The firstborn of strategic aviation. "Russian Knight" Sikorsky


"Russian Knight" Sikorsky


The Russian Knight aircraft became the first four-engine aircraft in stories aviation. Created by designer Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky in 1913, the aircraft set several world records and immediately hit the pages of the world press. Emperor Nicholas II personally came to see the plane, who was delighted with what he saw. The multi-engine machine impressed the imagination of the people of its time, leaving a noticeable mark in the history of domestic and world aviation.

Birth of the Russian Knight


At the beginning of the 1909th century, the Russian aviation industry was in its infancy. The first aircraft factory appeared in the country in 1910, before that in the Russian Empire there were only workshops in which the repair of foreign aircraft was carried out. The construction of aircraft was mainly carried out by enthusiasts, relying on their own forces. In the XNUMXs, the first plants began to appear in St. Petersburg and Moscow.

In 1910, the workshop “The First Russian Ballooning Partnership” was opened in St. Petersburg (the Gamayun plant since 1915). The plant was opened for a loan received from the Ministry of War. In Moscow, a little earlier, after the end of the Russo-Japanese War, a new line of activity was opened by the Dux plant, which launched its first aircraft in 1909. After eliminating all the shortcomings and numerous alterations, the car took to the air in 1910, and until 1917 the enterprise itself was proudly called the Imperial Aircraft Building Plant in Moscow.

The firstborn of strategic aviation. "Russian Knight" Sikorsky
Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky

Another production site for the creation of aircraft was one of the colossi of the industry of the Russian Empire - the Russian-Baltic Carriage Works, familiar to many if not by aircraft, then by the first Russian production cars under the Russo-Balt brand. In 1910, an aviation department was established at the plant in Riga - an aviation workshop, which in 1912 moved to St. Petersburg. In the same year, Igor Sikorsky became the chief designer of the aviation workshop, whose talent and capabilities were believed by the head of the workshop, Mikhail Vladimirovich Shidlovsky. In the future, he provided Sikorsky with all kinds of support.

Mikhail Shidlovsky not only discerned the talent and extraordinary abilities of the future “father of helicopters” and the famous Russian and American aircraft designer, but also contributed to the search for financing for the implementation of his projects. Without his help, Sikorsky would hardly have been able to carry out his plan. The aircraft he proposed was a bold decision not only for Russia, but for the whole world. Initially, Igor Sikorsky planned to create a twin-engine aircraft, but such a project in those years already did not surprise anyone. Projects of twin-engine aircraft were developed in many countries of the world. Already in the process of working on a new aircraft, it became possible to buy four Argus engines, and Sikorsky got the idea to build a four-engine aircraft and did not lose.

By the standards of the 1910s, the proposed aircraft had gigantic dimensions, it is no coincidence that one of its first names was “Grand” (French Le Grand) or simply saying “Big”. In the future, the name “Big Russian-Baltic” was considered, which was to emphasize the belonging of the new aircraft to the manufacturer. And only the third name, under which the aircraft forever entered the history of aviation, was the name "Russian Knight". As they would say now, a very memorable name from a marketing point of view.


Emperor Nicholas II inspects the plane "Russian Knight"

It is worth noting that many were skeptical of the new Sikorsky aircraft. Few believed that a car with a mass of 3,5 tons could even get off the ground. However, all skeptics were put to shame. Failure did not occur, moreover, Sikorsky created the world's first four-engine aircraft, which could lift more than 500 kg of cargo into the air. Nobody had built anything like it before him. The first flight, which took place on May 26, 1913, was successful. But outside the Russian Empire, many did not believe news about building an airplane. If Twitter existed in those years, US President Woodrow Wilson could have blamed the media for the next Fake News, but the continued flights of the "Russian giant" quickly dispelled all suspicions of journalists around the world.

In the same 1913, but on August 2, the plane set a new world record for flight duration. The Russian Knight spent 1 hour 54 minutes in the sky. After setting the record, all critics and skeptics finally bit their tongues. A little later, the plane was personally inspected by the emperor, who was pleased with what he saw. A photograph has survived to this day, in which Nicholas II sits in an open area located in front of the passenger compartment. After this event, Sikorsky was given carte blanche for all subsequent developments, which ultimately led to the birth of the first four-engine bomber in the history of Ilya Muromets.

