What are the economies of the EU Eastern Europe: facts about neighbors on the continent

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In the view of some of our fellow citizens, the fact that any country belongs to the European Union is a XNUMX% guarantee that most of its inhabitants live, if not completely comfortable, then, in any case, very well off. In fact, everything is far from so simple. Membership in the EU does not automatically mean prosperity and prosperity for any state. And for its population is not a guarantee of the absence of pressing social and economic problems. In reality, everything looks a little different.

Strictly speaking, it would be completely incorrect to talk about life in Western Europe, trying to make comparisons with domestic realities. Therefore, let's first try to figure out how they live in the eastern part of the Old World, where most of the states of the so-called post-Soviet space are located, with which we have much more in common. So it will be fairer ... In this case, for a start, it is worth mentioning that the same United Nations Organization includes exactly 10 countries as “classical” Eastern Europe: Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and the Czech Republic . Well, we are not talking about our country. We will not talk about Belarus with Ukraine and Moldova either - that is Europe ... And they are not EU members, so they have nothing to do with our topic. Some of the truth, among the "Eastern Europeans" also ranks among the inhabitants of the Baltic, but we certainly will not touch them now. Well, his ... We confine ourselves to the UN list.



Among all the countries mentioned, there are perhaps three that are truly prosperous: the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Poland. They are referred to states with the so-called "Central European" standard of living, where, again, the average wage is close to 900-1000 euros. To the "big" and rich neighbors like Germany, Denmark or even France, where the level of the same salaries "starts" from 2 thousand euros and reaches 3 thousand, they are, of course, far away. But they live, do not complain. True, at the same time, they are massively leaving for work in more prosperous regions, like the same Poles, forced to make up for the decline in their own workforce by complaisant Ukrainian migrant workers or Czechs who prefer to work in Germany or Austria.

So how do the economies of the EU countries of Eastern Europe live - neighbors on the continent.

The Czech Republic is, of course, the automobile giant Skoda, a strong chemical industry, the strongest tourism industry in Eastern Europe, which gives huge revenue to the budget. Well, and, of course, beer. Poland is generally a phenomenon of the European Union, where GDP has been continuously growing for 23 years, even after the crisis of 2008. Low unemployment, relatively high salaries. A country with well-developed agriculture, small business and trade. Slovakia feels confident mainly due to foreign investment and the arrival of giants such as Volkswagen, Peugeot, Kia Motors, Samsung Electronics, Sony. Again, tourism. And the country is small - it does not need much.

On this, in fact, the list of Eastern European "middle peasants" ends and the conversation begins about those countries that are forced to make ends meet. Hungary can’t be unambiguously attributed to poor countries. The country's economy is “pulled” by developed agriculture, pharmacology. But once upon a time they managed to ruin strong metallurgy there at all. It is also affected by the almost complete absence of own natural resources, of the same energy sources, on the import of which the country is very dependent on. In their time there, in pursuit of foreign investment, they gave great freedom to transnational corporations - and this is now also not doing the state good. Nevertheless, in comparison with the same Romania or Bulgaria, the affairs of the Hungarians are still very good.

The collapse of the socialist camp certainly did not benefit these two countries. It’s a strange thing — Romania, by its territory, is the largest in the region, possesses not weak reserves of “black gold”, extracts it, even produces equipment for oil fields, has recently been trying to develop tourism - but everything doesn’t stick, it’s impossible to get out of the list “Dysfunctional” countries, always waiting for subsidies and assistance from Brussels. With Bulgaria, things are even worse. It seems that there is a sea of ​​its own, and agriculture complete with a highly developed processing and food industry. And as the "bros" were among the European "rogues", they remain in this sad status to this day. Their resorts with neither Greek nor even Turkish compete, and no one really needs wine and field gifts in the EU trading system, which is severely regulated by quotas and permits. With gas, too, everything still does not work out. Perhaps the point is in the desire to please everyone at once and at once, over and over again leaving Sofia sideways?

