In the 1930s, China and Germany worked closely in the economic and military fields. Germany participated in the modernization of industry and the army in exchange for the supply of Chinese raw materials. More than half of German exports of military equipment and weapons until 1937 it was in China. The Germans delivered modern aircraft at that time, light Tanks PzKpfw I, artillery pieces and mortars, small arms and ammunition. Germany also helped with the construction of new and modernization of existing defense enterprises. So, with German support, the Hanyany arsenal was modernized, where rifles and machine guns were produced. In the vicinity of Changsha, the Germans built an artillery factory, and in Nanjing, an enterprise producing binoculars and optical sights. Although cooperation between Germany and China was curtailed in 1937, until the early 1950s, the Chinese army was mainly armed with German-style 7,92 mm caliber rifles. Also in China there was a lot of German artillery.
In July 1937, full-scale hostilities began between Japan and China. Already in December 1937, after the Japanese army captured Nanjing, the Chinese army lost most of its heavy weapons. In this regard, the leader of the nationalist party, the Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek, was forced to seek support from the USSR, the USA, Great Britain, the Netherlands and France. Fears about Japanese expansion in Asia prompted the governments of these countries to provide loans to China for military purposes and to provide assistance with weapons. Until 1941, the main military support came from the USSR. About 5 Soviet citizens visited China: military advisers, pilots, doctors and technical specialists. From 000 to 1937, the Soviet Union supplied the Kuomintang with 1941 aircraft, 1285 artillery pieces, 1600 light T-82 tanks, 26 thousand light and heavy machine guns, and 14 cars and tractors. Oil refineries and aircraft assembly plants were built on Chinese territory. After the termination of military-technical cooperation between the USSR and the Kuomintang in 1850, the United States assumed the main burden of supplying China with equipment, weapons and specialists.
Thus, the Chinese armed forces in the late 1930s - early 1940s were armed with a colorful mixture of weapons produced in Europe, America and the USSR. In addition, the Chinese army very actively used Japanese-made equipment and weapons captured in battles. After the surrender of the Kwantung Army, the Soviet command transferred to the Chinese Communists a significant part of the Japanese trophies, which were subsequently used against the Kuomintang in the Korean War.
The ground floor of the Military Museum of the Chinese Revolution presents a rich collection of anti-aircraft guns made in China and other countries. In the second half of the 1930s, the air defense of the Kuomintang troops was strengthened by several dozen 20-mm anti-aircraft guns 2,0 cm Flak 28 and 2,0 cm FlaK 30. According to some reports, the assembly of 20-mm anti-aircraft guns 2,0 cm FlaK 30 was carried out in Huan Province, an enterprise in the vicinity of Changsha.
20-25 mm towed anti-aircraft guns available in the collection of the Military Museum of the Chinese Revolution
The 20 mm 2,0 cm Flak 28 anti-aircraft gun was created on the basis of the universal 20 mm gun, which in turn led to the pedigree of the Becker automatic gun, which appeared at the end of World War I. Unlike the “Becker gun”, which used a low-powered ammunition of 20x70 mm, the new 20-mm machine gun was created under a more powerful cartridge 20 × 110 mm, with an initial velocity of 117 g of the projectile - 830 m / s. The mass of the gun without wheels is 68 kg. Rate of fire - 450 rounds / min. Food was provided from box magazines for 15 rounds.
ORLICON company brochures indicated that reach was 3 km in height and 4,4 km in range. The effective firing range was about half that. However, for the mid-1930s, when the first 20mm anti-aircraft mounts appeared in China, they posed a great danger to Japanese combat aircraft operating at low altitude.
The 20 mm 2,0 cm FlaK 30 anti-aircraft gun was developed by Rheinmetall in 1930. The advantages of this weapon included simplicity of design, the ability to quickly disassemble and assemble, and relatively low weight. The automatic construction sight with the correct data entry made it possible to conduct fairly accurate shooting. The data necessary for vertical and lateral anticipation were manually entered into the sight and determined visually, except for the range, which was measured by a stereo range finder.
