The end of the Northern War

The end of the Northern War
Eugene Lansere. Peter I inspects trophies of Russian troops taken during the Poltava battle from the Swedes


The defeat of the Swedish army near Poltava and the inglorious surrender of its remains at Perevolnaya made a huge impression both in Sweden and in all countries of Europe.

Root fracture during the Northern War


The English ambassador Charles Whitworth wrote then:

“Maybe in the whole stories there’s no such example of submissive submission to fate by so many regular troops. ”

Danish Ambassador Georg Grund is also perplexed:

“So many armed people, reaching 14-15 thousand, divided into shelves and equipped with generals and officers, did not dare to draw swords, but surrendered to a much smaller enemy. If their horses could carry them, and they themselves could hold a sword, then it seems to everyone - to surrender without a fight is too much. "

The Swedish army lost the halo of invincibility, and Charles XII no longer seemed a strategist at the level of Great Alexander.

As a result, Joseph I, the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, whom the Swedish king forced to give guarantees of religious freedom to the Protestants of Silesia, immediately abandoned his promises.

Karl’s protege in Poland Stanislav Leszczynski ceded his crown to the former owner - Saxon Elector Augustus the Strong. With the help of another European king (his son-in-law Louis XV), he would still try to return to Poland in 1733, but without the consent of Russia this was no longer possible. The army of Peter Lassi will defeat the Confederates, forcing the unlucky king to flee from Danzig in the clothes of a peasant. Then hetman Pototsky, who supported him, will be defeated, and Leshchinsky will again renounce the title of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Poland finally ceased to be a subject of international politics, turning into its object.

Even more surprising is the behavior of Charles XII, who, instead of returning to his homeland and trying to somehow correct previous mistakes, spent more than five years on the territory of the Ottoman Empire (first in Bender, then in Demirtash near Adrianople) - from August 1709 years to October 1714. And his kingdom at that time was bleeding in the struggle against the superior forces of his opponents. A certain Danes Van Effen wrote about Sweden in those years:

"I can assure ... that I have not seen, except for the soldiers, not a single man from 20 to 40 years old."



Swedish soldiers and officers of the times of the Northern War: 1 - artilleryman, 2 - officer of the Nerke-Vermland regiment, 3 - grenadier, 4 - musketeer of the Jönköping infantry regiment, 5 - non-commissioned infantry officer, 6 - ordinary dragoon regiment, 7 - life-drabant

The quality of the Swedish army was steadily declining. The experienced caroliners were replaced by poorly trained recruits, whose morale was no longer as high as that of the soldiers of the first years of this war.


Recruit

There was nothing for the mercenary troops from the German principalities and Ostseen provinces to make them unreliable and unstable. The Swedes could still fight against the Danes, Hanoverians and Saxons, but they no longer had the slightest chance of defeating the Russian troops in a large land battle. And Karl himself, after the return of the Ottoman Empire, did not even try to take revenge from the eastern neighbor who had become formidable.

The only circumstance that allowed Sweden to delay the signing of the inevitable peace with the formal recognition of the already passed transition under the control of Russia Ingria, Estonia and Livonia was the absence of Peter the Great fleet, which could compete on equal terms with the Swedish, and carry out landing on the coast of the metropolis. But the situation has been steadily changing. New battleships came into operation: 17 were purchased in England and Holland, 20 were built in St. Petersburg, 7 in Arkhangelsk, two each in Novaya Ladoga and the Olonets shipyard. In addition to them, frigates were acquired: 7 in the Netherlands and 2 in England. The fleet also included 16 shnivs (a two-masted ship with 14-18 guns on board), as well as more than 200 galleys.


V. Yarkin. Petrovsky squadron of 1721

In June 1710, Vyborg was captured by Russian troops, in Helsinki (Helsinki) in July, and in October of that same year, two important Baltic fortresses, which had long been besieged by Russian troops - Riga and Revel, fell.

The Swedes hoped for help from the Ottoman Empire, as well as from England, France, Prussia, who were already beginning to fear the strengthening of Russia and its growing influence on European affairs. And help really came.

