Royal Armory in Madrid. Weapons and Armor Collection of the Spanish Kings


Just a gorgeous exposition of knights on horseback! No glass. From all sides you can take pictures And most importantly, these knights are many ...


Coins, key, malleable lock,
notes in the diary - at least the deadlines have passed,
so that you can read these lines again
cane, cards, chess, dry flower,
hidden in the pages of an old book
as a memory of some dear,
but a forgotten moment
and a mirror where with dead fire
dawn trembles in a sunset scarlet circle.
Nail, wineglass, door - the dictate of fate
you have been given obedient slaves
blind and meek servants.
If you leave, they will not save your mark.
They don’t care if you are alive or not.
Jorge Luis Borges. Translation by Vladimir Reznichenko


Military museums of Europe. Today our story about European military museums will be dedicated to the collection weapons and the armor of the Royal Armory in Madrid, which arose from the will of King Philip II. According to this document, the armor and weapons collected in it after his death were forbidden to be sold to pay for the deceased's earthly and spiritual debts, as was customary at that time. The chamber has become the legacy of the future Philip III and his successors and has become an integral part of the treasures of the Spanish crown, and today it is one of the pearls of the Spanish historical heritage.


In this photo on the right is a XNUMXth-century spearman, not a knight. He has a bourguignot helmet and there is no full plate leg cover

Philip II decided to keep it for two reasons. Firstly, he well understood that it best demonstrates the strength and power of the Austrian imperial house, and in addition perpetuates the memory of Emperor Charles V, whom he admired. Secondly, this luxurious weapon was of great material value, so it should be preserved at least as capital. Well, his successors only enriched her with their personal acquisitions and military trophies.

The main core of the current collection is the arsenal of Emperor Charles V, which contained the weapons of his father, King of Castile Philip I, and his ancestors: Ferdinand the Catholic and Emperor Maximilian I of Austria. To them, Philip II added his personal arsenal and collection of medieval weapons from the royal treasures of Trastamar del Alcázar de Segovia. The collection covers the entire XVI century, and is international in nature. This is due to the fact that orders for armor and weapons by the Spanish kings were placed mainly in the south of Germany and in the north of Italy - in areas that were controlled by the Spanish crown and where famous families of gunsmiths Helmschmids, Grosschedel and Negroly worked. Also in the royal arsenal fell and trophies. For example, those obtained at the battle of Pavia (1525), Mulberg (1547) or Lepanto (1571), embassy gifts from the Italian dukes of Mantua and Urbino, as well as gifts from Japan sent to Philip II as king of Portugal.

Although the arsenals of Charles V and Philip II brought glory to the collection, the reign of Philip III and Philip IV (1605-1621-1665) also enriched it with products of the 1604th century - diplomatic or family gifts. These include, for example, gifts that were sent in 1614 and 1603 by King Charles I of England from England and Duke Carl Emanuel I of Savoy in XNUMX.

During the reign of Philip IV, the armor had already lost all value, but they continued to be given as souvenirs, in particular, plate sets donated to him by his aunt, infante Isabella Clara Eugenia, the governor of the Netherlands, and his brother, cardinal infante don Fernando, governor Milan. The reign of Philip III and Philip IV increased the collection of firearms and knives, and among the latter there were many samples that were forged in the city of Toledo.

In 1884, a fire destroyed the arsenal building, built in 1560 by Philip II. Alfonso XII (1857-1874-1885) ordered the construction of his current building, the work on which was completed after his death at the behest of his wife, Queen Regent Maria Cristina de Habsburg.

So the collection of the Royal Armory in Madrid is a real treasury of weapons, which collected a lot of absolutely stunning examples of armor and weapons. Well, now let's get acquainted at least with some of them ...

Royal Armory in Madrid. Weapons and Armor Collection of the Spanish Kings
The ceremonial sword of the Spanish monarchs. Around 1490. Length 134 cm. Crosshair width 27 cm. Weight 1835 g. Blade with almond-shaped section. The top is decorated with an image of a bunch of arrows (obverse) and emblems of Queen Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. respectively. On the obverse of the crosshair is the motto “TANTO MONTA” (“Double Support”), which belonged to Ferdinand, and on the reverse of the crosshairs there is an appeal: “MATER DEI ME MEMENTO MEI” (“Mother of God Remember Me”). In the inventory list of the Royal Armory of 1594, where he, respectively, is described as "An old sword in the arm is wide." Until the 1488th century, it was used in court ceremonies, such as knighting, oaths, or during the entry of monarchs into cities. In this case, the sword was carried in front of the royal motorcade with its tip pointed up. The privilege of wearing it belonged to Count Oropes since 1, when Ferdinand II granted it to Ferdinand Alvarez de Toledo, XNUMXst Earl of Oropesa


Bourguignot helmet of Emperor Charles V. Work of Filippo Negroli (1510-1579). Year of manufacture 1533. Weight: 3600 g. Helmet is one of the masterpieces of Renaissance art. The work of Milanese Filippo Negroli, considered the most outstanding figure of the XVII century for the high artistic and technical quality of his work and the rethinking of classical antiquity. Curly hair on the head masterfully connects with a beard on the chin of the helmet, shining with gold against the background of polished metal. These helmets have been known since the 1532th century BC, but they had a mask with eyes and a nose that completely hid their faces. The helmet of Charles V was also supposed to have a similar mask, as indicated by three holes and a small protrusion located above the lip. But for some reason it was not made. The helmet had a predecessor: a helmet forged by Filippo Negroli himself for Francesco Maria della Rover, Duke of Urbino, in XNUMX, which is currently kept in the Vienna Armory of the Castle of Hovburg


Armor and helmet of Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino (1490 - 1538), work by Filippo Negroli (Vienna Armory)

As a lover of exclusive weapons, the emperor also wanted to have a similar helmet. According to the agreement, Filippo Negroli was obliged to improve the helmet of the Duke of Urbinsky by adding a chin to the cheeks and gilding “hair on his head and beard”. In addition, the order of the Golden Fleece had to be depicted on the gorget of the helmet. On the helmet there is an inscription: • IAC • PHILIPPVS • NEGROLVS • MEDIOLAN • FACIEBAT • M • D • XXX • III (Milan Jacopo Filippo Negroli did this in 1533). As a result, Charles V appeared to his subjects as a classic antique hero, and we can conclude that the knightly armor of this time for noble people became something like very expensive and prestigious clothes, the fashion for which was constantly changing.


Negro helmet, rear view


Side view, clearly visible place for the facial mask


Helmet of the Duke of Urbino


Armor of King Charles V. Work of the master Coleman Helmschmid (1470-1532), Augsburg, circa 1525. This armor is one of the most famous in the Royal Armory of Madrid. This is part of the headset known as KD by the initials that are visible on its left shoulder, following an ancient tradition according to which the armor received its own names depending on their decoration. The use of initials was aimed not only at establishing the identity of its owner, but also associated with the traditions of antiquity. The most striking example is this armor, since the initials of KD mean Carolus Divus, that is, Charles the Divine - a title characteristic of Roman emperors. Coleman made it around 1525 when he defeated Francis I at the Battle of Pavia, and in 1526 he married Isabella of Portugal. When Charles V entered Seville on the occasion of his wedding, Divus Carolvs was inscribed on a triumphal arch, and then it was used many times throughout Europe. Since Karl, then certainly Divus!