Description of the design of the “Russian Knight”


While working on a new aircraft, Sikorsky saw it as an experimental and experimental machine, which, if necessary, could be used for strategic reconnaissance. By design, the “Russian Knight” was a four-engine multi-section biplane, the distinguishing feature of which were wings of different lengths. The span of the upper wing is 27 meters, the lower - 20 meters. The total wing area is 125 square meters. The aircraft is 20 meters long and 4 meters high. The maximum take-off weight with cargo and passengers exceeded 4 tons. For those years, the plane was simply gigantic, although by today's standards it is comparable to small business jets (registered in offshore), which Russian bankers and officials love to fly.

The fuselage of the four-engine Russian Knight was a rectangular frame, which was covered with special plywood. In this case, the frame itself was made of wood. In the center of the fuselage was a passenger cabin, which in its shape resembled a wagon. No wonder the aircraft was developed by a division of the Russian-Baltic Carriage Works. The salon was divided into two compartments. In one there were passengers and crew, the second was intended primarily for storing various spare parts, tools and equipment. It was planned that in case of any malfunctions they could be corrected right in flight. In front of the cabin was an open area with a fence. Here, in the case of using the aircraft in combat, Sikorsky planned to install a machine gun and a searchlight.


During the development of the aircraft Igor Sikorsky considered various options for the location of four engines, eventually dwelling on a diagram with a row arrangement. All four Argus engines with 100 hp. each were arranged in a row and received pulling screws. In fact, Sikorsky created the classic scheme of a heavy multi-engine aircraft, which is widely used in the aircraft industry today. Engine power was enough to disperse the aircraft in the air to a speed of 90 km / h, and the maximum flight range was 170 kilometers.

Initially, the aircraft was designed for a crew of three and the transportation of four passengers. For those years, the ability to raise seven people into the sky was already a notable achievement. Moreover, the test flights of the Russian Knight demonstrated that the machine is very stable in the sky. It turned out that the passengers of the aircraft can easily move around the cabin, which does not violate the stability of the aircraft and does not affect the flight. For take-off, a four-engine Sikorsky machine had a runway about 700 meters long.

The fate of the aircraft "Russian Knight"


The fate of the first four-engine aircraft in history was unenviable. The plane was seriously damaged in an accident. By chance, this happened when the "Russian Knight" was on the ground. On September 11, 1913, during the 3rd competition of military aircraft, the engine from the Meller-II aircraft fell on the Vityaz standing on the ground. The engine landed on the left wing box and severely damaged the entire structure.


Damage to the “Russian Knight” after an accident

After this incident, the plane decided not to recover. One of the reasons for this decision was that the material from which the plane (tree) was assembled was very damp by that time, so Sikorsky had reasonable doubts about maintaining the strength of the whole structure. In addition, the machine was initially considered as an experimental model, on which it was planned to work out new technologies. The Russian Knight coped with this task with a bang, paving the way to the sky for the subsequent Sikorsky aircraft, primarily the famous Ilya Muromets bomber series, the production of which continued until 1918.

Despite the small history of its existence, Russian Knight opened the way to the sky for other four-engine aircraft, becoming the ancestor of all heavy and strategic aviation. Built in October 1913, the four-engine heavy bomber Ilya Muromets was the first direct continuation of aviation ideas embodied in the Russian Knight.
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  1. 1959ain 9 February 2020 05: 32 New
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    And the motors were not Russian
    1. Grandfather 9 February 2020 06: 19 New
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      Quote: 1959ain
      designer Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky

      and Sikorsky, not very Russian ... especially on his mother. winked
      1. Lontus 9 February 2020 07: 47 New
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        Quote: Dead Day
        Quote: 1959ain
        designer Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky

        and Sikorsky, not very Russian ... especially on his mother. winked

        phew, what stupid lying provocations.