In November 1710, a war with Turkey, which was extremely unsuccessful for Russia, began, during which the army of Peter I was surrounded by the Prut River (July 1711). Azov and Taganrog were lost, the Azov fleet was burned (about 500 ships), the Zaporizhzhya Sich passed under the jurisdiction of the Sultan, Russia took upon itself the obligation to withdraw troops from Poland.

And the so-called powers of the Great Union (England, Holland and Austria, allies in the "war for the Spanish inheritance") on March 20, 1710 signed the Northern Neutrality Act. According to this document, the opponents of Sweden had to abandon the invasion of Swedish possessions in northern Germany, and the Swedes - not to replenish their troops in Pomerania and not to use them in a further war. Moreover, a convention was signed in The Hague on July 22 of that year, providing for the creation of a “peacekeeping force” corps by the Great Union, which would guarantee that the parties concerned comply with the terms of this act. It should have included 15,5 thousand foot soldiers and 3 thousand cavalry.

Renewal of the Northern Union


Despite its clear benefits, Charles XII rejected this offer. As a result, in August 1711, the Danish and Saxon armies (supported by the Russian units) entered Pomerania, but the Allied actions were unsuccessful, and it was not possible to take the besieged fortress Stralsund. In March 1712, the Russian corps was sent to Pomerania under the command of Menshikov (later Peter himself joined him). The Danes and Saxons acted passively, allowing the Swedish general Magnus Stenbock to capture Rostock and Mecklenburg. In December, Stenbock hit the Danish-Saxon army, which, contrary to the advice of Peter I, entered the battle, without waiting for the Russian units to approach, and was defeated by Gadebusch. The Danes lost all their artillery.

Military operations resumed in January 1713 - already in Holstein. Stenbock was defeated near Friedrichstadt, the remains of his army took refuge in the Holstein fortress Tenningen. Its siege lasted until May 4 (15), 1713: the Swedish army of 11 people, weakened by hunger and epidemics, capitulated, after which Menshikov’s troops besieged Stettin and stormed the city on September 485 (18). This city was transferred to Prussia - in exchange for the accession of this country to the Northern Union.

Battle of Gangut


And on July 27 (August 7), 1714, the Russian fleet won the Gangut Peninsula (from the Swedish Hangö udd), which currently bears the Finnish name Hanko.


Hanko Peninsula (Gangut) on the map of Finland


Hanko Peninsula

This battle was the largest naval battle between Sweden and Russia in the Northern War, in honor of this victory the name "Gangut" was assigned to 5 large warships.

By this time, Russian troops already controlled southern and central Finland (which was occupied mainly in order to give way to Sweden in peace talks). In the city of Abo (modern Turku), north of Gangut, a Russian garrison was stationed, to strengthen which in June 1714, 99 galleys, scampaways and other vessels were to be delivered by a hull of 15 thousand people.


1696 Principium Galley on a postage stamp


Russian scampaveia (half-galley)

The Swedish fleet, commanded by Gustav Watrang, went to sea to prevent the passage of this squadron to Abo. It consisted of 15 battleships, 3 frigates and 9 galleys. Thus, being inferior to the Russians in the number of ships, the Swedes significantly exceeded their fleet in firepower, and believed that they would be able to easily defeat light and lightly armed rowing vessels. The detachment of Vice Admiral Lilie, consisting of eight battleships and two bomber ships, blocked the Russian squadron in Tverminna Bay. Wattrang with the rest of the ships is located nearby.

Peter I, who was at the squadron rank of chautbenhacht (this rank corresponded to Major General or Rear Admiral) and the squadron commander, Admiral F.M. Apraksin, did not want to give a big battle using the fleet of "real" large sailing ships (in Revel at that time there were 16 battleships). Instead, a decision worthy of an ancient Greek or Roman strategist was made: the soldiers landed on the shore began to arrange a “re-fetch” in the narrowest point of the isthmus, where its width reached only 2,5 km. Wattrang reacted to this by sending to the northern coast of the peninsula the 18-gun Pram "Elephant" (sometimes mistakenly called a frigate), accompanied by six galleys and three skherboats - all of these ships carried 116 guns on their sides. Rear Admiral N. Erenschold was appointed commander of this detachment.