But all these countries can proudly consider their blue flag with a ring of gold stars ... Well, what can I say? Europe - it is also different. At the same time, the same economic successes in Poland are primarily explained not by juicy apples, but by large loans from EU banks. But sooner or later, loans will have to be paid. And what will happen to the economies of the countries of the European Union in Eastern Europe in the case of 100% payments, is a separate issue.
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  1. +2
    February 4 2020
    Primitively, the true alignment is as follows. But the author should reinforce his reasoning with statistics. By the way, Bulgaria and Romania in terms of per capita GDP are not so far behind such a developed state as Russia. By the way, Russian resorts are also somehow inferior to Turkish, Egyptian and Thai. hi
    1. +7
      February 4 2020
      By the way, Romania per capita is even higher than Russia. For some reason, the author did not catch the Baltic states.
    2. +11
      February 4 2020
      The author crumpled and in his own way presented the information. I would like to ask him if he has ever been to Europe? At all?
      Hungary. The author forgot to mention a very developed tourism - the most beautiful Budapest attracts travelers from all over the world! Nor did he mention Hungarian mechanical engineering. Yes, Ikarus is not, but other European giants have entered.
      And another plus of the countries of the European Union is the relocation in order to improve their material situation. After all, we also traveled north with the Union. And it was not considered shameful. So they are now.
      1. 0
        February 9 2020
        The author crumpled and in his own way presented information

        At VO vacancies are open, but you did not go to them to write articles. Therefore, read what they give; there are no other authors on VO.
        1. -1
          February 9 2020
          If you look at my profile, you will find that I have about ten published articles. Some of them are just in Eastern Europe. But I describe what I see, and not do analyzes based on rumors.
    3. +1
      February 4 2020
      Turkish - a lot of what and where inferior. Had a rest in Max Royal (both) - the price is decent, but you also feel in paradise on Earth. )))
      1. +1
        February 4 2020
        Turkish - a lot of what and where inferior. Had a rest in Max Royal (both) - the price is decent, but you also feel in paradise on Earth. )))

        Yes, the secret is simple - like three pennies - let vacationers amuse their Sense of Self-Grandeur (ChSV) and that's all - it is for them a paradise on Earth right away ....
        1. +3
          February 4 2020
          The secret is much simpler - "free" XO cognacs and 25-year-old whiskeys are included in the money that you paid)) A free XNUMX-hour bar and sushi, three free-standing restaurants with cool food, an artificial sandy beach, every night a disco on this beach, (Ukrainian , mostly girls from the staff dance on the banks) every weekend a free concert of Russian or world stars, holiday dinners, landscape design, balconies with a jacuzzi hidden by reeds - why not paradise? laughing
          1. -1
            February 4 2020
            Quote: Krasnodar
            every weekend a free concert of Russian or world stars, holiday dinners, landscape design, balconies with a jacuzzi hidden by reeds - why not paradise?

            Paradise will end soon, the war with Turkey is not far off and houses from the latter’s earthquake
          2. +2
            February 4 2020
            Quote: Krasnodar
            The secret is much simpler - "free" XO cognacs and 25-year-old whiskeys are included in the money that you paid))

            The secret is actually even simpler, and it sounds like "on vacation you need to rest and not worry about" how much money will be taken from me in the restaurant \ beach \ bathhouse "," will there be a place on the beach ", etc." there is the main feature "all inclusive", the person does not psychologically strain on the subject of whether I have enough money for a return ticket? will there be enough money for a water park? will there be enough money to * substitute the right thing * ... At the World Cup, they are pulling money from you for everything and everyone, and the most disgusting thing you have no idea who, how many and how many times will take money off you, as a result, there is no psychological relief in Time relax...
            1. +4
              February 4 2020
              That's right - moreover, I delayed after the checkout for a couple of hours, ate near the airport - after the guest it was a pity to pay at least some money for such a quality of food
    4. +9
      February 4 2020
      Quote: bessmertniy
      By the way, Bulgaria and Romania in terms of per capita GDP are not so far behind such a developed state as Russia.

      But the salary in Romania in 1999 was 60 euros, Russia 63 (4 euros higher), but already in 2018 Romania 600 euros, and Russia 516 euros. Their prices are also lower (for products).
      1. -2
        February 4 2020
        Their prices are also lower (for products).

        So what ?
        My acquaintances were in Bulgaria a couple of years ago - and even fired up there to buy a two-storey house of 120 square meters on the beach. Moreover, the price of the baby is $ 15 in total. Until they found out - that the communal apartment, for such a house, you need to pay $ 000 monthly, that is, for the year you will give exactly $ 1.
        So much for Europe ....
        1. +1
          February 4 2020
          No need to carry a blizzard. Firstly, for 15 yuro you can buy a coat, and secondly, a communal apartment in no way 000
          1. +2
            February 4 2020
            No need to carry a blizzard

            In Italy, some real estate (luxury by our standards) is generally sold for 1-2 euros)))
            1. 0
              February 5 2020
              Yes it is. But there is a completely different case, is not it? )))
        2. 0
          February 4 2020
          Quote: lucul
          So much for Europe ....

