How pre-war Eastern Europe and the Balkans moved towards "democracy"

How pre-war Eastern Europe and the Balkans moved towards "democracy"

Hungarian Nazis Ferenc Salashi


Starting this short cycle, the author tried to find the fascist-Nazi wormhole in every country in Europe in order to show as wide as possible the spread of the human ideology across the continent. The task turned out to be much easier than thought at the beginning. As a result, the author began to look for countries that did not flirt with Nazism even within themselves. Alas, almost every country in Europe to one degree or another looked at Nazi Germany with a certain degree of enthusiasm. Thus, let’s omit, for example, countries such as Poland with its dictator Pilsudski, fascist Romania with its army, which specialized in looting in World War II, and cut Yugoslavia with Ustasha that reigned in part of its territory, and take a look at those who were in the shadows.

Magyars, speak!


In the prewar years, Hungary was governed by the regent and former vice-admiral of Austria-Hungary, Miklos Horthy. In the first year of his regency, Miklos, in fact, began a policy of terror against the Communists and Jews. Horthy stripped the suffrage of more than 50% of the country's population, and most political parties were officially banned. It was the irreplaceable regent who drove a completely puppet parliament and government, despite formal elections.

In 1932, Horthy seated the Prime Minister Gyul Gömbös in the chair, through which he forged a one-party system, although not entirely successfully. At the same time, Nazi views gained extraordinary popularity among the Hungarians. Horthy, who cut the communist sprouts to the root, looked at the fertile Nazi parties only as irritable competitors, who were periodically simply dismissed. Finally, the main small-town Hungarian Fuhrer Ferenc Salashi, leader of the Nazi Party of Crossed Arrows, realized that they needed a good overlord. And who was brighter than Hitler? A close friendship was established, therefore, Horthy simply sometimes threatened with a finger, conducting short demonstration landings, but he could not strangle competing salashists.


Ferenc Salashi in Budapest

By 1939, the number of members of the Party of Crossed Arrows exceeded a quarter of a million. They easily pushed the ruling coalition, becoming the second political force in the country. By 1944, the “crossed arrows” with the help of the Nazis overthrew the indecisive dictator Horthy and began to rule themselves in the best Nazi spirit. Salashists, as they were called, took an active part in the Holocaust and the looting of property of Jews and Gypsies.

They forgot about Shipka


Bulgaria did not lag behind its neighbors. In 1934, Kimon Georgiev, who led the militarized political organization “Link”, very similar to the Italian fascists, organized a military coup and soon took the post of prime minister and minister of justice at the same time. A tough authoritarian regime was established in Bulgaria, censorship was introduced, and all political parties were banned. Soon Cimon was fired, but the foreign policy and domestic political pro-fascist course remained with certain consequences. As a result, in 1940, Bogdan Filov, who approved the Holocaust in Bulgaria, became Prime Minister under Tsar Boris III.


Tsar Boris and Adolf Hitler

But Kimon and Filov against the background of other political figures of Bulgaria of the 30s look simply confused boys in comparison with the true radicals of the country. Back in 1932, the People’s Social Movement, or Tsankovsky Movement, was founded on behalf of its founder Alexander Tsankov (professor, as well as a coup and terrorist). This movement preached Nazi postulates and actively advocated an alliance with Germany. Only the entry of Soviet troops into the country did not allow Tsankov to organize a military coup to become the only Fuhrer.


Union of Bulgarian National Legions

The direct competitor of the Tsankovsky movement was the Union of Bulgarian National Legions, founded in the same 1932. The Union was more gravitated to the Italian fascists, therefore, the structure created the corresponding. Having knocked together 35 thousand adherents, the Union immediately declared that it was guided by a one-party system in the country and would not shun violence, especially against communists and non-Bulgarian nationals. Playing an important role in Bulgaria, the "legionnaires" even put pressure on the king and the government to send Bulgarian troops to the Eastern Front. The piquancy of the situation is that in modern Bulgaria, the Union of Legions has resumed its activity on completely legal grounds.

But the most aggressive, anti-Semitic and overtly Nazi association was the Union of Warriors for Bulgaria's Progress. Organized in 1936, the Union was essentially a militarized structure similar to Nazi attack aircraft. At the same time, as in other European countries, the organizers were not marginals, but quite respected people. So, the leader of the "warriors" was a professor at Sofia University and a World War I veteran Asen Kantardzhiev. Many members of the Union held high government posts and even before the war established close relations with Nazi structures, including the Gestapo.


Union of Warriors for Bulgaria's Progress

To demonstrate fidelity to new friends from the Reich, the "warriors" staged a monstrous pogrom of Jewish shops in the capital of Bulgaria - Sofia. Later, this rampant anti-Semitism will receive the name of “Bulgarian Kristallnacht”. Alexander Belev, a senior member of the "warriors", will become the commissioner for Jewish affairs, i.e. will send Bulgarian Jews to Nazi death camps.

Everything is in Greece


But what about Hellas, i.e. Orthodox Greece? And why is Athens worse than the rest of Europe? In 1935, the monarchists came to power in the Republic of Greece as a result of a military coup, returning King George II from exile. Formal elections showed that left-wing moods prevail in the country, which was immediately described by the top as a political crisis. Therefore, the king appointed Ioannis Metaxas as prime minister, a general and politician who instantly dismissed the unwanted parliament and introduced a dictatorial regime in the country. Metaxas openly sympathized with Nazi Germany. The only thing that prevented Greece from joining such a “venerable” company was the purely political conflicts and appetites of fascist Italy, which regarded Greece as its colony.


