Combat aircraft. Uralbomber from a different perspective


If you open the materials on the Griffin on the Internet, in 9,5 cases out of 10 we can read something similar to the quote from Nekrasov’s poem that “This groan is called a song in our country ...” Such a mournful sobbing about “ Luftwaffe lighter ”was about nothing, a plane rubbish, one sheer miscalculation of Goering, Hitler, Heinkel, Milch, in short, all.


And where to him before Pe-8, in general it is not clear.

However, here is a suggestion. Let's just look at the plane. On a distant bomber, which, I note, was made in the amount of more than a thousand copies. And there, perhaps, we will draw some conclusions about failure and incompetence.

Let's start almost fabulously: there was a general. This sometimes happens, and the generals are different, and smart, and not very. Our general was smart. His name was Walter Wefer, he had the rank of lieutenant general and served as chief of staff of the Luftwaffe.

And planning all kinds of plans, Wefer thought about the need for the Luftwaffe to have a long-range bomber capable of achieving goals at the most distant points. For example, the main naval bases of Great Britain or steel mills of the Soviet Urals. Yes, the Germans were aware of the development of metallurgy in the Urals and even then thought that these centers would need to be affected.

Work in this direction has been carried out since 1935, and in general began to think about a long-range bomber in the Luftwaffe in 1934.

The first experiments did not work out very well. The Do.19 and Junkers Ju.90 created as part of the Dornier project did not impress the Luftwaffe leadership, and by 1937 the work on them had been curtailed, and all prototypes made were used as transport aircraft.


Dornier Do.19

Combat aircraft. Uralbomber from a different perspective
Junkers Ju. 89

In 1936, the technical department of the ministry aviation introduced new requirements for the long-range medium bomber. Flight range 5000 km, bomb load 500 kg, crew: pilot, navigator and shooter-operator of remotely controlled shooting installations.

The requirements were sent to Blom und Foss, Heinkel, Henschel, Junkers and Messerschmitt. It is not known for certain who and how started working on the project (if at all started), but in 1936, Wefer died in a plane crash, and the uralbomber program seemed to be terminated.

“It seems to be,” although for the vast majority this was the collapse of the entire Luftwaffe long-range bomber aviation, but just a month later, Heinkel’s company received an order for the aircraft under the 1041 project.

Everything is simple. One program was discontinued, another started. Obviously, only Heinkel’s work went at least in approximately the direction that the ministry determined.

November 5, 1937 "project 1041" received the official designation He.177, and began история this plane. Full of ambiguities and misunderstandings.


The Ministry of Aviation seriously planned that Heinkel would bring the plane to normal in a couple of years, and in the late 1940 - early 1941 the Luftwaffe would have a long-range bomber, with which you can start kneeling the UK.

However, the ministry itself, with the full support of the Luftwaffe, began to engage in outright foolishness: the range of the bomber was supposed to grow to 6500 km, the bomb load to 1000 kg, the maximum speed should be 535 km / h.

Well and the main thing: the plane had to be able to bomb from a dive. Let a gentle, but dive. In those days, many tried to do something like this, but not everyone could dive.

Further, it was necessary to increase the wing area, the ammunition for machine guns up to 6000 rounds, to put more powerful radio equipment. The crew also increased - up to 4 people.

The designer of the “Project 1041” Siegfried Gunther was faced with a difficult choice. In general, the problem was simple: in Germany there were no engines capable of satisfying the set requirements. And Gunter did a local miracle by placing a pair of DB601 engines in the design, which was designated DB606. In the DB 606 engine, two 12-cylinder V-shaped units based on the DB 601 were mounted side by side and worked on a common shaft through a gearbox connecting both crankshafts.

The take-off weight of the He.177 with DB606 was estimated at 25 tons, and the speed of 500 km / h at an altitude of 6000 m was greater than that of many of the fighters of that time.

However, problems began. The main problem was the new chief of staff of the Luftwaffe, Major General Joshonnek, who was inclined to believe that Germany should pay attention to medium-sized bombers, based on the successful experience of using twin-engine bombers in Spain. If it were not for Kriegsmarine’s application for a long-range reconnaissance aircraft for interaction with submarines, most likely, He.177 would never have been born.

