Miass masters: the last of the Ural carburetor dynasty


One of the variations of the "Ural-377M"


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How to turn a combat "Ural" into a civilian vehicle? First of all, you need to get rid of many military options that significantly aggravate the truck. Nevertheless, in the national economy, the main thing is not survivability on the battlefield and extreme cross-country ability, but loading capacity, ease of operation and economic efficiency. Trucks, for example, of the ZIL-131 family did not have special problems with such adaptation, they were initially unified with the national economic machines of the 130th family. But the Urals of the 300th series could not boast of such versatility.

The first attempt to create a truck for peaceful life took place in 1961, when the Ural-377, minimally adapted for civilians, went to the test. First of all, the front drive axle was removed (replaced by an axle from the MAZ-500), the transfer case was replaced with a demultiplier, a new cargo platform with three tilting sides was installed, and the centralized pumping system for wheels was excluded. Interestingly, the Ural-377, the first among the machines of the family, received an all-metal cab, which was subsequently installed on the Ural-375D military family (these trucks were discussed in previous part). The obvious drawback of the civilian version was the excessively large loading height of the platform due to the massive 14.00-20 wheels and a spare wheel located under the body. The cargo had to be thrown to a height of 1,6 meters - even KrAZ at that time was more comfortable in this regard.


ZIL-375, the first motor of the Ural family

The load capacity, after all the simplifications, of course, was able to increase to 7,5 tons (in the military version it was 4,5 tons), but the body was a bit short for such a machine. Long meters loaded on the Ural-377 seriously redistributed the load: the rear bogie was overloaded, and the front axle, on the contrary, lost contact with the ground. Here, the facilitation of the front end by removing the heavy drive axle played a negative role, and the bonnet layout itself did not contribute to the rational weighting of the loaded car. Despite these points, in 1965, after four years of refinement, the Ural national economy got onto the assembly line in Miass.












Tractor Units Based on the Peaceful Ural-377

But the army roots of the peaceful "Ural-377" haunted. He was also adopted by the Soviet Army. A truck capable of towing a trailer weighing 10,5 tons, and in the version of the 377C / CH truck tractor to haul a semi-trailer up to 19 tons, was very useful in the rear parts. In particular, on the basis of Ural 6x4 a 9T254 transport vehicle was built as part of the Grad MLRS with special racks and ammunition boxes. And truck tractors came in handy for moving army ODAZ-828 semi-trailers, on which flight control points were mounted aviation “Application”, control of anti-aircraft missile brigades “Vector-2B” and “Senezh”, systems for processing data from radars “Pori-M”, as well as automation systems for command post “Osnova-1”.

In the interests of the national economy


“Ural-377” in 1966 evolved into a more advanced model with the letter “M”. Given the difficulties with a short loading platform, it was decided to lengthen the truck by 420 mm, and the platform height was reduced to 1,42 meters due to new wheels from Omsk tire manufacturers. The wheel diameter decreased immediately by 80 mm, the mass decreased, and the width increased, increasing the spot of contact with the surface. There was an interesting experiment with tubeless tires, which, as it seemed to the engineers, did not require a spare wheel at all. There was a struggle for kilograms of truck mass - they abandoned the massive spare wheel that raises the height of the body, and replaced it with a rear axle wheel inflation system. But what if the puncture of the tubeless tire is on the front axle?






Ural-377M. One of the options

Miass masters: the last of the Ural carburetor dynasty






Dull version of the "Ural-377M"

It's simple - swap the defective wheel and the whole rear, turn on the swap and continue driving to the nearest tire shop. It is good that such an idea did not take root due to the weakness of the tire itself - in Omsk, due to mass saving, it was made unreliable. In addition, the designers of Ural conjured over the gear ratios of the demultiplier, a direct transmission appeared, the maximum speed increased to 88 km / h, but the consumption of 93rd gasoline still did not fit into any framework - 73 liters per hundred. To increase the carrying capacity, we developed a variant of the machine with a gable tire for the rear bogie on road wheels 260-508, and they tried to solve the problem of excessive fuel consumption of the ZIL-375Я4 engine by installing the promising own Ural-376 diesel engine.


That could be Ural if the plant in Naberezhnye Chelny did not appear




The latest and most advanced version of the machine with a 6x4 formula is the Ural-377N. Pay attention to the new wheels with universal tread

The brutal appearance of the army "Ural", which fit to be recorded in the Museum of Automobile Glory, at the end of the 60s tried to "fix" a new fiberglass cabin, which, however, could not withstand the operating conditions and mercilessly cracked. In particular, on bumps the wheel could simply split a fragile wing. Actually, it’s good - the cabin was too ugly. After unsuccessful experiments with delicate Omsk tires, a new wide-profile O-47A was installed with a universal tread pattern that showed an almost threefold increase in resource. As a result, after long trials and research, by 1969 a civilian truck was created in Miass that largely satisfies the needs of the national economy. But it all ended and never started: it was decided to build a huge plant in Naberezhnye Chelny, and in Moscow at ZIL they were finishing the development of a promising hoodless diesel truck, which we now know as the ancestor of the KamAZ family. As a result, the civilian Ural-377M project was closed, redirecting the efforts of factory workers to army equipment. Incidentally, this became a serious problem already in the 90s, when the volume of military orders decreased, and there were few civilian vehicles in the production range.

