Military Review

Secrets of the Peresvet complex: how does the Russian laser sword work?

95

Since its inception, lasers have come to be regarded as weaponspotentially capable of revolutionizing hostilities. Since the mid-XNUMXth century, lasers have become an integral part of science fiction films, weapons of super-soldiers and interstellar ships.


However, as often happens in practice, the development of high-power lasers has encountered great technical difficulties, which have led to the fact that so far the main niche of military lasers has been their use in reconnaissance, aiming and target designation systems. Nevertheless, work on the creation of combat lasers in the leading countries of the world practically did not stop; programs for creating new generations of laser weapons replaced one another.

Earlier we looked at some stages of the development of lasers and the creation of laser weapons, as well as development stages and the current situation of creating laser weapons for the air force, laser weapons for ground forces and air defense, laser weapons for the navy. At the moment, the intensity of laser weapons programs in different countries is so high that they no longer have doubts about their appearance on the battlefield. AND it will be far from easy to defend against laser weapons, as it seems to some, at least they won’t manage to get along with silverfish.

If you look closely at the development of laser weapons in foreign countries, you can see that most of the proposed modern laser systems are implemented on the basis of fiber and solid-state lasers. Moreover, for the most part, these laser systems are designed to solve tactical problems. Their output power currently lies in the range from 10 kW to 100 kW, but in the future it can be increased to 300-500 kW. In Russia, information on the work on creating tactical-class combat lasers is practically absent; we will talk below about the reasons why this is happening.

On March 1, 2018, during a message to the Federal Assembly, among other breakthrough weapon systems, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced the “Peresvet” combat laser complex (BLK), the dimensions and intended purpose of which imply its use for solving strategic tasks.


Combat laser complex "Relight". Walk past him with dosimeter!

The Peresvet complex is surrounded by a veil of secrecy. The characteristics of other latest types of weapons (complexes “Dagger”, “Vanguard”, “Zircon”, “Poseidon”) were to some extent voiced, which partly allows us to judge their purpose and effectiveness. At the same time, no specific information was provided on the Peresvet laser complex: neither the type of laser installed, nor the energy source for it. Accordingly, there is no information about the power of the complex, which, in turn, does not allow us to understand its real capabilities and the goals and objectives set for it.


Combat laser complex "Peresvet"

Laser radiation can be obtained in dozens, rather even in hundreds of ways. So what is the method of obtaining laser radiation implemented in the latest Russian BLK "Peresvet"? To answer the question, we will consider various options for the execution of the Peresvet BLK and evaluate the degree of probability of their implementation.

The information below is the author’s assumptions based on information from open sources available on the Internet.

BLK "Peresvet". Execution No. 1. Fiber, solid state and liquid lasers


As mentioned above, the main trend in the creation of laser weapons is the development of complexes based on fiber optic. Why is this happening? Because based on fiber lasers it is easy to scale the power of laser systems. Using a package of modules of 5-10 kW, receive output radiation with a power of 50-100 kW.

Can the Peresvet BLK be implemented on the basis of these technologies? It is highly likely that no. The main reason here is that during the years of perestroika, the leading developer of fiber lasers, the IRE-Polyus Scientific and Technical Association, "formed the basis for the formation of transnational IPG Photonics Corporation, registered in the USA and now the world leader in the industry," escaped from Russia. high power fiber lasers. The international business and the main place of registration of IPG Photonics Corporation implies its strict submission to US law, which, taking into account the current political situation, does not imply the transfer of critical technologies to Russia, which, of course, include the creation of powerful lasers.


IPG Photonics produces YLS fiber lasers with power up to 100 kW, which can be integrated into assemblies with a total power of up to 500 kW. IPG Photonics laser efficiency reaches 50%

Can fiber lasers be developed in Russia by other organizations? Perhaps, but it is unlikely, or while these are products of low power. Fiber lasers are a profitable commercial product, so the lack of powerful domestic fiber lasers on the market most likely indicates their actual absence.

A similar situation is with solid-state lasers. Presumably, it is more difficult to implement a batch solution, it is nevertheless possible, and in foreign countries it is the second most widely used solution after fiber lasers. Information about high-power industrial solid-state lasers produced in Russia could not be found. Solid state lasers are underway in Institute of Laser Physical Research RFNC-VNIIEF (ILFI), so theoretically a solid-state laser in the Peresvet BLK can be installed, but in practice this is unlikely, since at first more compact laser weapons or experimental installations would most likely appear.

There is even less information about liquid lasers, although there is information that a combat liquid laser is being developed (was it developed, but was rejected?) In the US as part of the HELLADS (High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System, “High Energy Liquid Laser Defense System” ) Presumably liquid lasers have the advantage of the possibility of cooling, but lower efficiency (efficiency) compared with solid-state lasers.

In 2017, information appeared about the placement of the Polyus Research Institute for a tender for an integral part of scientific research work (R&D), the purpose of which is the creation of a mobile laser complex to combat small-sized unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in daytime and twilight conditions. The complex should consist of a tracking system and construction of flight paths of the target, providing target designation for the laser radiation guidance system, the source of which will be a liquid laser. Of interest is the requirement specified in the TOR for the creation of a liquid laser, and at the same time the requirement for the presence of a fiber power laser in the complex. Either this is a typo, or a new type of fiber laser with a liquid active medium in the fiber has been developed (is being developed), combining the advantages of a liquid laser for the convenience of cooling and a fiber laser for bundling emitter packages.

The main advantages of fiber, solid-state, and liquid lasers are their compactness, the ability to batch increase power, and the ease of integration into various weapons classes. All this does not look like the Peresvet laser, which was clearly developed not as a universal module, but as a solution made "with a single goal, according to a single plan." Therefore, the probability of the implementation of the Peresvet BLK in Execution No. 1 on the basis of fiber, solid-state and liquid lasers can be estimated as low.

BLK "Peresvet". Execution No. 2. Gas-dynamic and chemical lasers


Gas-dynamic and chemical lasers can be considered an obsolete solution. Their main disadvantage is the need for a large number of consumable components necessary to maintain a reaction that provides laser radiation. Nevertheless, it was chemical lasers that were most developed in the development of the 70s - 80s of the XX century.

Apparently, on gas-dynamic lasers, whose operation is based on adiabatic cooling of heated gas masses moving at a supersonic speed, continuous radiation powers of more than 1 megawatt were first obtained in the USSR and the USA.

In the USSR, from the mid-70s of the XX century, an A-60 airborne laser system was developed on the basis of the Il-76MD aircraft, presumably armed with a RD0600 laser or its equivalent. Initially, the complex was intended to deal with automatic drifting balloons. As weapons, a continuous gas-dynamic megawatt-class CO laser developed by the Khimavtomatiki Design Bureau (KBHA) was to be installed. As part of the tests, a family of GDL bench models with a radiation power of 10 to 600 kW was created. The disadvantages of GDL is the large radiation wavelength of 10,6 μm, which ensures high diffraction divergence of the laser beam.


Complex A-60 and GDL RD0600 developed by KBHA

Even higher radiation powers were obtained with deuterium fluoride chemical lasers and oxygen-iodine (iodine) lasers (CIL). In particular, within the framework of the program Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) several megawatts of deuterium fluoride chemical laser were created in the USA, as part of the program US National Missile Defense (NMD) was developed aviation complex Boeing ABL (AirBorne Laser) with an oxygen-iodine laser with a power of about 1 megawatt.

At VNIIEF, the world's most powerful pulsed chemical laser for the reaction of fluorine with hydrogen (deuterium) was created and tested, a pulsed-periodic laser was developed with a radiation energy of several kJ per pulse, a pulse repetition rate of 1–4 Hz, and a radiation divergence close to the diffraction limit and efficiency of about 70% (the highest achieved for lasers).

Between 1985 and 2005 lasers based on the non-chain reaction of fluorine with hydrogen (deuterium) were developed, where sulfur hexafluoride SF6 dissociating in an electric discharge (photodissociation laser?) was used as a fluorine-containing substance. To ensure long-term and safe operation of the laser in a pulse-periodic mode, installations with a closed cycle for changing the working mixture have been created. The possibility of obtaining a divergence of radiation close to the diffraction limit, a pulse repetition rate of up to 1200 Hz and an average radiation power of several hundred watts in an electric discharge laser based on a non-chain chemical reaction is shown.


Boeing ABL


Functional diagram of chemical KIL and continuous chemical KIL with a power of 15 kW produced by the company "Laser Systems"

Gas-dynamic and chemical lasers have a significant drawback, in most decisions it is necessary to replenish the stock of “ammunition,” often consisting of expensive and toxic components. It is also necessary to clean the exhaust gases resulting from the operation of the laser. In general, it is difficult to call gas-dynamic and chemical lasers an effective solution, and therefore the transition of most countries to the development of fiber, solid-state, and liquid lasers is due to.