        Sikorsky, Ivan Alekseevich.
        Participated in the Kiev club of Russian nationalists. On November 12, 1910, at a meeting of Russian voters dedicated to the elections to the City Duma, Sikorsky delivered a very sensible speech:

        “All of Russia is looking at Kiev. Petersburg never mattered the leader of the national life of Russia. After 1905, Moscow also lost its moral authority in the eyes of national-Russian society. The significance of the center of Russian national life begins to shift to Kiev, and the people of Kiev have the highest duty to the city and homeland: we must strengthen the Russian stronghold that has arisen here. It’s time to tell us: we are the sons of a great nation and here in historical Kiev, we are the masters! The city administration of the mother of Russian cities should be Russian ... We must resolutely say: we are Russians, and Kiev is ours ... I, as an old man. Compared to most of those present here, I can say one thing: “I bless you! Go boldly and amicably and do not give anyone your birthright “... The composition of the current Duma must be resolutely renewed. It is necessary to support the merchants in the elections. Kiev needs to be rich, but rich, as a national-Russian center ... ”
        1. Grandfather 9 February 2020 10: 04 New
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          Quote: Lontus
          phew, what stupid lying provocations.

          what illiteracy and haste to drool ...
      2. mat-vey 9 February 2020 07: 47 New
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        What do you say for F.E.Dzerzhisky?
      3. Bar2 9 February 2020 08: 40 New
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        Quote: Dead Day
        so Sikorsky, not very Russian ... by mother person


        Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky was born on May 25, 1889 in the city of Kiev. He was the second son and fifth (youngest) child in the family of a famous psychiatrist, professor at the University of Kiev at the Department of Mental and Nervous Diseases - Ivan Alekseevich Sikorsky (1842-1919) - and Maria Stefanovna Sikorska, nee Temryuk-Cherkasova.

        https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Сикорский,_Игорь_Иванович

        and who was his mother in your opinion?
        1. Grandfather 9 February 2020 10: 03 New
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          Quote: Bar2
          nee Temryuk-Cherkasova.

          what else to continue to explain?
        2. Constanty 9 February 2020 10: 34 New
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          Igor Sikorsky was born in Kiev, in the Russian Empire, as the youngest of five children of an outstanding Russian psychiatrist, Ivan Sikorsky. The Sikorski family was a farming nobility in Volyn during the time of the Commonwealth. The great-grandfather and grandfather of the builder were Orthodox priests


          No one doubts that Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky is outstanding Russian aircraft manufacturer, even if most of the time in exile.
          1. remal 10 February 2020 00: 36 New
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            He defined himself as Russian even when he was in exile. What are you raving bred.
            1. Constanty 10 February 2020 10: 52 New
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              Where do you see ravings? here I clearly write and emphasize that he was a Russian aircraft designer!
              1. remal 10 February 2020 21: 12 New
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                Then they wrote pure fiction about his parents. Some kind of hint, instead of ignoring it, you “emphasize” that it’s like, not Russian, but Russian. This is breeding bullshit.
                1. Constanty 11 February 2020 10: 53 New
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                  this is not fiction. these are the facts. The facts in no way deny that Sikorsky was Russian. and your interpretation
                  not Russian, but Russian ...
                  this is excessive sensitivity. For me, here is Russian = Russian.
                  1. remal 11 February 2020 11: 49 New
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                    And if someone writes something on the fence, is this also a fact that must be taken into account and generalized? Underlining!
      4. svp67 9 February 2020 10: 02 New
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        Quote: Dead Day
        and Sikorsky, not very Russian ... especially on his mother.

        So his father was an ethnic Pole, but this did not prevent him from being an ardent supporter of the Russian autocracy and alas, a Russian nationalist.
        1. Grandfather 9 February 2020 10: 05 New
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          Quote: svp67
          Quote: Dead Day
          and Sikorsky, not very Russian ... especially on his mother.

          So his father was an ethnic Pole, but this did not prevent him from being an ardent supporter of the Russian autocracy and alas, a Russian nationalist.