          That's why she and Europe, beautiful in appearance, and rotten from the inside.
          1. +1
            February 4 2020
            That's why she and Europe, beautiful in appearance, and rotten from the inside.

            For half a century living in "light" socialism, we waited for the West to rot! While they waited, our socialism rotted away ... We are waiting for the "rotten" Europe to finally rot. We are waiting, but with caution, taught by the previous negative experience ... what
            1. +1
              February 4 2020
              Quote: pytar
              For half a century living in "light" socialism, we waited for the West to rot!

              You understand the word "rot" as, to decompose, to be destroyed, undergoing rotting. You are right, but I write "rotten" it is like - a rotten person, a rotten soul.
              1. +2
                February 4 2020
                Dear Vlad hi the world is heading to no one knows where! I suspect the coming global climate catastrophe will change everything! As for "rotten little souls", I would not stick such stamps. In modern capitalist Russia, which I know well, it is no better with this. There are also successful examples in the world. Capitalism / conditional / are different!
                1. 0
                  February 4 2020
                  Quote: pytar
                  In modern capitalist Russia, which I know well, this is no better.

                  It is not possible to argue with this. I agree.
        3. +2
          February 4 2020
          My acquaintances were in Bulgaria a couple of years ago - and even fired up there to buy a two-storey house of 120 square meters on the beach. Moreover, the price of the baby is $ 15 in total. Until they found out - that the communal apartment, for such a house, you need to pay $ 000 monthly, that is, for the year you will give exactly $ 1.

          Nothing to do with reality! Sucked out of your fingers! For 15 thousand. you can’t even buy a green garage in the coastal strip! negative
          1. 0
            February 4 2020
            Quote: pytar
            For 15 thousand. you can’t even buy a green garage in the coastal strip!

            A few years ago it was possible, but only there were many gypsies.
    5. 0
      February 4 2020
      Quote: bessmertniy
      By the way, Bulgaria and Romania in terms of per capita GDP are not so far behind such a developed state as Russia. By the way, Russian resorts are also somehow inferior to Turkish, Egyptian and Thai.

      We are not in the beautiful EU.
    6. +3
      February 4 2020
      As for Bulgaria, the article is not objective and does not correspond with the facts! It is necessary to compare the indicators from the previous years, in order to understand whether there is growth or vice versa! In the 90s, Bulgaria was bankrupt - a default was declared! Debts at times exceeded gold reserves. Now Bulgaria is among the top three countries with the best Debt / GDP ratio.

      The financial system is stable, the economy generates sustainable growth of 3,2-3,8%. According to this indicator, it is among the first 5 countries of the EU. In 2019, GDP broke a historical record! By the size of its foreign exchange reserves, Bulgaria is even ahead of China and Russia.