The necklace also depicted a necklace of the Order of the Golden Fleece, founded in 1430 by Philip the Good (1419-1467), the Duke of Burgundy and the great-grandfather of the emperor, for the glory of God, and the defense of the Christian faith and the brotherhood of the knights, as it was the most honorable award of the era of chivalry


Charles V. Armor Front View


Armor, side view. The size of the shoulder pad and the letters KD shown on it are clearly visible.


Another fantastic bourguignot in the shape of the head of a dolphin emperor Charles V. Master Colman Helmschmid (c. 1470-1532), Augsburg, c. 1530. Weight 1705. At that time, the Dolphin was considered a good adviser, a symbol of Christ, the protector of people and the guarantor of immortality.


The famous Roman armor, Giobaldo II della Rovere, Duke of Urbino (1514-1574), transferred to Philip II in gratitude for the award of the Golden Fleece Order. Master Bartolomeo Campi (? -1573), Pesaro. C. 1546. According to Campi, work on this armor took two months. It has the following inscription: BARTOLOME • CAMPI • AVRIFEX • TOTIVS • OPERIS • ARTIFEX • QVOD • ANNO • INTEGRO • INDIGEBAT • PRINCIPIS • SVI • NVTVI • OBTEMPERANS • GEMINATO • MENSE / PERFEC / PIСАВRI ANNIOM • ANNeo • ANNО • ANNО • ANNО • , jeweler, author of the work, finished it two months later, obeying the wishes of his prince, even when he would have needed a whole year / Pesaro, 1546). On the back, he repeats his initials • B • C / • F • (Bartholomeus Campi Fecit), while on one of the pieces of the skirt, he inserts the Greek inscription IOΛBIOS MNǑSΛBIOS (“Happy and prosperous”)


Rear view


Shoulder pads


Elbow pad


Turkish helmet of Ali Bach, Turkish Admiral fleet at the battle of Lepanto. Height 30 cm. Width 22 cm. Weight 1570 g. Came to the Royal Armory in 1582 as a trophy. Currently, he has lost some of his former splendor, especially due to the lack of headphones decorated with rubies, turquoise and diamonds, which were absent at the end of the 1594th century. Meanwhile, it is known that it had thirty rubies, depicting flowers of five and six petals, which is currently visible in the places where they were. In addition, its original appearance was clearly documented in the inventory of the Royal Armory of 1603.


Helmet of Philip I the Fine. Master Filippo Negroly, c. 1495-1500. Height 24,5 cm. Width 21,5 cm. Weight: 3560 g


Horse armor by Cohlman Helmschmid (c. 1470-1532), Augsburg, circa 1517-1518. Probably belonged to Emperor Maximilian I of Austria. Biblical tradition and classical mythology intertwined in it. Engraved, chased, carved jewelry with rich gilding stood out effectively against the backdrop of raspberry fabric


Breastplate: The right half is dedicated to Hercules, starting with the scene in which the hero kills the snakes sent by the Hero or Juno when he was eight or ten months old. Then three of his twelve exploits are shown: the fight with Antei, with the Lernean hydra and the Cretan bull. On the left side is shown история biblical samson. On the front of the bib, Delilah cuts his hair, in which was his incredible strength. He then knocks down the columns of the temple to destroy the Philistines, carries the gates of the city of Gaza, and fights the lion. Kruper armor ends with the head of a dolphin, alluding to the power of long hair, in this case, ponytail


Left half armor


The armor of Philip II (1527, 1556-1598), the work of Wolfgang Grosschedel (1517-1562), Landshut, 1551. The gunsmith became his favorite instead of Desiderius Helmschmid, the family armor of the Spanish royal house on the paternal side, who made his first armor for Prince Philip. But then the master didn’t please Philip, and he began to order armor from Grosschedel. In this “armor”, Philip II six years later won his first military victory as king, winning the battle of San Quentin on August 10, 1557, on the day of San Lorenzo. From then on, this armor will always be associated with this victory, in honor of which he ordered the construction of the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de Escorial


Author's note: photos from the Royal Armory website in Madrid are freely available.

To be continued ...
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  1. 1959ain 9 February 2020 05: 31 New
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    After the reconquest, Spain was the world's smithy of arms, and then lost its advantage.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 February 2020 06: 18 New
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      You weren’t bothered by the lines where the mayor of Milan is mentioned among the three donors!
      The era described in the article took place under the sun of the Milanese armored !!!
      So if you describe Spain as a power of gunsmiths, you need to take the Hamburg Empire as a whole, and this is a third of Europe!
      1. fuxila 9 February 2020 08: 53 New
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        Sealed up, thinking about their daily bread, the empire of the Habsburgs, not Hamburgs. wink
        1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 09: 24 New
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          But you can always determine why Vlad is typing, in “Word” the spelling is not as imbecile as T9 on the “Android”. wassat
          Although, maybe he was referring to the McDonald's? laughing
          1. DMB 75 9 February 2020 20: 47 New
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            Thank you for the article, and special thanks for the photo! A big request to the author is also interesting to write with an abundance of photo material about Russian armor ...
            1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 21: 17 New
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              Alas, my friend, this is available only to the elite, and the author, alas, is not included in this cohort ...
    2. sivuch 10 February 2020 10: 01 New
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      Actually, I wasn’t.
      1st place - Northern Italy Milan, Venice, Brescia
      2 place - the south of Germany Nuremberg, Augsburg, Passau, Solingen
      3rd place - it’s even hard to say either Tyrol or really Spain with its Toledo
      4th place - all other
      1. 1959ain 10 February 2020 11: 27 New
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        Quote: sivuch
        Actually, I wasn’t

        Spain was, its guns and infantry building, buried the chivalry of Europe, in the battle of Pavia.
        1. sivuch 10 February 2020 11: 48 New
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          So it was about weapons, not tactics, and, moreover, in the context of the article, more about cold and armor. As for the production of firearms, here I know worse, but, in my opinion, Italy was in the forefront here too. Even in Liège (which also belonged to the Empire), a lot of firearms were riveted.
          In general, von Winkler needs to be re-read
          1. 1959ain 10 February 2020 11: 51 New
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            So it was about weapons, not tactics, and, moreover, in the context of the article more about cold and armor

            Spanish thirds, brought fashion and infantry weapons, cold steel weapons and armor.
  2. Catfish 9 February 2020 05: 45 New
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    Friends, all good morning and good mood! smile
    Vyacheslav, a helmet with a "beard" killed on the spot, but the armor of the master Colman Helmschmid looks really luxurious. good
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 February 2020 06: 10 New
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      Thank you Konstantin on good parting words, mutually!
      Coleman's armor really struck with its elegance!
      Just yesterday we discussed what a woman finds in the codpiece! But the most important thing is the golden beard and curly-haired hair !!! Eco before bootex and slickon boobs is another 5 centuries old, and men order bald hairs and beards made of iron, ampotents - sulfics hang pictures (yes, codpiece pops up just to get a bigger picture) !!!
      Now seriously! Vyacheslav Olegovich, thanks for the selection of photos and the article, we look forward to continuing!
      Good luck to everyone!
      1. Lexus 9 February 2020 07: 30 New
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        Breathe deeply, brothers! Complete the article with your excellent comments. No one will disturb. Thank you very much Vyacheslav for the article. What a beauty! good
        1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 08: 37 New
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          Will come from another account. The surest way is to ignore the subject
          1. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 10: 22 New
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            Will come from another account. The surest way is to ignore the subject

            it is unfortunate that this happened. It should not have come to this. Let's live in peace. Topics for conversation will always be common. what for a normal discussion.
        2. Krasnoyarsk 9 February 2020 10: 55 New
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          Quote: lexus
          What a beauty!