          Well, what am I talking about? but no, here the "patriots" were worried as much as horror, not knowing the story.
        2. Constanty 9 February 2020 10: 37 New
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          I do not agree. Ivan Sikorsky is an outstanding Russian psychiatrist,
      5. Rey_ka 10 February 2020 15: 48 New
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        Any foreigner who brought glory to the Russian state is more Russian than you and I here
    2. svp67 9 February 2020 09: 59 New
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      Quote: 1959ain
      And the motors were not Russian

      And then they were all in metal?
      By the way.
      It turned out that the passengers of the aircraft can easily move around the cabin, which does not violate the stability of the aircraft and does not affect the flight.
      Moreover, it became clear thanks to the BAD, unstable operation of the engines, which required, in one of the flights, Sikorsky's exit to the plane and his passage to the problem engine. Which almost did not affect the steady movement of the aircraft.
      Yes, and initially "Russian Knight" had a shorter, but foreign name "Grand"
  2. Vladimir_2U 9 February 2020 05: 39 New
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    A real reason to be proud of the championship! But rather big a spoon the tar tar was the lack of domestic engines.
    1. Grandfather 9 February 2020 06: 30 New
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      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      A real reason to be proud of the championship! But rather big a spoon the tar tar was the lack of domestic engines.

      for America, he did incomparably more.
      1. The leader of the Redskins 9 February 2020 08: 12 New
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        He has done incomparably more for WORLD AVIATION ...
    2. Simargl 9 February 2020 07: 12 New
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      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      But a rather big spoon for tar tar was the lack of domestic engines.
      Rather, a developed industry, which then fell back on WWII
      1. mat-vey 9 February 2020 07: 50 New
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        There was a lot of things .... and this absence even in the Patriotic War was hanging around ...
        1. Simargl 9 February 2020 14: 29 New
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          Quote: mat-vey
          this absence, even in the Patriotic War, went around ...
          Well, a lot of things responded to the Patriotic War - there, nevertheless, there was a civilian ...
          But the bottom line is that Kolyan No. 2 about ... hatched the country purely for its nearness and indecision.
          When 98% of the population is in a village, to fight those who have agriculture with countries where the townspeople are not 2%, but 30% are architects: it’s not just people who gathered to live in apartments, but industry, including village mechanization.
          Many times I try to explain on the fingers the direct consequence of mechanization: a person has a power of 150-200W, a horse 500-1000W. Tractor 30 +++ kW, i.e. the equivalent of 60 deadly cheap horses. Minimum.
          1. mat-vey 9 February 2020 15: 03 New
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            The lack of a chemical, electric vacuum industry, the production of bearings and machine tools here, even without a civil war, are not just sadness, but longing, so to speak, is deadly.
  3. Sandy 9 February 2020 06: 15 New
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    The only thing I disagree with is that Ilya Muromets was a strategic bomber. Severe (according to the concept of those times), yes, strategic, no.
    An interesting point on the stability of the Russian Knight and Ilya Muromets. These aircraft, unlike most modern machines of the classical scheme, had a center of mass located near the trailing edge of the wing. Therefore, the stabilizer of the brainchild of Sikorsky created a lifting force directed upwards.
    1. Ponchik78 9 February 2020 07: 08 New
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      But he was definitely a "fortress"))) The Germans managed to bring down only one plane. And only leaning on the crowd alone.
    2. iouris 9 February 2020 14: 06 New
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      Quote: Sandy
      I do not agree that Ilya Muromets was a strategic bomber.

