Ural 300 Series: Floating and Five-Axis

Ural 300 Series: Floating and Five-Axis

With the index "D"



If we compare the circulation of the Ural issue with a gasoline engine and other army trucks, it turns out that “only” 110 thousand cars got out of the gates of the Miass factory. This really is not so much: ZIL-131 and GAZ-66 sold almost million copies. There are several explanations for this.

First, the lion's share of all Urals was taken by the Ministry of Defense. There were not many modifications to civilian structures; appetites were more modest. Until 1967, the 375th Urals didn’t go into the peaceful life sector at all, as they were all equipped with built-in blackout. But in the village and in the transport department, they did not particularly grieve about this. The 180-horsepower (initially 175-horsepower) ZIL-375 gasoline engine was good for everyone, except for its excessive fuel consumption - this economic factor could not be ignored in the national economy. And secondly, the cost of even the basic on-board vehicle was rather big, not to mention the numerous modifications. Some sources say that the total number of variations of the Ural-375 exceeded two hundred. At the same time, of course, even a small part of all this diversity was not produced at the Ural plant, passing orders to third-party offices.


Ural-375D

As already mentioned in the first part of the story, On the conveyor "Ural" with a carburetor engine, I got it not brought to mind. In particular, even after a 25-mile run as part of state trials and elimination of the most serious shortcomings, the truck’s “portfolio” had weak coupling, a cooling system, a transfer case, a cardan drive, a front suspension, a steering, wheels with tires and pneumatic hydraulics of the brake drive. Nevertheless, the Ural-375 with a rag roof was collected and sent to the troops. It is noteworthy that on serial machines, the carrying capacity was 500 kg higher than the calculated one and reached 5 tons. The winch reduced it to 4500 kilograms.






Ural-375S









































Ural-375D was a charismatic machine

As soon as a sufficient number of vehicles had accumulated in the troops, it turned out that it was inconvenient to operate a heavy truck designed to work in both heat and cold, with a tarpaulin cap instead of a roof. The barrel was blown out of all the cracks, the heater could not even cope with the fogging of the windows, and the operation of the BM-21 multiple launch rocket system could even cause a fire. And the appearance of the car with bodies whose profile exceeded the height of the cabin (KUNG KP-375) was absurd. It was like this: the body is insulated from severe frosts by reinforced polystyrene foam, and the driver's cab - with a rag roof. Therefore, in 1963, the military instructed Miass to deliver an all-metal cabin.

So there was the most massive truck of the 300th series “Ural-375D”, which, together with the version of the “DM”, was released intermittently until 1991. The cars with the “D” index received, in addition to the new cab, a simplified transfer case that provides the car with only four-wheel drive, as well as a powerful cabin heater. By the way, with the disabled front axle on the first Ural-375 machines, a bit paradoxical happened история. It was originally thought that a bridge without a drive would reduce fuel consumption (after all, they thought about it in Miass), but the opposite happened: the front wheels lost torque, and gluttony increased. It turned out to be the front tires, in which the dynamic radius increased during traction and the rolling resistance decreased. As a result, the Ural-375D simplified the transmission scheme, which increased reliability and increased efficiency.


The Ural-375 (in the picture) was replaced by the more advanced Ural-375D

In addition to the D version, Miass also produced the Ural-375A version, designed to install a K-375 type body. He was distinguished by a spare wheel located vertically on the rear overhang of the frame. By the way, the rear overhang for modification “A” was lengthened to accommodate the overall kung by 355 mm, and the total carrying capacity dropped to 4,7 tons. For countries and regions with a hot climate, there was a modification of 375DU, and for the northern latitudes, the Ural-375K version was developed.

The trucks were brightly painted to contrast more strongly in the snow, and were also equipped with a warmed cabin, a battery cover, double glazing and an additional stove in the cabin. The factory workers assured that the machine could be operated even at minus 60 degrees.