      The economy is developing balanced. In 2019, 9,3 million tourists arrived, 0,4% more than in the record year 2018. Agriculture in 2019 brought approx. 5 billion euros! We have it seasonal, there is import, as a whole it turns out +1 billion euros! Bulgaria is among the world leaders in the production and export of grain and oilseeds! For high-quality / bread / wheat - 11th place, corn - 11th place, rapeseed - 8th place, for the export of black oilseed sunflower –2th place, lavender –1th place, etc. The production of greenhouse vegetables is constantly increasing. In 2018, growth was 28%. Very promising bio-farming! Over 7 years, the area of ​​plots increased by 6 times. Since 2017, Bulgaria has reached the 1st place in the EU in the production of herbs and seasonings. The production of milk and meat products is growing, wine exports are also growing, while we are talking about quality varieties that regularly receive awards at international exhibitions. In percentage terms, BG occupies 24,5% of the global duck liver market. Canned cherries have a share of 19,7%, duck meat - 13,3%.
      It should be borne in mind that we are talking about a small country on the territory with an area of ​​only 110 thousand. sq. km., while 2/3 of them are mountains!
      In other sectors of the economy, things are going well too! Since 2016, Bulgaria has been exporting more electronics and electrical products than it is importing. Export growth of 10% over the past five years, while world imports increased by 4% over the same period. In 2018, these goods were exported at 3,5 billion euros or more than 12% of the country's total exports. In general, over the past 11 years, the export of electronics and electrical equipment from Bulgaria has increased 4 times! For someone it will sound incredible, but for example, in 2018 Bulgaria exported these goods to Germany for more than 600 million euros (refrigerators, electrical appliances, car cables, electronic displays, remotes, panels, consoles, etc.). Export of machinery and equipment also shows good results and has an increase of 5%, while world imports are growing from 2%. The auto industry is developing at a particularly fast pace, adding 1 billion euros! But the fastest growing industry itself is IT! Bulgarian programmers are in the top 5 of the world, and are highly valued. By the way, Bulgaria is the EU leader in the number of women working in the IT sector.
      Today, the Bulgarian economy is leading in competitiveness among the economies of other Balkan countries. In 2019, Bulgaria took 40th place in the global ranking of innovations.
      The infrastructure is being updated, many facilities are being built. Motorways were built and are being built at times more than in the whole history.
      This is about the economy, but in terms of income! If you ask the Bulgarians how they live, they will complain. Where with the base, where without. National Feature! According to statistics, the Bulgarians really receive the lowest wages in the EU. On the other hand, the level of consumer prices in Bulgaria is much lower than in other countries of the Union. Eurostat data on consumer prices for 10 types of goods and services in the EU in 2018 show that Bulgaria has the lowest consumer prices at 7.
      It should be noted that many Bulgarians earn extra money without declaring their real income. As they say here, Bulgaria is not the country with the lowest incomes, but the country with the largest share of sheltered incomes. Over the past 10-15 years, real incomes are growing steadily. The EIP published a comparative report on the state of the labor market in the EU in 2018 over the past 10 years. From the report it becomes clear that Bulgaria is a recorder for real growth in average wages for the period 2009-2018. almost 90%. Moreover, inflation does not exceed 2-3%. Unemployment in Bulgaria has reached historically the lowest level of 3,7%, Eurostat notes.
      It should be noted that almost 2 million Bulgarians work in the West. The phenomena are generally negative, but there are some peculiarities! If, for example, migrant workers working in Russia removed $ 2019 billion from the country in 141,4, then Bulgarians working in a foreign country sent almost 1 billion euros to their homeland in the same year!
      An increase in living standards leads to changes in public attitudes. If earlier 90% of young people dreamed of emigrating, 87% of young Bulgarians saw their future in Bulgaria.
      Largely successes associated with Bulgaria's EU membership. It should be said that as a result, the majority of 58-62% of Bulgarians positively assess the country's membership in the Union.
      I will finish mentioning about the problems! There are such people and they are very serious! First place is the demographic crisis! Eerie, fatally dangerous stuff! Here Bulgaria is not an exception, the whole "white race" is hidden! The second most important is high corruption! She eats up huge funds and so far, the fight against her does not give results. The third most important problem is social stratification, it is a fact! So ... I intended to write Korotenko, but it turned out to be a whole article! I repent! I'm sorry!
      1. +2
        February 4 2020
        In percentage terms, BG occupies 24,5% of the global duck liver market. Canned cherries have a share of 19,7%, duck meat - 13,3%.
        .
        In 2010, all of Europe as a whole had 12% of the world's duck meat. Each duck has only one liver and the share of the pan-European duck liver cannot exceed 12% for physiological reasons. Asia and China are the leaders in the production of duck meat, as there are powerful culinary traditions associated with duck meat for this.
        1. 0
          February 5 2020
          Each duck has only one liver and the share of the pan-European duck liver cannot exceed 12%

          The information that I have differs from yours. I quote (my translation):
          Europe is the largest producer of duck pasta in the world with a 95% share. France produces ¾ of these quantities. (2017) 80% of "French" pasta, overbought and re-labeled, produced in Bulgaria. By the way, they are of two types. For 2016, France "produced" from the account of the Bulgarian 19 thousand. tons, and Bulgaria, excluding the transported for France - 2,5 thousand. ton.
          By the way, many other products manufactured in Bulgaria are re-ethicized and sold under foreign brands. For example, Bulgarian cheese, it goes in Greece, where it is packaged and exported, as Greek.
          1. +1
            February 6 2020
            Europe itself is the largest producer of duck pasta in the world with a 95% share.