"Elephant", the flagship of Erenselt, a fragment of an engraving by A.F. Zubov. It is sometimes called a frigate, but the "Elephant" is a flat-bottomed vessel, and therefore cannot be called a frigate

Some believe that the work on the recess was originally conceived by Peter to divert part of the Swedish forces. However, it seems that she was arranged seriously and only favorable weather for the Russians (calm) forced the Russian command to change their plans. On the morning of July 26, 20 galleys under the command of Commander M. Zmaevich, followed by another 15 Lefort's scampaways, 15 miles went by oars, bypassing the enemy’s ships. The Swedes could not stop them, since they, who lost their mobility, had to be towed by boats. And Rear Admiral Taube, who led a detachment of one frigate, five galleys and 6 skerboats, which could block the movement of Russian rowing ships, unexpectedly turned back because he decided that he was facing the entire Russian fleet.

But by noon, the situation changed: a weak wind blew, taking advantage of which, the Swedish ships Wattrang and Lillie moved towards each other and formed in two lines, dividing the Russian squadron into two parts. But at the same time, the Swedes released a narrow strip of water off the coast, along which Russian rowing vessels with low draft could pass. As a result, in the early morning of July 27, the remaining Russian ships (with the exception of one galley, grounded) went to sea.

Rear Admiral Erenschold, who “guarded” Russian ships in the northwest, having heard the cannonade, decided to lead his ships to the main forces, but in the fog his ships turned slightly to the side, ended up in a small Rilaxfjord bay and were blocked by the detachment of Zmaevich and Lefort .


Hoping for the help of the main forces of his fleet, Erenschold refused to capitulate, and about two in the afternoon the Russian galleys attacked his ships.

"The Gangut battle." Engraving of Mauritius Baku

Peter I personally took part in the boarding battle, for which he later received the rank of vice admiral.


The Swedes claimed that they managed to repel two of the three attacks. But there is evidence that all 10 of their ships were captured during the first attack: it took the Swedes to talk about stubborn resistance in order to at least somehow justify their defeat.


L. Kamenev. Gangut battle


Robert Ker Porter. The capture of the Swedish Rear Admiral Erensheld in the Battle of Gangut in 1714

The Russians lost 127 people in this battle (8 of them officers), 342 soldiers and officers were wounded, 232 soldiers and 7 officers were captured (they were in the gallery that ran aground).

Swedish losses: 361 people were killed (including 9 officers) and 580 prisoners (of which 350 were injured).

After the defeat of Erenschild, Admiral Wattrang did not dare to join the battle, and led his squadron to the coast of Sweden, informing the Senate that it can now only defend the capital.

"Return of the King"


In the autumn of the same year, Charles XII finally left the Ottoman Empire - to the great pleasure of the Sultan and everyone who managed to get to know this Swedish king at least a little. On November 1714, 21, Karl arrived at the Pomeranian fortress Stralsund, which belonged to Sweden.


Albert Edelfelt. "Return of the King"

He ordered the start of a privateer war against all foreign (non-Swedish) merchant ships in the Baltic Sea, and send recruits to Pomerania. After receiving reinforcements, Charles XII attacked the receiving Stettin Prussia.

For another 4 years, he threw the best men of his kingdom into the furnace of war, to which desperate Swedes seemed to have no chance to end.


Gustav Ankarkron. Carolina

In July 1715, Danish-Prussian troops of 36 thousand people again besieged Stralsund, where Charles XII himself was. The nine thousandth garrison of the fortress fought against superior enemy forces until December 11, 1715. Two days before the fall of the fortress, Karl left Stralsund in a six-boat boat: he carried this boat across the sea for 12 hours until the Swedish brigantine met with her, on which he arrived at home.

On April 7, 1716, the last Pomeranian fortress of Sweden - Wismar capitulated. Karl at that time fought in Norway, which was then part of the Kingdom of Denmark.