Narrow specialization


In parallel with the launch of the basic version in serial production, a cargo platform with a two-axle drive was hitched to Ural. For this purpose, the 375C tractor was suitable, which was also originally in the production range. As a result, in the early 60s, the Ural-380 appeared with a mechanical drive on the axis of the 12-meter Ural-862 semi-trailer with a 10 × 10 wheel arrangement. At the same time, the bridges on the semi-trailer were unified with the Ural bridges and also equipped with swap. This monster-road train, named “Ural-380-862”, had a gross weight of more than 25 tons, could accelerate to 67 km / h and in difficult road conditions consumed more than 100 liters of gasoline per 100 km of track. The drive to the active semi-trailer to save fuel and resource was disconnectable.














Ural-380-862 10x10






The layout of the elements of the equipment "Perimeter" on the example of ZIL-131: 1 - scraper type knife, 2 - two-arm levers, 3 - flexible canopy, 4 - knife extensions, 5 - hydraulic cylinders, 6 - oil pump, 7 - hydraulic distributor, 8 - oil tank , 9 - safety valve

In the early articles about the remarkable military automobile industry of the USSR there was already a mention about the experimental program "Perimeter", which, in particular, got ZIL-131. It was an attachment for self-digging, the theoretical studies of which were carried out by the military in the 60s as part of the Okop research work. Military all-wheel drive should have been able to dig out for themselves shelter in full profile, without involving engineering units. But the ZIL-131 gave up quickly - the transmission could not withstand shock loads, yet the units were largely from the civil 130th. But the newcomer “Ural” was originally designed to meet the strict requirements of army operation and, according to the military, had to endure the hardships of the “Perimeter”.

The experimental machine with specific scraper equipment even got its own name - 375DP, but also could not withstand heavy self-digging procedures. In total, the military took almost ten years of testing ZILs, Urals and KrAZs with Perimeters in order to understand the unsuitability of machine components for such work. Work with a scraper hitch led to active wear of gears of the gearbox and gearboxes, destruction of the transfer case bearings, breakdown of main gearboxes, and twisting of the axle shafts. When they calculated the costs of premature repair of equipment, as well as the specific consumption per cubic meter of soil, it turned out that it was much more efficient to dig trenches with military excavators or even earth-moving machines.












That floating Ural

Among the "Urals" there were many exotic modifications. Perhaps one of the most unusual was the floating prototype. This happened in the wake of the search projects of the 70s, when the Ministry of Defense demanded the supply of a wide range of floating vehicles, as much as possible unified with serial land analogues. Attached to the Ural-375 in US they tried to seal it along the "water line" and equipped with removable polyurethane foam floats. OCD received the name "Float", and the car - the corresponding index "P". But it was not possible to make the Ural’s cabin airtight without a complete overhaul, and the driver had to put on a rubberized L-1 suit to overcome the water barrier. This could be understood in the conditions of the warm season, but what was the driver to do in the autumn-spring period? For speed and controllability, the floating truck was equipped with a 55-centimeter-diameter screw, the drive for which was pulled from the input shaft of the transfer case. On the Klyazma River in 1976, the "Float" could only reach 2,8 km / h with the help of rotating wheels, using a propeller exclusively, the speed of movement increased to 7,95 km / h. It is interesting that the pressure control system in the wheels was adapted for pumping air into the chassis and transmission components in order to avoid water penetration. Also, a powerful pump was installed in the back to remove sea water.


Ural-379B


Ural-379A


Ural-395

Previously, work on floating trucks was carried out with the experimental three-axle vehicles Ural-379A, Ural-379B and the four-axle Ural-395. These were search options for the modernization of traditional Urals, they had a hoodless and so-called semi-hood layout. These machines remained in the category of experienced ones, which saved many soldiers' lives - the long hood of the Urals often became salvage in the event of a fatal collision with a mine.

