Persian campaign of Stepan Razin

Persian campaign of Stepan Razin

A. Pushkin called Stepan Razin “the only poetic person in Russian stories". One can agree or not that this “person” is the only one, but his “poetry” is beyond doubt. The famous chieftain became the hero of numerous legends (and even epics) and folk songs, the most famous of which is "Razin sees a dream" ("Cossack parable"), recorded in the 1880s "from a 75-year-old old Cossack."



People's memory of Stepan Razin


The attitude of the people towards this chieftain was twofold. On the one hand, people remembered his “robber nature”. And therefore, in some tales, he suffers because of his sins, being unable to die.

Attributed to him and the the Great Martyrdom: "He, in our opinion, as if the devil was"; "He is a wizard who commands the devil."

They believed that the nightmare thrown by the chieftain into water turned into a ship, and Razin could escape from any prison, drawing a boat with coal on the floor or wall.

And on the Lower Volga it was said that Razin once cursed a serpent (sometimes mosquitoes), and they stopped stinging.


Stepan Razin, drawing by Vasily Surikov

And here is how people explained Razin’s failure at Simbirsk:

“Sinbirsk did not take Stenka because he went against God. A religious procession walked along the walls, but he stands and laughs: "Look at what," he says, "they want to scare!"
He took and shot at the holy cross. As he fired, he doused himself with all his blood, but he was spellbound, but not from this. Frightened and ran. "



A. Groshev. Troops of Stepan Razin storm the city of Simbirsk

Many believed that “it was impossible to take him with any army, because he was a warlock,” “such a word knew that the cores and bullets bounced off him,” and “under each nail he had jumping grass (horse-grass) from which locks and locks themselves fall down and treasures are given. ”

Even after death, Razin allegedly guarded his treasures:

“At night he travels around all the places where he put his treasures along the hillforts and caves, along the mountains and mounds.”

But in some stories, on the contrary, he tries to show his treasure to people, because he can “rest” only when someone finds the main one in Shatrashany:

“... then I would die; then all the treasures laid by me would come out, and there are twenty of them alone. ”

On the other hand, Razin appears as an intercessor from the arbitrariness of the landowners, boyars and tsarist officials. A. Dumas, who, during a trip to Russia, got acquainted with stories about Razin, in his notes called him “a real legendary hero like Robin Hood.”

Even after the execution of the famous ataman, the people did not want to believe in his death. Moreover, he himself said before the execution:

“You think you killed Razin, but you did not catch the real one; and there are many more Razin who will avenge my death. "

And then many believed that the legendary chieftain would come to Russia again - to punish the greedy boyars and unrighteous tsarist officials for the insults they inflicted on the people.

N.I. Kostomarov, an old man who remembered Pugachev, said:

“Stenka is alive and will come again as an instrument of God's anger ... Stenka is worldly torment! This is God's punishment! He will come, he will certainly come. He can not help but come. Before Judgment Day will come. ”

The prophecies among the people are also recorded:

“His hour (Razin) will come, he will wave his brush - and from the offenders, dashing bloodsuckers instantly there will be no trace.”
"The time will come when he will come to life and again walk on Russian soil."

And such stories about the “second coming of Stenka Razin” were circulated among the people even at the end of the XNUMXth and beginning of the XNUMXth centuries.


Stepan Razin. Sculpture by E.V. Vuchetich, Novocherkassk Museum of the Don Cossacks

At the beginning of the XNUMXth century, two poems were written about revenge and the “terrible judgment” of Stepan Razin, both from the first person.

The first of them belongs to the pen of A. N. Tolstoy (“The Court”):

Every dark midnight, snakes crawl
They fall for centuries and suck me until the day ...
And I don’t dare to ask for mother earth -
Fight off the serpents and accept me.
Only then, from time immemorial, from Moscow the Throne
My Yasak will strike the steppe Yaik -
I rise, elder, free or involuntary,
And I’ll go through the waters, I am the mother of a Cossack.
Smoke with blood all the forests and rivers;
On the damned marketplace fornication will happen ...
Then the snakes will lift my eyelids ...
And they recognize Razin. And the judgment will come.



Shcherbakov B.V. Stepan Razin in the center of the painting “The People's Court”

Alexei Tolstoy, who wrote these verses in 1911, did not expect anything good from the “Stenka Razin court”. In his lines you hear melancholy and fear of an inevitable and inevitable social explosion: it was already clear to all adequate people that the split and enmity in Russian society had reached their limits, would "explode" very soon, and would not seem to anyone.

At the turn of the 1917th and XNUMXth centuries, rumors began to spread among the people that Stepan Razin was walking along the shore of the Caspian Sea and asking people he met: did they continue to anathematize him, had they begun to light tallow candles in the churches instead of wax ones, had they already appeared on the Volga and on the Don "airplanes and self-floating." In XNUMX, M. Voloshin also wrote a poem about the “court of Stepan Razin,” in which he retold this legend:

At the great sea of ​​Khvalynsky,
Trapped in a coastal sheehan,
Prterperevy from the serpent of mountain
Waiting for news from semi-deciduous countries.
Everything is shining as before - unglazed
Orthodox churches lepota?
Do Stenka curse them Razin
Sunday at the beginning of the post?
Do candles light, yes greasy
In them instead of wax candles?
The governors are okhalnye orders
Do they all follow in their voivodships?
Gorgeous, yes many-sided ...
And out of it even take out the saints.
Something I smell, it's my time
Walk around the Holy in Russia.
And how did I endure the bloody flour
Yes, did not betray Cossack Russia,
So for reprisal on the right
The judge himself tossing and turning in Moscow.
Reason, untie - I will not have mercy, -
Some slams, some priests, some gentlemen ...
So you will know: as before the grave,
So before Stenka all people are equal.

(The Stenkin Court, 1917.)