With great difficulty, permission was obtained for a preliminary series of six aircraft and a plan was approved for the construction of six more aircraft with four BMW 801 engines, if it is not possible to arrange the operation of twin engines from Daimler-Benz.

The installation of four motors eliminated diving, so Heinkel concentrated on debugging the DB 606. At the same time, it was decided to introduce a rather impressive number of technical innovations to the design in order to maximize the interest of potential customers from the Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine.

Such an innovation was the use of remotely controlled rifle installations, which had significantly less aerodynamic drag than turrets with shooters. In the construction of He.177, a boom-operator cabin was made, which controlled three units from it. It was noted that the pickup angles and the response speed of the installations are "approaching ideal." That was in August 1939.


However, the Luftwaffe continued the show with new requirements for the aircraft. Firstly, they demanded that the remote-controlled installations be replaced by conventional manual ones. For reliability. Secondly, the dive angle was required to be increased to 60 degrees. I had to strengthen the design and modify the landing gear, since all this led to an increase in the mass of the aircraft.

While the Luftwaffe and the Ministry of Aviation were playing with the Heinkel project, 1939 struck. The Second World War has begun. And it was followed by the Battle of Britain, which the Germans successfully lost, not least because of the insufficient range of their Do.17, He.111 and Ju.88.

Perhaps, anticipating a shortage of range from their bombers, the Luftwaffe demanded that Heinkel speed up the work, and on July 6, 1939 an order was placed for 20 He.177A-0. Subsequently, the order was increased to 30 cars. The first flight of Ne.177 took place on November 19, 1939, ended prematurely and indicated a bunch of flaws in the aircraft.

On the other hand, there was a good confident take-off, landing and handling.

During the tests, the weight of the empty He.177 V1 was 13 730 kg, take-off weight - 23 950 kg. The maximum speed was 460 km / h, as much as 80 km / h less than the specified. The cruising speed was also lower, 410 km / h, and the maximum flight range was calculated at 4 km - 970% less than the specified one.

And this despite the fact that a completely defensive weapon was not installed.

"Gave the heat" in the truest sense of the word and engines. Gasoline and oil wires flowed and caused fires, oil overheated, engines did not treat oil starvation very well.

The first production Ne.177A-0 flew in November 1941. These machines differed from the prototypes in the cockpit and a modified tail unit.


The crew increased to five people. The maximum bomb load was 2400 kg. Defensive armament consisted of one 7,9-mm MG.81 machine gun in the bow mount, a 20-mm MG-FF gun in the nose in the lower gondola, a pair of MG.81 machine guns in the tail of the gondola, and two 13-mm MG.131 machine guns in the upper tower and tail installation.



The first five He.177A-0 were used for diving tests, during which a speed of 710 km / h was achieved. This required equipping at least one aircraft with lattice brakes, although in reality the He.177 was not able to safely exit the dive even with a moderate angle. Unfortunately, this was achieved as a result of several disasters. Plus, tests revealed yet another unpleasant phenomenon: constant structural vibrations at speeds above 500 km / h. The result was a limitation of flight speed with this particular number.

Yes, Ne.177 was still considered a dangerous and not very reliable aircraft due to engine problems, but experienced pilots from the specially designed test squadron 177 received the bomber well. Still, the Ne-177 was pleasant to fly and flew pretty well. And the flight duration, which was so interesting for Kriegsmarine, gradually reached 12 hours.

It was assumed that, in addition to conventional bombs, He.177 could carry both Fritz-X and Hs.293 guided bombs, as well as depth charges.

In early January 1943, Hitler personally touched on the work on He.177, familiarizing himself with a pile of documents and reports. He was very interested in exactly the plane, which could solve the problem of attacks on the distant rear enterprises of the Soviet Union. The Führer issued subordinates from the Ministry of Aviation both for failure to meet deadlines, and for being distracted by frankly stupid ideas such as creating a dive four-engine bomber. The DB606 also got - not as reliable as we would like and difficult to operate.