If we talk about a laser based on the nonchain reaction of fluorine with deuterium dissociating in an electric discharge with a closed cycle of changing the working mixture, then in 2005 powers of about 100 kW were obtained, it is unlikely that during this time they could be brought up to a megawatt level.

In relation to the Peresvet BLK, the question of installing a gas-dynamic and chemical laser on it is quite controversial. On the one hand, significant developments have remained in Russia for these lasers. Information appeared on the Internet about the development of an improved version of the A 60 - A 60M aviation complex with a 1 MW laser. It is also said about placing the Peresvet complex on an aircraft carrier, ”which may be the second side of the same coin. That is, at first they could make a more powerful ground-based complex based on a gas-dynamic or chemical laser, and now, following the beaten path, install it on an aircraft carrier.

The creation of Peresvet was carried out by specialists from the nuclear center in Sarov, at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center - the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), at the already mentioned Institute of Laser-Physical Research, which, among other things, is developing gas-dynamic and oxygen-iodine lasers .

On the other hand, whatever one may say, gas-dynamic and chemical lasers are outdated technical solutions. In addition, information is actively circulating on the presence of a nuclear power source in the Peresvet BLK for powering the laser, and in Sarov they are more engaged in creating the latest breakthrough technologies, often related to nuclear energy.

Based on the foregoing, it can be assumed that the probability of the implementation of the Peresvet BLK in Execution No. 2 based on gas-dynamic and chemical lasers can be estimated as moderate.

Nuclear-pumped lasers


Since the late 1960s, work began on the creation of high-power nuclear-pumped lasers in the USSR. Initially, the specialists of VNIIEF, IAE im. Kurchatov and the Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University. Then they were joined by scientists at MEPhI, ¬VNIITF, IPPE and other centers. In 1972, VNIIEF excited a mixture of helium and xenon with uranium fission fragments using a VIR 2 pulsed reactor.

In the years 1974-1976. experiments are being conducted at the TIBR-1M reactor, in which the laser radiation power was about 1-2 kW. In 1975, on the basis of the VIR-2 pulsed reactor, a two-channel laser unit LUNA-2 was developed, which in 2005 still worked, and it is possible that it still works. In 1985, a neon laser was pumped for the first time in the world at the LUNA-2M installation.

Secrets of the Peresvet complex: how does the Russian laser sword work?
LUNA-2M installation

In the early 1980s, VNIIEF scientists, to create a nuclear-laser element operating in continuous mode, developed and manufactured a 4-channel laser module LM-4. The system is excited by a neutron flux from the BIGR reactor. The duration of the generation is determined by the duration of the radiation pulse of the reactor. For the first time in the world, continuous generation in nuclear-pumped lasers was demonstrated in practice and the efficiency of the transverse gas pumping method was demonstrated. The laser power was about 100 watts.


Installation LM-4

In 2001, the LM-4 installation was modernized, receiving the designation LM-4M / BIGR. The operation of a multi-element nuclear laser device in continuous mode was demonstrated after 7 years of preservation of the installation without replacing the optical and fuel cells. The LM-4 installation can be considered as a prototype reactor-laser (RL), possessing all its qualities, except for the possibility of a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.

In 2007, instead of the LM-4 module, the eight-channel laser module LM-8 was put into operation, which provided for the sequential addition of four and two laser channels.


Installation LM-8

The laser reactor is an autonomous device that combines the functions of a laser system and a nuclear reactor. The active zone of a laser reactor is a set of a certain number of laser cells placed in a certain way in a neutron moderator matrix. The number of laser cells can range from hundreds to several thousand pieces. The total amount of uranium is from 5-7 kg to 40-70 kg, linear dimensions 2-5 m.

At VNIIEF, preliminary estimates were made of the main energy, nuclear-physical, technical and operational parameters of various versions of laser reactors with a laser radiation power of 100 kW and above, operating from fractions of a second to continuous operation. Reactor lasers with heat storage in the reactor core at start-ups, the duration of which is limited by the permissible heating of the AZ (heat-capacitive radar) and continuous radar with the removal of thermal energy outside the AZ


Heat capacitive radar and continuous radar

Presumably, a laser reactor with a laser power of about 1 MW should contain about 3000 laser cells.

In Russia, intensive work on nuclear-pumped lasers was carried out not only at VNIIEF, but also at the Federal State Unitary Enterprise State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - A.I. Leipunsky ”, as evidenced by patent RU 2502140 for the creation of a“ laser-laser reactor with direct pumping of fission fragments. "

Specialists of the SSC RF IPPE developed an energy model of a pulsed reactor-laser system - an optical nuclear-pumped quantum amplifier (OKUYAN).


Laser module based on the BARS-5 reactor and a cassette of 37 channels in the laser module


OKUYAN based on the BARS-6 reactor

Remembering the statement of the Deputy Minister of Defense of Russia Yuri Borisov in last year’s interview with the newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda (“Laser systems have come into service, which make it possible to disarm a potential enemy and hit all those objects that serve as the target for the laser beam of this system. Our nuclear scientists have learned how to concentrate the energy needed to destroy the enemy’s respective weapons in almost a few seconds”) ), we can say that the Peresvet BLK is equipped not with a small-sized nuclear reactor that feeds the laser with electric energy, but with a laser reactor in which the fission energy is directly converted to laser radiation.

Only the aforementioned proposal makes it possible to place Peresvet BLK on an airplane. No matter how you ensure the reliability of the carrier aircraft, there is always a risk of an accident and a plane crash with the subsequent spread of radioactive materials. However, it is possible that there are ways to prevent the spread of radioactive materials when the carrier falls. And the flying petrel in a cruise missile cruise missile we already seem to have.

Based on the foregoing, it can be assumed that the probability of the implementation of the Peresvet BLK in version No. 3 based on a nuclear-pumped laser can be estimated as high.

It is not known whether the installed laser is pulsed or continuous. In the second case, the time of continuous operation of the laser and the breaks that must be carried out between operating modes are in question. I would like to hope that a continuous laser reactor is installed in the Peresvet BLK, the operating time of which is limited only by the supply of refrigerant, or not limited if the cooling is provided in any other way.

In this case, the output optical power of Peresvet BLK can be estimated in the range of 1-3 MW with the prospect of increasing to 5-10 MW. It is hardly possible to hit a nuclear warhead even with such a laser, and a plane, including an unmanned aerial vehicle, or a cruise missile is quite. It is also possible to ensure the defeat of almost any unprotected spacecraft in low orbits, and it is possible to damage sensitive elements of spacecraft in higher orbits.

Thus, the first target for Peresvet BLK may be sensitive optical elements of the US missile attack warning satellites, which can act as an element missile defense in case of application by the USA sudden disarming strike.

conclusions


As we said at the beginning of the article, there are a fairly large number of ways to obtain laser radiation. In addition to the ones discussed above, there are other types of lasers that can be effectively used in military affairs, for example, a free-electron laser, in which it is possible to widely vary the wavelength up to soft x-ray radiation and which just needs a lot of electric energy produced by small-sized nuclear reactor. Such a laser is being actively developed in the interests of the US Navy. However, the use of a free electron laser in Peresvet BLK is unlikely, because at present there is practically no information on the development of such lasers in Russia, apart from participation in Russia in the European free electron x-ray program.

It must be understood that the assessment of the probability of applying one or another solution to the Peresvet BLK is rather arbitrary: the presence of only indirect information obtained from open sources does not allow us to draw conclusions with a high degree of reliability.

It is possible that the conclusion about the high probability that the Peresvet BLK uses a laser with a nuclear pump is partially made not only on the basis of objective factors, but also on the underlying desire of the author. For if Russia really created a laser with a nuclear pumping power of megawatts or more, this opens up extremely interesting prospects for creating weapons systems that can radically change the face of the battlefield. But we will talk about this in another article.

PS In order to exclude questions and disputes about the influence of the atmosphere and weather on the operation of lasers, it is highly recommended to study the book by A. S. Boreisho “Powerful mobile chemical lasers”, at least chapter 6 entitled “Propagation of laser radiation at operational distances”.
Author:
Photos used:
strana-rosatom.ru, ruspekh.ru, “Powerful mobile chemical lasers. A.S. Boreisho ”, element114.narod.ru, book.sarov.ru, cosmos.mirtesen.ru, vniief.ru, atominfo.ru
Articles from this series:
Laser weapons: technology, history, status, prospects. Part of 1
Laser weapons: prospects in the air force. Part of 2
Laser weapons: ground forces and air defense. Part of 3
Laser weapons: navy. Part of 4
Resist light: protection from laser weapons. Part of 5
Laser weapons on combat aircraft. Is it possible to resist him?
95 comments
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  1. Amateur
    Amateur 3 February 2020 18: 15
    11
    Information below is assumptions author, based on information from open sources available on the Internet.

