200 years ago, Russian sailors discovered Antarctica

200 years ago, Russian sailors discovered Antarctica
M. M. Semenov. Vostok and Mirny sloops in Antarctica


200 years ago, on January 28 (January 16 according to the old style) of 1820, the Russian naval expedition of Lazarev and Bellingshausen discovered Antarctica. This greatest geographical discovery of Russian sailors is hushed up by the entire “world community”.

How Russian sailors discovered the Ice Continent


Even ancient geographers believed that in the Southern Hemisphere for balance there should be the same mass of land as in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Renaissance, the idea of ​​the existence of a vast southern continent (the “unknown southern continent”, Terra Australia incognita) received a new life. Then began the era of great geographical discoveries. From time to time, the discoveries of Western researchers were considered the discovery of part of the new mainland. Magellan discovered Tierra del Fuego, and it was considered part of the vast southern continent. The northern coast of New Guinea, New Holland (Australia), and New Zealand were taken as part of the southern land, but later new researchers disproved these opinions.

At this time, the Dutch, British and French competed, looking for new lands for colonization and robbery. Organized new expeditions. France in the 1760s organized several expeditions to search for the southern mainland, but they were unsuccessful. During the Second circumnavigation of the famous British traveler D. Cook (1772-1775), London tried to get ahead of the French in the discovery of the Southern mainland. " Cook went on a campaign an ardent supporter of the existence of the sixth continent, but ended up disappointed in this idea. In England and France it was decided that in the southern latitudes there are no new significant lands and their search does not make sense.

However, in Russia they thought differently. Many phenomena indicated that the southern mainland exists. At the beginning of the 1803th century, Russian sailors entered the oceans and began to think about studying the southern polar seas. Ivan Kruzenshtern and Yuri Lisyansky in 1806-1807 made the first Russian circumnavigation. In 1809-1817, Vasily Golovnin traveled around the world on the sloop "Diana", in 1819-1813 Golovnin made a new trip around the world on the sloop "Kamchatka". Around the world voyages were made by Mikhail Lazarev on the frigate "Suvorov" in 1815-1815. and Otto Kotzebue on the Rurik brig in 1818. The results of these travels indicated that the southern mainland exists.

To prove this fact, a separate special expedition was required, the purpose of which was one - to find the southern mainland. This was announced to the Russian government by the head of the first Russian round-the-world expedition Ivan Kruzenshtern. The captain suggested organizing two campaigns at once - to the North and South Poles. Each expedition was supposed to have two ships — the Northern Division and the Southern Division. The Northern Division, on the Otkrytie and Well-intentioned sloops under the command of Lieutenant Commander Mikhail Vasiliev and Lieutenant Commander Gleb Shishmarev, was to open in the north the passage from the Bering Strait to the Atlantic Ocean. The Southern Division was to find the sixth continent. The southern expedition at the suggestion of Kruzenshtern was to be led by Thaddeus Bellingshausen (he was a member of the first round the world under the direction of Kruzenshtern). The sloop “Vostok” was transferred under his command, the second ship was the sloop “Mirny”, Lieutenant Mikhail Lazarev headed. He was an experienced sailor, a participant in the war with the Swedes and the French, the head of a round-the-world trip on the frigate "Suvorov".

The purpose of the expedition sounded foggy - discoveries "in the possible proximity of the Antarctic Pole." In fact, the Russian fleet was interested in all the southern waters of the Pacific, Atlantic, and indeed the Indian, oceans. Having left Kronstadt on July 4 (16), 1819, the ships visited Copenhagen and Portsmouth and arrived in Rio in early November. Before Brazil, the ships of the southern and northern expeditions went together, then divided. Bellingshausen first headed straight south, and the expedition on the sloops “Discovery” and “Well-intentioned” went to Cape of Good Hope, and from there to the port of Jackson (Sydney) in Australia.