But even Hitler’s timely intervention didn’t help much, and in the middle of October 1942 the 130th and last He.177A-1 left the assembly line in Warnemunde. But at the same time, in Oranienburg, the production of an improved version of He 177A-3 was in full swing. The main difference was an engine mount extended by 20 cm and an additional 1,6 m section in the fuselage behind the bomb bay. An additional upper turret was installed behind the wing with a pair of 13 mm MG.131 machine guns with 750 rounds per barrel.


It was decided to equip the He.177A-3 with more powerful engines. But it did not work out, the new engines could not be debugged, so the new plane went into series with the old engines. The Ministry of Aviation set the pace of production of 70 cars per month, but due to constant improvements by the beginning of 1943, the output was only five (!) Cars per month.

At the beginning of winter 1942-1943 Ne.177 were urgently thrown to supply the German troops encircled in Stalingrad as transport aircraft. Here the following happened: in the maintenance parts on several machines, a 50-mm VK 5 gun was placed in the lower gondola. The ammunition for the gun was located in the bomb bay. They tried to use these field modifications to attack ground targets.

It turned out so-so. The horizontal bomber was completely unsuitable for such a thing as an attack.


However, He.177A-3 / R5 or the Stalingradtip with a 75-mm VK-7.5 cannon in the lower gondola was still created. They planned to use these machines as naval scouts instead of the rapidly aging Condor Fw.200. It was assumed that powerful offensive weapons would allow to hit both ships and transport aircraft over the Atlantic.

Like the attack tanks near Stalingrad, the idea of ​​sinking ships was also difficult to implement.

By 1943, when the Allies finally complicated the life of the German submariners, Grand Admiral Doenitz began to insist especially on the support of submarines by torpedo bombers made on the basis of He.177.

As a result, the 26th bomber squadron appeared, which was armed with the He.177A-3 / R7. Torpedoes did not fit into the bomb bay, so they were simply hung under the fuselage. The plane quite normally carried two standard L5 torpedoes.

But it all ended in October 1944, when an urgent order came to terminate all work in connection with the adoption of the "urgent extermination program." On the assembly line, He.177 was replaced by Do.335, ironically, also a plane with a tandem engine layout.

Large-scale production of the He.177 aircraft ended on version A-5, and further modifications did not go beyond the prototype stage.

Meanwhile, the following model, He.177A-6 was developed taking into account the wishes of front-line pilots. And it was already a very interesting car.

A-6 gas tanks were armored, a four-machine gun remotely controlled Rheinmetall turret appeared in the tail of the aircraft, which possessed solid firepower.


In addition, the A-6 was equipped with a pressurized cabin and an additional gas tank instead of the front bomb bay. With this tank, the flight range was calculated at 5800 km.

There was a project No.177A-7. It was a high-altitude long-range reconnaissance, preserving the ability to carry a bomb load. The wing span was increased to 36 m, the power plant - two DB613 engines (two twin DB603G, giving off take-off power of 3600 hp each). The mass of the empty aircraft was 18 100 kg, take-off - 34 641 kg. The maximum speed is 545 km / h at an altitude of 6000 m.


Ne.177A-7 was planned to be released by the Japanese, but the outbreak of the war did not present the opportunity to deliver a prototype to Japan.

As a result, it all ended as for many projects of other companies: a complete failure. And the plane was very promising. Its vast compartments made it possible to accommodate a lot of payload. If it came to installing a radar, I’m sure there would be no problem.

Was the plane unsuccessful?

Not sure.

Unsuccessful aircraft do not build more than a thousand cars. In a country like Germany, during the war, many interesting projects played a role in history at the prototype level. And here - 1000+. Doesn't fit.

An interesting twin engine system, an original chassis, remotely controlled shooting systems ...

Another question is that for some reason they wanted to make a heavy bomber dive. A heavy bomber was used as a transport aircraft in the Stalingrad boiler. A heavy bomber weighing 25 tons began to be converted into an attack aircraft with large-caliber guns.

If you look objectively, you understand that for the failures of He.177 the responsibility lay with the Ministry of Aviation, which clearly had a poor idea of ​​what it needed from the plane. And incompetence can not always be compensated.