          No doubt, indescribable beauty. The skill of the blacksmiths is amazing! I can’t imagine how this can be done manually, without stamping, etc.
          But what is his, armor, practical, combat, application? I believe - zero. Full armor on a knight, like a necklace, necklace, etc. jewelry on a lady, have no practical use. Only a decoration.
      2. Hantengri 9 February 2020 10: 09 New
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        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        But the most important thing is the golden beard and curly-haired hair !!!

        Greetings, Vladislav! The main thing is that the "golden beard and curly hair", and the codpiece, too, were covered with pure gold and that the layer thereof was thicker.
  3. Free wind 9 February 2020 05: 58 New
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    Hello dear ladies and gentlemen. If you look closely at the holes for face protection, on a mustachio-hairy helmet, the thickness of the metal is about 3-4 mm. At that time, protection was impenetrable. You can fight these gavrikas by nosing the horse for a start. Dear author, please answer the question what bracket is attached on the chest, on the right side of the armor. Thank you in advance for your attention.
    1. Talgarets 9 February 2020 06: 29 New
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      This is a spear hook. As I understand it, it served as a center of rotation for the "vertical aiming" of this weapon.
      1. Free wind 9 February 2020 06: 37 New
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        I assumed this, but a little high for a spear, the spear and armpit will not crawl, with this arrangement.
        1. Talgarets 9 February 2020 06: 41 New
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          There still a metal blamba will interfere. Probably the spear was pressed to the hook from below. Although, on most of the armor that I saw, the spear is clearly on top of the hook and is clamped under the armpit.
          1. Free wind 9 February 2020 07: 25 New
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            Suppose this device is for a spear. But with this arrangement, you can only attack an opponent who is on the left of the rider. You won’t wave your sword, this piece of iron will interfere. It turns out that this is tournament armor and only for a spear, even though the stand is removed. But then again, the piece of iron is too high.
            1. kalibr 9 February 2020 07: 39 New
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              Quote: Free Wind
              the piece of iron is too high.

              Can a leather loop be put on a pole and hooked onto this piece of iron? There were different "systems".
              1. Talgarets 9 February 2020 10: 00 New
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                I didn’t think about that ...
              2. Trilobite Master 9 February 2020 12: 49 New
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                Quote: kalibr
                leather loop can be worn

                The hook was, first of all, for a firm emphasis on the spear in order to transfer all the energy of the horse and rider to the target. The strap is not suitable for this. It does not seem to me that it is located too high. Normally located, just for these purposes. Simply, if you put a person in the armor, some of its details will slightly change the relative position and everything will be fine.
            2. Engineer 9 February 2020 13: 20 New
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              The piece of iron is a fokr, a basic hook.
              For a spear battle, the focra swiveled to the right. The spear really leaned only from above, the arm provided lateral support. For sword fighting, the focre was thrown forward and left (see Charles 5 armor). So he did not interfere or interfere significantly less.
              In height, I, like you, cannot explain why the hook is so high. But you can see the grooves on the hinge along which the focre can be lowered a notch.
              On Philippe’s armor, 2 height adjustments are not visible for the fokra, but there is also enough space under the arm for enough spear
              1. Undecim 9 February 2020 15: 49 New
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                Why did everyone decide that lance rest is too high?

                This is the three-quarter armor of the same Coleman Helmschmid. Lance rest at the same height.
                1. Undecim 9 February 2020 16: 06 New
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                  Milanese armor by Matthew Bisanz. The height is the same.
                  1. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 10: 26 New
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                    Milanese armor by Matthew Bisanz. The height is the same.

                    I can’t deny myself the pleasure of uploading a photo of Milanese armor from the Museum of Knighthood in Polotsk.
                    The remake, but executed, as they say, in individual conditions, looks good.
                    1. Undecim 10 February 2020 11: 07 New
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                      Somehow he looks artisanal, as if his village blacksmith sculpted.

                      This one looks quite good for its 5000 euros.
                      1. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 11: 57 New
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                        This one looks quite good for its 5000 euros.

                        This sculpted blacksmith of an urban-type village, in which there is even a church, a post office and a “Magnet”? wink drinks yes, they obviously smack, as you said, with such a feeling. On the other hand, everything was done by enthusiasts and for enthusiasts. Therefore, one should only wish them good luck in their future deeds! hi drinks
                      2. Undecim 10 February 2020 12: 23 New
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                        On the other hand, everything was done by enthusiasts and for enthusiasts.
                        Apparently - the budget of enthusiasts is limited, so they saved on polishing.
                        Carbon steel polishing is a time consuming and financially expensive process.
                      3. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 12: 32 New
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                        Carbon steel polishing is a time consuming and financially expensive process.

                        Well, who of us, if not you, should know about this best of all, Viktor Nikolaevich! yes
                        enthusiast budget is limited

                        I think not too strong. No, if you dump a bunch of dough, you can stir up anything, with blackjack and more. But how much do the budgets of the reenactors generally allow? hi
                      4. Undecim 10 February 2020 12: 39 New
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                        There are different people among the reenactors. Accordingly, budgets are also different.
                      5. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 13: 04 New
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                        There are different people among the reenactors. Accordingly, budgets are also different.

                        At one time, my friend was fond of online MMO-RPG, I won’t call the game. Among the players there were rumors that one of the players donated some astronomical amounts weekly .... wassat in my head does not fit, to be honest .. request there the amounts were comparable with the annual income of poor families .....
                        Therefore, it is better to donate to the "live" armor, and not to virtual!
            3. kalibr 12 February 2020 18: 11 New
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              Just at the level of our people, who believe that the knights were clumsy and emptied themselves.
        2. Engineer 9 February 2020 18: 17 New
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          Why did everyone decide that lance rest is too high?

          The axillary neckline on Karl’s cuirass is closed. Therefore, visually looks a bit high. It seems to me like that, and that's it)
    2. Engineer 9 February 2020 13: 28 New
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      But with this arrangement, you can only attack an opponent who is on the left of the rider.

      In a spear battle, tournament or real, you ALWAYS need to attack the enemy with your left hand (to your left). This is a fundamental technique. In such a strike, the spear goes to a bend-kink, since it deviates strongly from the longitudinal axis. If you imagine that the enemy is on the right, then you need to hold the spear almost straight. In this case, not a single force will keep you in the saddle if the spear does not break.
      The skill of equestrian spear strike involves breaking the spear for the safety of the owner. Therefore, for scrapping in the tournament, additional points were awarded.
      1. Liam 10 February 2020 14: 14 New
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        Quote: Engineer
        In a spear battle, tournament or real, you ALWAYS need to attack the enemy with your left hand (to your left).

        What about left-handed people?
        1. Engineer 10 February 2020 16: 49 New
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          By memory.
          The congress on the left (spear on the right) was prescribed in the tournament regulations. So the southpaw had to act like an orthodox. In battle, the same left-hander most likely did not change his hand since training in both styles (separately for the tournament separately for the war) is ineffective.
          In the earlier era, there were no barriers and the knights could come together on the dangerous side - right to right.