Shihan Yuraktau, Bashkiria. Shihan are called lonely-standing hills or small mountains in the Volga, Urals and Trans-Urals. This is the Shihan of Yuraktau, Bashkiria. In similar, if you believe the legends, and languished, waiting for his time to come, Stepan Razin

You probably noticed that in the poems of A.K. Tolstoy and M. Voloshin some kind of snakes are mentioned: this is a hint of another legend, according to which the “great snake” (sometimes two snakes) sucks Razin’s heart (or his eyes) . These posthumous tortures of the chieftain injured for the people of the ataman raise him to an epic height, putting him on a par with Prometheus.

And after the revolution in the Urals, "tales" were written that Razin presented his sword ... to Chapaev! After World War II, they began to tell that Chapaev chopped the Germans with this saber near Stalingrad.


M. Ulyanov as Stepan Razin, 1979

We are now quite well aware of the "Razinshchina" - the Peasant War of 1667-1671. But often the “Persian campaign of this chieftain” remains behind the scenes, which the overwhelming majority of our compatriots know only thanks to the urban romance “From the island to the core” (poems by D. Sadovnikov, the author of the music is unknown). Based on this song V. Goncharov wrote "epic", which was filmed in 1908. This film, which went down in history as the first feature film shot in Russia, is known under three names: "Ponizovaya Volnitsa", "Stenka Razin", "Stenka Razin and Princess".


Advertising poster of the film “Stenka Razin” (“Ponizovaya Volnitsa”)

However, in this song the action takes place after the return of the Cossack gang from Persia, and many do not think about how the Persian princess got to Russia and ended up on the stenka of Stenka Razin.


Shot from the film "Ponizovaya Volnitsa"

We will talk about the “Persian princess” in detail in the next article. In the meantime, let's try to recall the history of this campaign of Stepan Razin.

Stepan Timofeevich Razin



Stepan Razin in XNUMXth-century German engraving, is kept in the library of the University of Heidelberg. Caption below: "A true portrait of the main rebel Stenka Razin in Muscovy"

The birthplace of our hero is traditionally considered the village of Zimoveyskaya (now called Pugachevskaya - Kotelnikovsky district of the Volgograd region). However, this version is still doubtful, since in the historical documents the “Zimoveysky town” was first mentioned in 1672 (and Razin, recall, was executed in 1671). In addition, the village of Zimoveyskaya is the birthplace of Emelyan Pugachev. It is extremely doubtful that two leaders of the Peasant War were born in one place at once, most likely, folk tradition at some point “confused” them, transferring some facts of the biography of Pugachev who lived later on to Razin. Perhaps folk storytellers were also embarrassed by the fact that in the army of Emelyan Pugachev there was a certain Stepan Andreyevich Razin, who could then be ignorant people for a famous ataman who lived 100 years ago.

And in the oldest historical songs, the homeland of Stepan Razin is most often called Cherkassk (now - the village of Starocherkasskaya, Aksay district, Rostov region), less often - Discord, or the towns of Kagalnitsky and Esaulovsky.

Among the Cossacks, Stepan Razin was nicknamed “Tuma” - “half-breed”: they believe that Kalmyk was his mother. We add that, according to some reports, his captive was a Turkish woman, and the godfather - the elected ataman of the Don Army Korniliy Yakovlev, who was called the "Circassian" on the Don. So some “purity of Cossack blood” in those days did not even seem to smell.

The Dutchman Jan Jansen Streus, who met with our hero in Astrakhan, claims that in 1670 he was 40 years old. Thus, he could be born around 1630.


Stepan Razin. Portrait in English engraving, 1672

For the first time on the pages of historical documents the name of Stepan Razin appears in 1652: at that time he was already a field ataman (and his older brother Ivan was a completely ataman of the Don Army). Until 1661, Stepan managed to visit Moscow three times (including as part of the military embassy) and make a pilgrimage to the Solovetsky monastery twice (for the first time - according to a vow, for his father who did not have time to do this). And in 1661, Razin participated in negotiations with the Kalmyks about peace and alliance against the Nogais and Crimean Tatars (along with Fedor Budan and some ambassadors from the Cossacks). In 1663, he led a detachment of Don Cossacks, who went near Perekop along with the Cossacks and Kalmyks. In a battle near Dairy Waters, in alliance with Kalmyks and Cossacks, he defeated one of the Tatar detachments, capturing 350 people.

But in 1665, the tsar’s governor Yu. Dolgorukov executed his brother, Ivan, who, during a campaign against the Poles, wanted to arbitrarily leave his people to the Don. Probably, after this execution Stepan Razin's loyalty to the tsarist government was greatly shaken.

Meanwhile, in 1666, a large number of “cunning” Cossacks — aliens who had no property and land — gathered on the Don. They labored with old Cossacks, were engaged in fishing, and very eagerly went to the notorious “campaigns for zipuns,” which were secretly financed by Cossack foremen for a share in the extraction. In addition to material interest, the Cossack elders had another “interest”: to bring the alien throats away from the Don. They will come from the next trip with prey - well, they will pay a percentage, they will not come - the loss is small, but without them it will be calmer.

In the spring of 1667, the “hooters” gathered for the next such campaign, Stepan Razin became their chieftain. Among his subordinates there were quite a few “quackers” of Vasily Us, who shortly before had pretty much robbed the landowners' estates near Voronezh, Tula, Serpukhov, Kashira, Venev, Skopin and other neighboring cities. The true route was carefully hidden: rumors were circulating about a campaign against Azov. Finally, Razin’s detachment set off: up to two thousand people came to the place of the Volga-Don relics near the cities of Kachalin and Panshin.

Razin at that time, apparently, was a very authoritative “field commander,” the probability of the success of his expedition and gaining profits was estimated as high, and therefore, in addition to the Cossack foremen, Voronezh's “trading people” took part in the outfit of his detachment.

The high authority of Stepan Razin among the Cossacks is also confirmed by the Dutchman Ludwig Fabricius, who served in the Russian army, who speaks of the ataman in his "Notes":

“This cruel Cossack was so revered by his subordinates that he had only to order something, as everything was instantly carried out. If someone did not immediately obey his order ... then this monster fell into such fury that he seemed to be obsessed. He tore off his hat from his head, threw it in the ground and stamped it with his feet, grabbed a saber from his belt, threw it at the feet of those around him and screamed at the top of his lungs:
"I will no longer be your chieftain, look for another one," after which everyone fell at his feet and all in one voice asked him to take the saber again. "

Razin ordered overboard not only the Persian princesses to be thrown, but also those who drank during the campaign or stole from comrades. This was a fairly common execution among the Cossacks, which had its own name - "put in water." The offenders were not simply thrown into the “oncoming wave”, but “tied a shirt over his head, poured sand there and threw it into the water” (Fabrizius).