    The author is an honest man. Everything else is fortune-telling on 1. coffee grounds; 2. cleft foot; ... N. on the tarot cards.
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 3 February 2020 19: 20
      -2
      It is important to understand that in this world, nothing is taken from nowhere and does not disappear to nowhere. But like
      It is highly likely that no. The main reason here is that during the years of perestroika, the leading developer of fiber lasers, the IRE-Polyus Scientific and Technical Association, "formed the basis for the formation of transnational IPG Photonics Corporation, registered in the USA and now the world leader in the industry," escaped from Russia. high power fiber lasers.

      "successes" speak volumes. It is impossible to effectively "carry water in a sieve".
    2. NEXUS
      NEXUS 3 February 2020 19: 40
      +5
      Quote: Amateur
      The author is an honest man. Everything else is fortune-telling on 1. coffee grounds; 2. cleft foot; ... N. on the tarot cards.

      An interesting article ... but I had a number of questions.
      First, why did everyone decide that Peresvet is a combat laser, and not, say, beam weapons? Because the president said so, or did the media announce?
      The second question is how is this complex implemented in the context of an air defense / missile defense system?
      And the third question, how did it happen, with our technical backlog (given the outflow of specialists, the 90s, etc.), that we were ahead of the rest on this issue?
      On the first question, for some reason I am inclined to believe that Peresvet is not a combat laser, but rather a beam weapon. I repeat, this is my opinion today. Why did I come to this conclusion? Because for a laser, too many factors must converge at one point for it to work properly and efficiently, which no one in the world has achieved so far. That is, in a thunderstorm, fog, and so on, the laser efficiency decreases significantly, if not at all, to zero.
      1. Shopping Mall
        3 February 2020 19: 57
        15
        Quote: NEXUS
        Quote: Amateur
        The author is an honest man. Everything else is fortune-telling on 1. coffee grounds; 2. cleft foot; ... N. on the tarot cards.

        An interesting article ... but I had a number of questions.
        First, why did everyone decide that Peresvet is a combat laser, and not, say, beam weapons? Because the president said so, or did the media announce?


        What type of bundle weapon? Beams of neutrons? This is much more complicated than a combat laser, in order. And not the fact that it will be effective in the atmosphere. The United States planned to use such weapons in space.

        Quote: NEXUS
        The second question is how is this complex implemented in the context of an air defense / missile defense system?


        Most likely he receives an external control center from the Moscow missile defense radar, maybe the Eye complexes.

        Quote: NEXUS
        And the third question, how did it happen, with our technical backlog (given the outflow of specialists, the 90s, etc.), that we were ahead of the rest on this issue?


        1. Because if we are talking about a laser with a nuclear pump, then all the experts there with a subscription, and especially did not run away.
        2. A big start was made in the period of the USSR, now it has been brought to mind.
        3. Our technical backlog is not even. Our nuclear technology is still at the level or even ahead, theoretical physics too.

        Quote: NEXUS
        On the first question, for some reason I am inclined to believe that Peresvet is not a combat laser, but rather a beam weapon. I repeat, this is my opinion today. Why did I come to this conclusion? Because for a laser, too many factors must converge at one point for it to work properly and efficiently, which no one in the world has achieved so far. That is, in a thunderstorm, fog, and so on, the laser efficiency decreases significantly, if not at all, to zero.


        Lasers are already a reality. And the real future of the armed forces.

        As for the weather, at the end of the article there is a link to a book where everything about it is beautifully painted.
        1. NEXUS
          NEXUS 3 February 2020 20: 05
          +2
          Quote: AVM
          What type of bundle weapon? Beams of neutrons? It’s much more complicated than a combat laser.

          Maybe ... but if you admit the idea that there is a combat laser, and it doesn’t fear fog, cloudiness, rain, etc., why don’t you allow Peresvet to be a complex of beam weapons? Just because it's technically difficult? I think it’s no more difficult than creating a compact power nuclear installation, a laser, etc.
          Quote: AVM
          1. Because if we are talking about a laser with a nuclear pump, then all the experts there with a subscription, and especially did not run away.

          It is very debatable ... I will explain why ... how many years have passed since the collapse of the USSR? Even if not all specialists ran away, they are either very elderly or have already rested. This is not an argument, from a word in general.
          Quote: AVM
          2. A big start was made in the period of the USSR, now it has been brought to mind.

          The hurt is done, but only the performance is lame on both legs, as the school and specialists are lost by and large.
          Quote: AVM
          3. Our technical backlog is not even. Our nuclear technology is still at the level or even ahead, theoretical physics too.

          Here I agree. But ... on the issue of combat lasers, given the fact that the industrial base, as well as the development of these weapons in general, for all world players began almost at the same time, but ... the mattresses did not have 25 years of handicap, like we have.
          Quote: AVM
          Lasers are already a reality. And the real future of the armed forces.

          I’m talking specifically about the Peresvet complex. And I think that this device is not a combat laser, but perhaps a beam gun.
          1. K-612-O
            K-612-O 3 February 2020 20: 19
            19
            Dear Nexus. I hasten to reassure you, wonderful specialists have remained in Sarov and are raising young and very talented guys, although the source material has deteriorated. And Relight is really a laser, with a power of more than 1 MW.
            And only a theoretical backlog was used, everything was practically solved from scratch.
        2. KCA
          KCA 4 February 2020 08: 32
          +2
          I have a neutron guide from an IBR-2 pulsed fast neutron reactor almost under the window, the length of the stainless steel pipe is 3 km, the neutrons fly normally through the tube, they don’t get lost
        3. antique
          antique 5 February 2020 13: 51
          +1
          An interesting thought about a nuclear-pumped laser. The author of the article, did a good job with the available sources and plano brought us to the idea of ​​an extraordinary technological leap in Russia. However, I would like to note several dubious postulates. First. What does a megawatt laser mean? This very megawatt power is very easy to obtain by drastically shortening the pulse time. A laser with a pulse power of about 400 kW, lasting nanoseconds, will weigh about 70 - 80 kg. A picosecond laser will have a pulse power, with the same weight, already tens of megawatts. Therefore, talking about a "megawatt laser" class, an empty concussion of air. Non-speaking characteristic. Hence, the conclusion that Peresvet is a strategic weapon is certainly far-fetched. What kind of weapon is it if it can only burn out matrices and damage optics? It's about nothing.
          Further. The author analyzed the main types of laser systems, gave them a fairly detailed description. But he did not take into account the most significant and most important characteristic. This is efficiency. So, the highest efficiency, the fiber laser will have 50-52%. In gas-dynamic, chemical, nuclear-pumped lasers, it is a fraction of a percent! up to units of interest. From this we conclude that how much energy must be pumped to obtain the desired power. And do not fantasize about mini nuclear power plants and other RTGs. This is not there. There is an ordinary diesel generator, a rather simple and limited fiber laser.
          Therefore, Relight is not a strategic weapon. This is an expensive, moody thing for solving a very limited range of tasks. Like the fight against UAVs. Well, of course, matrices, eyes and other light-sensitive equipment. No need to wait for miracles. They are only in fairy tales.
      2. Alexey LK
        Alexey LK 6 February 2020 21: 34
        0
        Quote: NEXUS
        But there is, during a thunderstorm, fog, and so on, the laser efficiency decreases many times, if not at all, to zero.

        Under these conditions, the optical devices of the adversary are not very effective either, by the way, and not even a drone flies in such weather.
    3. venik
      venik 4 February 2020 09: 34
      +8
      Quote: Amateur
      Everything Else - Fortunetelling

      =======
      Well, the author of this does not hide! Good analytical article!
      Andrei Mitrofanov - Grand Respect! hi (And the article - "+"!)
  2. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 3 February 2020 18: 19
    +7
    Cool article!
  3. Tektor
    Tektor 3 February 2020 18: 26
    +2
    The fact that Peresvet has a nuclear reactor is indicated by the presence of wheels similar in design to those used in platforms for the transportation of heavy loads.
  4. Operator
    Operator 3 February 2020 18: 27
    13
    The type of Peresvet laser (solid-state or nuclear-pumped) is still unknown.

    But the targeted use of Peresvet "is already known - in the staff of the Strategic Missile Forces at the base of the PGRK for blinding optical reconnaissance satellites. Based on the large cross-sectional area of ​​the laser beam at a distance of 200 to 500 km, it is possible to estimate the laser output power - on the order of several MW.

    If the "Peresvet" laser is solid-state (in the form of a matrix of silicon carbide diodes), then two options for its power supply are possible - from a gas turbine generator (lighter, radiation-safe and suitable for placement on an aircraft) and from a nuclear power plant (which does not require fuel during operation ).
    1. mark1
      mark1 3 February 2020 19: 31
      0
      Quote: Operator
      from a gas turbine generator (lighter, radiation safe and suitable for placement on an airplane)

      Something is not visible in the trailer for the air intake and exhaust (this also applies to diesel)
      1. Operator
        Operator 3 February 2020 19: 43
        +5
        Air intake and gas outlets may well be covered by shields in the transport position.