Metaxas and Goebbels

The radical right course of Metaxas, with his dictatorial rule and the harsh persecution of the Communists, whom he considered the main enemies of the state, eventually became the foundation for the "black colonels" to come to power. The "Colonels" were distinguished by a special right-wing radicalism regarding even a hint of socialism. Repression, censorship and the slogan "Greece for Greek Christians" became a symbol of this nationalist time.


Metaxas welcomed by the Greek military

Oddly enough, the followers of Metaxas, who positively evaluate Hitler’s figure, still exist in Greece. And not just exist, but are a major neo-Nazi party "Golden Dawn". As the Greek government caves in under the EU, and migrants continue their expansion into Europe, the Golden Dawn is climbing up the political ladder.

Slovakia could not resist "independence"


Long before the fall of Czechoslovakia on the territory of modern Slovakia in 1906, the Slovak nationalist party was organized. This organization began to mutate under the pressure of fascist ideas. Finally, the Slovak Glinka Party was born on behalf of the founder Andrei Glinka. Since then, the party members did not hide their Nazi ideas and began to cooperate with Nazi Germany.


Joseph Tiso and Hitler

The Slovak “patriots” loved their homeland so much that it was only thanks to the German occupation that they could become local Fuhrer, turning the country into a protectorate of Berlin. Josef Tiso, a Catholic priest, former Minister of Health of Czechoslovakia, acted as the main Fuhrer. But local leaders were by no means going to back up power only with the Germans. A militarized organization, like the Glinka Guard, was active in the country. The "Guards" took part in the repression against the Communists, Jews and Gypsies. By 1939, when the Slovak Nazis declared the "independence" of Slovakia, the Guard consisted of up to 100 thousand people.

Naturally, the Glinkaites became the only authorized party. There was nothing to be ashamed of, so one of the leaders of the Glinkov party, Alexander Mach openly declared: “With Jews, whose gold, jewelry, wealth, have been dealt with everywhere. We will figure it out! Czech - in a sack, and a sack - in the Danube! ”They also repressed on religious grounds - Protestant and Orthodox churches were closed.


Glinkovites parade

As a result, the Slovak Expeditionary Force was formed of 45 thousand soldiers and officers, who were transferred to the war against the USSR. And from Slovakia more than 57 thousand Jews were deported to Nazi camps. Less than a thousand people survived.

The piquancy of this terrible stories attached by the fact that the spiritual heirs of the Glinkov party in the form of “People’s Party - Our Slovakia”, saturated with nationalism to the very throat, and now feel quite good in Slovakia. In the 2016 parliamentary elections, these “patriots” won over 8% of the votes of Euro-integrated Slovaks.

Sad results


No matter how much we would like, the USSR fought with a united Europe, which showed how any alternative ideas could be suppressed in order to contrast itself with such a mysterious incomprehensible, and even rich eastern neighbor. And no moral values ​​could withstand the cultivation of long-standing complexes, fears and desire for profit.

Even the tiny republic of San Marino, which you will not find on a map that does not have an airport or a railway station, happily picked up the fascism virus and introduced peculiar racial laws that reduced the population of this state.

How much time will it take for the new West to begin nostalgic for the “good old days” behind the screen of the progressive order of the future? And will we have time to realize this?
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  1. maidan.izrailovich 8 February 2020 05: 08 New
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    In the photo of Hitler and Tsar Boris III, two Germans shake hands.
    Boris III is the king of Bulgaria from the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Dynasty.
    And we wonder why the "bros" did not fight for those. .
    1. Grandfather 8 February 2020 05: 24 New
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      nothing has changed in the world, we are also “loved”, ready to cling to the tray on occasion. we are alone in this political world.
      1. Olgovich 8 February 2020 11: 28 New
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        The author did not mention about main Nazi predator of Eastern Europe -Romania: only in Bessarabia did the Nazi regime ANTONESKO destroy 350 thousand people.

        Romanians stormed Odessa, Sevastopol, reached Stalingrad and the Caucasus, brought scary woe to our country ...

        They, by the way, forgiven allMoreover, Romania “grew” Transylvania, and in 1945, 46, 47 we actually gave it by 100 000 grain, although in our country there was a terrible famine .........
        1. Tatyana 8 February 2020 23: 30 New
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          Excellent article!
          And so it is necessary to tell the truth about the countries of pre-war Europe!
          1. Golovan Jack 8 February 2020 23: 35 New
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            Quote: Tatiana
            So it is necessary to tell the truth about the countries of Western Europe

            Tatyana, these are our recent "friends" .. how can this be so? wink laughing
            1. Tatyana 9 February 2020 01: 07 New
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              Quote: Golovan Jack
              Quote: Tatiana
              So it is necessary to tell the truth about the countries of Western Europe