True, upon returning home, the Cossacks, as they say, “blew off the roof”, and they made the spree no worse than filibusters on Tortuga Island and privatirs in Port Royal. And Razin himself, according to the testimony of the same Fabricius, at that time did not lag much behind his subordinates.

Dutch sailing master Jan Streus writes:

"Stenka, when drunk, a great tyrant and in a short time in this form took the lives of three or four people."

But Streus also speaks of high discipline in the Cossack army of Razin during campaigns, reporting, for example, that he ordered one of his Cossacks to be drowned for communication with another man’s wife, and that his mistress should be hanged on a pillar.

He reports that Razin:
"In some things I kept a strict order, especially fornication."

And Fabricius writes:

“I myself saw one Cossack hanged by the legs only because he, like walking, poked a young woman in the stomach.”

And then:

“Curses, rude curses, swear words, and the Russians have such unheard of and others unused words that they cannot be conveyed without horror - Stenka tried to eradicate all this, as well as fornication and theft.”

Only the leader beloved by them and the generally recognized leader could behave this way with those who were not afraid of God or the hell “walking people”.


Shot from the film Stepan Razin, 1939

And here is how Razin addressed the archers who went over to his side:

“I won’t force them, but whoever wants to be with me will be a free Cossack!” I came to beat only the boyars and the rich masters, but with the poor and simple I am ready, like a brother, to share everything!
(J. Streus, “Three Travels”).
And here is the result:

“All ordinary people leaned towards him, archers attacked the officers, chopped their heads or completely handed them over fleet Razin "
(Streus).
At the same time, according to the testimony of Streus, the ataman with his comrades "kept himself modest," so that he "could not be distinguished from the rest," but in relation to the "Persian king" he kept himself in relation to such arrogance, as if he himself were king. ”

Beginning of the campaign


So, on May 15 (25), 1667, a Cossack troop on four Black Sea plows and many boats went to the Volga above Tsaritsyn (along the Ilovle and Kamyshinka rivers), where it intercepted the merchant shorin’s trade caravan and robbed the ships of Patriarch Joasaph. At the same time, some archers from the caravan guard joined them, as well as some wells escorted to the Terek and Astrakhan.


Konchalovskaya N. P. Frame from the film “The Legend of Stepan Razin”

Tsaritsyn himself did not begin to touch the Cossacks, demanding only blacksmith's tools, which the local governor resignedly issued to him. They explained his submissiveness, again, with the sorcerers of the chieftain: supposedly, he ordered the governor to shoot cannons at his strings, but not a single one shot.

Soon Razin’s actions went beyond the usual robberies: encircling the strong fortress of Astrakhan, the Cossacks went to the Volga channel Buzan and here they defeated the governor of Chernoyarsk S. Beklemishev, whom the dashing ataman ordered to carve and released. In early June, they entered the Caspian Sea and went to the Yaik (Ural) river, where they captured the Yaitsky stone town (until 1991 it was named after Guryev, now Atyrau, located in Kazakhstan).

It is said that Razin took this fortress by cunning: asking her commandant for permission to pray in a local church. He was allowed to take only 40 people with him, but this turned out to be quite enough: about 170 archers were killed in a short battle, the rest were invited to join the robbery squad, or go on all four sides. Those who decided to leave were caught up and chopped, 300 people joined the Cossacks.

In the Yayitsky town, Razin overwintered, repelling the attack of the three thousandth archery detachment, and replenished his detachment with “hunters.

Persian hike



In the spring of next year, ordering to put light cannons on the plows from the fortress towers of the Yaitsky town, Razin went on his famous Persian campaign. Looking ahead, let's say that the small garrison left by him in this city was soon knocked out of it by government forces, so Razin had to go through Astrakhan on the way back. But now Razin led his troops past this city - to the Terek, where another “noble robber” joined him and his detachment - Sergey Krivoy. In addition, the rifle squad of the centurion F. Tarlykov completely sided with Razin. Now that the strength of the Razin detachment reached three thousand people, it was possible to take a walk around the Caspian.

Some unnamed Astrakhan, who then turned out to be in Shemakh on commercial matters, told the authorities when he returned home:

“The thieves' Cossacks Stenka Razin were in the shah region, in the Lower, and in Baku, and in Gilyan. Yasir (prisoners) and stomach (prey) were caught a lot. And de Cossacks live on the Kure River and travel across the sea apart for production, and they say that, de, they, Cossacks, are many plows. ”

Derbent was captured from the raid, and then Baku, but here the Razinians were too carried away by the “gathering of zipuns”, as a result, the soldiers of the local garrison who left, received reinforcements, attacked the Cossacks scattered around the city and put them to flight. In street battles, Razin lost up to 400 people killed and captured.

After that, Razin sent to Shah Suleiman I (from the Safavid dynasty) ambassadors with a proposal to accept the Cossack army for service and to allocate land for him to settle.

It is not known how serious his proposals were. Perhaps the chieftain only wanted to lull the vigilance of the Persian authorities and gain time. In any case, this attempt at negotiations was unsuccessful: the Razin ambassadors were executed, and the Scottish Colonel Palmer, who arrived to the Shah from Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, began to help the Persians in the construction of new ships.

Razin resumed hostilities. Part of his detachment entered the city of Farrahabad (Farabat) under the guise of merchants who began to sell looted property at bargain prices - and they "traded" for five days: you can imagine the amount of production already obtained in Persia. It must be assumed that the residents of the city were well aware of the origin of the goods that the Cossacks sold them, but when looking at the price tag, unnecessary questions disappeared by themselves. All the townspeople and even the soldiers of the garrison rushed to the market, where they literally fought for a place in the queue, while the Cossacks at that time broke into Farrahabad and captured it.