In fact, there were no particular flaws in the He.177 project, problems were characteristic of all German bombers. Yes, plus more continuous improvements at the request of the Ministry of Aviation. "Children's illnesses" are generally inherent in all new cars, but here the matter is rather different.

The fact is that strategic long-range aviation is a very difficult and expensive business. A heavy aircraft with good performance characteristics, good defense and armament is not so simple. And not every country can handle it - to have a fleet of strategic bombers. This generally only the Americans and the British succeeded.

If Germany had such a budget that could allow it not to delve into He.177 for several years, bringing it to mind, saving on everything, the result could be completely different. But when there is no money, and a rather promising machine serves to plug holes, no ingenious and modern design developments will help.


So, perhaps, hanging on the Ne.177 the label of an unsuccessful aircraft is somewhat unfair. A huge amount of work was done, the Ministry of Aviation and the Luftwaffe, just mired in intrigues, did not give the opportunity to implement the project.

But this is not so bad, after all, is it?


LTX He.177a-5 / r-2

Wingspan, m: 31,40.
Length, m: 22,00.
Height, m: 6,40.
Wing Area, m2: 100,00.

Weight, kg:
- empty aircraft: 16 800;
- normal take-off: 27;
- maximum take-off: 31 000.

Engine: 2 x Daimler-Benz DB-610A-1 / B-1 x 2950 hp

Maximum speed km / h:
- near the ground: 485;
- at height: 510.
Cruising speed, km / h: 415.
Practical range, km: 5.
Practical ceiling, m: 8 000.
Crew, person: 6.

Armament:
- one 7,9-mm machine gun MG-81J with 2000 rounds in the nose;
- one MG-151/20 cannon in front of the lower gondola (300 shells);
- one MG-151/20 cannon in the tail unit (300 shells);
- two 7,9 mm MG-15 machine guns with 2000 rounds in the rear of the gondola;
- two 13-mm machine guns MG-131 in a remotely controlled turret behind the cab;
- one 13-mm MG-131 machine gun in the rear turret with an electric drive with 750 rounds per barrel.

In the bomb bay:
- 16x50kg, or 4x250kg, or 2x500kg or
On external holders:
- 2 LMA-III mines, or 2 LT-50 torpedoes, or 2 Hs.293 or Fritz-X missiles.
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  1. rocket757 12 February 2020 05: 18 New
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    Topic, the project has already been discussed.
    It’s still interesting to find out in what “torment”, most often, a technique is born.
    1. Svarog51 12 February 2020 06: 02 New
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      Victor hi I would add another human factor. Well, it’s not a long-range bomber for the front line, for this attack and front-line bomber serve. The distant must endure the rear structure with all diligence. But this did not happen, the right person for the role of long-range aviation leader was not found in Germany. The plane was "given birth", and it would have shown itself if applied in that hypostasis for which it was created. This is not only about Germany. Where the weapon is in skillful hands - there it manifests itself “in all its glory”. Something like this.
      P.S. Just noticed - congratulations to the Marshal. good drinks
      1. rocket757 12 February 2020 07: 06 New
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        Sergei soldier I welcome you.
        A competent leader, the organizer, like the manufacturer, is not always and everywhere located.
        Even judging by how the requirements for the product changed, how much they were overestimated and contradictory, after the competent person, the customer, was gone, it was clear that there was no common understanding about long-range aviation in the Luftwaffe. In principle, this somewhat facilitated the task for the Allies, in confronting Germany, and that was good.
  2. svp67 12 February 2020 05: 24 New
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    You look at this “Miracle” of the “gloomy Teutonic genius” and you understand where we came from the demand for the creation of a “long-range, high-speed, and most importantly DIVE bomber”
    1. abc_alex 12 February 2020 09: 41 New
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      Quote: svp67
      You look at this “Miracle” of the “gloomy Teutonic genius” and you understand where we came from the demand for the creation of a “long-range, high-speed, and most importantly DIVE bomber”

      Dive bombing is not mindless copying. Just bomb sights then were such that even the United States could give no more than 17% of hits on a target the size of a football field. Look at the results of their first attempts to bomb Japan from super-fortresses.
      Diving at least somehow guaranteed that after flying 4000 km you would drop these 2 bombs not towards the target, but into it.
      1. svp67 12 February 2020 10: 42 New
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        Quote: abc_alex
        Diving at least somehow guaranteed that after flying 4000 km you would drop these 2 bombs not towards the target, but into it.