              Tatyana, these are our recent "friends" .. how can this be so? wink laughing

              I remember, I remember my three cavaliers-foreigners, Standoff, Joseph and Lyubosh from the delegation of the inter-university interstate exchange practice by students between Czechoslovakia and the USSR!
              When these Czechs and Slovaks left their homeland from our city, they, from my entire delegation of 21 people, gave me only one and none of all our girls a bouquet of 21 red terry cloves — one flower from each !
              The girls then envied me terribly and asked me everything why they liked me so much: “No! You better tell us that they found in you something that is not in us ?! No, it's just impudence on their part! Such a huge bouquet - and only to you !!! And to us - not a flower! "
              I only accompanied three children around the city for one day. We were together in a museum, as well as in an expensive restaurant, where they don’t actually go without money, and danced there all evening until closing time. I just warned the waiters that they were students and they simply didn’t have that kind of money with us - and the waiters just friendlyly and understandingly set us at the best table in the restaurant - near the orchestra and dance floor and near the TV player with a huge screen with cartoons in between. They liked everything so much that the next day they showed up at the same restaurant as a group. And I was at their farewell “dump” on the occasion of their return to their homeland. Taped how they sing! They sing very well and know a lot of songs, and also play well on various instruments: guitars, drums, trumpets, flutes, banjos. Well, about the events of 1968 in Czechoslovakia, we also talked.
              I still remember them by name and visually, too. Surely, and they also remember me. I am sure that even now they personally have nothing wrong with Russia. But these were simple guys from simple families of their people. What is happening there now, I do not know. But I am sure that they, too, positively remember their trip to our country.
              This is called "popular diplomacy."
              1. Golovan Jack 9 February 2020 01: 35 New
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                Quote: Tatiana
                I do remember

                Okie. I’ll recover: these are not “ours,” these are your friends, probably ...
        2. Olgovich 9 February 2020 11: 49 New
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          Quote: Olgovich
          The author did not mention the most important Nazi predator of Eastern Europe-Romania: only in Bessarabia did the Nazi ANTONESCU regime kill 350 thousand people.

          The Romanians stormed Odessa, Sevastopol, reached Stalingrad and the Caucasus, brought terrible grief to our country ..

          oh, three lover of the Romanian Nazis-Put three minuses on conviction these nonhumans

          and their FACES open, weak, cowards? lol
    2. DMB 75 8 February 2020 06: 07 New
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      Quote: maidan.izrailovich
      King of Bulgaria from the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Dynasty.

      What does it have to do with this? Our kings also donated Russian blood in the WWI, which did not stop them from fighting against the Triple Alliance ..
      "The USSR fought with a united Europe, which showed how any alternative ideas can be suppressed in order to contrast itself with such a mysterious incomprehensible, and even rich eastern neighbor. And no moral values ​​could withstand the cultivation of old complexes, fears and desire for profit."
      1. AK1972 8 February 2020 08: 58 New
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        Quote: DMB 75
        Our tsars also donated Russian blood in the WWI

        It’s more correct to say: Our kings of Russian blood by the time of WWI no longer had a word at all.
      2. maidan.izrailovich 8 February 2020 11: 29 New
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        What does it have to do with this? Our kings also donated Russian blood in the WWI, which did not stop them from fighting against the Triple Alliance ..

        In fact, the "blood" is absolutely nothing to do with.
        King of Germany William II, King of Great Britain George V and Russian Empress Alexandra Feodorovna were cousins. Their common grandmother is Queen Victoria of Great Britain.
        As you can see, the common blood did not stop fighting with each other.
        And after the abdication of Nicholas II, George V did nothing to save his cousin and her family.
        With such relatives and enemies is not necessary.
    3. rich 8 February 2020 07: 25 New
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      In the photo of Hitler and Tsar Boris III, two Germans shake hands.

      Two Austrians. More precisely
      1. Reptiloid 8 February 2020 07: 49 New
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        Thus, the actions, the will, the possibilities of the USSR, which broke all this, were huge!
        Thanks to the respected Author! ++++++++++++++
        After all, they did not talk about this side of the USSR Victory before, and they don’t want to warm up.
        1. Chervonny 8 February 2020 09: 16 New
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          Quote: Reptiloid
          Thanks to the respected Author! ++++++++++++++
          After all, they did not talk about this side of the USSR Victory before, and they don’t want to warm up.

          Of course, the article is good and we should know what happened in the countries of Europe in the pre-war years. However, we are starting to forget that there was another Europe. Europe with progressive forces, Europe sought to cooperate with the USSR and opposed fascism in all its manifestations. I am now talking about the third international as well. It would be great to read an article about pre-war resistance movements of European patriots against Nazism.
          1. Reptiloid 8 February 2020 11: 21 New
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            The theme of the lll of the International is still, in my opinion, poorly lit. Somehow I wanted, I was looking, I could not find much. Honestly puzzled about that Europe, which sought to cooperate with the USSR before the war.
            Quote: Red
            ....... However, we are starting to forget that there was another Europe. Europe with progressive forces, Europe sought to cooperate with the USSR and opposed fascism in all its manifestations. I am now talking about the third international as well. It would be great to read an article about pre-war resistance movements of European patriots against Nazism.
            1. Arlen 8 February 2020 12: 44 New
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              Quote: Reptiloid
              Theme lll International ---- still, in my opinion, dimly lit

              It is what it is. Indeed, this topic is poorly covered, sometimes it seems that the topic of the Third International is under some kind of ban, maybe just not interesting to historians.
              P.S. We also have not studied the topic of MOPR. hi
              1. Reptiloid 8 February 2020 14: 06 New
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                I have long thought she was banned, but shy lol say request because, as it seems to me, the actions of the participants are extended further ....
            2. Chervonny 8 February 2020 12: 49 New
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              Quote: Reptiloid
              Honestly puzzled about the Europe, which sought to cooperate with the USSR before the war

              Why? The Popular Front of France (coalition government of the left forces), the government of the Second Spanish Republic and various anti-fascist, socialist, communist movements.
              1. Reptiloid 8 February 2020 14: 10 New
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                Well, yes, Spain, it goes without saying, there’s not much literature on this topic, I’ve collected something, I haven’t started reading yet .... maybe something new will appear on the net ..... hi
          2. Reptiloid 8 February 2020 15: 28 New
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            Hitler created favorable conditions. Rally against the USSR. Type, preceded by NATO.
    4. Keyser soze 8 February 2020 10: 16 New
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      And we wonder why the "bros" did not fight for those. .