Then Rasht and Astrabad (now Gorgan, the main city of the Iranian province of Golestan) were captured and plundered.

After that, Razin decided to winter on the Mian-Kale Peninsula (50 km east of Farahabad). The place turned out to be a swamp, many Cossacks fell ill, while the Persians constantly bothered the aliens with their attacks.

Some researchers believe that Razin saw his famous, foreshadowing death dream, which is described in the “Cossack Parable,” just then - during a difficult winter in Mian-Kale.

In the spring of 1669, Razin led his plows to the southeast, attacking the territories that are now part of Uzbekistan. Here, in the "Trukhmensky land" Sergey Krivoy was lost.

Sailing from here along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea to the north was impossible due to lack of food, and, most importantly, water. And so the ataman again led his squadron to Baku, where she stood at the so-called Pig Island. According to the most common version, it was Sengi-Mugan ("Stone of magicians" - Persian) - one of the islands of the Baku archipelago. However, some believe that we are talking about the island of Sari. Settling here, the Cossacks again began to devastate the coast.

Naval Battle at Pig Island


In June 1669, the Persian fleet under the command of Mammad Khan (sometimes called Magmedi Khanbek or Menadi Khan) approached this island. The Persians had 50 large ships (Europeans called such ships beads, Russians called “sandalwoods”), on which there were 3700 soldiers.

In the Razin squadron at that time there were 15 naval plows and 8 small shuttles, armed with twenty large and twenty small cannons.

Realizing his superiority, Mammad Khan was already looking forward to victory and brutal reprisals against the Cossacks. The Persians lined their ships, connected in chains, in a line, through which it was almost impossible for light Cossack plows to break through. But Razin ordered the fire to be concentrated on the admiral's ship, and luck was again on the side of the distant chieftain: one of the cores fell directly into the powder chamber of the Persian flagship - and it went to the bottom, dragging neighboring ships connected with it by a chain. The crews of other Persian ships in a panic untied and chopped chains. And the Cossacks on plows approached the Persian ships and shot them with cannons and muskets, or they pushed sailors and soldiers into the water with poles with cannonballs tied to them.

Of the entire Persian fleet, only three ships escaped, on one of which the enemy admiral Mamed Khan also fled. The losses of the Persians amounted to 3500 people, about 200 were killed by the Cossacks. 33 guns were captured, as well as the son of Mamed Khan Shabold (Shabyn-Debye). Some talk about the Khan’s daughter, but let's not get ahead of ourselves - a separate article will be devoted to the “Persian princess”.

This naval battle, of course, should be attributed to the most outstanding victories of the corsair squadrons, Francis Drake and Henry Morgan would respectfully shake hands with Stepan Razin.

Ataman's Triumphant Return


After this battle, the Cossacks marched north for ten days, and luck, as before, smiled at them: on their way, the dashing pirates of Razin met and captured the ship of the Persian ambassador, who brought numerous gifts to the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, including thoroughbred stallions.


Kosheleva O. E. The Return of the Razin Vataga from Persia to Astrakhan, Frame from the film “The Peasant War Led by Stepan Razin”

The path to the Volga for the Razintsy was reliably closed by the Astrakhan fortress. Ludwig Fabricius reports:

“Comrade governor Prince Semen Ivanovich Lvov (Unter-woywod) with 3000 soldiers and archers was sent to meet Stenka. It was then that it was possible to shoot all the thieves, but in Astrakhan they brought out the royal letter written three years ago, in which Stenka was promised royal mercy and forgiveness in the event that he would calm down with his thieves' congregation and return to the Don. "He had ridiculed and mocked such mercy more than once, but now he was in a hopeless situation and therefore eagerly accepted this mercy."

For this, in Astrakhan, he had to give most of the production to the governor I.S. Prozorovsky:

Went Stenka Razin
To Astrakhan city
Became governor
Require gifts.
He brought Stenka Razin
Cams are crunchy,
Brocades are golden.
Became governor
Demand a fur coat ...
"Give it, Stenka Razin,
Give the coat from your shoulder!
Give it back, thanks;
If you don’t give it back, I’ll hang it "...
"Welcome, Governor.
Take your fur coat.
Take your fur coat
Yes there would be no noise. "

(A. S. Pushkin, “Songs about Stenka Razin”).

The stallions sent to the king by the shah were also given away. As well as noble captives, sea plows and heavy guns.

In general, the state official pinched the ataman very strongly and sensitively, it is not surprising that then Stepan Razin would hang such “corrupt officials” and “bloodsuckers” very willingly and with great pleasure. But, in the meantime, Stepan Razin paid off the governor, giving him everything he asked. Its entrance to Astrakhan resembled a triumphal procession: the Cossacks were dressed in the most expensive caftans, and the ataman himself threw gold coins into the crowd with handfuls. Then the Razintsy arranged a big sale of booty: Fabricius claims that they sold it for 6 weeks, "during which gentlemen the rulers of the city repeatedly called Stenka to visit them."

In September, Razin with his people in 9 plows, armed with 20 light cannons, sailed from Astrakhan.


Razin Strugs

When the authorities came to their senses sent after him one of the archery regiments, he in full force went over to the side of the successful chieftain.

Colonel Videros Razin, who arrived to him as an ambassador (to return the fugitive archers), said:

“Tell your governor that he is a fool and a coward, that I am not afraid not only of him, but also of someone who is taller!” I will settle accounts with him and teach them how to talk to me. ”



B. M. Kustodiev. Stepan Razin

Less than a year later, on June 25, 1670, by the order of Razin, Prozorovsky was thrown from one of the towers of the Astrakhan Kremlin.


The Astrakhan Kremlin


"Atrocities of the Cossacks Stepan Razin in captured Astrakhan." Seventeenth-century engraving from the book of Jan Streus

For the winter, Razin is located in the headwaters of the Don - about two days from Cherkassk.