Russian fleet in Copenhagen


Meanwhile, by June of this year, many Russian warships had gathered in Copenhagen: three ships built in Amsterdam (Portsmouth, Devonshire and Malburg), four Arkhangelsk ships (Uriel, Selafail, Varahael) and “Jagudiel”), a Sievers squadron of 13 ships (seven battleships, 3 frigates and 3 shnyavy) and Zmaevich’s galley. The planned landing on the coast of Scania did not take place, the Russians accused the Danes of wanting to conclude a separate peace treaty, and those of Peter I of trying to capture Copenhagen. It is difficult to say what actually happened, but the situation at some point became extremely serious. The garrison of the Danish capital was put on full alert, the king of Great Britain George I demanded the withdrawal of Russian troops from Germany and Denmark, ordering Norris, commander of the British squadron, to block the Russian fleet. But, realizing that such actions could lead to war, the admiral showed prudence: referring to some inaccuracies in the wording of the royal order, he did not begin to carry out it, asking for confirmation. Meanwhile, the royal ministers were able to convince the monarch that breaking off relations with Russia would be extremely disadvantageous for Britain, leading to the arrest of British merchants and the cessation of imports of strategically necessary goods. The military conflict between England and Russia was avoided. The Russian fleet left Copenhagen, the infantry units were assigned to Rostock and Mecklenburg, the cavalry to the Polish border. In Denmark, to symbolically signify an alliance with this kingdom, one cavalry regiment was left.

The death of Charles XII


On November 30, 1718, Charles XII was killed in Norway at the Fredriksten fortress.


XNUMXth-century French engraving. King of Sweden Charles XII during the siege of the Fredriksten Fortress

Carl Gustaf Cederström. “The Last Night of Charles XII at Fredrickshall”

The circumstances of his death are mysterious. Many historians believe that he was shot dead by one of his close associates, and not with a bullet, but with a button cut off from one of his uniforms and poured with lead: in Sweden it was believed that you could not kill this king with an ordinary bullet. This button was even found at the site of the death of Charles - in 1924. And its diameter coincided with the diameter of the bullet hole in the king’s hat, analysis of DNA traces found on the button and royal gloves showed the presence of a rare mutation in both samples, found only in Sweden.


Button found by the blacksmith Karl Andersson

Nevertheless, the question of the death of Charles XII has not yet been finally resolved; historians of that period are divided into two groups holding opposing points of view.


Carl Gustaf Cederström. The Death of Charles XII


Reconstruction of the death of Charles XII on November 30, 1718 in the front trench at the besieged fortress

With the death of Charles XII, perhaps the main obstacle to the conclusion of peace was eliminated. Sweden now continued to fight, hoping only to bargain for itself more acceptable conditions of peace. It was necessary to convince the Senate, Queen Ulrika Eleanor and her husband, Frederick of Hesse (who would become king of Sweden in 1720), that both the indigenous territories of Sweden and Stockholm were now in danger and could be captured by Russian troops.

Ezel Island Battle


On May 24 (June 4), 1719, the Russian fleet won the first victory in the open sea and in artillery battle (without boarding battle) - it was a battle near the island of Ezel (Saarema).


Saarema Island (Ezel) on a map of the Baltic Sea

Since 1715, Russian ships and squadrons began to capture Swedish merchant ships in the Baltic Sea. So in May 1717, the von Hooft detachment (three battleships, three frigates and one pink) “hunted” at sea, capturing 13 “prizes”. The captain of one of these ships reported another caravan, which was to be guarded by warships from Pillau (now Baltiysk, Kaliningrad Region) to Stockholm. Having received this news, Admiral-General F.M. Apraksin sent off the second combat detachment, which was led by captain of the 2nd rank N. Senyavin. It included six 52-gun battleships and an 18-gun schnavu.

Some of the Russian ships that took part in the Ezel battle:


Layout of the battleship “Yagudiiel”: the first of the battleships of the Archangels series (Raphael, Uriel, Varahail and others). Laid down at the Solombala shipyard in the summer of 1713, commissioned - in 1715, length - 51,75 m., 52 guns


Shnyava "Natalia"

In the early morning hours of June 4, a Russian squadron discovered three Swedish warships off Ezel Island. These were the battleship Wachmeister, the frigate Karlskrona and the brigantine Bernard, under the command of Captain-Commander A. Wrangel. Assessing the situation, Wrangel tried to hide his squad in the skerries near the island of Sandgamna, but did not have time. The first ships to attack were the battleships Portsmouth (the flagship of the Russian squadron) and Devonshire. All three Swedish ships fired at Portsmouth — headquarters and Mars-Rae were killed on this ship. The forces were unequal, and the weaker Swedish ships (frigate and brigantine) lowered the flag even before the approach of other Russian ships - “Yagudiyila”, “Rafaila” and “Natalia”. The Wachmeister attempted to leave the battlefield and the Jagudiiel and Raphael chased after him, followed by Portsmouth later.