      I slammed you right now. So that they do not roar that secretly it is someone doing. We certainly did not fight with you in World War II - go and study books.
    5. kitten 8 February 2020 12: 24 New
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      They say that Nikolashka2 didn’t really want to fight with cousin Wilhelm. Hence the result.
      1. Cetron 8 February 2020 16: 45 New
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        William had 2 uncles, and George V was a cousin. Nicholas and Georg pictured as twins.
    6. nikolai711 12 February 2020 22: 50 New
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      Tsar Boris is an Austrian by father / Ferdinad I /, and an Italian by mother. And the father of the Bulgarian liberal shit-democracy Stefan Stambolov called Papa Ferdinand I / to the kingdom. For this, Boris's father organized the assassination of Stambolov. Not to be confused with Alexander Stamboliysky, there the son tried to in 1923 year.
  2. rotmistr60 8 February 2020 06: 36 New
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    The article is especially relevant today when European countries that actively collaborated with Hitler suddenly (?) First tried to equate Stalinism with fascism, and then began to puff up accusing the USSR (Russia) of not only unleashing 2 MB, but some even agreed to blame for the Holocaust. Moreover, the countries that surrendered to the Germans in a week or a month suddenly, overnight, became “winners” in 2 MB. As there were political cattle at that time, they remained until today.
    1. To be or not to be 8 February 2020 11: 16 New
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      REFERENCE TO THE CHIEF OF 2 DEPARTMENT OF THE GUPVI OF THE NKVD OF THE USSR A.N. BRONNIKOVA IN THE NAME OF DEPUTY CHIEF OF GUPVI NKVD USSR N.T. OF THE TOWN HOUSE ON THE AMOUNT, NATIONAL AND PERSONNEL OF POWS ARRIVED IN THE GUPVI CAMP DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR 1941-1945 Moscow June 27, 1945 (http://kopilka.wolfschanze.ru/spr.htm)
      Germans ..................... 1 836 315
      Austrians ................... 121 590
      Hungarians ...................... 425 549
      Romanian ........................ 120 357
      Poles ....................... 35 007
      Italians .................... 20 519
      French ..................... 15 139
      Chekhov ......................... 16 900
      Slovaks ...................... 12 116
      Yugoslavs ....................... 4473
      Serbs .......................... 2176
      Slovenes ....................... 2529
      Rusyn ........................... 3787
      Croatian ........................... 956
      Moldavian ...................... 21 382
      Jews .......................... 5016
      Norwegians ......................... 55
      Bulgarians ........................... 287
      Danes ........................... 235
      Americans ....................... 40
      English .......................... 15
      Swedes ............................ 31
      Greeks ............................ 22
      Turks ............................ 106
      Finns ............................ 88
      Spaniards ......................... 368
      Belgians ...................... 1888
      Swiss ........................ 94
      Dutch ...................... 1314
      Luxembourgers .................... 742
      Alsace-Lorraine [s] ............. 131
      Bosnians .......................... 1
      Albanians ........................... 1
      Portuguese ....................... 1
      Latvians, Lithuanians, Estonians ... 9291
      not decrypted ............. 32 753
      Total ...................... 2 658 469

      Do you miss Moscow ??
      1. kitten 8 February 2020 12: 26 New
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        When I saw Jews on this list, I was very surprised. Helped to study the issue. I was even more surprised .. Well, at least it became clear why Israel treats ukrofashists well.
      2. Alex013 12 February 2020 11: 38 New
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        The list is impressive. As for the Finns of doubt, 88 people. Or were their prisoners of war released after 44 years?
        1. Mac Simka 14 February 2020 08: 41 New
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          And the Serbs are an order of magnitude larger than the Bulgarians. And then here we sing songs about what we forgot there and the Serbs of hoo. It is interesting how many Russians from ROA and others like them were.
          1. pytar 14 February 2020 10: 57 New
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            And the Serbs are an order of magnitude larger than the Bulgarians. And then here we sing songs about what we forgot there and the Serbs of hoo.

            There is another snag! We are talking about mobilized ethnic Bulgarians living in other countries. Bulgarian citizens do not have a single one!
            1. The comment was deleted.
  3. Lamata 8 February 2020 08: 13 New
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    But Europe does not turn a blind eye to all this, and Stalin is a tyrant and despot.
  4. Free wind 8 February 2020 08: 25 New
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    Boriski in power brought a lot of evil to our country. both local and foreign fights.
  5. Cowbra 8 February 2020 08: 45 New
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    Well, no secret. And in general, what were the options? One strong country is ruled by the fascist Hitler, the second by the fascist Churchill (read about his dog on the hay. Chekh in a sack, a sack in the Danube - is very different from justifying the extermination of any Aboriginal people in order to seize their resources ?!) Where do not rush the same Slovakia - only to the Nazis and come. Well, what is so terrible with the Bulgarian Bulgarians - concentration camps? The United States immediately raked the Japanese in concentration camps, Britain - for a moment drove everyone to the concentration camps with the wrong passport ... So the Bulgarians thought - are we worse?
  6. Keyser soze 8 February 2020 10: 05 New
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    those. will send Bulgarian Jews to Nazi death camps.