Tradition says that at that time Razin and his Yesaul Ivan Chernoyarets, Lazar Timofeev and Larion Khrenov buried their treasures near the Kagalnitsky town (now this is the territory of the Azov district of the Rostov region), which he allegedly founded in 1670. However, many believe that this village was founded only in the XVIII century. And the legend about the treasures of the Kagal town was originally associated with the kosman of the Cossacks Petr Kalnyshevsky, who was soon forgotten, replacing his name with the much more famous one - Stepan Razin.


Taranov V. "In the Kagalnitsky town"

Next year, Stepan Razin will again come to the Volga - not the robber ataman, but the leader of the Peasant War, which he will begin under the slogan of extermination of “traitors-boyars, because of which it is difficult for ordinary people to live.”

But this is a different story, which we may return to later. And in the next article we will talk about the mysterious "Persian princess" who became a prisoner of Razin.
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  1. Hunter 2 2 February 2020 05: 16 New
    • 15
    • 11
    +4
    From the island to the rod
    To the expanse of the river wave
    Painted come up
    Pointed chests
    On the front Stenka Razin
    Hugging, sits with the Princess,
    Celebrates a new wedding
    He is funny and intoxicated. (C)
    I love this Russian song to the words of Dmitry Nikolaevich Sadovnikov! good Chaliapin Fedor Ivanovich - performed it beautifully ... you can listen, it has already been digitized and is on the internet.
    I liked the article, thanks to the Author hi
    Stepan Razin - collective image, Legend!
    According to reports, Warrior, Rebel, Traveler! Actually - the main features of the Russian Soul are collected in one person!
    1. Grandfather 2 February 2020 05: 19 New
      • 6
      • 17
      -11
      They believed that the nightmare thrown by the chieftain into water turned into a ship, and Razin could escape from any prison, drawing a boat with coal on the floor or wall.
      1. Grandfather 2 February 2020 05: 23 New
        • 13
        • 14
        -1
        “His hour (Razin) will come, he will wave his brush - and from the offenders, dashing bloodsuckers instantly there will be no trace.”
        "The time will come when he will come to life and again walk on Russian soil."
        people are waiting.
        1. Vol4ara 2 February 2020 10: 22 New
          • 11
          • 8
          +3
          The boyars are completely overwhelmed, eat, they say, macaroni. The Russian land was waiting for Stenka
          1. Trilobite Master 2 February 2020 13: 45 New
            • 17
            • 5
            +12
            Quote: Dead Day
            people are waiting.

            Quote: Vol4ara
            The Russian land was waiting for Stenka

            Wow, here we have lovers of the "Russian rebellion" painted ... The very one who is "meaningless and merciless," as I understand it. fool
            Well, that's normal. A criminal will appear, all painted up, will make a scumbag of a scumbag, like himself, and will go down the village administrations, savings banks, police departments ... The acquired weapons - for people, vodka from the defeated supermarkets - for people, things from the looted rich cottages - again to people !. Hang a couple of heads of administrations in public, on a rural square, next to three or four local hucksters as a warning to the rest, so that they would part with money more willingly, and even persuade the commander of the military unit of the nearby arsenal to open up and dissolve the soldiers-conscripts ... What is not life? That is what the people of us are waiting for, how to give, have long been waiting.
            And a wave of popular anger will arise
            from the Sea of ​​Okhotsk to the Baltic,
            Flaming banks and supermarkets
            High-rise bourgeois mansions
            Police department, administration ...
            And the bourgeois, the oppressed country,
            Wash with burning tears
            Fearing for your savings
            They will run to overseas countries,
            But he will catch up with their national anger,
            And cruel punishment befall them -
            Tear their people to pieces
            He will not put a grave or a cross.
            The thieves startled in Moscow,
            And they pray for forgiveness
            But the people will not give them mercy
            He will ruthlessly put everyone on the wall.
            And done away with Moscow thieves
            Yes with the bourgeois
            Heals people full and happy,
            For the evil will all be defeated
            And only the good will remain alive

            laughing wassat laughing
            1. Korsar4 2 February 2020 15: 19 New
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              Not everyone accepts Voloshin.

              And here is one of those that is tightly hooked:

              "We will arrange in the country magnificence to you, -
              How, having risen from the dead with a sword, -
              Three saints - with Grishka Otrepiev,
              Yes, with Emelka we’ll come Pugach. "
        2. Catfish 2 February 2020 14: 32 New
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          What kind of people? What is waiting for? Who is waiting? You, dear in the nineties, did not eat enough of a gangster free-spirits, again hunting with a boot in the face and a bat along the cumpole? Change one gang to another? Think a little before you carry such nonsense.
      2. bessmertniy 2 February 2020 05: 32 New
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        Thanks to such "exuberant heads" of Cossack chieftains, Russia became the largest country. Especially, of course, their contribution was high in the conquest and development of Siberia and the Far East. hi
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 February 2020 07: 09 New
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          Quote: bessmertniy
          Thanks to such "exuberant heads" of Cossack chieftains, Russia became the largest country. Especially, of course, their contribution was high in the conquest and development of Siberia and the Far East. hi

          If you take in a broad sense, then yes! Then you need to add the Volga region, Wild Field, Kuban.
          The charismatic Razin is the most famous ataman! Perhaps the most fortunate.
        2. Olgovich 2 February 2020 07: 29 New
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          Quote: bessmertniy
          Thanks to such "exuberant heads“Cossack chieftains Russia became the largest country. Especially, of course, their contribution was high in the conquest and development of Siberia and the Far East.
          Thanks to exuberant heads and support of state power.

          When these two forces united, it was impossible to defeat them.
          1. Sergey S. 2 February 2020 11: 34 New
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            Quote: Olgovich
            Thanks to exuberant heads and support of state power.

            If the support of the government - kick, threat or harassment - agrees.
            This is about the Great Northern Expedition, and about Kochi S. Dezhnev, and about the team of Ermak Timofeevich.
        3. Proxima 2 February 2020 10: 10 New
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          In the spring of 1669, Razin led his plows to the southeast, attacking the territories that are now part of Uzbekistan (from text) Uzbekistan has no access to the Caspian Sea! no It was most likely Turkmenistan. hi
          1. Freeman 2 February 2020 18: 29 New
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            Quote: Proxima
            In the spring of 1669, Razin led his plows to the southeast, attacking the territories that are now part of Uzbekistan (from text) Uzbekistan has no access to the Caspian Sea! no It was most likely Turkmenistan. hi


            Yes, these territories are included in modern Turkmenistan, and modern Uzbekistan has no access to the Caspian Sea.
            BUT! In the 17th century, territories inhabited by Turkmen tribes were part of Uzbek Khiva (Khorezm) and Bukhara khanates.