Pechatin V. “The Battle of Ezel Island May 24, 1719”

The Swedish flagship was overtaken at about 12 noon, after a three-hour battle, he was forced to surrender.

Ludwig Richard. “The battleship Wachmeister battles against the Russian squadron in 1719.”

The losses of the parties were not comparable: the Swedes lost 50 people killed, 376 sailors, 11 officers and the captain-commander were captured. The Russians killed 3 officers and 6 sailors, 9 people were injured.

“Beat the enemy on its territory”


And in July of that year, the Russian landing units were first landed on the coast of Sweden.

The troops of F.M. Apraksin burned iron and copper plants on the island of Ute, captured the cities of Sørdetjell and Nyköping, and the city of Norrköping burned the Swedes themselves, flooding in its harbor 27 of their own merchant ships. On the island of Nekvarn, the cannon factory was captured by the Russians, 300 guns became trophies.

A detachment of P. Lassi, numbering about 3500 people, destroyed factories in the vicinity of the city of Gavle. The Swedish troops, who twice tried to enter the battle, did not achieve success, having lost three guns in the first skirmish, and seven in the second.

In August this year, landings were planted on both sides of the strategically important fairway Steksund. These units managed to get to the Vaxholm fortress protecting Stockholm, which caused panic among the population of the Swedish capital.

In total, as a result of this operation, 8 cities, 1363 villages were seized, 140 country houses and castles of Swedish aristocrats were burned, 21 plants, 21 mills and 26 military depots were destroyed.

England was then prevented from concluding peace by promising military assistance to Sweden and sending its squadron to the Baltic Sea in the spring of 1720 (18 battleships, 3 frigates, and other smaller vessels).

Grengam Island Naval Battle


This did not bother the Russians, and M. Golitsyn sent the brigadier Mangden to the Swedish coast with a six-thousandth landing force for 35 galleys. This detachment captured 2 cities and 41 villages. The combined Anglo-Swedish fleet came to the shores of Sweden, Mangden's troops returned to Finland, and the skerry squadron of M.M.Golitsyn (61 galleys and 29 boats) advanced to the Aland Islands. On July 27 (August 7), 1720, near the island of Grengam, which is part of the Aland Islands, the Russian fleet won another victory over the Swedes.


Aland Islands on the map


Golitsyn Mikhail Mikhailovich, the third in a row Admiral General of the Russian Navy, successor of A. Menshikov as president of the Admiralty College

The Swedish fleet, led by Karl Schöbald, consisted of a battleship, 4 frigates, 3 galleys, 3 skerboats, a shniva, a galliot and a brigantine with a total number of guns on board 156. The Swedish admiral was the first to attack the Russian galleys, which departed into a narrow and shallow strait between the islands of Grengam and Fleece. Here the advantage was already on their side: despite the strong artillery fire of the enemy, which disabled 42 galleys (many of them later declared unfit and burned), 4 frigates were captured and the battleship was almost boarded. Amazed British, making sure that their large sailing ships would be in great danger in the event of a battle against the skerry fleet of Russian galleys, did not even try to help their allies.


Ferdinand Perrault. “The Battle of the Grengam Island May 27, 1720”


A. Zubov. "The Battle of Grengam"


Medal commemorating the capture of four Swedish ships at Grengam on July 27, 1720. The inscription reads: “Diligence and courage exceed strength”

The battles at Gangut and Grengam took place in different years, but on the same day, on which the Orthodox Church commemorates the healer and holy great martyr Panteleimon. In honor of these victories in 1735, a church was laid in St. Petersburg, consecrated on July 27, 1739.