    Bulgarian fascism is far-fetched, but on the basis of the above quote I officially blame the author for defamation, complete ignorance of history and I don’t understand why such a fakenyus is published or in Russian - illiterate rubbish.

    1. A historical fact recognized by Israel and the world that not a single Bulgarian Jew from the Kingdom was sent to the death camp. And this is the recognition and gratitude of Israel, the Bulgarian people, not from today and not from yesterday.
    2. Not a single soldier was sent to the Eastern Front.
    3. From 1934 to 1944, political parties were banned and no party was officially a fascist. Yes, there were those who gravitated to fascism, but as said, pulling an owl on a globe.

    The author’s thesis is that all were fascists and today they are fascists and will be fascists and not only Europeans, but also Martians. You are the bottom of Russian journalism, author.
    1. pytar 8 February 2020 11: 49 New
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      Slanderous hardening of the author:
      ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      ... became Bogdan Filov, who approved the Holocaust in Bulgaria.

      ... will become the commissioner for Jewish affairs, i.e. will send Bulgarian Jews to Nazi death camps.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Keyser Soze (Eugene)

      based on the above quote, I officially blame the author for slander, complete ignorance of history and I don’t understand why such a fakenus is published or in Russian - illiterate rubbish.

      JOIN! The author is lying! Bulgaria did not give a single Jewish citizen to the death camps!
      And only with great exaggeration can we say that in Bulgaria there was fascism. There was a confrontation between right and left, reaching to extremes and on both sides. Nothing new under the sky. And with the signing of the Ribentrop-Mollotov pact on August 23, 1939, the Bulgarian Communist Party, being one of the left parties, at the direction of Moscow, ceased all anti-monarchist and anti-Nazi activities, until June 22, 1941.
      You are the bottom of Russian journalism, author.

      Even worse! The bottom is broken! laughing
      1. To be or not to be 8 February 2020 12: 28 New
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        Tsar Boris III told the German ambassador Adolf Beckerle: “The Jews of my country are her subjects and we will perceive any encroachment on their freedom as an insult to the Bulgarians.”
        Bulgaria was the only country under German influence or control in which the Jewish population actually increased during the war years - from 45 in 565 to 1934 in 49
        1. BAI
          BAI 8 February 2020 16: 30 New
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          If they started quoting WIKI, then why was it omitted?
          On February 24, 1942, the Bulgarian ship Struma with 769 Jewish refugees on board was sunk in the Black Sea, only one passenger escaped

          Where did everyone rush from such prosperity?
          1. pytar 11 February 2020 12: 31 New
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            On February 24, 1942, the Bulgarian ship Struma with 769 Jewish refugees on board was sunk in the Black Sea, only one passenger escaped

            Where did everyone rush from such prosperity?

            “Struma” - a ship transporting Jewish refugees from Romania to Palestine. Since 1932, belongs to the Bulgarian Dimitra Kenkova, which in 1941 sells his company "Compañia Mediterranea de Vapores Limitada", owned by the Greek shipping agent Jean Pandelis. Pondelis registers the Struma under the Panamanian flag. In 1941, Jewish organizations leased Struma to transport Jewish refugees from Romania to Palestine. On December 12, 1941 the ship leaves Constanta with 10 crew members, captain Grigory Gorbatenko and 781 passengers. Diesel breaks along the way, and the Turks do not allow the passage through the Bosphorus. The ship is about 10 miles from the coast, when the morning of February 24, it is torpedoed and drowned by the Soviet submarine Sch-213. From the report it becomes clear that her commander did not understand what kind of ship he drowned. The "Щ-213" itself was sunk near Constance on October 14, 1942 of the German ship "Xanten".
            Here is such a tragic story! hi
        2. bubalik 8 February 2020 17: 00 New
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          Bulgaria was the only country under German influence or control in which the Jewish population actually increased during the war years - from 45 in 565 to 1934 in 49


          ,,, during the war, Bulgaria, allied with Germany, did not deport Jews from the main provinces of Bulgaria.
          BUT!!! Bulgarian authorities deported Jewish residents from the Greek and Yugoslav territories that Bulgaria occupied in 1941. In March 1943, the Bulgarian police and military units gathered all the Jews in Macedonia, Thrace and Pirot. ,,, 7000 Macedonian Jews were interned in a transit camp in Skopje. In Greek Thrace, Bulgarian officials deported about 4000 Jews to collection points in Gorna Dzhumaya and Dupnitsa, and then transferred them to the Germans.
          In general, Bulgaria deported more than 11 Jews to Germany. By the end of March 1943, almost all of them had died in Treblinka, Poland.
          1. pytar 11 February 2020 11: 40 New
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            BUT!!! Bulgarian authorities deported Jewish residents from the Greek and Yugoslav territories that Bulgaria occupied in 1941.

            Bulgaria could not protect them in any way, since they were not Bulgarian citizens. But!!! for that I saved my Jews! All to one!
      2. anzar 11 February 2020 10: 16 New
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        Slanderous hardening of the author: ...

        This is understandable. He so understands "rallying around the scraps" (the army and ... the fleet?) But there are also ridiculous statements))) Here:
        ... but the USSR fought with a united Europe, which showed how to suppress any alternative ideas for the sake of contrasting ourselves with such a mysterious incomprehensible, and even rich eastern neighbor.