            Then it’s clear - we are talking about a narrow subcategory - paste, and not about the liver itself.
            Duck, as I understand it, is produced in Bulgaria by the Americans - the well-known American duck-making company operating in the country?
            1. 0
              February 6 2020
              I flipped through the Internet, though I did not delve into the topic. As far as I understood, back in 2012, the production of duck and goose meat, as well as other products associated with it, Bulgaria broke out in the forefront. I remember that this business was of interest to many and was often the subject of conversation. In 2014, 5 local firms that I know by name produced 7 tons of meat, and there were also hundreds of others. The American company started its business in the BG in 2016. How it all relates, I mean pasta, liver, meat, I don’t know. I buy ready-made products in jars, all of them are from Bulgarian manufacturers. drinks
    7. +2
      February 4 2020
      Quote: bessmertniy
      By the way, Russian resorts are also somehow inferior to Turkish, Egyptian and Thai.

      It’s cooler right, Sochi is located north of Turkey
    8. 0
      February 9 2020
      gdp what? to compare technological production and agriculture in general is a crazy idea
  2. +8
    February 4 2020
    Something like that so galloping across Europe.
    1. +3
      February 4 2020
      Quote: Lamata
      Something like that so galloping across Europe.

      Yes, really lightweight. I thought they would give a full alignment by years, by growth or decline, by prospects, etc. From Bulgaria to VO, there are two three users can describe in more detail. I talked with Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles and hosted them at my place, I know about the situation from Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and haven’t received tourists yet.
      1. +1
        February 6 2020
        From Bulgaria to VO there are two three users can describe in more detail.


        Yes, I can make a decent article, I am an economist, but the last time I was told that I did not know Russian, and VO was a Russian resource and I went to the forest ... laughing
  3. -1
    February 4 2020
    Very informative!
  4. -2
    February 4 2020
    The fate of Bulgaria awaits Ukraine. The industry will decline. Tourism, agriculture will remain, and the people replenish the state budget on earnings))))))))
    1. 0
      February 4 2020
      In Ukraine, industry has already arrived.
    2. +2
      February 4 2020
      The industry in Ukraine, it can be said already in decline. And with agriculture they are not doing well, even badly.
  5. -1
    February 4 2020
    Probably the best thing is in Montenegro, well, judging by the number of real estate bought there by the Russians. wink
    1. +1
      February 4 2020
      Quote: Romka
      Probably the best thing is in Montenegro, well, judging by the number of real estate bought there by the Russians. wink

      I have a friend there, one of the first Russian developers)) Everything calls there - but who didn’t ask, it’s an ordinary East European hole.
    2. 0
      February 4 2020
      a friend of mine lived in Montenegro for a year - there are extremely special people there, lazy. By the way, many of us from there are falling right now, it is difficult to do business.
      1. -2
        February 4 2020
        Quote: Lamata
        a friend of mine lived in Montenegro for a year - there are extremely special people there, lazy. By the way, many of us from there are falling right now, it is difficult to do business.