20 mm anti-aircraft gun 2,0 cm FlaK 30
During transportation, the gun was placed on a two-wheel drive and secured with two brackets and a connecting pin. It took only a few seconds to remove the pin, after which the clamps were loosened, and the system together with the carriage could be lowered to the ground. The carriage provided the possibility of circular firing with the highest elevation angle of 90 °. The installation had a recoil device and the supply of ammunition from the store for 20 shells. Rate of fire 240 rds / min. For firing from 2,0 cm FlaK 30 used ammunition 20 × 138 mm, with a higher muzzle energy than shells 20 × 110 mm, designed for anti-aircraft guns company Oerlikon 2,0 cm Flak 28. The fragmentation tracer shell weighing 115 g left trunk at a speed of 900 m / s. Also in the ammunition included armor-piercing incendiary-tracer and armor-piercing-tracer shells. The latter weighed 140 g and at an initial speed of 830 m / s at a range of 300 m pierced 25 mm of armor. Thus, the 20-mm anti-aircraft mount could effectively fight both with the combat aviation, and with light tanks.
In 1935, Breda Meccanica Bresciana, based on the French 13,2 mm Hotchkiss Mle 1930 machine gun, created the universal 20 mm Cannone-Mitragliera da 20/65 modello 35, also known as Breda Modèle 35, in which the Long Soloturn cartridge was used - 20x138 mm. The same ammunition was used in German anti-aircraft gunners: 2,0 cm FlaK 30, 2,0 cm Flak 38 and 2,0 cm Flakvierling 38.
20 mm anti-aircraft mount Breda M35
Shortly after the start of serial production of the Breda M35, the Chinese government purchased a batch of 20 mm anti-aircraft guns. Anti-aircraft guns of Italian production were intended to provide air defense for parts of the 87th, 88th and 36th divisions of the National Army. In China, the 20mm Breda was used as a light anti-aircraft gun and anti-tank weapon. Power, as in the French machine gun, came from a rigid clip-tape for 12 rounds. The supply of the clip was carried out on the left side, and as the cartridges were used up, it passed through the receiver and fell out on the right. Rate of fire - 500 rounds / min. A well-trained crew could develop a combat rate of fire of up to 150 rounds / min. The mass of the installation is about 340 kg. Vertical aiming angles: from -10 ° to + 80 °. When separating the wheels, it was possible to fire in the sector of 360 °.
In addition to the German and Italian 20-mm anti-aircraft guns, the Kuomintang troops had a number of M1935 Madsen anti-aircraft guns at their disposal. The small-caliber Danish cannon under the cartridge of 20x120 mm caliber, on the principle of automatic operation, repeated the Madsen infantry machine gun of a rifle caliber with a short barrel stroke and swinging bolt. The barrel of the air cooling was equipped with a muzzle brake. Food was provided from box stores for 15 or drum stores for 30 shells. A 20 mm automatic cannon on a universal machine, in the second half of the 30s was popular with foreign buyers and was widely exported.
20 mm anti-aircraft mount M1935 Madsen on a universal tripod machine
The M1935 Madsen anti-aircraft gun had a record low weight for its caliber, its weight was only 278 kg. Rate of fire - 500 rounds / min. Combat rate of fire - up to 120 vysr / min. The effective range for firing at air targets is up to 1500 m. The ammunition included shots with armor-piercing (weighing 154 g), armor-piercing-tracing (146 g), fragmentation (127 g) projectile. An armor-piercing projectile with an initial speed of 730 m / s, at a range of 300 m along the normal could penetrate 27 mm of armor.
The exposition of the Military Museum of the Chinese Revolution also includes the Japanese Type 20 universal 98 mm mount. This weapon was designed from the very beginning as universal. It was assumed that the 20-mm speed guns not only provide protection for the front edge of the defense from bombing and assault strikes, but can also fight light tanks.
20 mm anti-aircraft mount Type 98
The principle of operation of Type 98 automation was repeated by the French 13,2 mm Hotchkiss M1929 machine gun. For firing from Type 98, a 20 × 124 mm shot was used, which is also used in the Type 97 anti-tank rifle. A 20 mm 109 g armor-piercing tracer projectile left the 1400 mm barrel with an initial speed of 835 m / s, and at a distance of 250 m, normals pierced 30 mm armor. In combat position, the anti-aircraft gun was hung on three pillars. If necessary, fire could be fired from the wheels, but the accuracy of the fire fell. Anti-aircraft installation could fire in the sector 360 °, vertical aiming angles: from -5 ° to + 85 °. The mass in the fighting position is 373 kg. Rate of fire - 300 rounds / min. Combat rate of fire - up to 120 rounds / min. Power was supplied from a 20-charge store. Maximum firing range - 5,3 km. The effective firing range was about half that. The production of the Type 98 small-caliber anti-aircraft gun continued from 1938 to 1945. About 2500 20-mm anti-aircraft guns were sent to the troops.
