Chemical armored car KS-18


Serial armored car type KS-18. Photo Kolesa.ru


In 1930-32, Soviet organizations and enterprises dealt with chemical armored vehicles. The experimental design and testing bureau of the Department of mechanization and motorization of the Red Army and the Kompressor plant (Moscow) together created four projects of such equipment at once, but all of them failed. Nevertheless, with their help it was possible to accumulate the necessary experience and on its basis to make a full-fledged chemical armored car. The KS-18 machine was able to get into the series and serve in the army.

The benefits of failure


Projects D-18, D-39, BHM-1000 and BHM-800 developed by OKIB and "Compressor" proposed building chemical armored vehicles based on several types of trucks. Instead of a body, a tank for chemical warfare agents was mounted on the chassis, and equipment for spraying them was placed next to it. Some of these projects included the use of cabin and tank reservations.

Tests of several prototypes showed their failure. Auto chassis worked fine only on roads, but not on rough terrain. Armor protected people and chemicals, but reduced carrying capacity. Self-defense weapons were absent.

According to the results of the analysis of the tests, the requirements for the next chemical armored car were determined. As before, it was proposed to use a serial truck chassis, but this time with a larger payload. The car must have been booked, as well as armed with a machine gun. A chemical tank and spray devices had to be placed under the armor.

In this form, the armored car of the "chemical attack" could solve all its problems with minimal risk. He had to spray BOV, perform degassing or smoke screens, including at the forefront.

Project KS-18


In 1934, the Vyksa crushing and grinding equipment plant received a task to develop a new chemical armored car. The basis for this sample was a ZIS-6 truck with a load capacity of 6 tons, on which a tank and spraying equipment KS-18 of the Compressor plant were installed. According to some reports, several such machines were built, and they were used to a limited extent in the Red Army as training.


Truck ZiS-6. Photo Kolesa.ru

A chemical machine based on ZIS-6 possessed the necessary reserve of characteristics for further development. In this regard, in 1935, the military chemical department of the Red Army instructed the DRO plant to equip this model with armor and weapons.

The chemical armored car project “inherited” the name from the KS-18 chemical spray system. In some sources, it is also referred to as BHM-1. It is curious that this name is sometimes found in the context of the BHM-1000 project. These circumstances can lead to specific situations: an armored car can be confused with an unprotected vehicle or even with chemical equipment for both samples.

The ZIS-6 chassis was built on the basis of the frame and had a 6x4 wheel arrangement. The power unit included an engine with 73 hp. and a four-speed gearbox. Power was transmitted to two rear drive axles with the possibility of selection for additional equipment. ZIS-6 in the initial configuration had a curb weight of more than 4,2 tons and could carry a cargo of 4 tons.

A riveted armored case was mounted on the serial chassis. Sheets of armor were made by an adjacent enterprise, and their installation on the frame was carried out by the DRO plant. The case consisted of parts with a thickness of 4 to 8 mm and could provide protection only against bullets or fragments. Probably, when developing the case, questions of increasing survivability were taken into account, which affected its design and layout.

The bow of the hull served as a protected hood and covered the power plant. Behind it was an inhabited compartment-cabin of greater height. At the rear of the chassis was placed an armored casing of a lower height with a sloping roof. Inside this casing there was a tank for OWL. By increasing the length of the tank and its casing, the designers were able to reduce their height. Due to this, the main projection of the tank was reduced, and the likelihood of its destruction was also reduced. Next to the tank were placed devices of the KS-18 system.

Chemical armored car KS-18
Side view of the car. Figure Aviarmor.net

The tank contained 1000 liters of liquid chemical. The KS-18 equipment included a centrifugal pump driven by an engine and spray devices. A horseshoe-shaped spray was intended to infect the area. Degassing was carried out using a spray column. It was proposed to use the same devices when setting smoke screens.

A sprayer for BWW from KS-18 allowed at the same time to “fill in” a strip up to 20-25 m wide. 1000 l of chemical was enough for a site 450-470 m long. One refueling tank allowed degassing a strip 8 m wide and 330-350 m long. The S-IV mixture provided a smoke screen for 27-29 minutes.

For self-defense, the KS-18 armored car received one DT machine gun in a ball mount on the front plate of the cockpit for firing into the front hemisphere. The crew consisted of two people, a driver and a commander, who was also a shooter, radio operator and operator of chemical equipment. In the cockpit there was a 71-TK radio station with a handrail antenna encircling the roof.

The chemical armored car KS-18 had a length of about 6 m with a width and height of about 2 m. Mass is unknown; apparently, this parameter was at the level of 6-7 tons and did not exceed the total mass of the ZIS-6 truck. The car could reach speeds of up to 45-50 km / h and overcome small obstacles. Mobility on rough terrain was limited by the characteristics of the chassis.

Production and operation


In 1935-37, experienced KS-18 armored cars were tested, during which they showed the required characteristics, and in addition, they demonstrated the advantages of the new chassis over the previous ones. The armored car received a recommendation for adoption and arming.


Broken KS-18 on the battlefield, 1941. Photo by MV Kolomiets "Armor on wheels. History Soviet armored car 1925-1945's. "

The first production KS-18 went to the army in 1937. The production of such equipment lasted about two years. During this time, the DRO plant with the participation of "Compressor" and ZIS built 94 armored cars. This technique was intended for companies providing combat support for tank brigades. The state of each company relied 4 armored cars, but not all units were able to fully equip.

Armored vehicles KS-18 remained in service until the start of World War II and, together with other equipment, took the battle. During the war, the Red Army did not use a chemical weapon, and therefore KS-18 did not infect the area. They also did not have to perform degassing. Apparently, the armored cars from the tank brigades could fulfill the functions of reconnaissance and patrol vehicles, as well as put smoke curtains.