          But due to the scarcity of sources, the case in the picture is considered an exception.
  4. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 08: 21 New
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    This "blamb" covers the axillary artery. Damage to this vessel by the then medicine was not stopped. Fatal outcome within 15 minutes.
    1. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 11: 02 New
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      Fatal outcome within 15 minutes.

      You probably read it - recalls Alexander Tyurin, "Final stop: Mercury." There, in the near future, a druggist was put up with dying plots ... what somehow inspired, you know .. introduced a dying man from a ruptured artery .... dictating a will ... sad
      1. 3x3zsave 10 February 2020 11: 07 New
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        No, I didn’t read it. Relations with the work of Tyurin, I ended with the "Fuhrer of the lower world"
        1. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 11: 53 New
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          Relations with the work of Tyurin, I ended with the "Fuhrer of the lower world"

          I read three of his works. "Superhuman" very "went" what they say.
  5. Hantengri 9 February 2020 10: 26 New
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    Quote: Talgarets
    Probably the spear was pressed to the hook from below.

    The meaning of the hook is to remove the load from the hand holding the spear. And to press the spear to the hook from below, during a collision, is some kind of refined masochism, it is already so heavy.
  • kalibr 9 February 2020 07: 37 New
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    Quote: Free Wind
    Dear author, please answer the question what bracket is attached on the chest, on the right side of the armor.

    Good morning, dear Alexander! This bracket is an emphasis for a spear. It was heavy and it was very difficult to gallop with it, holding it under the arm (cushioning spears). Therefore, they came up with a spear hook on which the spear rested. There is he - spear armor. No - pistol armor or infantry, or for a foot tournament match. Everything is simple!
  • Hantengri 9 February 2020 10: 16 New
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    Quote: Free Wind
    You can fight these gavrikas by nosing the horse for a start.

    Gavriki, in these helmets, did not go to war. This is a tournament option, or, simply, "for beauty." Ponte, in general.
  • Lamata 9 February 2020 07: 28 New
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    Just awesome !!! Rahmet.
  • Korsar4 9 February 2020 07: 30 New
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    The figure on the bib is interesting. Hercules and Samson line up the big picture.
  • bubalik 9 February 2020 09: 27 New
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    Shoulder pads


    ,,, something like that.
    1. Lamata 9 February 2020 13: 03 New
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      and at first I took the shoulder pad for the helmet.
    2. Trilobite Master 9 February 2020 13: 14 New
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      Sergey, what the hell is so many-sided? Where did it come from? As I understand it, from some movie?
      1. Free wind 9 February 2020 13: 33 New
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        A series of films about Ridik, science fiction.
        1. Trilobite Master 9 February 2020 13: 50 New
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          Oh, thanks. Thought some kind of fantasy with swords and dragons. I wanted to see some light nonsense today, so I asked.
          1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 14: 24 New
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            Quote: Trilobite Master
            light nonsense

            X \ f "Viking"? wassat
            1. Trilobite Master 9 February 2020 14: 30 New
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              Looked... negative
              This is not light nonsense, but heavy, one might say, the hardest. smile
              This little Eragon is some kind of Narnia ...
              1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 14: 44 New
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                Maybe Warcraft?
                1. Trilobite Master 9 February 2020 15: 16 New
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                  Also looked like it smile
                  Now the wife has included the "Omega Option". I’m sitting in. smile
          2. Phil77 9 February 2020 14: 40 New
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            At your service! STS.18.20- * Pacific Frontier *, 21.00- * Pacific Frontier-2 *. By the way, there are armor in the films! laughingTrue on controlled machines.
        2. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 13: 56 New
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          That's what I look familiar mug! recourse laughing Bravo, Alexander!
      2. bubalik 9 February 2020 15: 21 New
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        Trilobite Master
        Today, 14: 14
        Michael hi ! As you already answered, the series of films about Ridik.
        I could not immediately write, because under the leadership of my beloved second half, I had to make an excursion into a piece of France, which in Russia is a large, red store on "A" bully
  • seti 9 February 2020 10: 29 New
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    Thank. Very interesting.
  • Olgovich 9 February 2020 10: 35 New
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    According to this document, the armor and weapons collected in it were forbidden after his death sell to pay for the earthly and spiritual debts of the deceased, toak it was taken at that time.

    If they were selling, then how did the armor of the father, grandfather, etc.
    The main core of the current collection is the arsenal of Emperor Charles V, in which were weapons his father, King of Castile Philip I, and his ancestors: Ferdinand Catholic and Emperor Maximilian I of Austria. To them, Philip II added his personal arsenal.
    recourse

    However, for the same reasons and at about the same time, the Moscow Armory was organized as a treasury of the great Moscow princes and tsars.
    Armor, side view. Shoulder size and letters on it are clearly visible.

    Letters okay, but there are real ones epaulettes in metal on shoulders! good
    The famous Roman armor Giobaldo II della Rovere
    Magnificent muscles abdominal pres в metal caused, apparently, the enthusiasm of the ladies and the envy of the competitors!

    True, frivolous short shorts somewhat blur the impression ... recourse

    Interesting! hi
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 February 2020 13: 18 New
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      According to the fashion of those years, pantyhose with bows and ruffles poured there !!! laughing
      1. Olgovich 9 February 2020 15: 33 New
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        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        According to the fashion of those years, pantyhose with bows and ruffles poured there !!!

        Well, and where are they without? yes

        but I won’t calm down about the embossed METAL abdominal press: people are tormented, swaying, and here it’s for you: I hid my beer belly for my reservation and force! belay request
  • Trilobite Master 9 February 2020 12: 26 New
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    I look at all this splendor and understand why I do not like the Renaissance, or rather, why it is not interesting to me. Somehow it lacks the severe brutal laconicism characteristic of the Middle Ages, there is no such dominant goal - to survive and defeat at all costs. Some "excesses are not good" appear, absurd discussions about the value of human life, healthy men, instead of breaking their heads, as it should be, are engaged in humanism.
    The last real king, the knight king, was Richard III of England, who honestly received an ax with his steel helmet, so that the battle crown - his only decoration - flew off and died like a warrior, in battle and not in bed with bugs and a kilogram arsenic in the stomach or from some shameful disease that Columbus awarded Europe.
    But thanks to the author anyway. It is unlikely that I would get to these photos on my own, and here also with explanations. smile good
    1. Korsar4 9 February 2020 12: 54 New
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      Here is the question, why is the Renaissance legendary?

      And what time is closer to us?
      1. Trilobite Master 9 February 2020 13: 08 New
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        Quote: Korsar4
        Why is the Renaissance legendary?

        For the same reason, why all the other past tenses. That's more interesting. smile
        Or do you mean some special legends?
        Quote: Korsar4
        And what time is closer to us?

        Of course, the Renaissance. Enlightenment is even closer. And in general, the less time is removed from us, the closer it is to us, the more people who live in it are like us. Accordingly, and vice versa. smile
        My craving for the Middle Ages is a matter of personal taste, nothing more. At the same time, I do not like the Early and Late Middle Ages so much, I like the High most. smile
        1. Korsar4 9 February 2020 13: 30 New
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          Ilyin also thought about this.