        But no one could create such a long-range bomber, because either the weight of the bomb became "ridiculous" or the design could not stand it. But the use of guided weapons, this is the solution to the problem
        1. Alexey RA 12 February 2020 12: 24 New
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          Quote: svp67
          But no one could create such a long-range bomber, because either the weight of the bomb became "ridiculous" or the design could not stand it.

          In the unforgettable 617th squadron, the process was divided into two parts: four-engine target indicators dived, precisely laying incendiary bombs and markers. And then, on markers and fires, other four-engine engines were practiced by bombs from horizontal flight.
          The next night they returned to Pas de Calais. Munro fired lighting rockets. Martin, spitting on everything and all sorts of orders, coolly dived, aiming the plane at the "ski". He found the night dive on a four-engined bomber a bit of a thrill, but he dropped the markers and emerged from the peak at 400 feet.
          © Brickhill P. Ship Slayers / Barker R. Flooding Germany!
  3. The comment was deleted.
  4. Vladimir_2U 12 February 2020 05: 33 New
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    Well and the main thing: the plane had to be able to bomb from a dive. Let a gentle but dive
    I don’t remember which Soviet long-range bomber was discussed and in which book, but the same demand was made, and here the author proceeded from the "stupidity of the NKVDshnoy" ferry.
    1. svp67 12 February 2020 10: 43 New
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      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      I don’t remember which Soviet long-range bomber was discussed and in which book, but the same demand was made, and here the author proceeded from the "stupidity of the NKVDshnoy" ferry.

      In the "sharashka" Tupolev tried to create such a bomber, as a result were able to create only a front-line bomber, which became the legendary Tu-2
      1. fighter angel 12 February 2020 13: 29 New
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        svp67
        Correct you, Sergey.
        According to N. Yakubovich, this is one of two things: either Tupolev managed to convince the "superior" of the futility and the enormous complexity of the implementation of such a project, or the military doctrine changed, and the English ships ceased to be the "enemy number of times."
        And just then the question arose about the front-line medium bomber. ANT-58 appeared, later - Tu-2.
    2. Servisinzhener 12 February 2020 12: 06 New
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      And then this episode appeared in many places with a constant assessment of the "stupidity of leadership." To my shame, I just now found out that such a requirement was most likely due to intelligence about German developments.
      And the topic of "whistleblowers" of the times of perestroika and the nineties. Oh how they were hungry over carts. 20 years have passed and what we see in the Middle East is the modern reincarnation of carts. And as it turned out, this is a very effective weapon.
      1. svp67 12 February 2020 18: 49 New
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        Quote: Servisinzhener
        20 years have passed and what we see in the Middle East is the modern reincarnation of carts. And as it turned out, this is a very effective weapon.

        Sorry, but this is such a motorcycle, it’s the same “tachanka”, so that those who laugh a little that understand this

        1. Servisinzhener 12 February 2020 19: 33 New
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          By the way, yes. Sometimes there are very surprising combinations.
          1. svp67 12 February 2020 19: 49 New
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            Quote: Servisinzhener
            By the way, yes. Sometimes there are very surprising combinations.

            Nevertheless, this is the same "cart"
        2. Vladimir_2U 13 February 2020 03: 23 New
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          Quote: svp67
          it's the same "cart"
          Not really a “tachanka”, the essence of a tachanka is the transfer of a machine gun as such, the essence of machine guns on reconnaissance motorcycles is the strengthening of the firepower of the reconnaissance unit.
          1. svp67 13 February 2020 04: 25 New
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            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            Not really a “tachanka”, the essence of a tachanka is the transfer of a machine gun as such, the essence of machine guns on reconnaissance motorcycles is the strengthening of the firepower of the reconnaissance unit.