Panteleimon Church (Church of the Holy Great Martyr and Healer Panteleimon), St. Petersburg

Nistadt world


In May of the following year, Sweden was forced to enter into negotiations, which ended on August 30 (September 10), 1721 with the signing of a peace treaty in Nishtadt (now Uusikaupunki, Finland) that secured the Russian conquests in the Baltic states. The Swedes “sold” Russia to Ingria, Karelia, Estonia and Livonia for 2 million thalers - a huge amount, but it was precisely so many Saxon gold thalers that were captured from the Swedes after the Battle of Poltava, and about 700 thousand from Perevolnaya.


Peter Schenk. The signing of the peace treaty in Nishtadt on August 20, 1721

During the celebration of the Nishtadt Peace in St. Petersburg, Peter I remained true to himself, making part of the holiday a jesterly wedding of the new prince, Pope Buturlin, with the widow of his predecessor, Nikita Zotov.


N.I.Sokolov. The wedding ceremony of the Prince-Pope and a masquerade in St. Petersburg, on the occasion of the Nishtadt Peace, September 10, 1721. From the album dedicated to the 200th anniversary of Peter I

But, although this holiday was of a somewhat frivolous and parody character, the victory itself was real.


Territories that became part of Russia under the terms of the Nistadt Treaty


The sculptural group "Peace and Victory" (Summer Garden, St. Petersburg) - the personification of the victory of Russia in the Northern War and the Nishtadt Peace

At the end of the Northern War, the Swedish authorities refused Russian prisoners of war assistance in returning home. But the Russian government incurred the cost of transporting prisoners who were brought from all over the country to St. Petersburg and Kronstadt, from where they were sent by sea to Stockholm.

Charles XII and Peter I: opinions of descendants


At present, both in Sweden and in Russia they treat monarchs very differently, under whose leadership these countries waged a long and bloody war, the Northern War. There is no consensus either here or there.

In Sweden, on the one hand, they do not deny the catastrophic defeat and ruin of the state under Charles XII. The Swedish historian Peter Englund admits:

"The Swedes left the stage of world history and took places in the auditorium."

In addition to the loss of the eastern Baltic, Sweden was forced to cede part of its lands to Prussia and Hanover, and Denmark received Schleswig (because of the desire to own which she entered the war).

But even this defeat, some in Sweden almost credited the “warrior king”, saying that it became the reason for the rejection of the great-power policy and the cutback in the power of the monarchs, while the parliament was strengthened. Although they should thank the opponents of this king for this.

Local nationalists, as before, consider Charles XII a hero who glorified Sweden, who was only trying to protect Europe from Russian aggression. Since the XNUMXth century, panscandinavists have been grieving over the failed attempt of Charles XII to create an alliance between the united Swedish-Norwegian kingdom and Denmark.

The famous Swedish poet E. Tegner called Charles XII "the greatest son of Sweden." Some historians of this country compared it to Charlemagne.

On the day of the death of Charles XII (November 30), Sweden celebrates the Day of Stuffed cabbage (“Koldulmens Dag”) - a dish created on the basis of a Turkish dolma recipe, which the Swedes met with this king after his flight from Poltava in Bendery.


Swedish cabbage rolls (koldulmar)


Sweden: Coldulmens Dag (Stuffed Dog Day) in Stockholm

And even the Swedish sobriety society on November 30 honors the memory of the king, who "drank only one water and despised wine."


Julius Kronberg. Charles XII of Sweden, the picture was painted in 1893. When you look at this picture, you might think that the monarch depicted on it far pushed the boundaries of his state, and did not lose almost all the overseas possessions inherited from his predecessors

And it should be recognized that for all the controversy of such a position, it arouses a certain respect: the Swedes do not abandon their history, are not ashamed of it, do not spit on anyone and denigrate anyone. Such a reasonable approach to assessing our history is not a sin for us Russians to learn.

In Russia, in addition to the official point of view, there is an alternative, whose supporters believe that the reign of Peter I violated the natural course of Russian history and extremely critically evaluate the results of its activities.

M. Voloshin wrote about this in the poem “Russia”:

The great Peter was the first Bolshevik,
Intending to transfer Russia,
Inclusions and customs contrary to
For hundreds of years to its future distances.
He, like us, did not know other ways,
Sprinkle decree, execution and torture chamber,
To the realization of truth on earth.