            So the author’s mistake was not to write “territories that enter now into Uzbekistan, "and" the territory, which included into Uzbekistan. " hi
            1. raif 7 February 2020 23: 13 New
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              do not pull the owl on the globe - take pity on the bird. there wasn’t anything Uzbek there. and S. Razin couldn’t sail to the southwest already on the boats - there’s no tuta sea, and according to the map you presented, he had to sail to the EAST and even to NORTH-EAST
        4. Catfish 2 February 2020 14: 56 New
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          In my opinion, these “Knights from the High Road” were least of all worried about the interests of the state, and even more so the increment of it by new lands. No high matters, everything is extremely simple: eat, drink, beat your face under the famous slogan "robbed loot." That is: mine is mine, and yours is ours. So there is a contribution, but the background of this contribution is quite specific. request
  2. Timurleng 2 February 2020 06: 01 New
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    Oh, and how many unsuccessful trips were in Russia. These "heroes" no one remembers and no one writes about them
    1. Hunter 2 2 February 2020 06: 12 New
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      Quote: Timurleng
      Oh, and how many unsuccessful trips were in Russia. These "heroes" no one remembers and no one writes about them

      And how much ??? Do not tell me, or so sketched ...
      Well, yes, So many unsuccessful trips that we live in the Biggest Country of the World!
      How is Ukraine reborn? Joined NATO? I am surprised that today they did not start with their usual mantra laughing
      1. Timurleng 2 February 2020 10: 53 New
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        And read yourself in scrap?! Expand your horizons. Or once Ukraine everywhere seems
      2. Hantengri 2 February 2020 19: 49 New
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        Quote: Hunter 2
        Quote: Timurleng

        Oh, and how many unsuccessful trips were in Russia. These "heroes" no one remembers and no one writes about them
        And how much ??? Do not tell me, or so sketched ...
        Well, yes, So many unsuccessful trips that we live in the Biggest Country of the World!

        Have you ever heard of the "Mistake of the Survivors"? Your position is based on it. hi
  3. mr.ZinGer 2 February 2020 06: 10 New
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    About poles with attached cores, which pushed the Persians into the water as it is not clear. And the article is interesting.
    1. VLR
      VLR 2 February 2020 06: 44 New
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      The cores were tied to poles with chains and a large brush was obtained

      Like this.
      1. mr.ZinGer 2 February 2020 07: 15 New
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        Such an instrument has a name, battle flail. It is unclear why the Razinites needed it, it’s a weapon of open space, you can’t help them on the ship.
        1. VLR
          VLR 2 February 2020 07: 34 New
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          Well, during boarding, yes, you won’t wave. But to knock down sailors from the side of another ship, standing on one’s own, is probably possible.
      2. Warrior-80 4 February 2020 11: 00 New
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        I don’t understand what kind of Shah Suleiman 1 is in the article, if it is magnificent Sultan Suleiman 1 so he died in 1566 or I don’t understand something
        1. VLR
          VLR 4 February 2020 11: 16 New
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          Suleiman the Magnificent - Turkish monarch, has nothing to do with the Persian Shah dynasty ..
          1. Warrior-80 4 February 2020 11: 18 New
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            Yes, I'm sorry I already realized that I mixed up with the Ottomans, I wanted to delete a comment, something did not work out hi
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 February 2020 07: 00 New
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      Quote: mr.ZinGer
      About poles with attached cores, which pushed the Persians into the water as it is not clear. And the article is interesting.