        "Alternative" ideo what? After all, it was fascism that was an alternative to communism. And the "rich neighbor" - who is it?
        1. pytar 11 February 2020 11: 38 New
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          This is understandable. He so understands "rallying around the scraps" (army and ... fleet?)

          Probably from this and zeal for inclined - "all enemies, all traitors ...". At the same time, shyly forgetting that the collaborators and punishers with the number of former citizens of the USSR also lacked too much!
    2. Gado 11 February 2020 02: 29 New
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      On this site, hateful propaganda is already pouring at full speed and somehow nobody cares. And how many slops on the Bulgarians have already spilled out - I don’t even want to remember. Therefore, I will say this to the author: you have not grown to the point that the whole people called the Nazis, you did not reach the age. And you know where to put your suggestions. I would also tell you something else, but they will completely ban me here.
  7. nikvic46 8 February 2020 10: 57 New
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    As many as 26 countries were part of the anti-Hitler coalition (Wikipedia). And only the USSR had to fight Nazi Germany. And only in 1943 did the Allies stir. One fact infuriates me. When there is a dispute on the fields of TV in the "Big Game", then US political analyst Dmitry cites the opinions of our writers. This does not climb into any gates.
    1. Reptiloid 8 February 2020 11: 29 New
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      On TV I’m sewing some pieces somewhere ... Please explain about our writers, Nikolai Viktorovich!
  8. iouris 8 February 2020 13: 22 New
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    Tsar Boris III of Hohenzollern. The war for Constantinople ended with the accession of the Hohenzollerns in Bulgaria. The war for Constantinople ended in this way due to insoluble internal problems in Russia. When insoluble problems could be resolved, Bulgaria for a short historical period became a faithful ally of Russia. Our woman Wang even appeared there.
    1. alatanas 10 February 2020 13: 14 New
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      Sax Coburg Gotta, as well as the Windsor, who renamed themselves PMV.
  9. Jarserge 8 February 2020 13: 32 New
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    Facts facts. This is history. What to wait for now? Some analysts believe that the situation is worse than in 1939
    1. iouris 8 February 2020 15: 01 New
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      Quote: Jarserge
      Some analysts believe that the situation is worse than in 1939

      "Is the situation worse" - inside or outside? Calm: it’s never so bad that it couldn’t be worse.
  10. BAI
    BAI 8 February 2020 16: 24 New
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    Yes, they’ve already discussed which countries representatives served in the SS, and even more so in the Wehrmacht. All!
  11. Operator 8 February 2020 19: 05 New
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    Author - I would like to read in more detail about Bulgaria, which has always fought on the side of Russia's opponents after gaining freedom from the hands of Russia.

    "Offended" Catholic-Protestant foreign-speaking Hungary, Romania, Finland, the Baltic States, etc. - everything is clear with them. But the "grateful" Orthodox Slavic Bulgaria (which had fought with Russia since 1914 when there were no "terrible communists") is something special.
    1. alatanas 10 February 2020 13: 22 New
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      Bulgaria started the war against the Kingdom of Serbia on October 14, 1915. Before that, it was neutral.
      On October 27, the Russian imperial fleet shells the city of Varna.

      Learn the story dear Operator!
      1. Operator 10 February 2020 13: 36 New
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        In 1914, “neutral” Bulgaria did not pass grain transit from Russia to Serbia through its territory, but did pass grain transit from Germany and Austria-Hungary to Turkey.
        1. pytar 11 February 2020 14: 31 New
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          In 1914, “neutral” Bulgaria did not pass grain transit from Russia to Serbia through its territory, but did pass grain transit from Germany and Austria-Hungary to Turkey.

          Neutrality was indeed relative, in view of the very bad relations that developed between Bulgaria and Serbia after the second Balkan war. If we make a pararel with Russia and Poland, the situation is similar. Even in geographical location and direction of expansion there are similarities: Poland / west / - Russia / east / - Belorussia, Ukraine / south / <====> Serbia / west / -Bulgaria / east /, Macedonia / south /. On similar principles, there was force pressure to form "ethnic identity" in the disputed territories. Initially, the inhabitants of Belarus and Ukraine were part of the Russian massif. Then, initially, Austria-Hungary, and later Poland, pursued a repressive de-Russification policy. Bolsheviks finished the process. So it is with the population of Macedonia, which was an inseparable part of the aggregate Bulgarian people. Serbia began the policy of serbization of the Macedonian Bulgarians, and after WWII they switched to "Macedonization" .. Everything is very similar!
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  12. knn54 8 February 2020 21: 36 New
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    ALL countries of Eastern and Southeast Europe were economically backward agrarian countries, with the exception of industrialized Czechoslovakia. IN WHICH Fascism did not take root.
    1. Reptiloid 9 February 2020 14: 10 New
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      nevertheless, when Hitler swallowed this country, its entire industry worked to carry out the attack and war.
  13. xomaNN 10 February 2020 12: 12 New
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    The Europeans have a bad tradition. And from nationalism to Nazism - just a half step. An example of a neighboring ex. "brotherly" country is an example of this.
  14. alatanas 10 February 2020 13: 04 New
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    those. will send Bulgarian Jews to Nazi death camps.