There is information about the use of KS-18 in the Crimea. In the first weeks of the war there were at least two such armored cars from the 463rd flamethrower chemical company. It is reported that by then the vehicles had lost their chemical equipment and had become “regular” armored vehicles. As of November 10, in Sevastopol there were about 30 armored cars of several types. Perhaps, among them were the few KS-18, who managed to survive the previous battles.

The situation at the front and the specific combat qualities determined the fate of the KS-18. Such a technique, solving unusual tasks, perished in battles. Also, cars could fail for technical reasons. According to various estimates, by the end of 1941 there were no chemical armored cars of this model in the Red Army. Thus, of the 94 chemical armored vehicles built, such as KS-18, not one survived even until the middle of the war.

End of concept


In August 1941, the State Defense Committee, by its resolution, instructed several people's commissariats to develop and put into series a new version of the chemical armored car with the transfer of the first car until November 1. However, at that time, the industry was loaded with other work and evacuation, which made the development of a new project impossible. Soon, such a task was officially canceled, which put an end to the long-term program for creating chemical armored cars.

As a result, the KS-18 chemical armored car took an interesting place in the history of Soviet armored vehicles. He was the first model of his class to enter service. He was the only development of this kind, which took part in real battles. And with all this, he became the last representative of his class in the Red Army. It was not possible to create a new armored car to replace the KS-18, and then our army abandoned all this direction.
Author:
Ctrl Enter

Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter

11 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Catholic 9 March 2020 18: 22 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    In the book of Maxim Kolomiyets “Armor on Wheels” it is indicated that during the Soviet-Finnish war in the tank brigades of the North-Western Front there were 9 KS-18 vehicles, but nothing is known about their use.
    https://e-libra.ru/read/545329-bronya-na-kolesah-istoriya-sovetskogo-broneavtomobilya-1925-1945-gg.html
    1. Catholic 9 March 2020 18: 33 New
      • 1
      • 0
      +1
      There is information about the use of KS-18 in the Crimea. In the first weeks of the war there were at least two such armored cars from the 463rd flamethrower chemical company.

      A small addition taken from the site: http://aviarmor.net/tww2/armored_cars/ussr/ks-18.htm
      The 463rd flamethrower-chemical company BO, which was in Crimea in July 1941, had two KhT-133 and two KS-18. Given the careful attitude of the defending units to the remaining equipment, chemical armored vehicles (without chemical equipment) could well be used in battles with the Germans. Here is what the former commander of the 1st platoon of the Balaklava school of the NKVD Marine Border Guard Guard recalled the foreman of the 1st article P.F. jumped out on the enemy’s position and began to pour machine-gun fire on the settled Germans. But he was quickly knocked out and burning tankers jumped out of the hatch and rushed in our direction. But ... the bullet flies faster ... "
  2. Catholic 9 March 2020 18: 30 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    Chemical machine based on ZIS-6

    In the summer of 1941, the production of BM-6-13 Katyusha was organized on the ZIS-16 chassis. In connection with the approach of the front to Moscow and the evacuation of ZIS, the production of BM-13-16 on the ZIS-6 chassis was compelled to be phased out. Production of the BM-13-16 continued on the chassis of the STZ-5-NATI caterpillar artillery tractor and the ZIS-5 truck, and starting in 1942 on Studebeker's chassis.
  3. svp67 9 March 2020 18: 48 New
    • 1
    • 0
    +1
    Vyksa crushing and grinding equipment plant received a task to develop a new chemical armored car
    For the uninitiated, the removal of the brain is already .... Also, the fact that the Compressor plant was engaged in the development and manufacture of means of delivery of chemical and incendiary weapons, the same combat multiple launch rocket that we know as Katyusha
    1. Alexey RA 10 March 2020 11: 46 New
      • 1
      • 0
      +1
      Quote: svp67
      For the uninitiated already take out the brain ....

      And for those who forced the USSR-this is the norm. smile
      What does the KB of mechanization tools do? Launch complexes for Strategic Missile Forces, Navy and Air Defense.
      What does the design bureau of precision engineering do? ZAK, SAM and guided weapons.
      What does instrument design bureau do? Precision weapons.
      What does Muromteplovoz produce? BTR and universal combat modules.
  4. Grad-Xnumx 9 March 2020 20: 05 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    Another such an experimental machine was.
  5. Grad-Xnumx 9 March 2020 20: 11 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    There were also options based on auto gas.


  6. Dur_mod 9 March 2020 22: 23 New
    • 1
    • 1
    0
    The author carefully went around the topic, what kind of chemical weapons were they planning to use? If, for example, white phosphorus, then the IL-2 did an excellent job, there was no point in easily vulnerable armored cars.
    1. kot28.ru 10 March 2020 00: 39 New
      • 1
      • 2
      -1
      The Luftwaffe was not IL-2, no need to jumble.
    2. Freeman 18 March 2020 04: 46 New
      • 0
      • 0
      0
      Quote: Dur_mod
      The author carefully went around the topic, what kind of chemical weapons were they planning to use?


      How-how ... In the "frontal", on the attacking cavalry of the enemy (then the 30s).
      And their mustard gas, mustard gas - from all nozzles!
      And they themselves in an armored car - they won’t get either a bullet or a saber.

      Well, or lewisite poured over the area between strong points, in places of a likely enemy offensive, he covered the flanks instead of minefields there - quickly and not so noticeably.

      But they were used, nevertheless, as directors of smoke screens.
  7. Freeman 18 March 2020 04: 14 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    The chemical armored car project “inherited” the name from the KS-18 chemical spray system. In some sources, it is also referred to as BHM-1


    Here is a photo.