      Probably, a Russian hydrogen bomb of the 1913 model was unearthed somewhere, and the information is still classified.
  4. Free wind 9 February 2020 06: 55 New
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    And you can add to the pluses that this aircraft was made using stealth technology, it was specially made of wood, the reflective surface was 0,00000000012 m *, and even that was a pilot’s cigarette. In the case of firing rockets, the pilots opened the gates and threw out a cigarette-case, the patriots flew right through and left for a false target. laughing In the photo, the king is not up to the inspection, he seems to be stuck on the stairs and is about to screw up. From the bottom you see a man running to help, the image is blurry, that is, a person moves quickly.
    1. Yura 9 February 2020 11: 11 New
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      Quote: Free Wind
      And you can add to the pros

      The joke is good, but someone pushed the minuses, someone hungover, not to laugh.
    2. dauria 9 February 2020 11: 18 New
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      In the photo the king is not up to the inspection, he seems to be stuck on the stairs and is about to screw up.

      laughing Plus for attentiveness ....
      Only this is not a "ladder". You see a historical event - the first case in the world when the head of state down the ramp the plane!
      By the way, from history ... In Russia, the crew commander was not a pilot, but an observer pilot with a machine gun. In a higher rank. And he piloted and executed the steering-pilot commands. laughing
    3. Moon 12 February 2020 13: 22 New
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      Quote: Free Wind
      In case of firing rockets, the pilots opened the gates and threw out a cigarette

      with its speed, size and low height .. Even the anti-aircraft guns of 1 MV drove away.
      A rocket is hard to launch on it. Unless thermal ... Engines are very close and many.
      But how humor can be allowed.
      I remembered the film as an aircraft carrier of the 21st century moved to in 1941 ...
      At first they didn’t even understand how to shoot down Zero. But nothing. Quickly accustomed. Machine guns quickly coped.
  5. Lamata 9 February 2020 07: 25 New
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    Interestingly, at least one instance has reached our time?
    1. Ros 56 9 February 2020 09: 06 New
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      Are you out of your mind or did Saturday go well yesterday? lol
      1. Lamata 9 February 2020 12: 59 New
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        In his))) and did not come out of it !!! just asked a question.
        1. Ros 56 9 February 2020 13: 01 New
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          Yes, nothing happens.
          1. Lamata 9 February 2020 13: 06 New
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            Of course it happens, although it didn’t take a break on Saturday, but ... he asked, and suddenly it was left, it wasn’t with us in Europe or in the states. the ways of the Lord are impossible.
    2. Sandy 9 February 2020 10: 15 New
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      In 1978, they made a replica of the layout, which is now on display at the Air Force Museum in Monino.
      Here is an interesting article about her:
      http://www.kpopov.ru/military/monino_muromec.htm
      1. NN52 9 February 2020 11: 54 New
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        In Monino "Ilya Muromets" ..
        And the model "Russian Knight" in a scale of 1:10 in the "Central House of Aviation and Cosmonautics DOSAAF of Russia".

        http://aviacosmosdom.ru/
        1. Sandy 9 February 2020 15: 10 New
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          Monino remake. Full size, but larger layout than airplane.
          1. The comment was deleted.
  6. The leader of the Redskins 9 February 2020 08: 21 New
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    In the seventies of the last century, a documentary film about Sikorsky was shot in Kiev. We found the house where the family lived before the revolution, but doubted the numbering - something in the architecture has changed. We decided to clarify with the ancient pensioners sitting next to the bench:
    - Tell me, where did Sikorsky live?
    - Ivan Alekseevich? So ... In this house! Oh, you know, there was a wonderful person, a doctor from God, he always came to the rescue ...
    This was followed by a detailed account of all the honesty of Sikrsky's father.
    - Thank you very much, but what do you say about his son? About Igor Ivanovich?
    - Ah ... It was a non-drinking ... I built all some models ...
    laughing
    The story of life.
    1. dauria 9 February 2020 11: 11 New
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      - Ah ... It was a non-drinking ... I built all some models ...