            The essence of the cart is not just a transfer, but a quick transfer, but it is not the main task. The most important thing is to have a speed comparable to the speed of the cavalry units and at the right moment by going to the flank to support their actions or by going to other positions to cover their withdrawal.
            Remember how in the song: "... and from a raid, from a turn ..." But as I understand it, beautiful, but deadly.
    3. Alf
      Alf 12 February 2020 21: 37 New
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      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      I don’t remember which Soviet long-range bomber

      PB-4.
  5. Per se. 12 February 2020 06: 14 New
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    The aircraft is outstanding, especially if the combat mission (if not as a "heavy dive") was correctly set right during its design. We must pay tribute to the Germans, who managed to create a plane bypassing stupidity with a dive.
    What remains behind the scenes of an article by Roman. One of the problems of the car is two engines (complication of aerobatics, insufficient power for this type of aircraft), with the use of four engines many problems disappeared. Fortunately for the Allies, the Germans could not complete it, did not have time. In the photo, the He-177 version with four engines and the He-277 scheme, already initially, as a four-engine and two-keel.
    1. Per se. 12 February 2020 11: 12 New
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      By the way, the British came to the four-engine “Lancaster” from problems with the twin-engine “Manchester”. The Germans, in fact, eventually repeated the necessary concept of a heavy bomber.
    2. NF68 12 February 2020 18: 30 New
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      Quote: Per se.
      The aircraft is outstanding, especially if the combat mission (if not as a "heavy dive") was correctly set right during its design.


      Ernst Henkel, even at the very beginning of the development of the Ne-177, expressed his friend Udet concerns about the reliability of the twin DB-606 engines, which had not shown their best on the He-119. The fact that Heinkel and his team had by this time already not a small experience and knew well what he was offering was known not only in Germany, but Heinkel’s sensible advice was not seriously taken into account. As a result, they spent enormous amounts of money, they killed more than a dozen of the most experienced crews, and they received a more or less normal long-range bomber only by 1943 when the WWII was almost lost.
    3. svp67 12 February 2020 18: 50 New
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      Quote: Per se.
      Outstanding aircraft

      But do not find that this plane begs the installation of the nose wheel.
      1. Per se. 13 February 2020 06: 42 New
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        Quote: svp67
        and the installation of the nose wheel suggests itself
        Like the Hs-219 or B-29? It seems, Sergey, that the He-177 has a different alignment, and the layout with a gondola in the nose is hardly inclined to this.
        1. Per se. 13 February 2020 09: 43 New
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          Quote: Per se.
          Like the Hs-219
          I'm sorry, Heinkel He-219.
  6. Arslan Ali_2 12 February 2020 07: 07 New
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    More than 1000. Besides Stalingrad, how strategic was used, and not as a transport?
  7. Alex 1970 12 February 2020 07: 57 New
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    It would be interesting to read about military use as a bomber. After all, this 1000 plus aircraft did something other than transport flights? Or was there no bombing?
    1. Servisinzhener 12 February 2020 15: 05 New
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      Their combat use was matched by design https://military.wikireading.ru/14353
      1. igordok 12 February 2020 20: 07 New
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        Somewhat off topic. Tell me, two torpedo torpedo bombers dropped both torpedoes in one approach, or one by one?
        1. Servisinzhener 13 February 2020 09: 07 New
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          I will not say, because did not study this moment of combat use.
        2. Engineer 13 February 2020 12: 05 New
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          In one run
        3. illuminat 14 February 2020 13: 25 New
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          Quote: igordok
          Somewhat off topic. Tell me, two torpedo torpedo bombers dropped both torpedoes in one approach, or one by one?