And here are the lines Voloshin devoted to Petersburg:

A hot and triumphant city,
Built on corpses, on bones
"All Russia" - in the darkness of the Finnish swamps,
With the spiers of churches and ships,
With the dungeons of the underwater casemates,
With standing water set in granite
With palaces of the color of flame and meat,
With the whitish hassle of nights
With the altar stone of Finnish black gods,
Trampled horse hooves
And with enlightened laurels and anger
Crazy face of copper Peter.



Emperor Alexander I, who knew well about the "noose that limits the Russian autocracy" (and even touched one of them with his chubby white fingers), said enviously:

"Peter I had a rather heavy fist, so as not to be afraid of his subjects."

A. S. Pushkin, who wrote the famous and textbook "Poltava", called Peter I both Robespierre and Napoleon, and spoke about his work in the archives:

"I have now analyzed a lot of materials about Peter and I will never write his story, because there are many facts that I cannot agree with my personal respect for him."

L. Tolstoy called Peter I "a raging, drunk, rotten beast from syphilis."

V. Klyuchevsky said that “Peter I made history, but did not understand it,” and one of his most famous quotes is the following:

"To protect the fatherland from the enemy, Peter I devastated him more than any enemy."

However, one cannot fail to admit that, as a result of the reign of Charles XII, Sweden turned into a secondary, little meaningful state at the back of Europe, and the barbarian kingdom of Muscovy during the time of Peter I was transformed into the Russian Empire in front of amazed contemporaries, which even Gorbachev and Yeltsin could not completely destroy .
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  1. 3x3zsave 31 January 2020 06: 30 New
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    +35
    the Swedes do not abandon their history, are not ashamed of it, do not spit on anyone and do not slander anyone. Such a reasonable approach to assessing our history is not a sin for us Russians to learn.
    Gold words!!!
    Great cycle! Thank you Valery!
  2. Far B 31 January 2020 07: 12 New
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    +13
    With successful landings on the territory of Sweden itself, complete dominance on land and a number of impressive victories at sea, Peter nevertheless requested surprisingly little from the defeated Sweden. He even paid for Tribaltica at his own discretion. Remembering how in those days the winners treated the vanquished, it looks somewhat mysterious.
  3. Sentinel-vs 31 January 2020 07: 24 New
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    +7
    As always, very informative and interesting!
    The following is also interesting: in the famous (I’m not afraid of this word) battle of Gangut, the losses are estimated at 127 people and 361 people killed on both sides. But the current trend that the Battle of the Ice was just a minor skirmish and does not deserve the memory that “experts from history” push through, how does it compare with these losses?
    1. VLR
      VLR 31 January 2020 08: 13 New
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      +17
      Yes, of course, the scale of the “Battle of the Ice” is traditionally exaggerated. A much larger and more significant battle took place in February 1268 at Rakovar (Estonian Rakvere). In the annals reported:
      "Neither our fathers nor our grandfathers saw such a cruel Sich."
      The combined Russian army of the Pskov prince Dovmont, the Novgorod posadnik Mikhail and the son of Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry overturned the allied forces of the Livonian Order and the Danes, and drove them 7 miles. The losses of the parties were, indeed, serious, in the thousands of professional warriors, which by the standards of the XIII century is very noticeable.
      1. Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 10: 47 New
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        +8
        The annals say: "Neither our fathers nor grandfathers have seen such a cruel slaughter."

        EMNIP, the Battle of Rakovors ended when "the horses could no longer walk on the corpses?"
      2. Fishery 31 January 2020 20: 52 New
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        +1
        my grandmother from Domontovich)) and the coat of arms was flopped in history, they write that one of the branches of Dovmont)
    2. Hantengri 31 January 2020 11: 11 New
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      +9
      Quote: Sentinel-vs
      But the current trend that the Battle of the Ice was just a minor skirmish and does not deserve memory,