    It is a historical fact that not a single Bulgarian Jew (of those who at that time had Bulgarian citizenship) was in the concentration camps.
  15. parusnik 10 February 2020 15: 14 New
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    Thank you, once again for the article ... It would not hurt to recall Austria, Portugal, Spain .. Fascism, with an iron pace walked across Europe in the 30s, and we all weave stories like the Third International, fought for the overthrow of the good, sweet democratic cats ... By the way, it would be worth mentioning the British Nazis in those years that the local bourgeoisie fed for themselves, that they would have to let anyone down in time .. but the situation changed, I had to "strangle" whom they fed ...
  16. Kostadinov 11 February 2020 11: 22 New
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    REFERENCE TO THE CHIEF OF 2 DEPARTMENT OF THE GUPVI OF THE NKVD OF THE USSR A.N. BRONNIKOVA

    Here, apart from the Baltic, there are absolutely no beating USSR citizens. And they were beaten by many in the Wehrmacht. They were probably not considered prisoners of war but traitors.
    After the coup in 1934, Kimon Georgiev established diplomatic relations with the USSR, and on September 9, 1944 he headed the first government of the Patriotic Front. Back in 1956, he beat the Minister of Energy of the NRB.
  17. Kostadinov 11 February 2020 11: 28 New
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    Quote: alatanas
    those. will send Bulgarian Jews to Nazi death camps.

    It is a historical fact that not a single Bulgarian Jew (of those who at that time had Bulgarian citizenship) was in the concentration camps.

    One should not be proud of this since all the Jews in the "Bulgarian zone of occupation" died, but in Athens, under the German occupation, half of the Jews managed to save.
    1. pytar 11 February 2020 12: 38 New
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      One should not be proud of this since all Jews in the "Bulgarian zone of occupation" died

      This was the price of saving Bulgarian Jews! The maximum possible in that situation! Otherwise, everyone would be sent to concentration camps! So, there is reason for pride and it is well deserved!
  18. Kostadinov 11 February 2020 11: 39 New
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    Bulgaria started the war against the Kingdom of Serbia on October 14, 1915. Before that, it was neutral.
    [Quote] [/ quote]
    The most important thing here is that the war was declared only in October 1915, after the defeat of Russia in 1915, because our general secretary said that Germany had already lost the war.
    The same thing hit on March 1, 1941 - the military leadership (genschab) said that this time Germany had definitely won.
  19. Katkov Alexey Petrovich 11 February 2020 16: 18 New
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    Translation of the article by the Czech publicist Z. Roučka “For benefits in the protectorate worked until the last minute”, published in the Czech media on March 15, 2019.

    The Czech industry, which became a protectorate of Nazi Germany, became a big prey, and the invaders showed interest in all Czech and Moravian engineering plants. The protectorate was operated by about 300 large firms that produced almost everything from ammunition boxes and army ammunition to artillery shells, guns, tanks and engines for aircraft. There were also small workshops and repair shops where parts for armored vehicles were made or hand weapons were assembled. The militarization of the industrial production of the Czech Republic and Moravia was huge. The most important for the Germans were Zbroevka Brno and Skoda Pilsen. In the period after the Munich agreement, Skoda left the French concern Schneider, and the city of Pilsen was on the state border with Germany, which distorted some of the trade relations of enterprises. After the establishment of a protectorate, various representatives of German companies interested in controlling the concern began to crowd around Skoda. However, his leadership decided to make an unexpected move. German Goering's younger brother, Albert Goering, became the export director. Thanks to this, Skoda overcame uncertainty and became part of the imperial industrial conglomerate, which bore the name of the second person of Nazi Germany, German Goering - the Reichswerke concern, which allowed the Czech company to stand in line with the traditional German companies Krupp and Rheinmetall. Following this, the number of employees increased at Skoda. By March 15, 1939, 28 thousand people worked at the Skoda factories, mainly workers and women workers. During the first 5 months of occupation, this number increased by 5 thousand people. Until new German orders arrived, Skoda completed the execution of orders for the Czechoslovak army, which, of course, like trophies fell into the hands of the Germans. The Nazis, therefore, received, for example, tanks and guns, which were originally designed to fight them. In Pilsen, an order was completed for the Romanian army, which then fought with Skoda tanks near Stalingrad. In the fall of 1939, Skoda received an order for the production of thousands of guns that had already become definitely German.
    The organization of German military production was at a high level, everything was transferred under signature, German commissars worked at the enterprises. Any cases of defect detection were reported and everything was investigated. Skoda, in addition, had its own "factory Gestapo" and once a week a message was prepared about the mood among the workers. Therefore, the opportunities for sabotage at the enterprise by Czech workers were reduced to zero. Small cases of sabotage certainly happened, but no major cases were noted, and they were impossible.
    Workers in Pilsen Skoda, like other workers in military factories, had various benefits. For example, entertaining evenings were held for them, Skoda had three orchestras with the participation of workers: wind, symphony and jazz. Skoda, like Czech citizens, nevertheless received something from the war, and this primarily concerned military enterprises and their workers, since unlike the industry in France, Holland or Belgium, the militarization of the protectorate was enormous. Large investments were made in Skoda, the company modernized production, received large orders and huge profits. Over the course of the war, over 17 thousand anti-aircraft guns and about 20 thousand components for guns were produced in Pilsen Skoda. Even in March 1945, Skoda still delivered about 178 Hetzer anti-tank systems. Therefore, production facilities in Pilsen became targets for Allied air raids. The enterprises worked and produced until the very last minute and Czech citizens (although it is undesirable to talk about this today) worked for the indicated benefits until the last minute. Unlike Germany, which was defeated by airstrikes, in the protectorate, the production of armaments also increased.
  20. G. Petrovich 11 February 2020 17: 12 New
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    [/ quote] Strangely enough, but the followers of Metaxas who positively evaluate Hitler’s figure exist in Greece even now. And not just exist, but are a major neo-Nazi party "Golden Dawn". As the Greek government caves in under the EU, and migrants continue their expansion into Europe, the Golden Dawn is climbing up the political ladder. [Quote]