        Diesel will require a radiator - unlike a gas turbine engine, which is cooled by the air that then enters the combustion chamber. This process is especially effective (in the case of "Peresvet" installation on an airplane) at an altitude of 12 km, where the air has a constant temperature of minus 50-60 degrees Celsius and there is no dust. At the same time, it will be possible to cool the matrix of silicon carbide diodes.
        1. mark1
          mark1 3 February 2020 19: 53
          +1
          Quote: Operator
          Air intake and gas outlets may well be covered by shields in the transport position.

          They can. But something I did not notice something similar to shields. When the laser rolls out into the fighting position on the body of the holes is not observed. Then the air intakes and the exhaust tract are by no means holes in the body (Especially the exhaust. Hot.)
          Quote: Operator
          This process is especially effective (in the case of installing "Peresvet" on the plane)

          I agree about the plane, but like the author, I prefer the option of nuclear pumping.
      2. Range
        Range 3 February 2020 20: 18
        +1
        Maybe nuclear batteries (like a joke), although who knows what heaped up there.
    2. Shopping Mall
      3 February 2020 20: 00
      +5
      Quote: Operator
      The type of Peresvet laser (solid-state or nuclear-pumped) is still unknown.


      PMSM is unlikely to have diodes there. Diode lasers themselves are extremely poorly focused. Solid-state diode-pumped lasers are made on diodes - the so-called DPSS lasers. With our technology, it’s easier for us to make a nuclear reactor than a diode.

      A solid-state laser, even with diode pumping, would hardly be more than 100 kW, even if we had such technologies. Not if there are links to open data on the topic, then I would love to read them, because lasers love.
      1. Operator
        Operator 3 February 2020 20: 13
        +9
        There are no links to laser diodes (a special type, not to be confused with optical ones), but I remember their characteristics:
        material - silicon carbide
        Efficiency of conversion of electricity to radiation - 50%
        power of one diode - 25 kW
        the dimensions of one diode - 20x20x10 mm
        the radiation density distribution is parabolic with a concentration along the normal to the radiating surface.

        I don’t remember the beam divergence of one diode, but it is completely corrected by optical lenses, including being reduced to a parallel beam from a matrix of diodes.
        1. Shopping Mall
          3 February 2020 20: 14
          +3
          Quote: Operator
          There are no links to laser diodes (a special type, not to be confused with optical ones), but I remember their characteristics:
          material - silicon carbide
          Efficiency of conversion of electricity to radiation - 50%
          power of one diode - 25 kW
          the dimensions of one diode - 20x20x10 mm
          the radiation density distribution is parabolic with a concentration along the normal to the radiating surface.

          I don’t remember the beam divergence of one diode, but it is completely corrected by optical lenses, including being reduced to a parallel beam from a matrix of diodes.


          Interesting, try to search.
          1. Operator
            Operator 3 February 2020 20: 38
            +4
            I did not find links to silicon carbide diodes on my Facebook page.

            But I found non-advertised performance characteristics of the ZGRLS 29B6 "Container":
            Power 3,8 MW.
            Wavelength from 10 to 100 meters, frequency from 3 to 30 MHz.
            Viewing range in single-hop mode - 3000 km
            Range resolution in single-hop mode is 30 meters.
            At a wavelength of 100 m, the azimuth resolution is 3,8 degrees, at a wavelength of 10 m - 0,38 degrees.
            The LFM signal is clearly distinguishable against the background of strong interference, even with a small signal power. To muffle the LFM radar, it is necessary to muffle it in the entire frequency range, or emitting the same LFM signal simultaneously with it. This is possible, but they are struggling with a special change in the time of the onset of radiation, the rate of change of frequency and the frequency range.
            The radiation is continuous (linearly frequency modulated, chirped), the frequency change in time with a frequency of 10 to 60 Hz. Knowing what frequency is now, what has returned and the rate of change of frequency, one can determine the propagation time of the signal (there is special hardware processing for this). The difference between the initial and final frequency df determines the spatial resolution of the radar according to the formula c / (2 * df). Typical df values ​​are ~ 5-40 kHz. (for 25 kHz we get a resolution of about 6 km). LFM signals have good noise immunity, which reduces the signal power.
            To detect cruise missiles, it is necessary to select a combination of orientation, polarization and frequency of the probe signal to increase the effective area of ​​the reflecting surface.
            http://bolshoyforum.com/forum/index.php?topic=378320.120

            There is still much that is on the subject of your articles
            https://www.facebook.com/FBCB2-672285939456977/
      2. Simargl
        Simargl 4 February 2020 22: 02
        0
        Quote: AVM
        PMSM is unlikely to have diodes there.
        Ruby LASER is also solid-state, if that ...
        1. Shopping Mall
          7 February 2020 09: 25
          0
          Quote: Simargl
          Quote: AVM
          PMSM is unlikely to have diodes there.
          Ruby LASER is also solid-state, if that ...


          It's clear. The options for solid-state DPSS lasers are full - grenades with neodymium for example. The question is what causes the pumping of a solid. Previously, this was done with a powerful flash lamp, so the lasers were pulsed, now the lasers are pumped by powerful laser diodes.

          Laser radiation is not the same - different degrees of coherence, single-mode / multimode. The diodes themselves do not focus very well.

          For example, a 532 nm green laser pointer is structured like this:
          IR laser diode 808nm - actually a "solid-state laser" Nd: YVO4 (yttrium vanadate YVO4 with neodymium doping Nd: YVO) - KTP crystal frequency doubler (crystal of potassium titanyl phosphate, KTiOPO4).

          Accordingly, the wavelength changes as follows: 808 nm - 1024 nm - 532 nm. The efficiency of such a DPSS laser is about 20%
  5. sergo1914
    sergo1914 3 February 2020 18: 40
    0
    The author is not in the subject. Relight is a large laser sword that cuts down enemy satellites. Infa - Sotochka.
    1. Kuroneko
      Kuroneko 3 February 2020 18: 59
      +1
      Quote: sergo1914
      Relight is a large laser sword that cuts down enemy satellites.

      1. viktor_ui
        viktor_ui 4 February 2020 07: 12
        +1
        little bird ... sniff ... sorry belay
  6. paul3390
    paul3390 3 February 2020 18: 48
    +7
    If it weren’t for the collapse of the Union and the damned 90s, if you had already gone, you would have launched the Death Star of the USSR .. It’s terrible to imagine what they could have invented and adopted for these 30 years ..
    1. fa2998
      fa2998 3 February 2020 19: 23
      0
      The hyperboloid of engineer Garin is, of course, the dream of all generals. But with that militarization of economics and science for half a century, NOTHING! Yes, knocking out funding is quite easy, they invite high authorities. They show how they famously burn a piece of armor, everything, then work. Then nature put the scientists on the steps - in the Earth’s atmosphere (water vapor, haze, etc.) it’s difficult to create a laser. To create a powerful laser, you need to use a nuclear explosion, as it’s not comme il faut, on your own territory. No. hi
      1. Shopping Mall
        3 February 2020 20: 02
        +2
        Quote: fa2998
        The hyperboloid of engineer Garin is, of course, the dream of all generals. But with that militarization of economics and science for half a century, NOTHING! Yes, knocking out funding is quite easy, they invite high authorities. They show how they famously burn a piece of armor, everything, then work. Then nature put the scientists on the steps - in the Earth’s atmosphere (water vapor, haze, etc.) it’s difficult to create a laser. To create a powerful laser, you need to use a nuclear explosion, as it’s not comme il faut, on your own territory. No. hi


        PS In order to exclude questions and disputes about the influence of the atmosphere and weather on the operation of lasers, it is highly recommended to study the book by A. S. Boreisho “Powerful mobile chemical lasers”, at least chapter 6 entitled “Propagation of laser radiation at operational distances”.


        There is not much, not so bad with the atmosphere and weather.

        But the laser does not burn through armor - but optics, other sensors, or the thin body of an airplane or a missile.
  7. Kuroneko
    Kuroneko 3 February 2020 18: 51
    +1
    I agree with the conclusion of the author. In the USSR, work on nuclear-pumped lasers was the most advanced. it is they in the long run that can most easily reach the lower limit of the practical power for combat use of 1 megawatt. There are a lot of disadvantages of these lasers, but it is easiest to implement this scheme.
  8. Gost2012
    Gost2012 3 February 2020 19: 26
    +2
    PS In order to exclude questions and disputes about the influence of the atmosphere and weather on the operation of lasers, it is highly recommended to study the book by A. S. Boreisho “Powerful mobile chemical lasers”, at least chapter 6 entitled “Propagation of laser radiation at operational distances”.