Ships led by Bellingshausen circled the southwestern coast of South Georgia Island, discovered by Cook, discovered the three islands of the Marquis de Traverse, and examined the South Sandwich Islands. Moving south, as far as the ice allowed, on January 27, 1820, Russian sailors for the first time in stories our fleet crossed the southern polar circle. And on January 28, the Vostok and Mirny sloops came close to the Antarctic continent. Lt. Lazarev later wrote:

“On January 16 (according to the old style. - Auth.) We reached latitude 69 ° 23 'S, where we met frosty ice of extraordinary height, and on a beautiful evening, looking at the saling, it stretched as far as vision could reach ... From here we continued our way to the ost, encroaching on the south whenever possible, but we always met the ice continent, not reaching 70 ° ... Finally, that motherland in the south was discovered, which so long had been sought and the existence of which the sitting philosophers in their offices considered necessary for equilibrium of the globe. "

The Russian pioneers did not stop there, continuing to go east, they tried again and again to go further south. But each time they were stopped by "hard ice". This convinced the researchers that they were dealing with the mainland, and not with islands or ice. In early February, Russian ships turned north to Australia. Having repaired the vessels and replenishing supplies, the sloops went to the Pacific Ocean in May, opened several islands and atolls (Vostok, Simonova, Mikhailova, Suvorova, Russians, etc.). Then the expedition returned to Port Jackson (Sydney) and in November 1820 again moved to the South Polar seas.

Without abandoning attempts to go as far south as possible, Russian sailors crossed the Arctic Circle three times, at the beginning of 1821 they discovered a number of new lands, including the island of Peter the Great, the Land of Alexander I (the largest Antarctic island). In total, 29 islands and one coral reef were discovered during the expedition. Then the “East” and “Mirny” from the South Shetland Islands headed for Rio de Janeiro, and from there across the Atlantic to Europe. On July 24 (August 5), 1821, after a 751-day campaign, the expedition returned to Kronstadt. During this time, Russian ships traveled about 100 thousand km! Russian sailors have made the greatest geographical discovery since the beginning of the XNUMXth century - they discovered the unknown southern mainland, Antarctica!


Leaders of the First Russian Antarctic Expedition

Russian priority


The grand geographical discovery of Russian sailors is silent in the world. Throughout the "world community" they pretend that Antarctica has opened by itself. Moreover, in England and the USA, they tried to appropriate a priority in the discovery of the southern continent. It is worth noting that a characteristic feature of the “world community” is its unwillingness to recognize the priority of Russia and Russians in no areas and under any guise.

Our Westerners-liberals fully adapt to Western standards. Therefore, they like to shout at every corner about the "savagery" and "backwardness" of Russia, currying favor with their Western masters. We must remember that the greatness of Russian history is not only in its military victories and the industriousness of its people, but also in the enormous contribution that the Russians have made to world science, in the cause of humanity's knowledge of itself and the world around it.

By their nobility and kindness (other nations immediately staked out the Ice Continent), the Russians declared Antarctica open and rightfully belonging to them as an international zone. In modern conditions, when the sixth continent is the only uninhabited and undeveloped continent of the planet, interest in its resources (including fresh water) has increased significantly. Many countries have territorial claims in the Antarctic, including Norway, England, Australia, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina and others. The Third Reich also had its own program for developing the continent. The USA and China have special interests in the region.
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  1. Hunter 2 28 January 2020 06: 24 New
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    Glory to the Russian Sailors! soldier It would seem where is Russia and where is Antarctica?
    And Russia was there - First! good
    Round date 200 years - Need and Mark!
    1. Uncle lee 28 January 2020 06: 56 New
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      Quote: Hunter 2
      Need and Mark!

      Three times URA URA URA drinks
      1. Olgovich 28 January 2020 07: 25 New
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        "There's a Russian spirit, where Rus smells! ":

        Antarctica is full of Russian names: sea sea Lazareva, Bellingshausen, the mountains Lazarevasea Somova, Bystrov rock, Russian mountains and station Russian, mountains of Gamburtsev, Russian tsars (island Peter I, land of Alexander Iship names (East and t. good

        How many countries can boast discovery of continents? no

        And RUSSIA could!