Very often, 20 mm assault rifles were installed in the back of trucks to protect against aircraft and attacks by sabotage groups. A small number of Type 98 anti-aircraft guns were captured by Chinese partisans. Three dozen captured Japanese-made 20-mm anti-aircraft guns of Japanese manufacture were handed over to the troops of Mao Zedong, who in the second half of the 1940s waged an armed struggle against the Kuomintang. The 20 mm anti-aircraft guns at the disposal of the Chinese Communists were rarely used for their intended purpose. Most often, they fired at ground targets, supporting their own infantry.
During the Second World War, the most famous and massive Japanese anti-aircraft machine gun was the 25-mm Type 96. This anti-aircraft gun was developed in 1936 on the basis of the Mitrailleuse de 25 mm contre-aéroplanes gun of the French company Hotchkiss. The most serious difference between the Japanese model and the original was the equipping of the German company Rheinmetall with a flame arrester. The anti-aircraft gun was towed, at the combat position the wheel drive was separated.
25 mm anti-aircraft mount Type 96
A single-barrel 25-mm anti-aircraft gun weighed 790 kg and could be rolled with a crew of 4 people. For food used stores for 15 shells. The rate of fire of a single-barrel machine was 220-250 rounds / min. Practical rate of fire: 100-120 rounds / min. Corners: from -10 ° to + 85 °. Effective firing range - up to 3000 m. Reach in height - 2000 m. Fire was fired by 25-mm rounds with a sleeve length of 163 mm. The ammunition could include: high-explosive incendiary, fragmentation tracer, armor-piercing, armor-piercing tracer shells. At a distance of 250 meters, an armor-piercing projectile weighing 260 g, pierced 870 mm armor with an initial speed of 35 m / s.
In addition to the Type 96 single-barrel anti-aircraft installations, during the Second World War, twin and built ones were also produced in Japan. Single-barrel and twin 25-mm anti-aircraft guns were used mainly on land, and those built were installed on ships and stationary positions.
Japanese twin 25mm anti-aircraft mount
A twin 25-mm unit was mounted on a four-wheeled cart with a detachable wheel drive. Her weight in the combat position was 1110 kg. Calculation - 7 people. A truck with a carrying capacity of 1,5 tons was used for towing. Single-barrel installations were often transported in the back of a truck.
Prior to the surrender of Japan, about 33 000-mm anti-aircraft guns were produced, which were very widely used in hostilities. After the surrender of the Kwantung Army, the number of trophies taken by the Red Army turned out to be about 25 single-barrel and twin anti-aircraft mounts Type 400, and a significant amount of ammunition. Most of the 96 mm anti-aircraft guns with ammunition was donated to the Chinese Communists. Subsequently, these installations were used against the Chiang Kai-shek and during the fighting on the Korean peninsula. The captured Japanese 25-mm anti-aircraft guns were in service with the PLA until the early 25s, until they were replaced with Soviet and Chinese guns.
After the Soviet Union stopped providing military assistance to the Kuomintang, large-scale deliveries of American weapons began. So, in the museum’s collection, among the anti-aircraft guns of Japanese and Soviet manufacture, there is a 40-mm anti-aircraft gun Bofors L60. This weapon has entered history as one of the most perfect and massive means of combating an air adversary during the Second World War, and in a number of states it is still in service. According to archival data, the Kuomintang received more than 1947 80-mm anti-aircraft guns until 40.
40-mm anti-aircraft gun Bofors L60
Compared to the 20-25 mm quick-fire anti-aircraft guns, the Bofors L60 gun had a longer effective fire range and reach in height. A fragmentation 900-gram shell left the barrel at a speed of just over 850 m / s. Rate of fire - about 120 rds / min. Reach in height - up to 4000 m. Anti-aircraft gun mounted on a four-wheeled towed cart. At the firing position, the carriage frame fell to the ground for greater stability. In case of urgent need, shooting could be carried out from the wheels, without installing supports, but with less accuracy. The mass of the anti-aircraft installation in the combat position is about 2000 kg. Calculation - 5 people.
Although the Chinese army during the war with Japan had fairly modern anti-aircraft guns, they did not have a noticeable effect on the course of hostilities. First of all, this was due to the fact that the Kuomintang command used the anti-aircraft guns separately and did not organize a network of air observation posts. In addition, the preparation of Chinese calculations was very weak. Anti-aircraft battery commanders in most cases were unable to determine the range, altitude and speed of flight of Japanese aircraft, and in the best case, anti-aircraft guns fired. As a rule, from 1937 to 1945, headquarters and large air bases were covered with anti-aircraft artillery in China, and the military units were defenseless from attacks by Japanese bombers. Partly, the Chinese were saved by the fact that after the US entered the war, most of the Japanese combat aircraft were not involved in China.