          About legends - I meant the colorfulness of the Renaissance compared with the gloomy Middle Ages, approaching the Dark Period, in the interpretation of the standard short course of history.
          1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 13: 51 New
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            That's it, that the colorfulness of the Renaissance is nothing more than a legend. Perhaps. there was no more severe era in European history.
            1. Liam 9 February 2020 14: 01 New
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              Renaissance is about culture and science. Not at all about politics, mores and morality.
              1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 14: 07 New
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                In part, you are right if you mean the term "culture" - art.
                1. Liam 9 February 2020 14: 11 New
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                  This is precisely what he had in mind. It cannot be denied that a giant leap occurred in these areas then.
                  And the rest. The horrors of the 30 year war in relation to the civilian population could be surpassed only after 300 years. And Hitler was needed for this
            2. Trilobite Master 9 February 2020 14: 07 New
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              Quote: 3x3zsave
              the colorfulness of the Renaissance

              Not a legend at all. It was a very colorful time. And the fact that despite humanism continued to kill with even greater willingness and effectiveness, so one does not interfere with the other. So, with jokes and jokes with thoughts of humanism and equality, having read Boccaccio and Machiavelli ... Fine.
              1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 14: 20 New
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                I’m generally not about destroying my own kind, but about the standard of living, the system of values ​​and relations in the system of "individual - society - state"
                1. Liam 9 February 2020 14: 30 New
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                  Well, such crisis phenomena as war reflect quite well system of values ​​and relations in the system of "individual - society - state"
                  The fruits of the Renaissance in this system could not appear immediately. Those times and that society were much more “inert” in the sense of change. But the technological breakthrough and the industrial revolution, as well as social changes, the ideas of humanism, equality before God and the law, and Illuminism, which gained revolutions in the 18th century — it all rested on the foundation of the Renaissance
                  1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 14: 49 New
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                    What do you think, where does the border between the epochs under discussion go?
                    1. Liam 9 February 2020 15: 17 New
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                      If you are talking about the Renaissance, then it began and ended in Italy. If to simplify everything, then in Italy this era lasted from the end of the 14th century and ended by the middle / end of the 16th century. In Europe - with a lag of +50 years. Mid 15-mid 17 centuries
                      1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 15: 24 New
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                        Thank you, why exactly?
                      2. Liam 9 February 2020 15: 38 New
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                        If, schematically and simplistically, there are several points that contributed to the beginning, strengthening, distribution and end of an era. Chronologically, this is a crisis of the 14th century (the 100 year war, the plague and the mass extinction that led to the decline of medieval relations) - great geographical discoveries - the fall of Byzantium and the mass emigration of the learned elite from there to Europe, which brought with it the forgotten works of ancient Greek and Roman artists and thinkers - globalization of the world and the shift of the “center of gravity” of the world from the Mediterranean to the west and north of Europe — the emergence of Lutheranism — the loss of the influence of the popes and the role of Italy in general — the creation of strong centralized states (France, England, Spain)
                      3. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 15: 53 New
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                        Hmm ... Interesting, in principle, in chronology and factology - I agree. However, it seemed to me that the papacy began to lose the influence of a century and a half earlier.
                      4. Liam 9 February 2020 16: 26 New
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                        Well, I said that everything is simplified. The main blow to the role of the Pope is the reformation. 95 theses of Luther-1517. The separation of the English Church-1534. After the Westphalian world in 1648, religion ceased to play a serious role in the political affairs of Europe.
                        The role of Italy as a generator of the Renaissance faded away along with the crisis of Italy itself, 16/17 centuries - the loss of a central role in trade with China and the East due to the Ottoman Empire and new trade routes.
                        We can say that the Renaissance was born in the crisis of the 14th century and died in the crisis of the 17th century, the Thirty Years War.
                      5. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 16: 48 New
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                        My respect, dear! It seems that I finally found an interlocutor who is interested in macrohistorical processes. good
                        Quote: Liam
                        The main blow to the role of the Pope

                        Here, let me disagree. The Reformation is the result of global public discontent with spiritual authority. The institute of the papacy lost confidence and respect much earlier, recall at least the "Avignon captivity"
                      6. Liam 9 February 2020 17: 09 New
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                        hi
                        Middle Ages - Great Oblanyan Era)
                        By the way. Many "black" myths about the Middle Ages from the first night's right series, chastity belts are a product of the Renaissance. Thicken colors to emphasize the superiority and advancement of their era.
                        The papacy had “moral” problems before that, too. But the most politically significant blows were these.
                      7. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 17: 18 New
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                        Middle Ages - Great Oblanyan Era)
                        By the way. Many "black" myths about the Middle Ages from the first night's right series, chastity belts are a product of the Renaissance. Thicken colors to emphasize the superiority and advancement of their era.

                        I categorically agree! I will subscribe to each letter !!!
                      8. Liam 9 February 2020 20: 06 New
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                        One of the most enduring myths about that era is that medieval people thought the earth was flat)
  • Engineer 9 February 2020 13: 50 New
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    You touched on an interesting topic.
    there is no such dominant goal - to survive and win at all costs.

    The 15-16 centuries were a period of relative warming. This fact, along with the introduction of progressive farming methods, caused a 2-3-fold increase in productivity. Now one could think about the soul and humanism. Under beer and wine, the production of which has also increased.
    The last true king, the knight king, was Richard III of England,

    Maximilian Habsburg? Karl the Bold? Basil the Dark? Sebastian I Deseyado - generally the clearest example
    And Carl XII at an even later time
    And here I am most interested in the Dark Ages
    1. Trilobite Master 9 February 2020 14: 24 New
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      Quote: Engineer
      Maximilian Habsburg? Karl the Bold? Basil the Dark? Sebastian I Deseyado - generally the clearest example
      And Carl XII at an even later time

      It's not that. smile
      Maximilian had more fun than worked, Karl the Brave was also some kind of clown, and did not survive Richard. Basil, before his blinding, still somehow pulled on a knight, but not after, and Sebastian was just a kid with pants on the straps, and he even disappeared into the middle of nowhere, and during a general chorus.
      Only if Karl XII ... But also - there is no sort of medieval brutality in him.
      So Richard is only Richard! smile
      1. Engineer 9 February 2020 14: 46 New
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        Yes, you are harsher than the most medieval standards)
        1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 14: 59 New
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          Yes, Michael, he is! laughing
        2. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 13: 32 New
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          Yes, you are harsher than the most medieval standards)

          Denis, it’s still his mandarins over! wink Under tangerines, Michael’s brutality grows by 80 percent, and intelligence - by 95! drinks
      2. kalibr 9 February 2020 15: 38 New
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        Quote: Trilobite Master
        So Richard is only Richard!

        I probably agree. But I also really like Maximilian the First.
        1. Trilobite Master 9 February 2020 17: 17 New
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          Quote: kalibr
          Maximilian I also really like.

          Of course, an interesting and significant character in the history of Europe. But I somehow relate it, rather, to the New Age. Although they were almost the same age with Richard - Maximilian was five years younger, but I had a strong impression that these were children of different eras.
          1. kalibr 9 February 2020 17: 40 New
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            Quote: Trilobite Master
            but I have a strong impression that these are children of different eras.

            Of course!
    2. Liam 9 February 2020 16: 54 New
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      Quote: Engineer
      15-16 centuries were a period of relative warming

      They say it was the beginning of MLP. The warming period is the previous 3-4 centuries
      Quote: Engineer
      This fact, along with the introduction of progressive farming methods, caused a 2-3-fold increase in productivity. Now one could think about the soul and humanism.