To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
parm.mybb.ru, en.wheelsage.org, drive2.ru
Articles from this series:
Ural-375: the ideal of a war chariot
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  1. Lexus 28 January 2020 18: 22 New
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    The rear-view mirrors were simply masterpieces. At some young ladies in handbags they are more. Thanks for the interesting continuation. hi
  2. Falcon5555 28 January 2020 18: 25 New
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    It was a good car ...
    However, in the first photo, one of the tires (on the second axis) is mounted incorrectly. smile
    1. Bad_gr 28 January 2020 19: 18 New
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      Quote: Falcon5555
      in the first photo, one of the tires (on the second axis) is mounted incorrectly.

      Looks like the wheel was spare. On the left side it would be as it should be, but under the right, they did not redo it, set it as it is.
      1. Falcon5555 28 January 2020 20: 11 New
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        Maybe. This version saves the honor of the testers. And I thought that - these are the stupid people.
        And the Ural designers are good - steering rods are not visible at all, unlike most modern SUVs with a front axle, in which they are easy to tear down on a stump or tubercle.
      2. Fast_mutant 5 February 2020 18: 58 New
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        Looking at the spare wheel (it just needs to get up correctly), I also thought so.
    2. NEXUS 28 January 2020 20: 31 New
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      Quote: Falcon5555
      It was a good car ...

    3. smart ass 28 January 2020 22: 38 New
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      I have a dream to buy a house in the forest and the Urals. I have a weakness for such cars and do not really like people.
  3. exo
    exo 28 January 2020 18: 31 New
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    I read it with great pleasure! The topic is new to me, and therefore interesting.
  4. Pavel57 28 January 2020 18: 52 New
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    Rich story.
  5. Dazdranagon 28 January 2020 18: 57 New
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    Put dirt on it ... wink
    1. Altona 28 January 2020 20: 05 New
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      Quote: Dazdranagon
      Put dirt on it ...

      -----------------
      On Youtube there are videos of enthusiasts of this matter, I kind of recently saw some exercises on the ZIL-157 in the swamp. Well, here you just go broke on fuel, because the engine of a modern truck is much more economical with the same data.
      1. vfwfr 28 January 2020 23: 17 New
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        In peacetime, yes .. in war .. there will be the quality of AI80 or AI 76 .. how long will modern engines "eat" such fuel will survive ..
        1. Talgat 148 29 January 2020 05: 54 New
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          Even the 80th is no longer being produced. At least in Kazakhstan.
          1. vfwfr 29 January 2020 21: 49 New
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            When you need fuel sharply and much, the quality will immediately drop. do not go to a fortuneteller .. (maybe I'm wrong)
    2. Grits 29 January 2020 07: 38 New
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      Quote: Dazdranagon
      Put dirt on it ...

      Download the game Spin Tires - and knead yourself dirt in the Urals. To the delight of children and grandchildren.
      1. vfwfr 29 January 2020 21: 50 New
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        Watch ****** and do this thing is not the same thing ...)))
  6. The leader of the Redskins 28 January 2020 19: 17 New
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    Surprisingly rare specimens are presented. Thanks.
  7. ccsr 28 January 2020 20: 01 New
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    Author:
    Evgeny Fedorov
    As a result, in the early 60s, the Ural-380 appeared with a mechanical drive on the axis of the 12-meter Ural-862 semi-trailer with a 10 × 10 wheel arrangement. At the same time, the bridges on the semi-trailer were unified with the Ural bridges and also equipped with swap. This monster-road train, named “Ural-380-862”, had a gross weight of more than 25 tons, could accelerate to 67 km / h and in difficult road conditions consumed more than 100 liters of gasoline per 100 km of track.