Wheels, Diesels, and Caterpillars


At the end of the story about the Ural family, one cannot fail to mention some exclusive cars that either did not go beyond the experimental performances or were produced in a small series. One of these was the four-axle NAMI-058 with an active semi-trailer with a loading capacity of 8 tons. On a twelve-wheeled car, a 4-stroke V-8 YaMZ-238N turbodiesel with a capacity of 320 liters was installed. sec., providing a high specific power of 12,6 hp / t. For comparison: in the active Ural-380S-862 road train with a gasoline engine, this figure was 7,7 hp / t. At the same time, the development of NAMI spent significantly less fuel - on average, one third less than its weak gasoline counterparts of similar carrying capacity.






















NAMI-058

Open sources provide interesting results of a comparative test run of the NAMI-058C-862 road train with a disconnected drive to the semi-trailer and the usual Ural-375 cross-country terrain. In total, we ran 43 kilometers, and the Ural carburetor found an average consumption of 116 liters of gasoline per 100 km at an average speed of 21,7 km / h. A six-axle and much heavier US cost 105 liters of diesel per 100 km at a relatively close average speed of 22,4 km / h. To justify such an immoderate appetite, it must be said that both cars were loaded, and the roads were with liquid clay and deep ruts. At the same time, due to lower specific pressure on the ground, the road train left behind ruts of smaller depth than the younger Ural, and twelve wheels allowed to take 18-degree lifts (the 375th allowed itself only 11-12 degrees). The results of the tests of the tractor showed the full potential of this direction and, although the car was not planned in a series, the developments of Ural-NAMI became the basis for the next 8x8 generations.




NAMI-0157






Caterpillar snow and swamp conveyor "Ural-592"

In the 70s, the Ural-592 tracked snow and swamp conveyor appeared at the Ural Automobile Plant, which was the most comprehensive among the entire line of Ural Masters. Of course, he did not know how to swim, but two caterpillar platforms connected to the body by slewing rings provided the car with an outstanding cross-country ability with a maximum load capacity of 8 tons. Actually, the machine was developed by us precisely for workers in the oil and gas industry, where, as you know, there are few roads. The prototype of the production car was NAMI-0157, which was later unified with the aggregate base of gasoline Urals, and by the end of the 70s it was equipped with the famous KamAZ-740 diesel engine. It is noteworthy that the design of the machine made it possible to rotate the tracked platforms independently from each other, significantly increasing the maneuverability of the truck. The first "Ural-592" came out of the gates of the Miass factory in 1981 and were issued before the collapse of the Union. In the 2000s, production was resumed in Yekaterinburg.

Both of the above machines were already with diesel engines, which significantly improved the operational properties of trucks based on the Ural-375. And the appearance of the Kama diesel under a long hood opened a new era in stories "Ural Masters." What did the car eventually have more: pros or cons? Be that as it may, this is a topic for another story.
Author:
Photos used:
denisovets.ru, kargoteka.info, autowp.ru, gruzovikpress.ru, trucksplanet.com
Articles from this series:
Ural-375: the ideal of a war chariot
Ural 300 Series: Floating and Five-Axis
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  1. Lexus 6 February 2020 18: 07 New
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    For the first time I saw the "Ural" with a caterpillar mover. Author, thank you HUGE! good
    1. Alf
      Alf 6 February 2020 18: 52 New
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      Quote: lexus
      For the first time I saw the "Ural" with a caterpillar mover. Author, thank you HUGE! good

      Watch the series Wheels of the Country of Soviets, all 12 episodes, you will not see it either. Just look for the 12-serial version, it is on the rutrekker and the cinema.
    2. san4es 6 February 2020 20: 30 New
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      Quote: lexus
      .... "Ural" with a caterpillar mover. :

      hi Watch from 1.07 min.
      Ural-5920 (prototype by us-0157) was built in 1971. The first limited series (five trucks) was built in 1975. Serial trucks with a lifting capacity of 8 tons were produced from 1983 to 1989. Since 2002, the general purpose chassis TS-1 has been manufactured.