    Having studied Article A. S. Boreisho "Powerful mobile chemical lasers" did not reveal the grounds for deep optimism, turning into confidence, with the author regarding the influence of the atmosphere, weather, etc., and the likelihood of a laser with a nuclear pump is somehow not visible. However, I could be wrong, because it is incompetent. Quote below from section 6 mentioned Articles:
    The only surface layer of the atmosphere with a thickness of several hundred meters is really problematic for the propagation of powerful laser radiation. Thus, laser systems with relatively large wavelengths can be advantageous only on horizontal surface paths. At the same time, a weather-dependent laser system operating on a horizontal surface path, no matter what type of laser it is built on, may at some point be unable to provide the desired result. This circumstance does not allow us to consider the operation of lasers on horizontal surface paths really possible.
    1. Shopping Mall
      3 February 2020 20: 05
      +4
      Quote: Gost2012
      PS In order to exclude questions and disputes about the influence of the atmosphere and weather on the operation of lasers, it is highly recommended to study the book by A. S. Boreisho “Powerful mobile chemical lasers”, at least chapter 6 entitled “Propagation of laser radiation at operational distances”.

      Having studied Article A. S. Boreisho "Powerful mobile chemical lasers" did not reveal the grounds for deep optimism, turning into confidence, with the author regarding the influence of the atmosphere, weather, etc., and the likelihood of a laser with a nuclear pump is somehow not visible. However, I could be wrong, because it is incompetent. Quote below from section 6 mentioned Articles:
      The only surface layer of the atmosphere with a thickness of several hundred meters is really problematic for the propagation of powerful laser radiation. Thus, laser systems with relatively large wavelengths can be advantageous only on horizontal surface paths. At the same time, a weather-dependent laser system operating on a horizontal surface path, no matter what type of laser it is built on, may at some point be unable to provide the desired result. This circumstance does not allow us to consider the operation of lasers on horizontal surface paths really possible.


      So everything is correct - "does not allow to consider the operation of lasers on horizontal surface paths really possible", ie work along the surface. When targets are hit at the top, the influence of atmospheric conditions is minimal. In addition, at the beginning of the article, the author talks about transparency windows in the atmosphere. They try to make a battle laser in such wavelength ranges.
  9. Arkady Gaidar
    Arkady Gaidar 3 February 2020 19: 31
    -9
    Thank you for the article. She really is "fortune-telling on the coffee grounds", but nevertheless she brought back pleasant memories. I am not a physicist, but nevertheless, in the early 2000s, I wanted to propose the idea of ​​creating a combat laser (Peresvet, as reported in the news, is designed to blind the enemy's optical means conducting reconnaissance, as far as I remember from my neighbor space). In view of my lack of the necessary education, I was not going to develop on this topic, but only wanted special bodies to help patent the idea. But then the country was a complete mess and they brushed me off. Several years ago I went myself to the department of scientific and technical information, to find out the whole current patenting procedure. I was not surprised to admit the amount that would have to pay for the help of patent specialists (in terms of international currency, more than 1 US dollars). Having thought that I would not be able to sell the idea later and would simply be classified, I realized that it should be abandoned altogether. Of course, it is theoretically possible that the Russian government will buy out the idea as provided for by Russian law. But is there any point in patenting, spending efforts in order to return your own, or to get several times less than the amount spent? And you won't be able to sell the zakardon either, the article is immediately under treason. So patent, increase the power of our beloved Motherland! laughing
    And the idea was interesting. I still don’t meet something similar. Well, so as not to let slip, I’ll say that the types of megawatt power lasers that existed even then could be made to work from a conventional car battery. At the same time, the installation itself could well fit in the back of a medium-sized truck, preserving all its capabilities for cross-country ability and speed. But what would be the output power, it was necessary to carry out calculations in a scientific laboratory, but the idea died out. But, I believe, no less than that of existing models.
    It can be seen that there can only be one way out in this topic. Here to drop everything and tear a zakardon, realize your ideas laughing
    1. Sergey_G_M
      Sergey_G_M 3 February 2020 22: 58
      +6
      What can I tell you, a person who could not apply for a patent himself and who doesn’t have a thousand dollars to pay to do it for him abroad is very necessary, someone must wash the floors and dishes.
      Best of luck to you!
      1. Arkady Gaidar
        Arkady Gaidar 7 February 2020 11: 21
        -1
        Well, this is an initially useless chatter. But who told you that I'm going abroad? Or do you always run ahead of steam smoke? They didn’t find out anything, but they had already come up with their own conclusions. wassat
        And the amount at that time, to be more precise, was one and a half thousand dollars, if transferred from rubles.
        I love my homeland, but in money I prefer work when I get paid. I’m somehow not ready to do free. But, if you are satisfied with the conditions when you invest your forces and means irrevocably, so go ahead, invent! What is it up to? laughing
      2. Arkady Gaidar
        Arkady Gaidar 7 February 2020 15: 34
        -1
        And in order to stop this, in my opinion, useless conversation, I will explain at once for all the "smart guys".
        The line about leaving everything here and leaving for the cordon was directed more toward people who were able to suggest something useful that I had previously not noticed.
        But where without such "Sergeev G_M", who do not always understand what they are writing about, but who love to "insert their two kopecks."
        But suppose such a wonderful option that this Sergey himself has repeatedly received patents for inventions and does it regularly, at least once every half a year. Therefore, the reasoning is so easy, they say that such a patent for the invention))
        For the rest I will explain. Obtaining a patent in its essence can be compared to filing an application with a court. If the application is not legally drawn up correctly, there are gross errors in the claim, then with almost 100% probability the court will refuse or even return it without consideration. And in order to legally correctly file an application to the court, there are lawyers who take money for their services.
        So obtaining a patent for an invention, for those who do not know, requires a technical description of the subject of the invention itself. And depending on the technical direction, the complexity of such tech. descriptions can sometimes be very complex. Suppose a physicist engineer who has worked all his life in the development of industrial laser cutting machines (in accordance with the topic of the article) suddenly decided to try his hand at inventive business and get a patent for an invention in the field of small arms. And despite his training as a specialist, I am more than sure that he, who has never encountered the registration of inventions in another technical field, will certainly have difficulties with the preparation of documents. For this, as in the legal fields, there are patent specialists working in scientific and technical information centers. But patent specialists value their work and time and will not help for free, even if they are obliged to do so. After all, we live in a capitalist state where everything is mostly for money and nothing is given out for free. And now a laser engineer, trying to save his time and money, so as not to rewrite the same papers two, three, or even four times, turns to a patent specialist, pays him money, and he tells him how to correctly draw up papers right away and where they can get caught by "examiners". And "examiners" are professional specialists in a specific branch of engineering. They protect the interests of the state and future investors. Their task is to make the description the most understandable and "transparent" when reading. All this is necessary so that the state and private investors can use the acquired idea, without additional overpayments. without hiring an inventor to decipher what he meant when he described his design.
        It follows that the technical description in such a high-tech industry as the production of civilian and military lasers can be extremely complicated, and the help of a patent specialist is then inevitable. Especially when you last received a patent for an invention more than 20 years ago, or you get a patent for the first time (which is the same as 20 years ago), or you get a patent in an industry where you are not initially a highly specialized specialist.
        That is why, personally to me, all kinds of Vanya are sometimes so dear to my heart, claiming "Why get a patent there! Is it difficult ?! Well, go over the hill, wash the dishes!" And this is instead of understanding the situation, asking the right questions and suggesting something sensible.
        That's somehow so as not to continue the stupid dialogue, with those who want to be smart laughing hi
  10. Arkon
    Arkon 3 February 2020 19: 39
    +1
    And it will not be so easy to defend against laser weapons, as some people think, at least they won’t manage to get along with silver.


    To exclude questions and disputes about the effect of the atmosphere and weather on the operation of lasers, it is highly recommended to study the book by A. S. Boreisho “Powerful mobile chemical lasers”, at least chapter 6 entitled “Propagation of laser radiation at operational distances”.



    Read. Nothing is written there about the fact that the mirror coating of the case does not allow protection from the laser. Moreover, it says that on surface horizontal tracks (hundreds of meters) the use of a laser is inefficient. If air affects radiation in such a way, then the mirror coating is even more so. Because no one canceled the physical laws of reflection.
    Maybe the author had something else in mind?
    1. Shopping Mall
      3 February 2020 20: 07
      +5
      Quote: Arkon
      And it will not be so easy to defend against laser weapons, as some people think, at least they won’t manage to get along with silver.


      To exclude questions and disputes about the effect of the atmosphere and weather on the operation of lasers, it is highly recommended to study the book by A. S. Boreisho “Powerful mobile chemical lasers”, at least chapter 6 entitled “Propagation of laser radiation at operational distances”.



      Read. Nothing is written there about the fact that the mirror coating of the case does not allow protection from the laser. Moreover, it says that on surface horizontal tracks (hundreds of meters) the use of a laser is inefficient. If air affects radiation in such a way, then the mirror coating is even more so. Because no one canceled the physical laws of reflection.
      Maybe the author had something else in mind?


      About laser protection, I wrote here: Resist the light: protection against laser weapons. Part 5 - https://topwar.ru/156366-protivostojat-svetu-zaschita-ot-lazernogo-oruzhija-chast-5.html
      1. Arkon
        Arkon 3 February 2020 20: 16
        0
        Clear. Yes, of course, reflectivity depends on the wavelength.
        1. Vyacheslav Viktorovich
          Vyacheslav Viktorovich 3 February 2020 21: 22
          +2
          Is there any infa, what is the wavelength of a nuclear-pumped laser?
          1. Shopping Mall
            3 February 2020 23: 13
            +2
            Quote: Vyacheslav Viktorovich
            Is there any infa, what is the wavelength of a nuclear-pumped laser?