    I don’t quite understand why you chose the term “monster-road train”, because in fact it was a very necessary car, that’s why the radio control center R-362M was developed on this base, which surpassed all other hardware in its cross-country ability. He himself saw how he moved and maneuvered along the virgin snow, where no other car could pass. This opportunity made a strong impression on knowledgeable people who saw it for the first time and honestly even could not imagine such a thing. So I consider the word "monster" incorrect - it would be better to call it "a unique road train", and give credit to those who developed it.
    The article itself is very interesting and informative, which honors the author.
    1. Vladimir_2U 29 January 2020 03: 55 New
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      ... active semi-trailer ...
      There was another article in the "SoF", it seems even before the second Chechen one, about the use of such trailers, only blinded on their own and armed for the most part, for wiring columns in the mountains. It was not about experience, but about concept.
  8. Altona 28 January 2020 20: 02 New
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    Of course, I also read a very interesting topic as an adventure novel, starting about ZIL-157 and here are such sequels about URAL-375, in different guises, about different external add-ons and shamanism with a running gear. I look forward to continuing. On Youtube, I watch videos on retro technology and military vehicles.
  9. Owl
    Owl 28 January 2020 20: 07 New
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    Due to fuel consumption, in the groups of troops, the commanders of the jet divisions were considered rich. The exercises - saving gasoline of European quality for possible use in the private "national economy" of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland and the German Democratic Republic.
    1. Alekseev 28 January 2020 20: 34 New
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      Quote: Eagle Owl
      Exercises - saving gasoline of European quality

      The Urals could well be operated on the A-76. Honestly, I thought that the ZiL-375 engine was somehow different from the ZiL-130 (131) ignition system (UOZ early), camshaft, i.e. phase overlap. But, having delved deeper, he learned that no! Only the diameter of the pistons, increased to 7 liters, the working volume with the same (6,5) compression ratio (later it was increased to 7 both there and there).
      Why is it prescribed to use the AI-93? Here is an interesting point, reflecting a little and the situation in the USSR of that time.
      "The party said": it is necessary to make a reliable and powerful engine for a military truck fast and inexpensive. The best option for these parameters is to slightly bring (replace cylinders and pistons) a proven, mastered in the production of Zilovsky motor.
      Well, in terms of power, he did not reach the requirements of those on the 76th. assignments and, in addition, under difficult operating conditions, very likely for army vehicles, the engine on 76th gasoline was prone to detonation with all the consequences. And gasoline was not so expensive then.
      So they solved the issue without technical and technological tricks. Cheap, reliable and practical, but ... not very economical. request
      1. faterdom 28 January 2020 22: 16 New
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        At the 76th he could detonate godlessly, had to jam the speed of throwing the clutch. Here is the mixture - yes, and often forcedly. 300l of the Ural tank with a flow rate of 72/100 was not enough for 500km (the standard for refueling mileage of army convoys), so they shared 76th of the 340l tanks of the Zilov 131s, and as a result, our 93rd with the 76th went Ural further.
  10. Rostislav 28 January 2020 20: 30 New
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    Thanks for the interesting review and great photos.
    It is interesting not only to read, but also to consider, remembering which models I had to talk to.
  11. Alex 2020 28 January 2020 20: 31 New
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    An interesting and informative article. I learned a lot about the Ural family. There would be more such reviews and articles about different types of military equipment. hi
  12. Free wind 28 January 2020 21: 02 New
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    But steering in the Urals is very difficult, the hydrach is extremely unsuccessful, and even with the ZIL engine you can scare people. Well, not only in the Urals, but also in ZILs the same thing, in short you accelerate well, not less than thirds, turn off the gas to the floor, turn off the pedal, after 10 seconds turn on the ignition and get such a weak shot, since I pinned so much, the muffler tore, turned the hell out of the wrong side and the exhaust manifold on the right block burst. Floating cars did not impress anyone; they swam very badly. And half-hoods and non-hoods were invented precisely to increase "water navigation", the center of gravity moved backward and the muzzle was not sinking so. Well, at least I had the mind not to spend money on these eeeee well, let the car be so. The ZIL engine was quite gimoroy, after a year or two of operation, many problems came up, the most common one was the failure of a gas pump on a hot engine, not on an overheated one. but it was just hot, so they wrapped the pump in a rag and poured cold water, well, it happened that the hood was not completely closed, a couple of logs and a rope were tied under the hood. For some reason, the block and sleeves were very rusty, both on tasol and antifreeze, why I don’t know, but after a couple of years when disassembling, the block turned out to be half full of rust, not dirt and scale, as in the advertisement of the bell, namely rust, first of all, stoves then the main one, in short a year later, timber trucks demanded a complete replacement of the CPG. hi
    1. Free wind 28 January 2020 21: 04 New
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      Oh, not on the block, but on the cylinder head.
      1. gmb
        gmb 28 January 2020 22: 59 New
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        Door handles instantly broke in '86
    2. ccsr 29 January 2020 11: 38 New
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      Quote: Free Wind
      after 10 seconds you turn on the ignition and you get such a frail shot, since I pinned it so much, the muffler tore, turned the hell out of the wrong side and the exhaust manifold on the right block burst.