      What are these methods? They really thought about soul and humanism because they got rich. But this happened for other reasons. They got rich because of the tragedy-plague. Survivors turned out to be heirs of wealth which before that had to be divided into 5/6/7 family members who died. And now everything belonged one to two survivors. So they no longer thought only about their daily bread, but also about their soul and body. Also, the role of women changed because of this. The percentage of surviving women was more than men. And there were a lot of rich and relatively independent women.
      Ordinary people also began to live in relative prosperity. After the epidemic, there were simultaneously many wealth and a shortage of workers. The salaries of hard workers took off and they also began to add butter to bread and “dress better”.
      And then, after the winding up. At the end of the 16th century, the salary was the same as at the beginning of it, the land was the same, the harvests too. And the population returned to the early days. And the output is again universal impoverishment, uprisings, crises and a 30 year war like the crown of the process
      1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 17: 11 New
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        The beginning of the MLP - 1312. I'm afraid you will not find mutual understanding with Denis, due to the fact that he is an admirer (excuse me, Denis, I do not know to what extent) of the works of Jared Diamond, who, as I recently learned, generally denies MLP fundamentally.
        1. Liam 9 February 2020 17: 25 New
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          MLP is a rather controversial argument indeed. The prevailing scientific opinion is that it was a non-linear phenomenon and mainly concerned only Europe. Its northern part, to be more precise. Disruptions in the "work" of the Gulf Stream.
          But the fact that the 15/16 centuries were not warm is for sure
          1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 17: 32 New
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            Come on, come on! But the rise of the Great Prairies on the North American continent, by the way, does not belong to this time?
            1. The comment was deleted.
              1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 17: 54 New
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                Good. Then why did the crops disappear in the Mississippi floodplain? Around the same time.
                1. Liam 9 February 2020 18: 03 New
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                  The American prairies were born for the same reasons as, for example, the Mongolian, Kazakh or Siberian steppes, the remoteness of the oceans, the presence of barriers to moisture (mountain ranges) and altitude. Glaciers are unacceptable.
        2. Engineer 9 February 2020 18: 07 New
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          admirer (sorry, Denis, I don’t know to what extent) the works of Jared Diamond

          Neophyte, but not militant)
          1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 18: 20 New
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            Well, good! Public recognition of "neophyte" is a good sign in itself. Symbol of unshakable consciousness
      2. Engineer 9 February 2020 18: 03 New
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        They say it was the beginning of MLP. The warming period is the previous 3-4 centuries

        Wikipedia indicates that MLP began in the early 14th century.
        Relative warming began only in the 1440s

        From there.
        What are these methods?

        For example, regular application of manure to arable lands
        the yield coefficient in medieval Europe was usually 1: 3 (“one-third”), or, at best, 1: 4 (“one-fourth”); this is the minimum yield at which it makes some sense to engage in tillage, because it is enough to feed the population. It should be noted that during the “one-third” harvest, the amount of sown grain does not triple each year, but doubles, because every year one of every three harvested grains must be set aside for new sowing. It also means that out of three acres of arable land, one must be occupied for seed production. In the second half of the XIII century. Western European yields began to increase significantly. The main reason for this was the growth of cities, whose trade and craft population stopped growing bread and instead bought it from peasants. The emergence of a rich urban market for bread and other agricultural products prompted West European landowners and peasants to produce surplus goods through more intensive use of labor and abundant grazing. At the end of the Middle Ages, Western European productivity rose to "self-heel"


        This is what is sought immediately. I hope you will not demand references to the monograph on Sunday?)
        .Ricent because of the tragedy of the plague.

        Here, in principle, I disagree; this is the collapse of the economy. First of all, the city-trade and craft centers are dying. Vicious circle-- Active population is decreasing (first of all), the economy is falling, the population is getting poorer, the economy is falling, the population is getting poorer. Any economic downturn has a cumulative effect.

        The woman’s role also changed because of this. The percentage of surviving women was greater than men. And there were a lot of rich and relatively independent women.

        I did not notice any rudiments of emancipation from the word at all. Of course, I could be wrong but I would be grateful for any sources
        1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 18: 37 New
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          On the last point, Denis: what is emancipation?
          1. Engineer 9 February 2020 18: 46 New
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            Any signs that a woman may play an independent role independent of the man
            First of all, public (participation in the self-government of urban communities, etc.) of a character.

            In the German city of Cologne, there were four exclusively female workshops. In addition, women could work along with men in most other workshops. Here is an excerpt from the charter of the workshop of silkwomen, adopted in 1469.
            “Our ancestors - the burgomaster and the council of the city of Cologne ... established a women's silk-weaving workshop, approved it on other laws and regulations, and gave the statutes to the weavers indicated, attaching a city seal to it; this charter contained a clause that if the burgomaster and council find it in something that does not correspond to the common good, then they have the right at any time to expand or reduce it as necessary. The charter was given at the suggestion and the lowest request of our dear and faithful burghers and residents from among the weaving silk products, instituted by them due to the fact that the craft that they had been doing for a number of years in an honorable and laudable manner began to fall into marked decline, with on the one hand, due to some innovations, on the other hand, due to the fact that they still have no written laws similar to those possessed by other crafts; in addition, the charter was given to the glory of the almighty God and our city, in the name of the common good, and, finally, so that the merchant, both his own and the newcomer, would not risk being deceived ... ” [7, C. 113-114]

            http://xn--d1aigtgr.xn--p1ai/?p=5908

            The increasing economic role of women is evident, I do not argue.
            But was this process initiated by the plague? Doubtful
            1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 19: 23 New
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              Stop! Denis, I asked about the emancipation in your understanding, and not about the gender superiority of the leadership of a single guild of the second half of the 16th century of the city of Cologne.
              1. Engineer 9 February 2020 19: 36 New
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                So here
                Any signs that a woman may act in an independent role independent of the man, especially of the public (participation in the self-government of urban communities, etc.) character.
                1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 19: 46 New
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                  But what about the fact that women in the middle of the 13th century had a significant role in the business life of France? Or on the subject that Parisians were more free to pull out than their husbands at the beginning of the 15th?
                  1. Engineer 9 February 2020 19: 53 New
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                    The problem is the changes that happened to the Renaissance. LIam says the role of women has increased in the 14th century because of the plague. I doubt.
                    F.A.Q.
                    increased role or not? if increased then which? If so, when and why?
                    1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 20: 07 New
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                      Here, I also laugh very much. Somehow the plague bacterium was not noticed in gender addictions.
                    2. Liam 9 February 2020 20: 18 New
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                      Firstly, if strictly scientific, the plague saga of the 14/15 centuries is not one epidemic. It repeats itself every 10/15 years for about a century. Almost every generation had its own epidemic. But the fact is that every time there was a plague by the way )
                      As for women. You probably know, like me, that the life expectancy of women is higher now than that of men. Moreover, all over the world and all peoples. And there are completely biological reasons for this. The body of women is more adapted to different diseases than men, the immune system etc. Nature has endowed them with this quality because the main burden of procreation is on them.
                      Therefore, their immunity, including to the plague, developed faster and survival was higher. Moreover, their lifestyle was more settled than that of men and they had much less contact with carriers of infection
                  2. kalibr 9 February 2020 20: 07 New
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                    Quote: Engineer
                    F.A.Q.
                    increased role or not? if increased then which? If so, when and why?