        Here she was, "backward" and "lapotnaya" ....
        1. Xnumx vis 28 January 2020 08: 52 New
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          Quote: Olgovich
          Antarctica is full of Russian names: the sea of ​​Lazarev, Bellingshausen, the Lazarev mountains, the Somov sea, Bystrov rock, the Russian mountains and the Russkaya station, the Gamburtsev mountains, Russian tsars (Peter I island, Alexander I land, ship names (East and T

          If for these discoveries and about a dozen other islands in the Pacific Ocean are in the ownership of Russia .... It’s always so, in Russia heroically discover new lands, invent, generate new ideas, and others use the result of discoveries and inventions .... Oh Russia is good soul !
        2. BAI
          BAI 28 January 2020 16: 52 New
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          How many countries can boast of discovering continents?

          So there were only 4 undiscovered continents: Antarctica, Australia and 2 Americas. Here, by definition, there cannot be a large number of discoverers.
    2. iouris 28 January 2020 12: 24 New
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      Quote: Hunter 2
      Glory to the Russian Sailors!

      The president (est?) Of Estonia visited Antarctica in honor of the 200th anniversary of the discovery of Antarctica by the "Estonian navigator", whom the Russians know after F.F. Bellingshausen.
    3. Oquzyurd 28 January 2020 18: 33 New
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      Not the first, not even the second ... This is not to make you upset, but not to have false knowledge.
      https://fishki.net/1907306-tajny-karty-piri-rejsa.html
  2. GKS 2111 28 January 2020 06: 51 New
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    On January 28, 1819, the sloops reached 69 ° 25 ′ south latitude. But Bellingshausen and Lazarev discovered Antarctica.

    “I call this finding shore because the remoteness of the other end to the south disappeared beyond our sight. This shore is covered with snow, but scree on the mountains and steep cliffs did not have snow. A sudden change in color on the surface of the sea suggests that the coast is vast or at least not just the part that was in front of our eyes, ”wrote Thaddeus Bellingshausen in the logbook the next day.

    The first Russian Antarctic expedition lasted 751 days. Its members mapped 29 new islands. And most importantly, they were the first to discover a new continent.
  3. Same lech 28 January 2020 06: 57 New
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    Now we should expect the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons on these facts of history ... soon we will be surprised to learn that the Americans or the British were the first to visit there.
    1. bessmertniy 28 January 2020 07: 59 New
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      And that the indigenous inhabitants of Antarctica are not penguins, but Europeans. lol They’ll also carry out archaeological excavations and find the bones of some missing Norman, repeat
      1. Catfish 28 January 2020 11: 54 New
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        And during excavations, they will discover New Swabia with a fleet of submarines and squadrons of flying saucers. After that, Germany will file an application with the UN to recognize Antarctica as true German territory. laughing
        1. Oquzyurd 28 January 2020 18: 34 New
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          https://fishki.net/1907306-tajny-karty-piri-rejsa.html Интересно,если не знаете.
          1. Catfish 28 January 2020 18: 45 New
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            Thank you hi colleague.
          2. Catfish 28 January 2020 18: 59 New
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            I looked, I know about Piri Reis and his map, of course. What did you specifically mean?
            1. Oquzyurd 28 January 2020 19: 13 New
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              The fact of the presence of this card that people have known Antarctica since very ancient times.
              1. Catfish 28 January 2020 19: 23 New
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                This is clear. But I was just joking about Swabia and German plates. smile
    2. igordok 28 January 2020 08: 58 New
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      You are wrong, take it higher. Antarctica was discovered by Estonia. smile

      Probably for many this will be a surprise, but 200 years ago Estonia discovered Antarctica. Just for God's sake - do not fall into a stupor, do not rush to the bookshelves, where there are books on history and geography and do not even go into Wikipedia. I’ll explain everything calmly to you now. Do you remember who discovered Antarctica? That's right, an expedition led by Thaddeus Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev. The project of the expedition was developed by Mikhail Kruzenshtern and he was also involved in the promotion and support of the expedition, for which Emperor Alexander the First allocated a huge sum for those times - 100 thousand rubles. The Russian Empire, the Russian Emperor, Russian naval officers - it would seem, but what does Estonia have to do with it, which at that time was not an independent state, but was the province of the vast Russian Empire? It seems to have nothing to do with it, you answer and are severely mistaken. In reality, very much to do with it. Estonia, despite the fact that neither at that time nor before it, was never an independent state, under the occupation of the Russian Empire, which mercilessly drank all juices from Estonia and plunged the Estonian people into incredible suffering - in fact, it made a historical and geographical feat. Almost from under the boot of the Russian occupier. And I will explain why. Everything is very simple.