      That is why it is only necessary to recruit contractors to the current army in order to avoid such art from conscripts - at least it would be easier to keep the cost of repairs out of wages, and the equipment would serve longer. It’s interesting what Zampotech told you after I saw what happened to the car - I probably can’t play without zapping ...
  13. gmb
    gmb 28 January 2020 23: 02 New
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    For 86 years, a truck crane based on the Urals with a retractable boom in one knee came and was put forward with a handle in the form of a gear, no hydraulics. I was very surprised
  14. Angelo Provolone 29 January 2020 01: 24 New
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    In particular, even after a 25-mile run as part of state trials and elimination of the most serious shortcomings, the truck’s “portfolio” had weak coupling, a cooling system, a transfer case, a cardan drive, a front suspension, a steering, wheels with tires and pneumatic hydraulics of the brake drive.

    And what was good then?

    Reminds:



    A little off topic, but trialrs modify and use zil, not urals. Why is that?
    1. phair 29 January 2020 03: 26 New
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      Fast cheap? They tried the Urals at the Gold Raid 2002 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dne4ffzsJus did not reach). Thrown in the taiga. In winter they brought batteries, cut down the wheels from the mud, wound up and drove along the winter road to Vladivostok. In 2006 we drove from Vanino to Vladivostok without the Urals (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FUagvfz7ZnM he would be stuck there too).
    2. Andy 30 January 2020 09: 09 New
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      looked bad. Germans and Czechs use 131 and 66 and 4320 on the trial. In the mid-90s, I remember the Eurosport competition
  15. Tritebemalo 29 January 2020 11: 55 New
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    Finally!!!! It was in the mid-80s, GSVG. After training, I, a young ensign, accepted the latest R-412A for those times in the two Urals of the 375s. The position was at the point-ZKP division, and it was possible to call on it only on a steep slope-sand, with light turf. And in the Urals, KUEGs are heavy (hardware and diesel), but the trailers are behind, he jumps with the front axle, throws up the sod on the roof, every race-circus number, almost completely reduced the pressure in the front wheels. While the deputy head of the battalion didn’t see it all, and let me cover it, why didn’t I turn off the front axles. I can not, I answer, there is no description in the book. He waved his hand, kid .... And he sent the old ensign, bison automobile. He crawled around for half a day, then wrapped me and cars around and drove away. And then I got a replacement, and I didn’t exploit more of such animals, but I remembered the case! And yet they did not turn off !!!
    1. Sether 29 January 2020 13: 04 New
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      Well, nothing is clear, why did you try to disconnect the front end? You and that great bison must simply be sent to a driving school where they will be taught how to properly ride such a machine. The front wheels skid as you described when the center differential is unlocked in the transfer case. It was necessary to block the interaxle differential to switch the gear down in the transfer case to drive the wheels using the wheel pressure control system and you would have succeeded
      1. Tritebemalo 29 January 2020 14: 01 New
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        The climb is steep, the cars are heavy, the main load on the rear axles, the front axle loses traction even more when lifting, plus the trailer pulls. The front throws up jerkily and both front wheels tear off the turf at the same time. On the lower, with the wheels lowered, they climbed the mountain. I mean, yes, techies did not know that the front axle in this model is non-deactivable. And yes, not an as-driver, we are more on the radio ... Yes, and the battalion was OBAU-a separate automated control battalion, intelligentsia itt. We went to the exercises in chrome boots. And as I looked at the tankers and sappers, I was already ashamed, I arrived, turned around, gave a connection, and like on a picnic ... Until the amplitron died ... yeah ..
        1. Sether 31 January 2020 19: 23 New
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          Hey. I myself served an urgent service and OBAU in the GSVG 1979 to 1981. In which city did he serve? Maybe even in the same city and battalion served
  16. The comment was deleted.
  17. VicktorVR 30 January 2020 10: 55 New
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    Due to the low adaptability of the Urals to the civilian market, the plant "lay on its side" in the 90s.
    And now, the Kamaz lobby in every way wipes UralAZ from the orders of Moscow Region.
    Well, the plant itself cannot compete with Kamaz (including in the development of new promising models), partly because of the incomparability of cash flows, partly because of the management.

