Portrait of I.V. Stalin. Artist B. Karpov
The red emperor. After the death of Joseph Stalin, several ambitious projects were completed that could turn the USSR-Russia into an advanced civilization that overtook the whole world for many generations. Projects that could create a “golden age” society and forever bury predatory Western capitalism, a consumption and extermination society that kills people and nature, as well as bring great economic benefits to the country, contribute to its spatial development, development of the outskirts and strengthen security.
The death of the Golden Age society
Stalin created a civilization and a society of the future, a society of the "golden age" ("What kind of society did Stalin create?") A society of knowledge, service and creation. At the center of this society was the creator, creator, teacher, constructor and engineer. It was a civilization based on social justice and an ethics of conscience (the "code matrix" of Russian civilization, the basis of "Russianness"). Civilization, an alternative to the predatory Western world, parasitic capitalism, a society of consumption and self-destruction (society of the "golden calf").
Soviet (Russian) civilization was directed toward the future, towards the stars. She was eager for the "beautiful far away." Stalin created a national, healthy elite from the best representatives of the people: heroes of war and labor, labor aristocracy, scientific and technical intelligentsia, Stalin falcon pilots, military officers and generals, professors and teachers, doctors and engineers, scientists and designers. Hence such great attention to the development of science, technology, education, culture and art. The creation of a whole system of palaces of science, houses of creativity, art and music schools, stadiums and sports clubs, etc. The Soviet leader was not afraid of smart and educated people. On the contrary, under Stalin, the children of peasants and workers became marshals and generals, professors and doctors, pilots and captains, researchers of the atom, the oceans, space. Any person, regardless of origin, affluence, place of residence, could fully reveal his creative, intellectual and physical potential.
Hence, such a breakthrough of the USSR, even after the departure of the great leader. If Stalin lived another generation, either he or his successors would have continued his course, had not been afraid of the creative impulse and intellectual development of the people, and this process would have become irreversible. A large estate of the working people would come to power (hence the leader’s desire to limit the power of the party, to transfer more power to the Soviets), strengthened and gained strength, pushing from his midst both new excellent managers and philosopher-priests who understand the laws of the universe and are able to preserve spiritual health of the people.
In the West, they saw all this and were terribly afraid of the Soviet project, which could become dominant on the planet. They closely watched every step of Moscow. To destroy the Soviet project and Russian civilization of the future, Hitler was nourished and armed, they gave him almost all of Europe. The Nazis were to destroy the first sprouts of the Russian "Golden Age". But the power of the Russians was not to crush. The Union won the terrible war and became even stronger, tempered in fire and blood.
Then the owners of the West made a bet on the remnants of the “fifth column”, the hidden Trotskyist and anti-Stalinist Khrushchev. The Red Emperor was able to eliminate and brought to power the destroyer Khrushchev. And he perfectly coped with his role, arranged de-Stalinization and "perestroika-1." Khrushchev found support in the party nomenclature, which did not want to give up power and warm places, to follow the path of transfer of control to the people and the cosmopolitan, pro-Western intelligentsia. He could not finish the work that he had begun. The Soviet elite was not yet completely affected by decay, did not want collapse, and Khrushchev was neutralized. However, she did not return to the Stalinist course. This became the foundation of the civilizational and state disaster of 1985-1993. Now the West could calmly wait for the last representatives of the Stalinist guard to leave, and full degenerates would come to power, who would destroy, sell Soviet civilization and the Soviet (Russian) people.
The destruction of the ocean fleet
Under the red emperor, the "imperial" armed forces of the USSR-Russia were recreated, the best traditions of the empire were restored. The best army in the world was created and hardened in battle, defeating the Nazi "European Union" and stopping the new (third) world war, which the owners of London and Washington planned to unleash.
To create a full-fledged armed forces, Stalin planned to create a large, ocean fleet. Even the Russian sovereign Peter the Great noted: “sovereigns of the sea fleet those who don’t have tokmo have one hand, but those who have a fleet both have! ” Such a fleet was needed by the Soviet Union in order to withstand the aggressive intentions of the leaders of the Western world - Great Britain and the USA, who were great sea powers. Given the increased power of Soviet industry, advances in science and technology, successes in the development of the economy of the USSR, this was a completely feasible plan. Such a fleet began to be built even before the Great Patriotic War - the "Ten-Year Plan for the Construction of Navy Ships" (1938-1947). Solved this problem, the People's Commissar of the Navy Nikolai Kuznetsov.
It is generally accepted that under Stalin, the role of aircraft carriers in the modern war was underestimated, but this is not so. In the 30s in the USSR there were several projects for the construction of aircraft carriers. The presence of such ships in the fleet was recognized as necessary for the formation of balanced formations. The need for air cover for ships at sea was also not in doubt. Carriers were supposed to be part of the Pacific and Northern Fleets. Before the Great Patriotic War, they prepared a project for a small aircraft carrier (air group - 30 aircraft). However, the war suspended these plans, including the construction of aircraft carriers. During the war, I had to focus on the small fleet - destroyers, submarines, submarine hunters, minesweepers, torpedo boats, armored boats, etc. This was facilitated by the theater of operations - the closed Black and Baltic Seas, large rivers of Europe.
