2020 17: 40 New
                      • 2
                      • 1
                      +1
                      Yeah, a field camp, which will be fired upon by Polish partisans a couple of times a day. Better to keep soldiers behind the walls.
                2. tihonmarine 11 February 2020 16: 55 New
                  • 2
                  • 0
                  +2
                  Quote: Operator
                  These in this case have nothing to do with - the approaches were occupied by them from the west, and the escape routes were in the east.

                  And from the east, too, they controlled all the gates of the fortress. All commanders who lived in private apartments, who ran into the fortress on alarm, were trapped.
          2. Alexga 11 February 2020 16: 46 New
            • 2
            • 0
            +2
            At the beginning of the war, there are very interesting memoirs of the Chief of Staff of the 4th Army, General Sandalov, "The First Days of the War." Not much has been written about the Fortress, but the assessment of the pre-war position of the troops, their combat training and combat operations in the first week has been extremely complete. And curiously, for almost 20 years I have retired, analyzing the state of both the BVO and the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus, I come to the conclusion that no one made any specific conclusions. Warehouses and arsenals in the same places, BP conditional, first all lines on foot and so on. Mess. Although, his father ended the war in Courland, while the hospital after two injuries, the school and so on, having hit the coastal artillery on Ezel, rassazyvat that in those days (1950) the year was very strict and military. Even the posts at the wells where they took water.
    2. WHAT IS 18 February 2020 21: 27 New
      • 7
      • 0
      +7
      Brest Fortress Hero !!!
  2. The leader of the Redskins 11 February 2020 15: 00 New
    • 8
    • 1
    +7
    As a schoolboy, I was in the Brest Fortress. Well, how many of us. But even then, as a child, I was struck by how small she is. Of course, not everything was shown, not everything was open then, but these yards, sites, shot from all sides! How? How could you withstand the onslaught of the enemy there so much time ?! There is no limit to the feat! He always admired the courage of those people, defenders.
    1. Alexga 11 February 2020 15: 29 New
      • 5
      • 0
      +5
      As a schoolboy, I was in the Brest Fortress.

      If you would be interested if you include street panoramas on Yandex maps, then you can walk around the Fortress quite informatively. Panoramic photos in most of 2016. This is not advertising, quite useful information.
    2. Zeev Zeev 11 February 2020 16: 39 New
      • 4
      • 0
      +4
      The organized defense of the fortress lasted eight days, and by the unsuccessful attempt to break through on June 26 (on the fourth day) most of the defenders surrendered, and on June 30 the last group of border guards laid down their arms, blocked in the basement of the 333rd regiment. Further there was already a cleansing of the ruins from individual fighters, which ended a month after the German attack on the USSR by the capture of Major Gavrilov.
    3. icant007 11 February 2020 20: 45 New
      • 2
      • 3
      -1
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      I was amazed how small she is


      Not all territory is accessible for visiting.
  3. knn54 11 February 2020 15: 36 New
    • 3
    • 2
    +1
    The Poles had time (there was no surprise), but lasted only three days. Rostislav - thanks. ALWAYS it is interesting to listen to all the parties.
  4. xomaNN 11 February 2020 15: 58 New
    • 5
    • 0
    +5
    In 2015, I specifically drove around Zap. Belarus, including Brest The Brest Fortress, as a monument to the Second World War, is maintained in good condition. And when I wandered around the ruins, specially left and the wall, all in chips and holes - strong feelings took soul. And on the gravestones there are inscriptions: Lieutenant Shumkov, wife, daughter ...


    1. tihonmarine 11 February 2020 16: 26 New
      • 4
      • 0
      +4
      Quote: xomaNN
      And on the gravestones there are inscriptions: Lieutenant Shumkov, wife, daughter ...

      All of Europe should see this, and not shout that the USSR unleashed WWII.
      1. Zeev Zeev 11 February 2020 16: 48 New
        • 3
        • 2
        +1
        After one of the forts of the Brest Fortress three days unsuccessfully stormed the Germans, the Red Army approached. AND...
        "By the evening of September 22, 1939, after artillery preparations for the assault on Fort Graf Berg with the support of armored cars, Red Army units went. The defenders of the fort repelled three attacks and even knocked out one armored car from the only available gun. The second armored car fell into the moat. The following attempts to suppress the center of resistance Soviet forces launched on September 24 and 25. They, like the previous ones, were unsuccessful. They took the fort seriously on the 26th. After firing with heavy artillery pieces, fierce attacks resumed. The remnants of the garrison again repelled the attacks and, despite heavy losses, again survived and once again rejected the offer to surrender.