            It seems like theoretically a nuclear-pumped laser can emit radiation from x-ray to infrared, in practice, most likely infrared in the range of 1-4 microns.

            Here is a table of emissions of different wavelengths of different nuclear-pumped lasers with open data on power tests and energy conversion efficiencies: http://book.sarov.ru/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Works-RFNC-VNIIEF-v21 -1-23.pdf

            Still need to consider the transparency windows of the atmosphere. Windows transparency:

            - the more t, the better.
            1. Arkon
              Arkon 4 February 2020 12: 29
              0
              Quote: AVM
              in practice, most likely infrared in the range of 1-4 microns.


              Yes, I also read somewhere that around 2000 nm. By the way, for him, some materials that are opaque in the visible range become transparent ...
  11. IL-64
    IL-64 3 February 2020 20: 31
    +1
    So how does a Russian laser sword work? Don't know? "And how he breathed, how he breathed ..." (c)
  12. asv363
    asv363 3 February 2020 20: 32
    0
    Specialists of the SSC RF IPPE developed an energy model of a pulsed reactor-laser system - an optical nuclear-pumped quantum amplifier (OKUYAN).

    Ours published in the fall of 2016 one interesting report:

    Reactor Laser System and Neptunium Pulse Reactor
    http://atominfo.ru/newso/v0742.htm

    Before publication, all unnecessary was removed from it.
    1. Shopping Mall
      3 February 2020 20: 40
      +2
      Quote: asv363
      Specialists of the SSC RF IPPE developed an energy model of a pulsed reactor-laser system - an optical nuclear-pumped quantum amplifier (OKUYAN).

      Ours published in the fall of 2016 one interesting report:

      Reactor Laser System and Neptunium Pulse Reactor
      http://atominfo.ru/newso/v0742.htm

      Before publication, all unnecessary was removed from it.


      Yes, I became acquainted with him to the best of my ability)
      About OKUYAN in the article there is a mention.
      1. agond
        agond 3 February 2020 21: 47
        +1
        Looking at the picture of the laser complex, strong suspicions arise that it is not real, it is either a model or a drawing. A real "hyperboloid" will nevertheless be divided into two containers, in one the laser itself, in the other an energy generator
        1. Shopping Mall
          7 February 2020 09: 12
          +1
          Quote: agond
          Looking at the picture of the laser complex, strong suspicions arise that it is not real, it is either a model or a drawing. A real "hyperboloid" will nevertheless be divided into two containers, in one the laser itself, in the other an energy generator


          Just in a laser with a nuclear pump, everything is in one housing, in fact it is called a reactor-laser. There is no intermediate processing: nuclear energy - steam - rotation of the turbine - electricity - light for pumping a laser. It goes right away: nuclear energy is laser pumping.
  13. bars1
    bars1 3 February 2020 21: 24
    -5
    In general, we are lagging behind in creating the most advanced laser systems ... Figuratively speaking, we are trying to create a long-range monstrous gun on SMOKE gunpowder, when the whole world creates guns similar in range to IMMEDIATE and they are more compact.
    1. Alexey LK
      Alexey LK 6 February 2020 22: 01
      +1
      Quote: bars1
      when the whole world creates similar range guns on the VISIBLE and they are more compact.

      True, they shoot peas ...
      By the way, on fiber lasers - it is said that these are our people (our former), and they have no competitors. So who is behind whom?
      1. Shopping Mall
        7 February 2020 09: 09
        0
        Quote: Alexey LK
        Quote: bars1
        when the whole world creates similar range guns on the VISIBLE and they are more compact.

        True, they shoot peas ...
        By the way, on fiber lasers - it is said that these are our people (our former), and they have no competitors. So who is behind whom?



        Former ours - present not ours, unfortunately ...
        1. Alexey LK
          Alexey LK 15 February 2020 05: 32
          0
          Quote: AVM
          Former ours - present not ours, unfortunately ...

          Oh, I beg you! Such people are always looking for where better. Slightly there will smell of crisis - they will return without exception, especially if you lure (Do you think they are not tired of this politically correct tolerance yet?)! But the main thing is not this - the idea is that if those who were ours, brought up at our fundamental school, were able to develop the technology of solid-state lasers, then in their footsteps, others of ours, if very necessary, will be no worse (at least for the military where patents can be scored). It is possible that just another direction is considered more promising.
  14. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 3 February 2020 21: 27
    +3
    I really liked the article. Note to you, such articles are usually published on Saturday. For a better reference.
  15. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 3 February 2020 21: 40
    +6
    "Peresvet" has not yet overexposed anything publicly. From what the president announced in his time, we more or less saw in action only Avangard and Sarmat. Neither Petrel, nor Poseidon, nor finally Peresvet, from the point of view of an outside observer in any way have shown - and it is quite possible that everything that we are now observing is a "bogus" designed to spin Americans into unnecessary spending in the arms race and on completely different fronts. I have no desire to somehow hurt those who want such a weapon in our country, however, it is worth considering a similar point of view, especially in view of the inevitable questions that arise, due to the fact that all three of these types of weapons are quite closely related to nuclear technology, high-tech, expensive and what is called "dirty" in case of some kind of emergency.
    Piece products based on similar technologies are an impermissible luxury and risk to immediately and abruptly declare something, as if the samples were already swirling the expanses of Mother Russia.
    However, all these samples can, with varying degrees of success, be prepared well enough so that the snag (in case it is still a hoax) has a high degree of reliability. For example, in the same van behind the "Peresvet" you can shove anything you want, the same chemical laser, which, if necessary, will "work out" effectively on the target in some obscure frames and leave into the sunset.
    The same "Poseidon" may not be at all a carrier of nuclear weapons in fact, but an underwater drone designed to destroy underwater cables or work as a snag for an enemy submarine, in the event of military preparations / war. The body there is significant - and you can stuff anything into it "for a picture" and show it, designating it as a "carrier of I.O."
    The very idea of ​​the "Petrel" is already causing a lot of skepticism, both in terms of potential price, and in terms of "dirtiness", speeds, etc. But you can "rub in the glasses" if you wish, and they too - we have good practices on false targets and fuels, if we wish we can make a "large fuel tank" which will circle for a long time, scattering a certain amount of isotopic impurities - and a potential adversary can believe that that this is exactly what we are declaring.

    Lastly, I will say that now in Washington the same old partocracy, which was in Brezhnev's times, we have, and which was great "lit" then with Star Wars and the Space Shuttle. It is quite possible that we are now observing a large-scale "linden" as a kind of boomerang to our overseas "partners".
  16. Anton Capucin
    Anton Capucin 3 February 2020 22: 10
    +1
    The issue of financing can be solved by the production of lasers for the population. I worked with lasers, cutting fabric, wood, leather, metal. There would be an opportunity, I would rather take ours than the Chinese. Dances with a tambourine with tuning, re-order of spare parts. It already freezes me. Now only rent. I understand that the price will be the same, but if the state does not want, then under capitalism it is necessary to scratch the turnips themselves.
    An article on the case, there are questions, but alas, we will not know without new information.
  17. Andrey Zhukov
    Andrey Zhukov 3 February 2020 22: 22
    +1
    That's interesting.
    But reality, I think, is much simpler and more prosaic.
    Peresvet is the good old Soviet complex "Compression", about which, by the way, there is not a word in the article and which is in the museum.
    Pulled, brushed off dust and cobwebs, called beautifully - Relight.
    but in fact it’s a large laser pointer, for blinding pilots of aircraft and OGSN ...
    1. Shopping Mall
      3 February 2020 22: 41
      +2
      Quote: Andrey Zhukov
      That's interesting.
      But reality, I think, is much simpler and more prosaic.
      Peresvet is the good old Soviet complex "Compression", about which, by the way, there is not a word in the article and which is in the museum.
      Pulled, brushed off dust and cobwebs, called beautifully - Relight.
      but in fact it’s a large laser pointer, for blinding pilots of aircraft and OGSN ...


      There are no words about "Compression" in this article, since it does not refer to "Peresvet" in any way. There are very primitive lasers and powers. It would already be insanity to pass off as a superweapon.
      1. Andrey Zhukov
        Andrey Zhukov 4 February 2020 10: 29
        0
        Yes? and dust in the eyes?
        Nothing is known about Relight.
        About the Petrel, Poseidon, which are or not in reality - it is unknown, they are talking with might and main. TTX discuss.
        And about Peresvet, which is already on experienced duty, nothing at all ....
        There would be something to say - they would shout from every iron about "unparalleled in the world" ...
  18. Russian Central Asian
    Russian Central Asian 3 February 2020 22: 53
    -7
    In my opinion, all these Putin cartoons are nothing more than just a show and drank some dough. Well, except that the "dagger" system has a place to be. The rest is crazy bullshit.
  19. Aleks2000
    Aleks2000 3 February 2020 23: 32
    -8
    What a discussion ...
    And the option that this is all disinformation is not considered ??