      What's not clear?
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 February 2020 13: 07 New
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        I will add VikNika a little!
        “Poles with tethered cores”, the abardant weapon of the Volga Cossacks. It was a two-two and a half planted (4-4,5 m) shaft made of birch or ash (sometimes an oar) to which a 1-3 pound core was attached. Sometimes multiple cores are in chains. On the reverse side (vi30-50 cm from the end) there could be a “five-arshin chain” or a rope! Used for crashing oars, sailing weapons and injuring rowers. It could be used as a Roman boarding shell, for which it was equipped at the end with a hook or cat. No space was required for the scope. Weapons were used by 2-3 people on command, throwing to the side of the enemy with a poke. The pullback end, when attracted, usually stuck, making it difficult for the opponent to row and defend.
        1. Undecim 2 February 2020 18: 49 New
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          “Poles with tethered cores”, the abardinous weapon of the Volga Cossacks.
          Just comparing the size of Persian beads and Cossack plows, it is difficult to imagine the effective application of this device in practice.
        2. raif 7 February 2020 23: 17 New
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          and now just try to take the pole with the load tied at the end and poke it like that, to inflict some inaudibly described damage - the shish will work! and harmoniously by two or three — all the more so, and even on the deck of a large boat that has the property to swing. and what prevented the stuck end of the pole from defending?
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 8 February 2020 05: 09 New
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            Dear Raif! In the distant 90s, on the Chusovaya River, my friends built an “iron barge” and a “dovecut” of the era of mining plants. Then we also had a debate about boarding weapons and rowing weapons of the Volga Cossacks.
            Now a little about steering oars! Imagine not a punt at a local pond, but the Volga bark or whitewash with a length of 20 fathoms and a width of 5! And now what should be the oar? Even for the Ural cast-iron barge, the length of the “steering oar” piece is at least 2 fathoms - 4 meters !!! Basically they were made 5 meter. When rafting, they were ruled in pairs, or even in three. The steering oars must have been placed both from the tank and from the stern. So here you have at least 2 well-coordinated Teams on a plow, which will throw not only a log, but also a Roman abardant shell to the "merchant".
            Regards, Vlad!
            1. raif 8 February 2020 19: 42 New
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              That's it - they will throw it. but they will never make it a “jab”, how do you write, do you feel the difference? but you can simply poke the oar described by you - but then why at the end of the core on the chain? and yes - when rafting with a father, two also ruled on a rapids. but alloying and taxiing is one thing, and quite another is this incomprehensible “poke”. I’ll look for video reconstructions of such a “miracle weapon”, but it was unlikely
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 8 February 2020 20: 48 New
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                Maybe I didn’t put it right! The methods of using such tools were not left to us in the sources.
                1. raif 8 February 2020 20: 50 New
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                  then there are no questions. at work I asked my unoccupied colleagues to make something similar. next week we will try to wave wink
                  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 8 February 2020 20: 53 New
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                    One way to use such a weapon is to drop it on the deck of an enemy ship. Most importantly, such a log should interfere with the work of the enemy rowers.
  4. Phil77 2 February 2020 07: 19 New
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    Good morning to the venerable meeting! Interesting article! Thank you very much to the author! But what’s interesting, there are quite a lot of books in the literature about Razin. There are Chapygin, Nazhivin, and Zlobin ... But somehow it didn’t work out in the cinema. a silent film was made of the revolution, but I don’t know anymore. Maybe someone will remind you? hi
    1. VLR
      VLR 2 February 2020 07: 26 New
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      In 1939, the film "Stepan Razin", but probably not too successful, can not be seen or heard. If Razin was an Englishman, or at least a Frenchman, an epic film in Hollywood would have been shot, and the ataman would have been promoted no worse than Rodin Hood. And a series like "Viking" would have done. The material is chic, of course. But our current directors are better off if they don’t take it - they’ll screw it up.
      By the way, a frame from the 1939 film is in the article.
      1. Phil77 2 February 2020 07: 30 New
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        Good morning Valery! I agree completely about the current ones. I only know about the plans of Vasily Makarovich Shukshin to make a film about Razin. But ... Alas.
      2. Phil77 2 February 2020 07: 45 New
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        Yeah! Googled. The main role is Andrei Abrikosov. And the inimitable Mikhail Zharov as Lazunka. An adaptation of Chapygin’s novel.
    2. Hagakure 2 February 2020 12: 35 New
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      Shukshin wanted to make a film about him, the preparation was already ... alas!
      1. rich 2 February 2020 20: 26 New
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        In addition to actually seizing property, Razin’s goal in Persia was to free captive Russian captives and slaves, which he did by exchanging captured Persians for Russians in a one-to-four ratio. Thus, the chieftain not only freed Russian people from foreign captivity, but also replenished his detachment, which suffered serious losses in clashes with the Shah’s troops near Rasht.
  5. Free wind 2 February 2020 07: 44 New
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    I heard the same legend about snakes in childhood, indeed there are no poisonous snakes on the lower Volga, only water snakes, this song is about atamans dream, I didn’t even think that it was about Stepan Razin, it’s a beautiful song. And the engraving about the atrocities of the Cossacks in Astrakhan, exactly about Astrakhan? Around the mountain, palm trees grow ........... Where did all this come from ???????? request
    1. VLR
      VLR 2 February 2020 07: 47 New
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      From a book by Streis published in Amsterdam. Apparently, this is how the Dutch represented Astrakhan in the 17th century. Moreover, exotic Persia is nearby.
      1. Free wind 2 February 2020 07: 55 New
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        There are palms. and there are no blacks, a mess ...... laughing Have a nice weekend.
        1. Phil77 2 February 2020 08: 09 New
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          Oh how !!! Negroes, palm trees ... There is a reason to collect * filibuster * team! We are waiting ... laughing hi
          1. Korsar4 2 February 2020 08: 35 New
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            “Every pig is glad to a good acorn” (Proverb).
  6. Korsar4 2 February 2020 08: 31 New
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    Traditionally interesting. But with the poem “Court” something is not right. A.K. Tolstoy died in 1875.
    1. VLR
      VLR 2 February 2020 08: 40 New
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      Alexei Nikolaevich Tolstoy, a typo, apparently, we’ll try to remove it.
  7. Gost2012 2 February 2020 09: 47 New
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    I like the article.
  8. Fishery 2 February 2020 12: 31 New
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    pirate as is
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 February 2020 13: 48 New
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      Quote: Tonya
      pirate as is

      Not a pirate, but a robber of the Thieves Cossack Ataman. Feel the difference! Almost a century before - under Ivan the Terrible, a similar label was hung up by Ermak Timofeevich (although in my opinion it is unreasonable)!
      Stepan Razin really stirred up Russia with his luck and audacity. They went over to the regiments! This did not happen before him and after (even under Emelyan Pugachev). His ability to fight with the "ship's army" is simply amazing! After him, “so” they did not fight on the rivers. We see similar tactics among ukshuinmiks, ship Cossacks and Yermak. The last three years he fought in a foreign land, relying on plows!
      1. Fishery 2 February 2020 14: 14 New
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        Well, some pirates were also successful) became governors, in real life I would like to be away from such passionaries
        1. rich 2 February 2020 20: 52 New
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          Poster of the first Russian film "Ponizovaya Volnitsa", 1908
  9. Sergey79 2 February 2020 12: 47 New
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    The history of the Cossacks is very interesting to draw from sources of imperial times. You learn a lot of new things.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 February 2020 13: 50 New
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      I agree! Do not deny yourself the pleasure of looking through Remizov's Tales, you will not regret it !!!
    2. rich 2 February 2020 22: 14 New
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      Sergey79:The history of the Cossacks is very interesting to draw from sources of imperial times. You learn a lot of new things.