    At the last parliamentary election in Greece, in July 2019, the Golden Dawn party received 2,93% of the vote, and was unable to enter parliament.
    As for Prime Minister Metaxas, he refused to present Greece with an Italian ultimatum. After which the Italians on October 28.10.1940, XNUMX invaded Greece from Albania, but the Greeks inflicted a crushing defeat on the Italian army. This was the first victory of the anti-Hitler coalition army over the “axis” countries.
  21. CBR600 12 February 2020 12: 38 New
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    Quote: pytar
    Slanderous hardening of the author:
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ... became Bogdan Filov, who approved the Holocaust in Bulgaria.

    ... will become the commissioner for Jewish affairs, i.e. will send Bulgarian Jews to Nazi death camps.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Keyser Soze (Eugene)

    based on the above quote, I officially blame the author for slander, complete ignorance of history and I don’t understand why such a fakenus is published or in Russian - illiterate rubbish.

    JOIN! The author is lying! Bulgaria did not give a single Jewish citizen to the death camps!
    And only with great exaggeration can we say that in Bulgaria there was fascism. There was a confrontation between right and left, reaching to extremes and on both sides. Nothing new under the sky. And with the signing of the Ribentrop-Mollotov pact on August 23, 1939, the Bulgarian Communist Party, being one of the left parties, at the direction of Moscow, ceased all anti-monarchist and anti-Nazi activities, until June 22, 1941.
    You are the bottom of Russian journalism, author.

    Even worse! The bottom is broken! laughing

    Wiki _____ Despite ideological monarchism and statism, during the Second World War the Warriors were positioned as the opposition to the ruling regime on the right. At the same time, some leaders of the organization held high government posts. Alexander Belev, who completed an internship in Germany and studied the anti-Semitic legislation of the Third Reich, was the "commissar for Jewish affairs." He actively collaborated with the Gestapo, led the deportation of Jews to Nazi concentration camps - even many Bulgarian fascists led by Alexander Tsankov opposed it. Peter Gabrovsky also participated in the deportations, after the death of Tsar Boris, he headed the government for several days.
    ___ After the entry of Soviet troops into Bulgaria and the coming to power of the pro-communist government of Kimon Georgiev in September 1944, the Union of Warriors was banned. Belev committed suicide, Gyoshev was shot, Raiko Alexiev beaten to death, Gabrovsky executed by the verdict of the People's court. Talev and Popova-Mutafova have served several years in prison. Kantardzhiev fled to Austria and served as Minister of Public Works in Tsankov’s pro-German émigré government
    __ I have already unsubscribed, the whole of Europe has been smeared with fascism. Only everyone, absolutely everyone miss the Britons who have pleased this form of nationalism. And now, any word in the root with "NATSIA" will be associated with nationalism and fascism, and should be associated with the words FAMILY, brother and sovereignty. Sovereignty.
  22. parkello 13 February 2020 14: 52 New
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    I wonder what place you thought when Greece under Ioannis Metaxas included in the list of Nazis? this greeting, the hand lifted up was borrowed by the Germans from the Greeks. and it makes sense .. it means I'm five-fingered, and my hands are not stained with innocent blood ... and the Germans screwed him up and turned him into a zig, adding another heel clapping .. this time. secondly, the Greeks fought both against Italians and against Germans and against Bulgarian-maddyar and other Nazi accomplices ... alone against everyone ... the British immediately went on the run to Libya and hid like rats in African and Indian colonies. while our country defeated fascist Italy, did not stop the war against the Germans, who came to the aid of the Italians ... the author. you are ignorant .. this is the second time. you are trying to produce an effect ... but not even in the know. that there are subtleties that you, at your discretion, are silent ... for whom do you work. Comrade? because of people like you, the Greeks did not take into the army until mid-1943 .. and only with the approval of I.V. Stalin did they begin to be drafted into the Red Army. my grandfather fought in the Red Army from 1943 to 1949 ... dragged Chrisi Avgi (Golden Dawn) ... like some kind of fascists .. are you all normal? fool if a patriot then means a fascist? Well, then I was the largest ... of all the ruling parties, not one was so friendly and tuned to cooperate with Russia, only the Golden Dawn .. and you carried some kind of nonsense ... from the fifth to the tenth and here it is like oh you such and such .. I'm shocked by you ..
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  24. Mac Simka 14 February 2020 08: 55 New
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    Quote: Kostadinov
    Quote: alatanas
    those. will send Bulgarian Jews to Nazi death camps.

    It is a historical fact that not a single Bulgarian Jew (of those who at that time had Bulgarian citizenship) was in the concentration camps.

    One should not be proud of this since all the Jews in the "Bulgarian zone of occupation" died, but in Athens, under the German occupation, half of the Jews managed to save.


    I wonder why the Jews are grateful to us? In Israel there is a monument to the Bulgarians and the names of the squares and streets “Bulgaria”. Maybe they know what you don’t want to see, no?