      good Continue .... Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev was known to his neighbors as an outstanding master in the manufacture of suitcases. Yes Yes. In this way he made a living. And the table - but who needs it, except for a couple of overseas who disputed the championship.
  7. Ros 56 9 February 2020 09: 02 New
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    The installed spotlight on the nose is especially touching, which indicates the level of aviation design thought, and nevertheless is admirable that RUSSIANS did it.
  8. iouris 9 February 2020 12: 19 New
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    "Strategic" is, of course, an excess. Moreover, the designer became American, and Riga - non-Russian. The first American-Latvian plane.
    1. Ros 56 9 February 2020 12: 59 New
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      And you refer to what trolls - to the Latvian or striped. Decide in the end.
      1. iouris 9 February 2020 14: 10 New
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        To the Russians. What are you dissatisfied with, dear Yuri? Essentially, what's wrong? By the way, the appeal "You" in Russian is supposed to be written with a capital letter.
        1. Simargl 9 February 2020 14: 37 New
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          Quote: iouris
          By the way, the appeal "You" in Russian is supposed to be written with a capital letter.
          If he addresses you directly, then yes, if he addresses a little one like you (trolls, as he believes).

          Quote: iouris
          The first American-Latvian plane.
          Here, here ... you trolls are not friends with logic at all, but you echo them.
          At the time of the creation of the Russian Knight and Ilya Muromets, Sikorsky was a citizen of the Russian Empire, and Riga was part of it.
          1. iouris 9 February 2020 16: 42 New
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            With such logic and with such rules, you can easily defeat everyone. Whose Kiev is it?
            1. Simargl 10 February 2020 09: 58 New
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              Quote: iouris
              Whose Kiev is it?
              And Kiev is a challenge prize.
              When the UN was formed, for example, the Byelorussian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR were represented "independently" from the USSR.
              And over the course of history - this, as mentioned above, is a challenge prize: even Steve Martin would be afraid to come up with such an adder, a fight for reigning ...
              ... now, temporarily ... American, probably ...
              And during the residence of Igor Sikorsky in the Russian Empire - Russian.
            2. Rey_ka 10 February 2020 15: 54 New
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              Igor Ivanovich would have turned around in his grave if he had found out that he was Ukrainian!)))
  9. Undecim 9 February 2020 13: 10 New
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    During the development of the aircraft Igor Sikorsky considered various options for the location of four engines, eventually dwelling on a diagram with a row arrangement. All four Argus engines with 100 hp. each were arranged in a row and received pulling screws.
    Sikorsky just stopped at the scheme with the tandem arrangement of engines, as he believed that when installed in a row there would be a strong turning moment.

    With such a propulsion system, the aircraft flew from May 10 to July 23, 1913. And only making sure that turning off the engines of either side does not affect handling, Sikorsky put all the engines in a row.
  10. Mathafaka 9 February 2020 15: 36 New
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    According to the language of the local public, Sikorsky is pshek and anti-adviser
    1. iouris 10 February 2020 02: 07 New
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      Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky is a real Russian, engineer, philosopher. Born in the center of Russian nationalism (in Kiev).
  11. voyaka uh 9 February 2020 17: 38 New
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    The project, of course, is striking in its courage for its time.
    Then single-engine aircraft hardly flew.
    And then a four-engine flew successfully.
    1. iouris 9 February 2020 23: 10 New
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      Any aircraft starts and builds around the engine. And the engine seems to be German.
      1. Simargl 10 February 2020 10: 01 New
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        Quote: iouris
        Any aircraft starts and builds around the engine.
        Yeah! Su-57 is an example ...
      2. Moon 12 February 2020 13: 27 New
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        Quote: iouris
        And the engine seems to be German.

        If about Muromets then
        German "Argus" in 100 liters. with. the new aircraft had twice the mass of the load and maximum flight altitude.
        In 1915, at the Russo-Balt plant in Riga, engineer Kireev designed the R-BVZ aircraft engine. The engine was a six-cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled. Car-type radiators were located on its sides. R-BVZ was installed on some modifications of "Ilya Muromets
        By the way, Ilya was the largest seaplane 1MB.
  12. iouris 10 February 2020 11: 42 New
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    To summarize. Sikorsky did not design strategic bombers. Sikorsky designed helicopters. And in the USA. There was no strategic aviation even in the USSR. In the USSR, there was YES ("long-range aviation"). But in any case, the "firstborn of strategic aviation" ("domestic") is the American B-29, sorry, Tu-4. With American (USA) engines. But Sikorsky has no relation to the design of this machine. Like Tupolev.
    Now tear me apart, eat mine with oil.
    1. Rey_ka 10 February 2020 15: 56 New
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      There is an old Soviet film about Tupolev and Sikorsky ...
    2. Moon 12 February 2020 13: 29 New
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      Quote: iouris
      Sikorsky did not design strategic bombers