        On the night of September 26-27, the surviving defenders resolved a difficult question, to continue fighting and die, or to stop resistance. By this time they already knew that Poland, as a state, was defeated and divided, the government went abroad. Captain Radzishevsky gave his subordinates the last order: to disperse and make their own way to their homes and families. The captain himself did the same. Despite blocking the fort, an attempt to escape from the environment was a success. Radzishevsky made his way to his family in Kobrin, but the NKVD authorities found him and arrested him. Further traces of the captain were lost in the Gulag. "
  5. Ros 56 11 February 2020 16: 27 New
    • 4
    • 0
    +4
    Yes, even as a defense, because they did not give up. Eternal memory to heroes !!!
    This must be experienced with great courage.
    1. Zeev Zeev 11 February 2020 17: 32 New
      • 3
      • 4
      -1
      In fact, most of the defenders of the Brest Fortress surrendered by the evening of June 26. Until the last few fought. A group under the command of Commissioner Fomin, border guards of Kizhevatov and soldiers of the Eastern fortification under the command of Gavrilov
      1. Ros 56 11 February 2020 17: 45 New
        • 0
        • 3
        -3
        It is a pity you were not there, you would have shown how to.
        1. Zeev Zeev 11 February 2020 17: 59 New
          • 3
          • 1
          +2
          I would hardly have anyone I could show. I don’t know how to shoot from a three-ruler, I don’t understand Maxim or DP, the dark forest is for me. And if they would have taken me prisoner, then my colleagues would most likely have given me out in a couple of minutes. As issued by Commissioner Fomin.
      2. Lamata 11 February 2020 20: 02 New
        • 1
        • 1
        0
        there is no ammunition, full of the wounded, no medicine, no water, no food. What to do?
        1. Zeev Zeev 11 February 2020 20: 26 New
          • 3
          • 1
          +2
          I’m not in any way going to give an assessment of the surrender of Soviet soldiers who defended the fortress. I just pointed out historical facts.
  6. Lamata 11 February 2020 17: 06 New
    • 3
    • 1
    +2
    Eternal glory to our soldiers. Regardless of nationality !!!! They were Soviet soldiers and did their duty !!!
  7. Operator 11 February 2020 19: 24 New
    • 0
    • 2
    -2
    Quote: Zeev Zeev
    Polish partisans

    If only with Irgun Zwai Leumi laughing
  8. tank64rus 13 February 2020 16: 08 New
    • 1
    • 0
    +1
    The historian Aliyev worked through German documents and received the conclusions that the Germans had drawn before him. When he speaks I think, I guess, etc. In such things, the coverage of historical events must be reliable, otherwise they become an instrument of ideological warfare. As far as I understand from the historian’s interview, he operated on the following data in the Brest Fortress, according to his data, 11 thousand people were concentrated, wondering what they did there in June, when, according to the directives of the district command, they were sent to field camps. As S.S. writes Smirnov in the fortress were various units remaining from the withdrawn units of about two thousand people: headquarters, duty units remaining from regiments to protect the warehouses located on the territory of the fortress. The first that there were already two divisions on the territory of the fortress was expressed by the notorious Rezun-Suvorov, then it was a matter of technology and already the figure of about two thousand turned into 11. Then there will be even more. My late father, a front-line officer, a scout, was lucky enough to meet with Major Gavrilov in the 60s. He came to the school and talked with cadets. Then they laid the table and during the conversation, the father asked to listen and how did you get the regiment commander to be in the fortress, because the regiment was in the camps, Gavrilov answered you know after the TASS report dated 14.06/XNUMX. 1941 year. both leave and dismissal were allowed, and I came home to wash myself and relax, and in the evening to the regiment. Did you see Hitler. Saw. they dragged me to him. Short in stature, black, ran up and asked something, I said nothing, he sharply waved his hand and they took me away. There were breakthroughs from the Brest Fortress, I know about one in the evening of June 22.06, 1941. My uncle gunner escaped from the fortress. He was lucky to stay alive, went out to his own and rose to the rank of lieutenant general. Now, why did the Germans need just an assault, and the fortress should have been taken precisely by parts of the 45th infantry division of Hitler's fellow countrymen who first entered Paris. Interestingly, the Germans already took the fortress in 1939 when the Poles were there. No storm, they blocked the fortress and a week later the Poles surrendered. Therefore, they knew all the location of fortifications and fortresses. But they needed an assault and certainly a 45 division. It was not difficult to leave the Brest Fortress surrounded. Separately, about bridges. The bridges were captured by saboteurs from Brandenburg-800 and the fact that the Abwehr did not know what was there and how many garrisons were there would be left to the conscience of the one who claims this. But the fact that they put machine guns on bridges at night and began to shoot officers who fled to the fortress and thereby left the garrison without commanders is a fact. Now the assault, pay attention to the selected composition of the assault squads there were ready-made heroes for the Fuhrer. How Come. I think that from the Brest Fortress they prepared "a gift to the Führer and the German people." Imagine the first hours of the war, and here the message of the führer compatriots took the most impregnable fortress of the Bolsheviks, etc. Dr. Goebbels. You can continue on by yourself. But everything went wrong. Therefore, I had to review everything. Hard battles went and the 400 dead can be left to naive strangers with a squabble in the Wehrmacht for access to the Fuhrer. Imagine yourself in the role of Guderian reporting to von Bock with a fortress there is nothing to lose ... Von Bock did not favor the upstart of Guderian, and I think that the Führer report on the failures and losses of his countrymen under the guidance of the upstart Guderian would be appropriate. Therefore, the scene of the mass surrender of prisoners against the backdrop of the ruins was organized. Prisoners drove to the fortress about this there are memories of the defenders. Look at the foreground photographs of necessarily captured with a Mongolian type of face. Hitler, and not only him, was seen reporting failure. Therefore, since the propaganda machine was launched by Hitler in August, Mussolini was brought in and Hitler examined the ruins with him. How long was the fortress held. There is an iron military rule, the fortress is taken when the last defender fell. Think for yourself. I would like to end with the words read in one book. The fortress did not fall; it bled.
  9. wow
    wow April 9 2020 10: 27 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    He was in the Brest Fortress twice. Both times - goosebumps !!! Eternal Glory and Memory to Heroes!