Soon after the end of the Great War and successes in the process of restoring the country's national economy, these plans returned. Kuznetsov presented to Stalin "The Ten-Year Program of Military Shipbuilding for 1946-1955." The admiral was a strong supporter of aircraft carriers. In 1944–1945 the commission, led by Vice Admiral Chernyshev, studied the experience of the war, including the use of aircraft carriers. The People's Commissar of the Navy Kuznetsov proposed building six large and small aircraft carriers each. However, Stalin reduced the number of aircraft carriers to two small ones for the Northern Fleet. It is believed that the Soviet leader underestimated the role in the war at the maritime theater. This is not entirely true. The construction of the fleet is a very complex issue in terms of organization, financial and material costs associated with long-term planning. Stalin was a thorough man and could not make decisions without first clarifying all the circumstances surrounding the issue. At the time, the command of the Soviet fleet did not have a unified view of aircraft carriers. Shipbuilding was delayed in development by 5–10 years, and aircraft carriers underwent a number of changes after the war. Their displacement increased, artillery and electronic weapons intensified, and jet-powered jet aircraft appeared. Therefore, in order to build new aircraft-carrying ships, it was necessary to eliminate the backlog in shipbuilding. There was no specialized design organization for the design of aircraft carriers. Thus, the head of the Red Empire made a decision based on the real capabilities of industry and the navy.
Since 1953, a pre-draft project for a light aircraft carrier with an aircraft group of 40 aircraft has been under development (project 85). In total, it was planned to build 9 such ships. However, all these plans to create a large fleet, including aircraft carriers, were not destined to come true. After Khrushchev came to power, who had a negative attitude to the development of conventional forces, all these plans were buried. The policy on large ships has changed radically. Kuznetsov in 1955 fell into disgrace. The question of the construction of aircraft carriers returned only under Brezhnev. Projects of heavy surface ships, such as heavy cruisers of the Stalingrad type (project 82) were also buried, a series of project 68 bis cruisers (according to NATO classification - Sverdlov class) were not completed, the ships under construction were decommissioned. Kuznetsov fought for the fleet even after Stalin left. So, in 1954, the Navy Commander-in-Chief initiated the development of an air defense cruiser (project 84), but he was soon hacked as well.
Khrushchev focused on creating a nuclear missile fleet. The priority was nuclear submarines and marine missile aviation coast-based. Large surface ships were considered auxiliary weaponsand aircraft carriers - "weapons of aggression." Khrushchev believed that the submarine fleet can solve all the problems, large surface ships are not needed at all, and aircraft carriers in the conditions of the development of missile weapons are “dead”. That is, the fleet now only partially developed. Thus, Khrushchev for a considerable time disrupted the creation of a full-fledged ocean fleet of the USSR.
It is interesting that the Americans partially supported the development of the surface fleet of the USSR. The United States in December 1959 put into operation the first strategic missile cruiser (nuclear submarine with ballistic missiles) "George Washington"). In response, the USSR began to build large anti-submarine ships (BOD). Also began to develop and build anti-submarine cruisers, helicopters of project 1123 "Condor", which served as the basis for future heavy aircraft-carrying cruisers. In the future, the Caribbean crisis showed the need for a strong ocean fleet, and large ships again began to be massively built.
Khrushchev’s “optimization” of the armed forces
Khrushchev “optimized” the army. Under Stalin, the army was planned to be brought to the states of peacetime - a reduction of 0,5 million people in three years (when the number of armed forces in March 1953 was 5,3 million people). Under Khrushchev, by January 1, 1956, about 1 million people had been reduced. In December 1956, 3,6 million posts remained in the Armed Forces. In January 1960, a decision was adopted (the law "On a New Significant Reduction in the Armed Forces of the USSR") to 1,3 million soldiers and officers, that is, more than a third of the total strength of the USSR Armed Forces. As a result, the Soviet armed forces were reduced by 2,5 times. It was a pogrom worse than the most terrible defeat in the war. Khrushchev smashed troops without war and more effective than any external enemy!
At the same time, experienced commanders and soldiers with unique combat experience were fired from the army. Pilots, tankers, artillerymen, infantrymen, etc. This was a powerful blow to the combat effectiveness of the Soviet Union (more details in the article on "VO" "How Khrushchev smashed the Soviet armed forces and law enforcement agencies").
Moreover, Khrushchev planned to inflict a mortal blow on the USSR Armed Forces. In February 1963, at a retreat of the Defense Council in Fili, he outlined his view on the country's future armed forces. Khrushchev planned to reduce the army to 0,5 million people needed to protect ballistic missiles. The rest of the army was to become a militia. In fact, Khrushchev wanted to implement the plans of the Trotskyists, who, even during the Civil War, wanted to create an army of a voluntary-militia (militia) type. Khrushchev, the hidden bearer of the ideas of Trotskyism, did not understand the significance of the "imperial" army and navy for Russia. He believed that a nuclear missile weapon was enough to deter the aggressor, and a manpower army could be put under the knife (like the fleet), enough police. On the other hand, Khrushchev cleaned up the Stalinist military elite, saw in it a threat to his power. The generals, like Zhukov, who had enormous authority, could have been replaced by the "maize".
At the same time, promising military programs not related to the development of nuclear missile weapons were cut. In particular, a powerful blow was inflicted on Soviet military aircraft. This enemy of the people demagogically argued that the country has good missiles, so you do not need to pay so much attention to the Air Force. Under Joseph Stalin, a lot of energy, effort, resources and time was spent on creating advanced aviation, various design bureaus, where excellent fighters, attack aircraft, bombers and the first strategic bombers were designed. Dozens of aircraft factories, domestic engine building, factories for smelting aircraft alloys, etc. were created. Under Khrushchev, aviation was badly damaged, hundreds of new aircraft were taken from military units and sent for scrapping.
Khrushchev also dealt a powerful blow to the prestige of the army. The press covered this pogrom from the “positive side”, to “cheers” (later this technique was repeated under Gorbachev and Yeltsin). Reported about the "joy" of soldiers and officers about the reduction, destruction of the latest technology. Obviously, this affected the morale of the army and Soviet society as a whole in the most negative way.
To be continued ...