          Could in one, could in several, but always one by one. They could have been in a series, and never in one gulp (unless accidentally to "unexploded"). A torpedo is not a bomb, expensive and piece goods.
      2. Alex 1970 13 February 2020 08: 48 New
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        Thank you so much! It was interesting to read. Indeed, like a microscope, hammer nails. It turns out that it was used for its intended purpose only during the bombing of Britain and an attempt to use it on the eastern front.
  8. Lamata 12 February 2020 08: 15 New
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    This plane is somehow little known or something with us.
  9. itarnmag 12 February 2020 09: 39 New
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    Not unfortunately, but fortunately at the cost of several disasters. Somehow the author "regrets" the Nazis
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    2. Servisinzhener 12 February 2020 15: 26 New
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      Of course, I would like to know why instead of such raids on the eastern front. On statically important and large objects. The Germans used He -177 for day raids on convoys, bombing residential areas of London with its strong air defense, losing a large number of aircraft.
      For example, the bombing of fields before cleaning with incendiary bombs would bring more sense than the bombing of urban buildings.
      1. Dmitry V. 12 February 2020 17: 12 New
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        Quote: Servisinzhener
        Of course, I would like to know why instead of such raids on the eastern front. On statically important and large objects. The Germans used He -177 for day raids on convoys, bombing residential areas of London with its strong air defense, losing a large number of aircraft.
        For example, the bombing of fields before cleaning with incendiary bombs would bring more sense than the bombing of urban buildings.

        At that time, the British air defense was the strongest - For the retaliation operation, which went down in the history of the air slaughter codenamed “Small Lightning”, about 550 aircraft were collected from all fronts. The raids had to be stopped because of the extremely high level of losses, sometimes reaching almost 50 %

        It all depends on organizational genius - apparently the Germans did not have this, or they were not given a move (reports on the trial of the Eichmann group).
        At that time, military analysts from the UK and US bomber command
        looked for ways to effectively destroy the economy of the Third Reich.
        In 1942, British and American aircraft dropped 53755 tons of bombs onto German territory, while the Luftwaffe dropped a total of 3260 tons into England.

        1942 Casablanca directive - "areal tactics of bombing German cities with British aviation)
        Harris wrote: “After the Casablanca conference, my responsibilities expanded [...] It was decided to sacrifice moral considerations. I had to proceed with the implementation of the joint Anglo-American plan of the bombing offensive with the goal of a general “disorganization” of the German industry [...] This gave me rather broad powers in the choice. I could give the order to attack any German industrial city with a population of 100 thousand inhabitants and more [...] The new instructions did not make a difference in choice. "

        In the end, three general groups of targets were chosen as the main targets for the strategic bomb attack:

        1) the cities of the Ruhr basin, representing the arsenals of Germany;
        2) large cities of inner Germany;
        3) Berlin as the capital and political center of the country.
        It was planned to carry out bombing attacks on Germany by the joint efforts of the US and British aviation. The US Air Force aimed at destroying certain important military and industrial facilities by means of targeted daytime bombing, and the British aviation aimed at making massive night raids using bombing over squares.


        The Americans worked selectively - a series of raids on ball bearing plants in Schweinfurt, attacks on synthetic gas plants, raids on aircraft plants in Halberstadt, Braunschweig, Magdeburg and Oschersleben. From February 20 to February 25, 1944 the command of the US Air Force in Europe and the British Bomber Command carried out the joint operation "Argument". The purpose of the operation was the destruction of German production facilities for the production of fighter jets. During the "Big Week" the Allies raided the main aviation plants in Germany http://10otb.ru/content/history/souzniki/bomber_02.html
        when the Germans dispersed production, the Americans flexibly switched to bombing transport infrastructure.
        Arms Reich Minister Speer recalled: “From mid-April 1944, raids on ball-bearing enterprises unexpectedly stopped. But because of their inconsistency, the Allies lost luck. If they continued with the same intensity, the end would have come much earlier. ”

        Since May 12, 1944, systematic raids on plants for the production of synthetic gasoline. By July, all the major German refineries were destroyed or seriously damaged.
        Achilles heel of Germany -
        in July 1944, Germany's 12 largest synthetic fuel manufacturing enterprises were subjected to powerful air strikes at least once. As a result, production volumes, which usually amounted to 316 thousand tons per month, decreased to 107 thousand tons. Synthetic fuel production continued to decline until in September 1944 this figure began to be only 17 thousand tons. High-octane gasoline production fell from 175 thousand tons in April to 30 thousand tons in July and up to 5 thousand tons in September.