    And then the GDP talked a lot about what, but the nuclear-cruise missile and the nuclear-smart torpedo turned out to be fake.
    That is, they are not. What the military camouflaged gave interviews everywhere.

    Many hyper missiles - here in VO they caught changing the rollers .... Or a 3D take-off roller, or a completely different missile from the declared one falls into the target ...
  20. iouris
    iouris 3 February 2020 23: 55
    +2
    Is there life on Mars, is there life on Mars, science does not know this!
    1. cost
      cost 4 February 2020 00: 34
      0
      Is there life on Mars, is there life on Mars, science does not know this!

      good
  21. kig
    kig 4 February 2020 04: 53
    0
    there is no information about the capacity of the complex

    So, here is one of two things: a) very small, which is simply embarrassing to talk about, b) quite the opposite, which should not be warned in advance.
  22. shinobi
    shinobi 4 February 2020 04: 59
    -1
    In one, the author is exactly right, a mobile nuclear power station is used for energy supply. The size of the van, and the appearance is the same. Such power plants were developed in the mid-70s for the far north. It seems that everything converges. But here is what principle the laser works on, I can only guess here. I don’t think that we have a lag in fiber optic, we just don’t know anything about it. I also once read a long time ago article that the most powerful lasers are gas-discharge pulsed ones that are in the laboratory for studying thermonuclear fusion. uchkami reaction ignited.
  23. Cottodraton
    Cottodraton 4 February 2020 06: 04
    +1
    IPG Photonics - V. Gapontsev’s office, as I know. And she has her branch somewhere in the suburbs. There are some R&D centers on this topic.
    Therefore, developments in fiber optic systems can take place
    1. Shopping Mall
      4 February 2020 08: 17
      +2
      Quote: Cottodraton
      IPG Photonics - V. Gapontsev’s office, as I know. And she has her branch somewhere in the suburbs. There are some R&D centers on this topic.
      Therefore, developments in fiber optic systems can take place


      Gapontsev is a US citizen since 2008, the owner of a multi-billion dollar business. It is unlikely that he would risk civilian business for dubious military prospects.

      In the Moscow region, most likely a production site. And if development is underway, then promising developers will quickly find themselves in the United States. Of course, someone will stay in Russia, but this will be a selection according to the principle "take it for granted that we don't like it."

      I can not evaluate the reliability, but ... https://aftershock.news/?q=node/708288
      Today IPG Photonics has several factories in Europe and the United States, several research centers. and a small desk at the Institute of Radioelectronics of Wounds in Fryazino, where it all came from. they are engaged in screwdriver assembly, or pre-sale preparation of what is imported into the Russian Federation due to the hillock. what makes the gapontsev contain nt-ire i don't know. maybe patriotism, maybe some benefits, but it contains. in reality, almost all of its production and research are concentrated in the United States and Europe. there is the main market for him. Well, also China and other developing countries. why suddenly many decided that IPG Photonics is Russia I do not know
      1. Cottodraton
        Cottodraton 4 February 2020 10: 15
        0
        Enough technology. This is key. I am sure that fellow scientists from the FSB are sitting in Fryazino and, on occasion, they may well "steal" technologies. (Which all came out of the laboratories of the USSR)
        In addition, Gapontsev is 80+ years old and there are no heirs, as I heard, especially. As if, he had nothing to fear.
        And also, as practice shows, the USA can take away business from him at any time, under any pretext. Moreover, they were already trying to pierce Gapontsev at the dawn of the formation of the company.
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 4 February 2020 14: 46
          -1
          As practice shows, the Gapontsev and the United States may well agree
          https://www.rbc.ru/business/11/09/2019/5d795d349a7947e2c8babee2
          The sanity of the Russian authorities under a much bigger question
        2. antique
          antique 5 February 2020 14: 11
          +3
          Everything is a little wrong. Gapontsev, left Russia, so that here his business and his ideas would not be taken away from him. So that he could fully realize his plans. In Russia, 90 years, collapsed not only science, but also production. How do you imagine the development of a new scientific and technological direction in Russia? Even now, not to mention the period of 90 years.
          You are tormented to write papers and apply for grants.
          1. Cottodraton
            Cottodraton 10 February 2020 04: 20
            0
            At the dawn of formation in the United States, local people tried to squeeze out business from him.
            What is the official video about?
            1. antique
              antique 11 February 2020 11: 53
              0
              What to take from them. Lovers, one word. They just tried. Here they would, squeezed out.
      2. Engineer
        Engineer 4 February 2020 14: 56
        +3
        IPG is a multinational corporation connected with Russia by one platform in Fryazino. There is not even a full-fledged sales office. Technical support in Russia came through an office in Europe from my personal experience. Nobody really will risk business for military orders in Russia, Mr. Gapontsev certainly not.
        Gapontsev’s miniature history was personally observed from the side using the example of Polynkin and Tselikov who created a short-pulse fiber laser. The guys from Arizona were invited by Rosnanovites promising ideal conditions. Their arrival was held with great fanfare as re-expats. Polynkin dumped back a year later. Alex Tselikov lasted much longer. Often met him at the weekend in the office, the guy was on fire. As a result, he spat and left anyway. During the last meeting before leaving, he looked like a jerky and completely lost person.
        1. antique
          antique 5 February 2020 14: 12
          0
          I agree. The way it is.
      3. adept666
        adept666 7 February 2020 08: 21
        0
        In the suburbs most likely production site. And if development is underway, then promising developers will quickly find themselves in the United States.
        Yes, the production site and the laser research laboratory + department of photonics (brains from the Russian Federation) + it seems like they wanted to produce diodes or set up production (there is no exact information), in the USA (Oxford) they mainly make pump diodes (the key technology is times), Germany (Burbach) produces fiber, optics and lenses (key technology - 2). Those. main production of key components and their development outside the territory of the Russian Federation.
        Of course, someone will stay in Russia, but this will be a selection according to the principle "take it for granted that we don't like it."
        So it is ... according to the statement of the company on the official website, up to 80% of graduations from the Department of Photonics continue to work in IPG. This is the answer to the question why:
        what makes Gapontsev contain nt-ira I don’t know. maybe patriotism

        So no matter how sad it is, but it’s unlikely that Peresvet is a fiber optic laser ...
  24. riwas
    riwas 4 February 2020 06: 33
    +1
    In the book of B.I. Rodionov N.N. Newcomers "Cruise missiles in naval combat" are considering the development of hybrid weapons: laser and beam. First, the laser "breaks through" the channel through which the particle beam is then launched. The results of successful tests of the American company "Sandia" are presented.
    Maybe this principle is implemented in our laser?
    1. Shopping Mall
      4 February 2020 08: 10
      0
      Quote: riwas
      In the book of B.I. Rodionov N.N. Newcomers "Cruise missiles in naval combat" are considering the development of hybrid weapons: laser and beam. First, the laser "breaks through" the channel through which the particle beam is then launched. The results of successful tests of the American company "Sandia" are presented.
      Maybe this principle is implemented in our laser?


      It is unlikely that this technology has left the experimental stage.

      By the way, a similar weapon is in Lukyanenko's science fiction, in the "Dream Line" series.
      1. Cowbra
        Cowbra April 6 2020 18: 02
        0
        Comrade Mirofanov. This is not a highly specialized physical portal. And even so, terminology that is not generally accessible should be avoided. I am not a physicist, and knowing the longitudinal and transverse waves - I do not understand how the transverse excitation of the radiating body is different. Perpendicular to the emission line? Well. Does it really pull on a rational proposal, close everything, so that the exit into one hole
        The operation of a multi-element nuclear laser device in continuous mode was demonstrated after 7 years of preservation of the installation without replacing the optical and fuel cells.

        Again, I strongly suspect that this speaks of the mothballed installation that was meant to be installed (in theory) on the missile defense space group. That is why the tests - I have to hang out for a long time, but when necessary - "wake up and work out" ... Shvetsov had nothing to do with her?
        And so, in general - another question in terms of meaning, as I understand it, you, having considered DIFFERENT options, did not find the option of SOURCE of energy. In addition to the reactor. About emitters - then, energy must be pulled, for this it must be taken. Where from?
        And yet - there is such a thing, a couple of things you have lost. In fact of the above. The BORDER condition - target tracking, the ability to quickly and accurately aim - corresponds to the fiber and the laser reactor. Point a solid-state fool with nuclear pumping, it is rigidly connected after all - but how else ?!
        And yet - tracking the target. The goal is not enough to hit - you need to see and receive the reflected signal. What will we do if there is a laser? But this is also speculation ... But then it says what kind of laser, maybe
        In general - thanks, interesting article!
    2. antique
      antique 5 February 2020 14: 13
      0
      No not like this.
  25. NordUral
    NordUral 4 February 2020 09: 12
    0
    I read it, and it became sad. It looks like another zilch.
    But for this:
    Can the Peresvet BLK be implemented on the basis of these technologies? It is highly likely that no. The main reason here is that during the years of perestroika, the leading developer of fiber lasers, the IRE-Polyus Scientific and Technical Association, "formed the basis for the formation of transnational IPG Photonics Corporation, registered in the USA and now the world leader in the industry," escaped from Russia. high power fiber lasers
    it is necessary to put such to the wall. And how many escaped from us? It is time to realize this already.
  26. Andrey Zhukov
    Andrey Zhukov 4 February 2020 10: 10
    0
    Quote: AVM

    There are no words about "Compression" in this article, since it does not refer to "Peresvet" in any way. There are very primitive lasers and powers. It would already be insanity to pass off as a superweapon.