        the croatian convinced that the Serbs and Croats are two different peoples, the Serb persuaded that they are one people, only some Catholics, other Orthodox, Bosnians, too, with the Serbs, one people only Muslims, Montenegrins also one people only highlanders. It’s interesting that Europe will succeed in creating a European nation-nation, or everything will fail and fail, as in the union it was not possible to create one Soviet nation-nation.
        1. +3
          February 4 2020
          Will not work. All too different and all too many.
  6. +1
    February 4 2020
    As everywhere and always ... some live at the expense of others! This is for the time being, until they give ... at one "perfect" moment they can stop giving! It is very likely that the moment is approaching.
  7. +4
    February 4 2020
    The topic is interesting, but served superficially. The title of the article turned out to be more interesting than its content.
  8. +4
    February 4 2020
    The author forgot Slovenia, which overtook France, Italy, and Spain)). Although they are former Yugoslavs and half the Protestant population - nonetheless.
    1. +2
      February 4 2020
      I agree, but what does religious affiliation have? Although ... if you recall the same Sweden, Denmark - there is reason to think.
      1. +5
        February 4 2020
        Protestantism was originally conceived as a “religion of artisans" - i.e. work is a blessing, a gift from heaven, not punishment, etc. Roughly - Schaub the kids were working and thrifty.
    2. +1
      February 4 2020
      The author did not upload your photo? Harvesting apples on the plantation of the father-in-law hi hello to the sufferers.
  9. 0
    February 4 2020
    By the way, why didn’t they include the Baltic states, or is it related to northern Europe.
    1. -2
      February 4 2020
      They generally do not belong. laughing . I often visit these places. I would single out Estonia from them. And people are nice and they live quite well. Tallinn has good urban infrastructure.
      1. 0
        February 4 2020
        But in general, the standard of living is higher than in the Russian Federation? I just never was there. in the Baltic states.
        1. 0
          February 4 2020
          As already said above - Estonia, and this can be seen on the roads, on buildings, on cars. But there are just over a million of them. But in Latvia - you can drive 100 kilometers along the road and meet a couple of cars. My friend lives in Riga, he came to visit this year in Belarus. Having been in Minsk, he was shocked by the wide roads and the number of new buildings (while installing expensive kitchen furniture, the dude’s eyes simply burned). They have worse jobs - they work either in Berlin or in Copenhagin. In Jurmala, there is still, for example, a closed wooden stall-exchanger. wink ... Lithuanian Palanga is much cooler. whether. But the most funny thing: I have never seen such a number of convertibles in Europe as in Vilnius. Lithuanians are still those pontorez! And life there is expensive, all active Labuses were dumped in England, Ireland, Norway, etc. In general, I feel better in Belarus.
        2. 0
          February 4 2020
          At the expense of the entire Soviet Union, they lived very well, but now the tram has left and at the same time 25-30% of the population has left, it can be seen on that tram.
      2. +1
        February 4 2020
        Did you do it yourself or did you rebuild the whole Union after the war? what
  10. +6
    February 4 2020
    About the resorts of Bulgaria. Was the author there or what? I have been in Turkey and Bulgaria, and more than once. Resorts in Bulgaria are not inferior to Turkish. Depends on the hotel. And yet, unlike the Turks, Egyptians, Tunisians, Bulgarians in the markets do not pull you to themselves, there is no obsession with this unpleasant. And the attitude towards the Russians is very good, at least on the coast, in the areas of Burgas and Varna. And they themselves do not live richly, yes, but the prices are not prohibitive.
    1. +2
      February 4 2020
      Keep!
  11. -1
    February 4 2020
    At the same time, the same economic successes in Poland are primarily explained not by juicy apples, but by large loans from EU banks. But sooner or later, loans will have to be paid. And what will happen to the economies of the countries of the European Union in Eastern Europe in the case of 100% payments, is a separate issue.

    As far as I remember, in the summer of 2020, Poland will receive the last tranche from Brussels for 75 billion euros, and there - on their own. Help is running out. So we'll have a look. That is why the Polish elite are already frantically looking for someone to get money from on far-fetched pretexts of "reparations" on the theme of World War II.
    1. +2
      February 4 2020
      I read the article, read the comments and realized one thing - despite the richest goodies for the industry that Russia possesses, we, against the background of the negotiated states, look very, very deplorable. I will not say that it is too bad, but taking into account the above said about "goodies" - very bad. And the comprador capitalism aimed at selling is to blame for this. Not to develop, but to sell. And Russia has something to sell. And this is just - "goodies". There are, of course, exceptions, but these are just exceptions. Abidna, panimash.
      1. +1
        February 4 2020
        Quote: Krasnoyarsk
        I read the article, read the comments and realized one thing - despite the richest goodies for the industry that Russia possesses, we, against the background of the negotiated states, look very, very deplorable. I will not say that it is too bad, but taking into account the above said about "goodies" - very bad. And the comprador capitalism aimed at selling is to blame for this. Not to develop, but to sell.

        Well yes.
        Just the other day there was an article https://topwar.ru/167410-rossija-stroitsja-obnovljaetsja-razvivaetsja.html
        Like, calm down, everything is being built with us. I ran a text through my eyes - yeah ... a production complex, another production, processing, infrastructure for export ...
        In general, much is being built, but for the most part - it’s stupid for the further sale of resources.
        High-tech and factories for goods with high added value as the cat was crying, so in general it remains.
      2. +1
        February 8 2020
        Do not develop, but sell

        Sell ​​raw materials.
        And here it seems that a pitfall is being identified, specializing only in raw materials, this industry is apparently becoming important and it is being taken from the Russian Federation. In particular, the aluminum industry belongs to the west.
        E + holding is managed by the British Lord Barker and US directors.
        For a minute, E + includes Rusal, bauxite and all the aluminum, a bunch of hydroelectric power plants (Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station, Irkutsk hydroelectric power station and 11 thermal power plants) and the GAZ group.
    2. +1
      February 6 2020
      As far as I remember, in the summer of 2020 Poland will receive the last tranche

      Help ends. So we will take a look.


      But no. From the gate, turn - budget frame 2020-2027 approved and there Poland is. Money is less than 15% or so. I ask on the website of the European Commission, everything is described there.

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