During World War II, the most popular Japanese anti-aircraft gun was the 75-mm Type 88 gun. This gun entered service in 1928 and managed to become obsolete by the beginning of the 1940s.
Type 75 anti-aircraft gun 88
In the transport position, the Type 88 gun weighed 2740 kg, in combat - 2442 kg. The anti-aircraft gun had a circular shelling, vertical aiming angles: from 0 ° to + 85 °. The maximum reach in height was 9 km, in range when conducting anti-aircraft fire - 12 km. For firing from Type 88, a 75x497R projectile was used. In addition to a fragmentation grenade with a remote fuse and a high-explosive fragmentation projectile with a shock fuse, the ammunition included an armor-piercing shell weighing 6,2 kg. Leaving the barrel 3212 mm long with an initial speed of 740 m / s, at a distance of 500 m when hit at right angles, an armor-piercing projectile could penetrate 110 mm thick armor. Although the Type 75 88mm anti-aircraft gun was capable of firing up to 20 rounds per minute, many complaints were caused by the excessive complexity and high cost of the gun. The process of moving the gun from transport to combat position and vice versa was very time-consuming. Particularly inconvenient for deploying anti-aircraft guns in a combat position was such an element of construction as a five-beam support, in which it was necessary to extend four beds and unscrew five jacks. The dismantling of two transport wheels also took away a lot of time and effort from the calculation.
The history of the 75 mm Japanese anti-aircraft guns presented at the museum is not known. Most likely, as in the case of the 25-mm anti-aircraft type 96, the 75-mm type 88 guns were transferred to the Chinese Communists after the defeat of Japan. The captured Japanese 75-mm anti-aircraft guns were not in service with the PLA for a long time, and already in the mid-1950s 85 and 100-mm anti-aircraft guns of Soviet production were supplanted.
Next to the 75 mm Japanese anti-aircraft gun, the museum displays Soviet 85-mm anti-aircraft guns of the 1939 model. Unfortunately, the explanatory plate only says that it is an 85 mm M1939 gun. Not specified a specific modification of the tools and their track record.
Before the war in the USSR, they managed to put 2630 anti-aircraft guns into the army. 1939 (52-K). In total, during the war years, more than 14000 85-mm anti-aircraft guns were produced. Anti-aircraft guns of different years of release differed from each other in a number of details. Changes were made in order to reduce the cost of production and improve combat performance. In 1944, the 85-mm anti-aircraft gun arr. 1944 (COP -1). It was obtained by superimposing a new 85-mm barrel on the carriage of the 85-mm anti-aircraft gun arr. 1939 The purpose of modernization was to increase the survivability of the trunk and reduce production costs.
The 85 mm anti-aircraft gun of the 1939 model weighed about 4500 kg and could fire at planes flying at an altitude of 10 km and at a range of up to 14000 m. Rate of fire up to 20 rounds / min. In total, from 1939 to 1945, Soviet industry produced more than 14 000-mm anti-aircraft guns. These guns were actively used against American aircraft in Korea and in Southeast Asia. In China, the 85 mm anti-aircraft guns were operated until the end of the 85s.
Another anti-aircraft gun, which had Soviet roots and fought on the Korean peninsula and in Vietnam, is a 37-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun of the 1939 model (61-K). This 37 mm anti-aircraft machine was created on the basis of the Swedish 40 mm anti-aircraft gun Bofors.
According to the passport data 37-mm anti-aircraft gun arr. 1939 could hit air targets at ranges of up to 4000 m and altitude of 3000 m. The effective range of anti-aircraft fire was about half that. Rate of fire - 160 rounds / min. The mass of the gun in combat position without a shield was 2100 kg. Calculation - 7 people. Until 1947, more than 18000 37-mm anti-aircraft guns were built in the USSR. 1939 After the formation of the PRC from the USSR in 1949, approximately three hundred anti-aircraft guns arrived. According to some reports, in addition to the 37-mm anti-aircraft guns arr. In 1939, the 40-mm Bofors L60, received by the Soviet side on Lend-Lease during the Second World War, was transmitted. The volume of deliveries of Soviet anti-aircraft guns to the PRC increased significantly after Chinese volunteers took part in the Korean War.