      Yes, you will find out a lot of interesting things ... and even not at all expected. In the above privacy, as for the personality of Razin. In the Don Zimovey registry there is no mention of Cossack S. Razin, but there is also a mention and real birthplace of Cossack E. Pugachev. There are no references to S. Razin’s documents about S. Razin and his stay in Terki, but over the same period there are documents about the joint campaigns of the Terts, Kabardins and Yaits Cossacks against Shakh Tarkovsky and the Shemakhan Khanate. In particular, the documents for 1667 describe an earthquake in Shemakh where from 80 to 100 thousand people died. In those days it is extremely much. what the Cossacks and Kabardians didn’t take advantage of, having organized a joint “campaign for zipuns” Numerous earthquakes in 1668 are described, and in 1669 - from Turkey to Central Asia. Aurora Borealis even happened in Chervlennaya, Terki and Astrakhan. The sharp rise of the Caspian Sea is described. Flooding of Derbent, shelves began to sink. That is why in 1668 the city of Terki had to be moved. There are direct chronicles of the sea rapidly approaching the shore. That is, according to a historical legend in Razki in 1668, Razin sits, and according to the annalistic priest Caspian. One should also take into account the sharp improvement in Russian-Persian relations at that time. In 1664, Shah Abbas II issued a decree on the exemption from all duties of Russian merchants. 1665. In 1666, the Tsar gives the Armenian merchants who arrived from the Shah, exemption from bargaining duties: Moscow needs cotton. The king is keenly interested in trade relations with India - through Persia, of course. In 1668, the Volga Cossacks appeared as part of the Tersky Army, protecting the "lodging caravans from Astrakhan to Tsaritsin." The pages are set. Cossacks are moving from the Don, Yaik, Terek. Even the nogai and the native militia are written in the Cossack registry. There are detailed documents on the fight against the "thieves' ear-hooks" Prokop and Nededey. About the raids on the "robber camps of the Volga nogai" All this is thoroughly described, but ... absolutely no mention of Razin. But these are the times when K. Mutsal and A. Bekovich-Khasbulat were atamanized on the Terek ... Those would certainly not have tolerated a stranger on their land .... There is a lot of strange thing.
  10. Sertorius 2 February 2020 13: 01 New
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    As always, the author has an interesting, informative, with good visualization. Thank!
  11. faterdom 2 February 2020 13: 11 New
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    That's because the time was. Epic. This was still accompanied by a war with the Poles, shy of the Cossacks now with Russia (Bogdan Khmelnitsky), then against (heirs), the church schism again.
    In general, I met in Razin based on the novel by Chapygin, I think that he reproduced the whole atmosphere of time brilliantly.
    I would also like to note that for the next 100 years, people were waiting for brutal enslavement (the era of Peter, Anna Ioannovna, Catherine II), and for them in the person of Razin, who executed the royal governor, there was a kind of outlet and hope: the tears would pour off. And the Pugachev uprising became much more massive and powerful.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 February 2020 14: 37 New
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      And the Pugachev uprising became much more massive and powerful.

      Here from what belfry to watch! Pugachevschina also stirred up the national question of the Volga, Perm and Stone Belt! So nevertheless closer is not rebellion, but rebellion! For example, the Bashkir yurts holding Salavat began to cut the Ural Tatars and mountain factories! Those in response to the Bashkirs and serfs. Kazan Tatars were noted here and here. It was and vice versa that the mountain factories of the Isetian line held Pugachev and poured guns on him. Serf workers paired with the Mordvins of the Staro-Utkinsk plant from cannons fired from Cossacks, Bashkirs and serf Russian peasants
      Even in the eighties from the old people I heard their vision of the events of the “Pugachev uprising”! And from the Bolsheviks and Communists. Pugach goat planted in blast furnaces and burned the church! Pugachevschina for the mining Urals was troubled, dark time! For the first time factories went against the same factories. With guns, sleighs and carts. What was more there - to crush a competitor or to rob a neighbor's jerk! This topic is still waiting for its researcher !!!
  12. faterdom 2 February 2020 15: 11 New
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    Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
    And the Pugachev uprising became much more massive and powerful.

    Here from what belfry to watch! Pugachevschina also stirred up the national question of the Volga, Perm and Stone Belt! So nevertheless closer is not rebellion, but rebellion! For example, the Bashkir yurts holding Salavat began to cut the Ural Tatars and mountain factories! Those in response to the Bashkirs and serfs. Kazan Tatars were noted here and here. It was and vice versa that the mountain factories of the Isetian line held Pugachev and poured guns on him. Serf workers paired with the Mordvins of the Staro-Utkinsk plant from cannons fired from Cossacks, Bashkirs and serf Russian peasants
    Even in the eighties from the old people I heard their vision of the events of the “Pugachev uprising”! And from the Bolsheviks and Communists. Pugach goat planted in blast furnaces and burned the church! Pugachevschina for the mining Urals was troubled, dark time! For the first time factories went against the same factories. With guns, sleighs and carts. What was more there - to crush a competitor or to rob a neighbor's jerk! This topic is still waiting for its researcher !!!

    The nationalities played a significant role in Pugachev’s army, and they had reasons for that. Say, the Bashkirs were never conquered and joined, except with the promises of "living as before" as part of their pastures and nomads, but now they began to receive all the signs that they were being stalled: fortresses, towns, plants near by. It was possible to resolve the issue by bribing the elite, generals, monetary salaries (which was a hundred years later in Caucasian politics). But - they did not consider it necessary, they received just such support from Pugachev. The core of the Pugachevsky army was still Cossacks and soldiers, and he set quite political goals, retained significant territories, and industry worked for him.
    So, compared to the Razin rebellion, everything was systemic, to some extent a civil war - after all, the Pugachevites were “for the tsar!”, And not just like that.
  13. Oquzyurd 2 February 2020 15: 44 New
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    In Soviet times, the Baku village was called -Razin. It is strange that anyone who plundered the same city deserved such an honor, especially since under the USSR.
  14. Oleg 2 February 2020 21: 26 New
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    For the winter, Razin is located in the headwaters of the Don - about two days from Cherkassk.

    Comrade Ryzhov! Well, at least you looked at the map! Where is Cherkassk (now Starocherkassk) and where is the headwaters of the Don!
    1. AzakAzgerd 28 February 2020 13: 41 New
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      Two days journey from Starocherkassk on the Don is ~ 100 km. this is approximately the area of ​​Semikarakorsk, Semikarakorsk to call the "lower Don" is also hardly possible.
  15. Senior seaman 4 February 2020 08: 48 New
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    I read somewhere that Razin’s campaign destroyed the Russian-Persian Union against the Ottomans.