      .... Tests of the road train with an active trailer based on the NAMI-058C car recourse
      1. Lexus 6 February 2020 20: 39 New
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        Thanks! Chic Vidos good
        1. san4es 6 February 2020 20: 46 New
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          You're welcome hi
      2. Uve bjørnsson 6 February 2020 23: 49 New
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        All the same, the most brutal and brutal of the "Ural-like" in my opinion was NAMI-0127

        [media = http: // https: //m.youtube.com/watch? v = xK8z-x1cLCs]
        1. san4es 7 February 2020 09: 15 New
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          ... the most brutal and brutal of the "Ural-like" in my opinion was NAMI-0127

          Well, it's a monster on steroids fellow

  2. Mordvin 3 6 February 2020 18: 14 New
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    I just could not understand why the Urals were green and orange .. recourse
    1. andrewkor 6 February 2020 18: 27 New
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      Orange is an arctic option, I think so.
      1. Mordvin 3 6 February 2020 18: 30 New
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        Quote: andrewkor
        Orange is an arctic option, I think so.

        We remade from green to orange. It was useless .. Well, the YaMZ engine was installed, but the stove remained the same.
    2. bars1 6 February 2020 18: 34 New
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      Orange for ,, north. "Probably for better visibility, in which case.
      1. Mordvin 3 6 February 2020 18: 45 New
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        Quote: bars1
        Orange for ,, Severs "

        Yeah. Three double basses came to us, to fix the car in kapitalku, and all fell. Two months did not leave the bottle. The matter ended with the fact that my boss ordered me to fasten the wheels two feet, and drive away the gates ...
    3. Proton 6 February 2020 18: 46 New
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      The green standard, because mainly the first parties went to the army, the orange northern option, by the way, were still with beige and blue cabs, here we really don’t know laughing probably the wonders of the plant
      1. Mordvin 3 6 February 2020 18: 55 New
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        Quote: Proton
        with beige and blue cabs

        Just the paint was cheap. laughing
    4. Alf
      Alf 6 February 2020 18: 53 New
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      Quote: mordvin xnumx
      I just could not understand why the Urals were green

      So that after an hour H does not like repainting.
      1. Mordvin 3 6 February 2020 18: 59 New
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        Quote: Alf
        not to love repainting.

        Yeah. Somehow firemen arrived. "Vova, take care of our paint, we brought it from Finland!" This paint is painted on the bottom of the ships! "
  3. seti 6 February 2020 18: 27 New
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    Thanks for the great article.
  4. sagitch 6 February 2020 18: 43 New
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    My Ural was personal, with a KAMAZ engine. Simple, maintainable. The truth is noisy in the cabin, but it was compensated by patency, but still I had to run after the tractor. I played enough in the mud and snowdrifts, Now I do not want all-wheel drive anymore.
    Now we have got stuffed with electronics Kamaz. For 3 months of operation of 2 units, 350 thousand rubles were spent on repairs and spare parts; these repairs cannot be seen at the end of the region. 3 days working 2 days worth repairing. It’s problematic to find electronics specialists ... In general, nothing good. Why complicate.
    1. Ros 56 6 February 2020 19: 17 New
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      Here, and I'm talking about the same thing, that's why I ride my UAZ. I climbed everything with my own hands, I know everything about him.
    2. Alf
      Alf 6 February 2020 19: 52 New
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      Quote: sagitch
      Why complicate.

      21st century in the yard. laughing Yes, and you can sell more expensive.
    3. Gray brother 7 February 2020 11: 38 New
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      Quote: sagitch
      For 3 months of operation of 2 units, 350 thousand rubles were spent on repairs and spare parts,

      How about warranty service? Why spend so much?
  5. Lamata 6 February 2020 18: 50 New
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    To the author of an orgromic respect, a pre-cycle article series. I did not know what the Urals planned for Rajdanski.
  6. BAI
    BAI 6 February 2020 19: 11 New
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    Speaking about the "Urals" for civilian needs, the author forgot one of the most developed areas - timber trucks.

    1. Grits 7 February 2020 16: 22 New
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      Quote: BAI
      Speaking about the "Urals" for civilian needs, the author forgot one of the most developed areas - timber trucks.

      Nevertheless, in Primorsky Krai (and in other parts of the Far East) in the 70s and 80s, Japanese Komatsu Nissan and a bit later Mitsubishi were the king of timber trucks. For some reason, the timber industry enterprises were mainly armed with this Japanese equipment, and the forestry enterprises (they were also engaged in harvesting then) - with the Urals. Apparently, the timber industry enterprises were richer, since the forest was directly sold to Japan. So the drivers of the Urals and Krazov terribly envied the crews dissecting into Komatsu or Mitsubishi. They were an elite among foresters. Although, the Urals, still passable.
  7. Ros 56 6 February 2020 19: 12 New
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    Hurray to our Urals - a soldier’s car, a worker’s car.
  8. Jager 6 February 2020 19: 29 New
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    The brutal Ural in the 8x8 version is chthonic horror. I now understand why we couldn’t get ordinary civilian cars in any way ... But to create something tank-like that can move around in the conditions of using nuclear weapons and the Arctic - it’s so easy.
    1. Alf
      Alf 6 February 2020 19: 53 New
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      Quote: Jager
      The brutal Ural in the 8x8 version is chthonic horror. I now understand why we couldn’t get ordinary civilian cars in any way ... But to create something tank-like that can move around in the conditions of using nuclear weapons and the Arctic - it’s so easy.