    Yes? and dust in the eyes?
    Nothing is known about Relight.
    About the Petrel, Poseidon, which are or not in reality - it is unknown, they are talking with might and main. TTX discuss.
    And about Peresvet, which is already on experienced duty, nothing at all ....
    1. Anatoly Rukavishnikov
      Anatoly Rukavishnikov 4 February 2020 14: 56
      -1
      Guys, do not guess. Relight was used in the battle at Damansky 50 years ago. I am a witness to that. Americans certainly knew about what it was, but so far nothing of the kind has been done.
  27. Alexey-74
    Alexey-74 4 February 2020 15: 02
    +3
    Thanks to the author for trying! In general, I correctly painted everything, and there FIG knows what our scientists created .....
    1. agond
      agond 4 February 2020 15: 41
      0
      Quote: Andrey Zhukov
      About the Petrel, Poseidon, which are or not in reality

      If you do not chase high speeds, then Poseidon is not so difficult to make, the radioisotope source of heat and stirling will float for a year without a break, with the Petrel more difficult because it is heavier than air, and if the mini-airship is according to the first scheme, the radioisotope source and stirling, by the way Stirling is an engine that can be very small, literally from the phone (excluding the radiator)
  28. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 4 February 2020 16: 37
    0
    Everything is stated logically, the author tried to open the topic.
    What we showed reporters how the laser complex is analyzed in composition:

    I will draw the attention of the author and the audience that the shown complex or its simulator in composition:
    - two low loader platforms, directly of the complex itself,
    - KAMAZ with a diesel engine in a kung with a trailer, with a diesel engine of the same power (presumably 300-500 kW), which is logical, since there are 2 pcs in laser systems, the same is the diesel engine. Here and there you can see a video of connecting a cable of a given diesel generator set directly to a kung with a laser complex. From which it can be assumed that this is the main power plant providing direct power to the laser system.
    Next is a mobile command post / communication machine.
    So far, everything is logical.

    We will directly consider a semitrailer with a laser complex in terms of configuration:
    - Directly behind the tractor’s cabin, a low-power diesel engine (100-130 kW) is installed on the semitrailer. I believe this is an autonomous generator that provides autonomous operation of the complex’s deployment and a power and air conditioning source for the operator’s cabin and guidance systems,
    further between the operator’s cabin and the diesel generator set:
    - cooling system (from it cooling sleeves go to the operator’s cabin and further to the kung laser installation). A high-performance cooling system — clearly redundant to cool only the operator’s cab — is probably the main cooling system of the laser or its optics
    - Next is the control point (operator's cab).
    - further behind the operator’s cabin, there is a kung with a laser system - the back part is partially shifted, under it there is a bed and a swinging part. No biological protection is observed directly on the moving parts of the laser system. But more than 2/3 of this kung is occupied by equipment with an estimated weight of 30-40 tons (judging by the load capacity of the trawl), what could it be? It is also possible biological defense reactor, or a massive resonator or other equipment for generating radiation.


    I am confused by the design shown on television as follows:
    1. You can’t see the optical elements for focusing the radiation, or it is formed directly in the moving elements - then its power is not large, if it is formed on the equipment in the kung, you can not see the system for its transmission and cooling of this system.

    2. A separate diesel generator set placed on a KamAZ truck with a trailer is barely enough for a low-power laser of 300-500 kW or to power a cooling system placed on a semi-trailer. Those in the kung can be a nuclear reactor with bioprotection or any massive equipment.
    The presence of a powerful cooling system is evidenced by the presence of optics or other equipment involved in the generation of radiation, consuming significant cooling power.

    So neither refute nor confirm the hypothesis set forth by the author does not work.
  29. Valdaev
    Valdaev 4 February 2020 22: 47
    0
    a drone for 6-7 thousand rubles, this thing will bring down, probably
    1. agond
      agond 6 February 2020 09: 39
      +1
      Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
      A separate DGU power plant located on a kamaz with a trailer is barely enough for a low-power laser of 300-500 kW

      As an energy source in a pulsed laser, there may be a super-flywheel driven by a not too large diesel generator.
      1. Nick
        Nick 8 February 2020 08: 48
        0
        Quote: agond
        As an energy source in a pulsed laser, there may be a super-flywheel driven by a not too large diesel generator.

        What should be the mass of this super flywheel? And with a rate of fire it is not clear. After giving energy to the pulse, time to accelerate the flywheel will be spent, IMHO, a lot.
        1. agond
          agond 8 February 2020 09: 32
          0
          Quote: Nick
          What should be the mass of this super flywheel?

          If a car or a trolleybus can be an energy storage device with a flywheel, then there can also be a pulsed laser, since a flywheel in a stationary installation can be large enough, less than a percent of the stored energy will be consumed to generate one pulse, enough for a dozen pulses without additional promotion . therefore, a flywheel paired with a pulsed laser is the easiest option.
          1. Nick
            Nick 8 February 2020 11: 55
            0
            Quote: agond
            If a car or a trolleybus can be an energy storage device with a flywheel, then there can be a pulsed laser, since a flywheel in a stationary installation can be large enough, then less than a percent of the stored energy will be consumed to generate one pulse, enough for a dozen pulses without additional promotion .

            To get a pulse of 500 kW / s. roughly, you need to drop 10 tons from a height of 5 meters. Less power does not make sense. Given the laser efficiency, I think the mass should be twice as high. What mass should a flywheel have to produce 10 megawatts of energy per 5 second pulses in 10 seconds? And at what speed it should rotate, a question for lovers of physics.
            1. agond
              agond 8 February 2020 14: 31
              0
              Under communists, Gulia received 1.8 MJ per kilogram of flywheel mass, now
              write about the possibility of accumulation of 2500-3500 MJ / kg in graphite flywheels. If
              1 kW is 3.6 megajoules, which means that 500 kW corresponds to complete braking of less than 1 kg of flywheel mass, though without considering the laser efficiency, but a stationary flywheel can carry more than one moan of a kilogram and its energy could be enough for a series of pulses.
              1. agond
                agond 8 February 2020 17: 35
                0
                Quote: agond
                write about the possibility of accumulation of 2500-3500 MJ / kg in graphite flywheels. If
                1 kW is 3.6 megajoules, which means 500 kW

                Wrong, 2500 MJ / kg is like a rough estimate for flywheels from graphene which are still going to be made

                Quote: Nick
                To get a pulse of 500 kW / s

                Probably you meant a pulse lasting 1 second and a radiation power of 500 kW / h, otherwise a power plant of 1.8 million would be required.
      2. Dmitry V.
        Dmitry V. 10 February 2020 13: 54
        -2
        Quote: agond
        Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
        A separate DGU power plant located on a kamaz with a trailer is barely enough for a low-power laser of 300-500 kW

        As an energy source in a pulsed laser, there may be a super-flywheel driven by a not too large diesel generator.


        Nothing can be ruled out.
        There is no data for neither against.
        Well, as related to the military-industrial complex, I think it is unlikely that they would use this exotic method, it is cumbersome, ineffective by the criterion of mass / energy efficiency, and capricious to temperature fluctuations. A chemical laser will be an order of magnitude more effective in terms of rate of fire.
  30. Xomaik
    Xomaik 15 February 2020 10: 19
    0
    Laser in the world and the military industry will be a good thing
    1. agond
      agond 15 February 2020 17: 42
      0
      Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
      that would be used in such an exotic way is cumbersome, inefficient by the criterion of mass / energy efficiency,

      If you mean the flywheel, then it is just one of the leaders in the density of energy storage per unit mass, for stationary installations the best option.
  31. Viktor Sergeev
    Viktor Sergeev 19 February 2020 07: 40
    0
    Next time write an article on the topic: is there life on Mars.
  32. Almaty1982
    Almaty1982 27 March 2020 07: 51
    0
    The alliance understood that a war with the United States was inevitable .. And in order to win the future war, they created a project for the collapse of the alliance, it gave the United States false power ... They created a deliberate brain drain to direct the army of the enemy along the path of developing drones and stealth technologies ...
    And at this time ... In the closed factories all these 30 years !!!! Created, tested, prepared Doomsday weapons
    While the US was printing its dollars ...