The Military Museum of the Chinese Revolution presents three 37-mm anti-aircraft guns to the attention of visitors. On the shield of one of them is painted ten red stars. Unfortunately, the explanatory plate for this sample does not say what the stars mean. It is extremely unlikely that the calculation of this anti-aircraft gun managed to bring down so many enemy aircraft. Most likely this is the number of enemy aircraft raids, in the reflection of which the gun took part. In the 1950s, in the PRC at the enterprise of the China Northern Industrial Corporation (Norinco) under the designation Type 55, the production of a 37-mm anti-aircraft guns was established. 1939 The twin version was named Type 65. Chinese-made 37-mm anti-aircraft guns were delivered to North Vietnam and were used to repel American aircraft raids. Currently, most of the 37-mm anti-aircraft guns in China are withdrawn from service.
During the Second World War, it turned out that for the anti-aircraft guns that are in service with the Red Army, there is a “difficult” altitude range: from 1500 m to 3000. Here, the planes were hardly accessible for high-speed anti-aircraft guns of 25-37 mm caliber, and for 76-85 mm anti-aircraft guns this height was too low. In order to solve the problem, it seemed natural to create a quick-fire anti-aircraft gun of some intermediate caliber. In this regard, the development of the 57-mm gun, which was put into service in 1950 under the designation S-60, was started.
57-mm automatic anti-aircraft guns in the exposition of the Military Museum of the Chinese Revolution
57-mm anti-aircraft gun S-60 in combat position weighed 4800 kg. Rate of fire - 70 rds / min. The initial velocity of the projectile is 1000 m / s. Projectile weight - 2,8 kg. Reach in range - 6000 m, in height - 4000 m. Calculation - 6-8 people. The battery set of the ESP-57 follow-up drives was intended for guidance in azimuth and elevation angle of a battery of 57-mm S-60 guns, consisting of eight or less guns. When firing, the PUAZO-6-60 and the SON-9 gun-guided radar were used, and later the RPK-1 VAZ radar instrument complex. All guns were located at a distance of not more than 50 m from the central distribution box.
Soviet anti-aircraft batteries equipped with 57-mm machine guns covered objects in the DPRK during the Korean War. According to the results of combat use, the S-60 gun was modernized, after which it was mass-produced until 1957. A total of 5700 guns were handed over to the customer. In China, the 57-mm anti-aircraft gun has been produced under license under the designation Type 1950 since the late 57s. However, the VAZ was not supplied to China, and the batteries of the 1-mm anti-aircraft guns were operated with outdated gun-aiming stations. Given the fact that China produced its own 57-mm anti-aircraft guns, the original Soviet S-57s or their Chinese clones are not represented in the museum.
The heaviest anti-aircraft gun on display at the Military Museum of the Chinese Revolution is the 100 mm Type 1959 anti-aircraft gun. This gun is a Chinese version of the Soviet 100-mm anti-aircraft gun KS-19M2.
100 mm Type 1959 anti-aircraft gun
The first modification of the KS-19 entered service in 1948. The 100-mm anti-aircraft gun of the 1947 model (KS-19) ensured the fight against air targets that had speeds of up to 1200 km / h and flying at an altitude of up to 15 km. All elements of the complex in a combat position were interconnected by electric cables. Aiming the anti-aircraft guns at a pre-emptive point is carried out by the GSP-100 hydraulic power drive from POISO, but there was also the possibility of manual guidance. In the KS-19 gun, the following were mechanized: installing a fuse, sending a cartridge, closing the bolt, firing a shot, opening the bolt and extracting the cartridge case. Firing rate of 14-16 rds / min. In 1950, in order to improve the combat and operational properties, the artillery unit and hydro-power drive underwent modernization, after which the gun was designated KS-19M2. To control the fire of the battery, an SON-4 gun guidance radar was used, which was a biaxial towed van, on the roof of which there was a rotating antenna in the form of a circular parabolic reflector with a diameter of 1,8 m. From 1948 to 1955, 10151 KS-19 guns were manufactured, which before the advent of air defense systems were the main means of combating high-altitude air targets.
Chinese-made 100 mm anti-aircraft guns fired at American bombers during the Vietnam War. In the 1970s and 1980s, several dozen stationary concrete positions were built on the territory of the PRC, on which Type 1959 anti-aircraft guns were constantly on combat duty. Some 100-mm guns are still preserved in the PLA coastal defense units deployed along the coast Strait of taiwan.
To be continued ...