                    Has grown. But on Sunday it’s a long time to look for links and it’s hard to write a lot. The main thing - has increased!
                  3. Engineer 9 February 2020 21: 00 New
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                    This I can write. The economic role has grown, yes. As can be seen from my example, the importance of artisans and workshops is growing. There are traditionally female crafts- the role of specifically these women is growing. But again, this increased role is associated with the general development of productive forces in my opinion, and not with the plague
                    Anyway, we were fixated on women. Rewind one step back.
                    I formulated the idea that by the Renaissance agricultural productivity increased Yes or no?
                    I kind of just quoted the common place of a lot of work.
                  4. kalibr 12 February 2020 16: 41 New
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                    Quote: Engineer
                    formulated the idea that by the Renaissance the productivity of agricultural Yes or no?

                    Of course yes!
                2. Liam 9 February 2020 21: 11 New
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                  It is enough to see the most “visual” moments. For example, the appearance of the faces (and bodies) of women in the works of artists, engravers, sculptors, etc. And compare with those in the works of ancient or medieval times. Women become heroines of literary texts - the same Bocaccio. In social, political life. Joan of Arc and so on and so forth
  • Liam 9 February 2020 20: 00 New
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    Yes, any works of European historians specializing in the Middle Ages. You will find extensive data and facts. Both in terms of population, and about productivity, and about the number of taxes and how many shops and workshops and what were in any city in Europe, how many taxes they paid, notarial deeds of inheritance , to whom what and how much and so on and so on. The urban archives of cities are crammed with cubic meters of these medieval folios.
    1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 20: 20 New
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      Stop-stop-stop, comrades! I beg you very much! Although today is a day off, let's be reasoned? Links please in both cases. Desirable in Russian, but English and Spanish will do.
      Guys, I’m not encouraging a conflict, I’m just curious!
      1. Liam 9 February 2020 20: 51 New
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        Please. I hope that they just will not be deleted again because of the link.
        https://science.sciencemag.org/content/342/6157/427.summary
        1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 21: 19 New
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          Thank! I will definitely get acquainted!
          1. Liam 9 February 2020 21: 23 New
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            The plague and its consequences served as the first impetus for the emancipation of women. And more affected women from wealthy families. Which had something to inherit and how to ensure their independence. For the poor, the first step to emancipation was the emergence of Protestants and their spread of literacy in the poor. began to teach girls, which was not before
            1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 21: 38 New
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              Sorry, you're wrong. In the Middle Ages, "literacy" among the urban population of the third estate was distributed "fifti-fifti", in gender terms. In the second estate, in general, the female component prevailed.
              1. Liam 9 February 2020 21: 42 New
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                It will not be difficult to say which schools (universities) for peasant girls existed in the Middle Ages and in which countries? Some examples if possible
              2. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 21: 58 New
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                It will be difficult. And you know why? Because, in principle, I am against a similar tonality of dialogue.
              3. Liam 9 February 2020 22: 15 New
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                De gustibus non est disputandum.
                Good evening! hi
              4. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 22: 30 New
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                I agree with this, markers are different.
                And all the best to you!
              5. Undecim 9 February 2020 22: 52 New
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                16:48. My respect, dear! It seems that I finally found an interlocutor who is interested in macrohistorical processes
                22:30 p.m. I agree with this, markers are different.
                And all the best to you!

                It took five hours, forty-eight minutes for the interlocutors to find out that their views on macrohistorical processes vary greatly.
              6. Korsar4 10 February 2020 05: 23 New
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                Views to infinity can be clarified even when communicating with a well-known person.

                And on the net everything can be much faster.

                And you won’t add up to all the ideas about history and geography.
              7. 3x3zsave 10 February 2020 08: 11 New
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                "Without joy there was love,
                Separation will be without sorrow. "
  • kalibr 12 February 2020 16: 42 New
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    Quote: Liam
    Which was something to inherit and how to ensure their independence. For the poor, the first step to emancipation was the emergence of Protestants and their dissemination of literacy in the poor too. Girls began to educate the literacy, which had not happened before

    That's right!
  • Engineer 9 February 2020 20: 49 New
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    Because of the plague?
    And welfare increased due to the plague? THAT is from the 14th century? For me, this is the main paradox. Well, it just contradicts my ideas completely. And time and reason cause me complete bewilderment, I wrote why.
    1. Liam 9 February 2020 21: 05 New
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      Such complex processes can never be explained by just one reason. This is not serious. But that the plague and radical population reduction in a very short period of 2 times made huge economic and social changes is an undeniable fact.
      Paradoxically, the quality of food and clothing of the “commoners” after the plague in the 14/15 centuries was incomparably higher than in the 16/17/18 centuries. Livestock was booming, even ordinary people began to eat a lot of meat, the textile industry began to develop at an invisible pace until then .
      1. Engineer 9 February 2020 23: 35 New
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        I dug in the direction indicated by you. Here is a very good article
        https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/staff/sbroadberry/wp/britishgdplongrun8a.pdf
        A quick review shows that you were right about a high standard of living in the 14-15th centuries (the afterlife) and its further decline in the 16th century. But here is information for several evenings of thoughtful reading.
        Thank you for the discass. I knew that I was poorly versed in the economy of the Middle Ages, but I did not think that my understanding was fundamentally wrong.
  • Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 13: 28 New
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    Some "excesses are not good" appear, absurd discussions about the value of human life, healthy men instead of breaking their heads, as it should be, are engaged in humanism.

    I have long wanted to say this, but there was no reason. And here I will support, Michael! good unfortunately, colleagues (and the esteemed Author!), this is precisely what is more a work of art, and not the reservation whose owner made history on the battlefields with a sword in his hands. hi Therefore, the remnants of rusty chain mail from the museum of local lore will be dearer to me than such armor from the main halls. Unfortunately, I still have my own utilitarian hatred for such armor - it is impossible to photograph in the Hermitage ... request In the Artillery a little easier, but also not a fountain.
    Richard III of England, who, in the most honest way, received an ax with his steel helmet, so that the battle crown - his only decoration - flew away and died like a warrior, in battle and not in a bed with bedbugs and a kilogram of arsenic in his stomach or from some shame the disease that Columbus awarded Europe.

    A study of the remains of a cocky hunchback discovered not so long ago showed that the king really had severe scoliosis ... and he suffered from worms! hi
  • NF68 9 February 2020 15: 38 New
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    Chic products.
  • Looking for 9 February 2020 16: 58 New
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    "Philip II six years later won his first military victory as king, winning the battle of San Quentin on August 10, 1557" History does not know such a battle. There is the Battle of Saint-Quentin on August 10, 1557 - a battle between the Spanish and French forces during the Eighth Italian War (1551-1559). By the way, the winner was not Philip !!. But the Duke Emmanuel of Savoy.
    1. kalibr 9 February 2020 17: 47 New
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      History knows the battle of San Quentin - Battle of St. Quentin (1557) - Wikipedia
      en.wikipedia.org ›Battle of St. Quentin (1557)
      The Battle of Saint-Quentin of 1557, was a decisive engagement, during the Italian War of 1551–1559, between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg empire at Saint-Quentin in Picardy.
      Here is the "Sant" - really had to write. It’s just that we read in different ways ... So "look better."
      1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 18: 41 New
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        Gracefully "sent", Vyacheslav Olegovich! I still don’t know how, the difference in experience affects!
        1. kalibr 9 February 2020 18: 46 New
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          Quote: 3x3zsave
          Gracefully "sent", Vyacheslav Olegovich! I still don’t know how, the difference in experience affects!