      The fact is that Thaddeus Bellingshausen and Mikhail Kruzenshtern, by origin the Ostsee Germans and their estates, were located in what is now Estonia.
      1. Mihaylov 28 January 2020 11: 18 New
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        And space too
    3. Catfish 28 January 2020 11: 50 New
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      Alexey hi at least there are hardly any problems with the Americans, they would now be able to fight off the Uzbeks themselves, for they said that it was they, the Uzbeks (specifically, the Amir-aka kurbashi) who discovered America and now Uzbekistan claims the whole Northern Continent. laughing
      1. Hantengri 28 January 2020 21: 24 New
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        Quote: Sea Cat
        that it was they, the Uzbeks (specifically, the Amir-aka kurbashi) who discovered America, and now Uzbekistan claims to be the entire Northern Continent.

        Konstantin, not some kind of "kurbashi Amir-aka", but Amir (emir) Temur, aka Sahibkiron, aka Tamerlan. Therefore, in order not to embarrass them with difficult-to-pronounce titles to the Indians, he introduced himself simply, at home - Amir aka. laughing
        1. Catfish 28 January 2020 22: 29 New
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          This is precisely the misfortune of the Americans, they do not know the true history of their homeland. laughing
          1. Hantengri 28 January 2020 22: 53 New
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            They don’t know at all! Tamerlan, because when he sailed home, he said goodbye to the natives with the words: " Man Ketdim. Haer. "(I left. Goodbye.). Since then, this place is called ... laughing
  4. rocket757 28 January 2020 07: 03 New
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    The era of great geographical discoveries ...
    Glory to our great ancestors!
  5. Operator 28 January 2020 07: 56 New
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    Quote: GKS 2111
    "This shore is covered with snow, but the scree on the mountains and steep cliffs had no snow."

    The key words for confirming the discovery of the Antarctic continent are visible rocks above the surface of snow and ice.

    Plus a description of landfast ice during the complete rounding of the shores of the Antarctic continent.
  6. Catfish 28 January 2020 11: 21 New
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    Good and necessary article, Thanks to the author. hi
    The first two are East, the second are Mirny.



  7. Undecim 28 January 2020 11: 36 New
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    This greatest geographical discovery of Russian sailors is hushed up by the entire “world community”.
    Why so frankly lie. Okay, about protorusses and superethnos - it’s impossible to check there, but here everything is easily checked.
    Here is a link to today's article that came out on the occasion of the bicentenary of the discovery of Antarctica on the website of the American channel National Geographic, which is watched in 170 countries in 38 languages. - https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/reference/exploration/who-discovered-antarctica-depends-who-ask/.
    An article called "Who really discovered Antarctica?" - Who really discovered Antartida ?. The answer is
    In 1819, Russia tasked Fabian von Bellingshausen with going further south than Cook. On January 27, 1820, he looked toward solid ice that was likely an ice shelf attached to Antarctic land now known as Queen Maud Land.
    Though von Bellingshausen was the first to see the unknown continent.
    I think it’s clear without translation.
    1. Trilobite Master 28 January 2020 18: 55 New
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      Viktor Nikolaevich, sent his comment (below), not yet reading the rest. smile Thank you very much for the specifics. smile
      1. Catfish 28 January 2020 19: 04 New
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        Misha, hi. hi Vic honored me and he had enough, he gave me "on the first day" forGood and necessary article". And for the matter, I slipped the little article diagonally, I know the history of the campaign of these ships from childhood, I couldn’t even imagine that politics would be squeezed in here. laughing
        1. Trilobite Master 28 January 2020 19: 43 New
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          Hi, Kostya.
          I wouldn’t even read if I suspected Samsonov’s authorship. I didn’t think that he could do that. No, no. There is apparently no limit to perfection. wassat
          Okay, I’m finishing the attendance for this author. Write in a personal, if that. I won’t get in here anymore with comments. So already, against my rules, I wrote two extra ones. smile
  8. stroybat ZABVO 28 January 2020 16: 17 New
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    Hi!
    Of course well done Russian sailors!
    But, I think the headline should be "open to Europeans Antarctica."
    When I am in Tierra del Fuego, they show me the numerous sites of the “natives,” although I think that they should be called “local residents”. On their "boats" they "easily" crossed the strait between Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica. In addition, 20-30 thousand years ago, this strait was much narrower.
  9. BAI
    BAI 28 January 2020 16: 47 New
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    During the Second circumnavigation of the famous British traveler D. Cook (1772-1775), London tried to get ahead of the French in the discovery of the Southern mainland. " Cook went on a campaign an ardent supporter of the existence of the sixth continent, but in the end was disappointed in this idea.