      We can make good and reliable cars, but they are all on tracks. laughing
  9. Andy 6 February 2020 20: 08 New
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    And where is the "to be continued"? "I demand the continuation of the banquet"
    1. Grits 7 February 2020 16: 24 New
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      Quote: Andy
      "I demand the continuation of the banquet"

      I join the requirements
  10. Potter 6 February 2020 20: 40 New
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    The four-axle NAMI-058 has a distant relation to URALs - a cab and hood from URAL are installed on it, there are some URAL nodes. And the first versions had their own brutal cockpit. This is NAMI’s own development, and the designer of this machine is the same Korotonoshko, creator of NAMI-020, that is, a prototype of URAL. NAMI-058 was built at ZOK, the NAMI experimental design plant. So the author incorrectly includes this machine in an article about the Urals - this is a completely different story. Miass later developed a whole series of its four-axis models, which were not directly related to NAMI-058
  11. L-39NG 6 February 2020 20: 54 New
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    It used to be sung: "if you suffer for a long time, something will work out." Here the dog is buried. It will turn out not what is needed, but "something"
    1. Petrol cutter 6 February 2020 22: 00 New
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      What nonsense are you writing (and around)?!. Muzchina You are a troll stupid, I suppose?! ..
  12. Tests 6 February 2020 21: 18 New
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    As a child, as seen by the "camelina", the Ural-377 immediately drew attention to the absence of a centralized tire inflation system on wheels and to the absence of an inertial dust separator intake pipe. They looked at the suspension completely ... A pipe is sticking out from under the hood and there are pipes on the tires of the pipe so that the wheels pierced by bullets can be pumped up - that's it, a real soldier's car!
    The same ryzhiki were also Ural-375D, and ZiL-157, and ZiL-131, and even Dt-75, and later KAMAZ - 4326, Ural - 4320, and ZIL-4331 ", which in Severodvinsk in the 80s - 2000s on the" Sevdormash "hung auger and milling-rotor snow-removing equipment. The city was always clean: during the summer trials “Belarusi” with mounted brushes will run through, and in winter - the whole range of the plant’s equipment fought with snow and ice.
    1. Grits 7 February 2020 16: 27 New
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      Quote: Tests
      in Severodvinsk in the 80s and 2000s, screw-rotor and milling-rotor snow-removing equipment was mounted on Sevdormash. The city was always clean: during the summer trials “Belarusi” with mounted brushes will run through, and in winter - the whole range of plant equipment fought with snow and ice.

      9 years of work in Severodsinsk left memories of the absence of problems with cleaning the streets in the city. Apparently, due to the presence of such an enterprise in the city.
  13. Petrol cutter 6 February 2020 21: 56 New
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    Thanks to the author.
  14. Free wind 6 February 2020 22: 15 New
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    The Urals without a front end, why they did it, for which no one knows, the cost was cheap, the loss of performance was enormous. Similar non-all-terrain vehicles were also produced at UAZ, there were such UAZs without front end and even rear-wheel drive Gas -66 they wanted to produce, with the wording, the military really liked the GAZ-66 layout. For its time, the Urals in the army was not bad. For the national economy, well, I don’t know .. A lot of Urals have also destroyed the people. Frequent brake failures, heavy steering, fire wiring. Well, drivers used to die from carbon monoxide. Somewhere the poor fellow will get stuck, he will snow up and the exhaust rushing into the cockpit, it happened with ZIL engines. Well, there’s nothing to say about gluttony, there was not a carburetor, but a bucket with a hole, otherwise it is impossible to explain such a consumption of gasoline.
  15. VicktorVR 7 February 2020 06: 40 New
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    When fencing, an additional tank was removed from the car. On the caterpillar I look left.
  16. prohogij60 7 February 2020 08: 17 New
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    And I first saw the Urals on a track in the army in the year 74 in the winter. He served in the railway, completed the construction of the highway Tyumen - Surgut. Between the Kintus junction and the village of Salym. The movement was along the winter road, one track. So this Ural, circling the front-end column, moved out onto a frozen swamp with a meter-long layer of snow. It was generally impossible to go there. And he rode slowly but surely. Above the snow there is only a cabin and a platform with cargo. It was like a science fiction movie.