        Attacks on oil refining facilities in Germany also significantly reduced the production of explosives and synthetic rubber, and due to a shortage of aviation gasoline, training flights almost stopped and flight sorties fell sharply.


        What prevented the start of the bombing of oil refineries and synthetic gasoline plants since 1942?
        We need to think of this - it’s well known now, aftertaste, but we came to this idea through the experience of heavy losses.
  11. Servisinzhener 12 February 2020 12: 10 New
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    I want to say thanks to the leadership of the Luftwaffe who, by their requirements for this aircraft, reduced its effectiveness to 0. Having made a long-range bomber out of a project that could very much harm the Soviet defense industry. Don’t get that. Completely neutralizing its advantages and maximizing the disadvantages.
  12. Alexey RA 12 February 2020 12: 13 New
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    And it was followed by the Battle of Britain, which the Germans successfully lost, not least because of the insufficient range of their Do.17, He.111 and Ju.88.

    EMNIP, the range of the German bombers on the Island was determined not by their own flight range, but by the combat radius of the Bf-109 fighter. Without fighter cover, the bombers in the island’s air defense zone were the target, as the “black Tuesday” of the 5th WF showed - even Bf-110 “fighters” got from the “Hurey” and “Spits” there.
  13. Sapsan136 12 February 2020 16: 00 New
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    Nevertheless, half of the constructed aircraft were idle for repair, which makes this aircraft ineffective and its construction is inappropriate ... In Germany, the Me-210 (357 machines) and the Me-410 (1200 machines) were built, to put it mildly, not very successful, in large quantities ... and the failed Me-110 heavy fighter was built in 6170 instances ...
  14. Constanty 13 February 2020 10: 51 New
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    Unsuccessful aircraft do not build more than a thousand cars. In a country like Germany, during the war, many interesting projects played a role in history at the prototype level. And here - 1000+. Doesn't fit.


    Let me remind you of the case of the Cruiser Mk V "Covenanter" tank. Tank production in 1941-43. made up 1771 units. !!! and yet it was never used in battle. And in the difficult period of the war, where each tank, it would seem, is worth its weight in gold. He was simply unsuccessful.
    Sometimes unsuccessful (moreover, for various reasons) designs are produced in large quantities.
  15. Aviator_ 13 February 2020 18: 13 New
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    and another unpleasant phenomenon: the constant vibrations of the structure at speeds above 500 km / h.

    This is nothing like buffeting - the tear-off flow around structural elements acts on the tail
  16. exo
    exo 13 February 2020 18: 47 New
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    Gas tanks were really armored? Or protected?
    And so, the aircraft in terms of qualities, very interesting.
  17. swzero 13 February 2020 20: 11 New
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    It’s interesting by the way why the Germans chose a scheme with the operation of two engines on 1 shaft and 1 screw, which eventually brought a bunch of problems. The option with two coaxial screws rotating in different directions was, I think, more promising. Or at worst, the scheme used on the pre-335 with one push and one pulling screw.
    1. Alf
      Alf 13 February 2020 21: 40 New
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      Quote: swzero
      The option with two coaxial screws rotating in different directions was, I think, more promising.

      Most likely, they ran into a problem with gearboxes. I personally know only three aircraft in which the gearbox problem was resolved - Gannet, Wyvern and Tu-95.
      1. swzero 13 February 2020 21: 45 New
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        The gearbox as on the Tu-95 is needed if the engines are in parallel. And if the coaxial shafts - the shaft from the rear engine through the collapse of the cylinders and the front hollow shaft? Hollow shafts were in motor guns, long shafts were also on cobras.
        1. Alf
          Alf 13 February 2020 21: 50 New
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          Quote: swzero
          The gearbox as on the Tu-95 is needed if the engines are in parallel. And if the coaxial shafts - the shaft from the rear engine through the collapse of the cylinders and the front hollow shaft? Hollow shafts were in motor guns, long shafts were also on cobras.

          Perhaps, but only theoretically everything is simple, but how it comes to practice ...
  18. Old Orc 17 February 2020 17: 19 New
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    And all thanks to Stirlitz in the Ministry of Aviation