    Tank. An additional tank must be written :). The one that is 60 liters, and which "every resident respects" Miass must have at least one in the garage :).
    1. ccsr 30 January 2020 13: 47 New
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      Quote: VicktorVR
      Due to the low adaptability of the Urals to the civilian market, the plant "lay on its side" in the 90s.

      This is not surprising, because this machine was developed for the military, and in the 90s many defense enterprises simply went bankrupt due to lack of orders.
      Quote: VicktorVR
      And now, the Kamaz lobby in every way wipes UralAZ from the orders of Moscow Region.

      It started back in the eighties, and I must admit honestly, KAMAZ was more liked by those who exploited equipment in the troops. By the way, KAMAZ engines were used in 30 kW hardware power supplies, and this facilitated the unification of automotive and engineering equipment. And diesel fuel for these engines at that time was cheaper than 95 gasoline.
      Although I believe that it is the Urals with a gas engine that are still in demand, especially in those regions where temperatures from -30 to -50 C are common.
      1. Andy 30 January 2020 14: 20 New
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        in the 80s there were already diesel Urals with the same KAMAZ engine. Yes, and the 95th was not. from the word at all. was a-76 and ai-93
        1. ccsr 30 January 2020 19: 11 New
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          Quote: Andy
          in the 80s there were already diesel Urals with the same KAMAZ engine.

          It is possible, but it seems that the ones I had to deal with came with gasoline engines.
          Quote: Andy
          Yes, and the 95th was not. from the word at all. was a-76 and ai-93

          That's for sure - I just confused it with the current times, because I refuel them for about fifteen years.
          1. Andy 30 January 2020 19: 17 New
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            Quote: ccsr
            but it seems that the ones I had to deal with came with gasoline engines.

            quite possibly, not the fact of diesels for all cars was enough. they also went to the 133rd and the bus and the Kamaz itself. Interestingly, before the fire, KAMAZ already put YaMZ diesel engines in series or not?
            1. ccsr 30 January 2020 19: 51 New
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              Quote: Andy
              Interestingly, before the fire, KAMAZ already put YaMZ diesel engines in series or not?

              I don’t know such subtleties, but I remember well how the first equipment room at KAMAZ entered the Special Forces brigade in the late eighties, and how glad the head of communications was, who began to go to the exercises for her.
  18. loha 30 January 2020 18: 07 New
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    In the photo with the hood raised, a home-made alteration to yamz 236 and not a native zil (in any case, fuel and air filters from yamz, they were massively remade at enterprises in the 90s.