      he was from a galaxy of world designers of Dawn of Aviation.
      The birth of all kinds and possibilities.
      And the fact that from the designer of aircraft to the designers of helicopters, he has a passion.
      The birth of helicopters is also part of aviation.
  13. illuminat 10 February 2020 14: 59 New
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    Quote: Sandy
    An interesting point on the stability of the Russian Knight and Ilya Muromets. These aircraft, unlike most modern machines of the classical scheme, had a center of mass located near the trailing edge of the wing. Therefore, the stabilizer of the brainchild of Sikorsky created a lifting force directed upwards.

    That's right, plus for an interesting detail. Only, in translation into Russian, it sounds something like this: this plane had a pronounced rear centering (EMNIP, more than 60% of SAX) and, as a result, carrying a stabilizer. But this feature is not related to sustainability.
    And one more thing - the article refers to the term "different lengths of wings", apparently, had in mind "scope". IMHO, it makes sense to adjust. Tea is not on the site of housewives.
    1. iouris 10 February 2020 15: 22 New
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      Quote: illuminat
      Sikorsky's offspring stabilizer created upward lift

      Explain how longitudinal stability was ensured? Was the ESDU installed on the Russky Vityaz aircraft (as was the first time on the Su-27)?
      1. illuminat 10 February 2020 16: 14 New
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        Longitudinal stability was ensured by the aerodynamic scheme (center of gravity in front of the aerodynamic focus). The car was stable or close to neutral. Accordingly, the installation of an EMF was not required.
        1. iouris 10 February 2020 22: 55 New
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          If the center of gravity is in front of the focus, then the moment equilibrium is achieved by creating a negatively directed aerodynamic force of the stabilizer. If the focus (the conditional point of application of the total lifting force) is ahead, then the aerodynamic force of the stabilizer is directed upwards. If the angle of attack is perturbed, the aircraft will go “spaced”.
          1. illuminat 11 February 2020 12: 17 New
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            Dear iouris, you have mixed everything up. The center of pressure (CP) with an aerodynamic focus (AF), lift with increment of lift, and aerodynamic force of a stabilizer with lift of a stabilizer.

            The focus is only on the increment of the lifting force of the WHOLE PLANE. And it is from him (increment) that the appearance of a moment that restores the initial angle of attack or aggravates the disturbance depends. In this case, the lifting force of the stabilizer can be directed up and down, and generally be absent.

            And for this reason, the stability (by the position of the center of gravity (CT) relative to AF) of an airplane of ANY scheme is determined in exactly the same way. And with a bearing stub (“Russian Knight” and “Ilya Muromets”, as an example), and with a tandem wing, and ducks, and tailless, and “flying wing”.
            As soon as you learn this, you will understand how the IM flew, having almost always positive stabilizer lift. Understand how he could be stable, having such a rear centering, and without any EMF.

            The topic of aerodynamic focus is not the easiest, periodically causes some difficulties for children (cadets). If something remains unclear to you, ask, I will explain as time is available.
            1. iouris 11 February 2020 13: 20 New
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              And why was a stabilizer needed if nothing depended on it, and why was the first statically unstable aircraft the last aircraft developed in the USSR?
              However, these "details" have absolutely nothing to do with the declared topic. The fact that Sikorsky created the first-born strategic aviation is not proven.
              1. illuminat 11 February 2020 14: 26 New
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                Quote: iouris
                And why was a stabilizer needed if nothing depended on it, and why was the first statically unstable aircraft the last aircraft developed in the USSR?

                You decide if you need answers to these questions,
                Quote: iouris
                However, these "details" have absolutely nothing to do with the declared topic. The fact that Sikorsky created the first-born strategic aviation is not proven.
                or all the same, decide that the aerodynamics and features of the Russian Knight are completely uninteresting to you.