    Cook then stated: "No one can penetrate South further than I did."
  10. Trilobite Master 28 January 2020 18: 41 New
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    What kind of flawed psychology does the author have?
    Why does someone always offend us, is he plotting some kind of intrigue? Sorry, but almost a third of the article is devoted to how someone considers us retarded, belittles our achievements, etc.
    Not only is the article itself regrettably superficial, banal, fresh and boring, its substantial part is also called upon to remind us exclusively that there is someone else in the world who considers Russia and the Russians as wild and miserable. Ah, they offend us! Ah, let's feel sorry for us! All around us are enemies and ill-wishers, we poor, miserable!
    And then comments like
    Quote: igordok
    You are wrong, take it higher. Antarctica was discovered by Estonia.

    taken from some picabu. Find at least a word for me where Estonians dispute Russia's primacy in the discovery of Antarctica. At least a word. This Kaljulaid really went to Antarctica to wave her flag there. Personally, I am happy for her, which means that a person has a lot of free time and energy. But nowhere is it written that she said that Estonians discovered Antarctica and the Russians had nothing to do with it. Everywhere she talked only about of involvement Estonia for this event. And Estonia is really involved in it. Sideways, indirectly, almost nothing, but involved. And if people have nothing more to be proud of, then let them be proud of at least that. They want to erect a monument to Bellingshausen in their homeland - please let them put it, a person deserves it.
    I would like to contact the author again.
    Before you write nonsense like
    The grand geographical discovery of Russian sailors is silent in the world. Throughout the "world community" they pretend that Antarctica has opened by itself. Moreover, in England and the United States they tried to appropriate a priority in the discovery of the southern continent.

    it might make sense to ask that really speak and write about the event in question there? Well, look, at least in the encyclopedia - British, American ... Maybe even look at some article in the National Geographic ... No? It's easier? I want too much?
    It is probably easier to plant here all of us a “complex of offended” with unproven and false stuffing.
  11. maden.usmanow 28 January 2020 21: 34 New
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    Well, what were the great achievements
    The Communists, as usual, lied about the backward Russian empire
    1. Sergey S. 31 January 2020 23: 36 New
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      Quote: maden.usmanow
      Well, what were the great achievements
      The Communists, as usual, lied about the backward Russian empire

      If the Soviet Union had survived, now the whole world would have celebrated the discovery of Antprctis by Russian sailors.
      And there would be no excommunication of sportsmen ...
      And about the sanctions, our citizens did not even know. rather, they did not notice.
  12. Sardanapalus 27 March 2020 07: 13 New
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    Looked at Wikipedia. Black and white says "the discovery of Antarctica belongs to the Russian expedition." What kind of a ball and nagging "they don’t love us, they underestimate us, they push us." This is something painful, the symptom begs "we don’t want self-implications, but super-personalities"
  13. Alecsandr April 23 2020 17: 33 New
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    The most important ship crews were already not only Russians, but representatives of many nationalities inhabiting the Russian empire.