          Dear Anton! Well, from the age of 95 to 18, I taught PR and did it myself. He shoveled the books of the mountain, 6 wrote himself. When you are 65 with a tail, you will laugh back at your current years. I remember - oh, stupid, I was ... Ignorant. It’s hard to remember those missed opportunities. But it was.
          1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 18: 59 New
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            When you will be 65 "with a tail"
            With my lifestyle, I won’t live.
            I remember - oh, stupid, I was ... Ignorant. It’s hard to remember those missed opportunities. But it was.
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, you can’t regret the past! Not at all !!! This is a defeatist psychology.
            1. Korsar4 9 February 2020 20: 18 New
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              And "I will not live" - ​​is the psychology positive? In one message - a contradiction. I do not approve.
              1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 20: 27 New
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                Of course, positive! I, with an accuracy of 90%, know what I'm going to die from and with about the same accuracy I know how to bury me. Is this not a reason for a confident step into the future?
                1. Korsar4 9 February 2020 20: 36 New
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                  Confident step is good. Hamlet, wounded by a poisoned sword, could be himself. But this is a short time span.

                  And so - "Memento Mori" - a good phrase. Especially in combination with triumph.
                  1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 20: 57 New
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                    Offend, Sergey! In my understanding: Hamlet is the only negative character in this play. Well, maybe Horatio, backing vocals, but his "abomination" lies in the "area of ​​speculation."
                    1. Korsar4 9 February 2020 21: 00 New
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                      Just reached some, not yet deep, but not superficial layers.

                      Are the killer king and queen positive?

                      I probably like a language full of aphorism more like it. One instruction from Polonius Laertes is worth it.

                      And the assessment of the characters, probably, would not give.
                      1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 22: 46 New
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                        You see, even in the presentation of Saxon Grammar, Amelet does not cause positive emotions. I am afraid that initially the narrative was generally a nid.
                      2. Korsar4 9 February 2020 22: 57 New
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                        What is a nid, sorry?
                      3. Undecim 9 February 2020 23: 41 New
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                        What is a nid, sorry?
                        This is the genre of Skaldekvad - Skald poetry. A blasphemous verse to which sometimes even magical power was attributed.
                      4. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 13: 39 New
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                        A blasphemous verse to which sometimes even magical power was attributed.

                        can I link, Viktor Nikolaevich? I want to develop communication skills. soldier at the same time and pump magic.
                      5. Undecim 11 February 2020 01: 15 New
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                        You can search, although it will be difficult to find a nid.
                        Question - how will you read? For example.
                        Hrammtangar lætr hanga
                        hrynvirgil mer brynju
                        Höðr á hauki troðnum
                        heiðis vingameiði;

                        ritmœdis knák reiða
                        ræðr gunnvala bræðir
                        gelgju seil á galga
                        geirveiðrs, lofi at meira.
                      6. kalibr 12 February 2020 16: 46 New
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                        And it’s possible easier. From the book of Kondratiev ... Hula to the crow, see Network.

      2. Undecim 9 February 2020 22: 57 New
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        I, with an accuracy of 90%, know what I'm going to die from and with about the same accuracy I know how to bury me.
        Pride takes away from a person a lot of vital energy and strength, is a source of many destructive emotions and thoughts, refers to one of the deadly sins.
        1. Korsar4 9 February 2020 23: 09 New
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          Anton sounded something of Lermontov’s. But maybe these are personal moments that for some reason burst to the surface.
          1. Undecim 9 February 2020 23: 27 New
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            Anton sounded something of Lermontov’s.
            Though the sounds of fun run along my strings
            They do not run from the heart;
            But there's a secret cell in a broken heart
            Where black thoughts live.
          2. 3x3zsave 10 February 2020 06: 20 New
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            Hmm ... More likely cicatricial.
            1. Korsar4 10 February 2020 06: 58 New
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              This year they managed without baptismal frosts.
        2. 3x3zsave 10 February 2020 06: 19 New
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          In this case, if we follow the mainstream of the dialogue, Shpakovsky and I can announce the recruitment of “sinners” to the company (he has despondency, I have pride)
          1. Korsar4 10 February 2020 06: 57 New
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            This is already coming out of the penitential procession of Henry of the Third Valois. You have to choose the role of Shiko, and find a suitable zucchini.

            True, Monday morning is hardly suitable for this.
          2. Undecim 10 February 2020 08: 16 New
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            Shpakovsky and I can announce recruitment to the company of "sinners"
            Do not be.
            Confess your sins to God - and you will be forgiven; confess to them people - and you will be ridiculed.
            1. kalibr 10 February 2020 11: 10 New
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              Quote: Undecim
              Confess your sins to God - and you will be forgiven; confess to them people - and you will be ridiculed.

              A good phrase will have to be remembered!
            2. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 13: 54 New
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              Do not be.

              I'm the first, take the rest after me! I borrowed from the day before yesterday, I do not know anything! stop
              Confess your sins to God - and you will be forgiven; confess to them people - and you will be ridiculed.

              and if in the Middle Ages to confess to them to "the man of God" - will you go to the stake? hi
      3. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 13: 48 New
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        I, with an accuracy of 90%, know what I'm going to die from and with about the same accuracy I know how to bury me.

        Man, you think wrong. wink You know, when in his interview with Playboy magazine, when he was still a young entertainer and heiress, Woody Allen was asked how he wants to die, he answered: “I would like to be buried under the bodies of Italian actresses”. fellow Better to visualize your own desires! drinks
        1. 3x3zsave 10 February 2020 14: 20 New
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          "They lived happily ever after and died in one day and one hour. From orgasm."
          1. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 14: 26 New
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            "They lived happily ever after and died in one day and one hour. From orgasm."

            Voooot! I will subscribe to every word! good drinks
  • kalibr 9 February 2020 20: 06 New
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    Quote: 3x3zsave
    You can not regret the past! Not at all !!! This is a defeatist psychology.

    You said it well. But it happens ...
    1. 3x3zsave 9 February 2020 20: 42 New
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      It happens, Vyacheslav Olegovich, it happens with everyone! But for an individual weighed down by the brain, in this situation there are three options: 1. Resign yourself to the imperfection of the Universe, smile and live on, 2. Shoot yourself, grieving for the imperfection of the Universe. 3. He will become embittered with the Universe and become a "golovan"
      1. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 14: 47 New
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        And the fourth option - to remake part of the universe for yourself in your own cozy corner? Although this will undoubtedly have to accept the provisions of paragraph 1. drinks
        1. 3x3zsave 10 February 2020 15: 03 New
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          And the fourth option is to remake part of the universe for yourself in your own cozy corner
          In the Birdhouse?
          1. Pane Kohanku 10 February 2020 15: 37 New
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            In the Birdhouse?

            no, it’s probably not worth it to leave your dreams so radically into the world ... what Although .. but you get three meals a day and a fashionable outfit! request
        2. kalibr 12 February 2020 16: 48 New
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          Quote: Pan Kohanku
          in your own cozy corner

          Ivory tower!