      That is, in your opinion, if it happened makhalovo - stopitzot million per stopitzot million - then this is an o-very important battle! And if 500 Russian forged rats were piled on to the 400th Livonians - is this a minor, not worthy of a hassle? You have a strange approach to assessing the historical significance of battles ... Maybe you should try to approach the assessment in the same way from the point of view of external and internal political consequences?
    3. Ryazan87 31 January 2020 11: 35 New
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      +13
      Still, it must be borne in mind that naval battles are, in principle, smaller in number. The total losses under Jutland are about 10 thousand people. By the standards of the First World War - 1 day of not very intense fighting on the land front. The Battle of Midway is a total loss of 3,5, and this is one of the largest naval battles of World War II.
  4. Van 16 31 January 2020 07: 27 New
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    +13
    They treat Peter differently, that's for sure. I believe that this is a glorious page in our history. Thanks for the article!
  5. rocket757 31 January 2020 08: 07 New
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    +2
    Instructive HISTORY in every way.
  6. Olgovich 31 January 2020 08: 15 New
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    -3
    The Swedish historian Peter Englund admits:

    "The Swedes left the stage of world history and took places in the auditorium."


    Which, in the end, turned out to be good for Sweden and its inhabitants ..

    And Peter's Russia saved Europe from one of the strongest predators.
    Then she delivered the same Napoleon.
    Then, from Hitler.
    And it should be recognized that for all the controversy of such a position, it arouses a certain respect: the Swedes do not abandon their history, are not ashamed of it, do not slander anyone and do not slander anyone. Such a reasonable approach to assessing our history would not be a sin for us Russians to learn.
    What respect can cause this:
    Local nationalists still consider Charles XII a hero, to glorify Sweden which is just sought to protect Europe from Russian aggression.
    ?
    Then only twist the temple ....

    “To protect fatherland from the enemy, Peter I devastated him more than any enemy. "

    Did he have a choice? no
    The Swedes “sold” Russia to Ingria, Karelia, Estonia and Livonia for 2 million talers - the amount is huge, but it is so many golden Saxon thalers were captured from the Swedes after the battle of Poltava

    Aerobatics Russia: buy huge territory of the enemy -... for their own GOLD! good

    And, by dissonance, -supreme idiocy grief-rulers after 200 years: they gave THESE territory, and even ... paid for it with GOLD! belay fool
    1. Engineer 31 January 2020 09: 17 New
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      What respect can cause this

      Then only twist the temple.

      Specifically, the Northern War is defensive for Sweden.
      1. Olgovich 31 January 2020 10: 55 New
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        Quote: Engineer
        Specifically, the Northern War defensive for Sweden.


        I understand, it seems, you: Ivangorod, Yam, Koporye, Nutlet, Korela-this, apparently, is a primordially “SWEDISH” city, like Riga and others, and Poltava, apparently, Swedish province (judging, apparently, by its current flag) yes
        1. Engineer 31 January 2020 11: 18 New
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          I understand, it seems, you

          It only seems to you. Not understood. Sweden declared war on Russia. No territorial claims. The war was not so much for the return of the lost lands, but for the whole Baltic States to the heap on which Sweden formally has more rights. Specifically, Russia does not belong to Riga by any means. Your post-demagogy in its purest form.
          1. Olgovich 31 January 2020 12: 13 New
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            Quote: Engineer
            Sweden declared war on Russia. No territorial claims. War was on not so much for the return of lost lands, and for the entire Baltic

            War was on FOR return lost and occupied lands and, accordingly, for access to the sea.
            To help you:
            Pokrovsky M. Russian history from ancient times / N. Nikolsky and V. Storozhev. - 1911. - T. III
            .

            Quote: Engineer
            Specifically to Riga, Russia does not belong to any side.

            She bought it. The Swedes, who recently captured it (1622) and had nothing to do with it before the occupation.
            Quote: Engineer
            .Your post-demagogy in its purest form.

            belay lol
            Should I cry for such assessments?
          2. Prometey 18 February 2020 10: 47 New
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            Quote: Engineer
            Not understood. Sweden declared war on Russia. No territorial claims.

            Yes you are right. From the point of view of international law, Russia in the Northern War acted as an aggressor. Sweden was not going to fight with Russia and did not make any claims against it.
    2. IS-80_RVGK2 31 January 2020 12: 22 New
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      Quote: Olgovich
      Then, from Hitler.

      Hitler defeated the USSR. This is a completely different country.
      Quote: Olgovich
      Aerobatics of Russia: to buy huge territory of the enemy -... for their own GOLD!

      Aerobatics would be if we had both territory and gold. These two million could be spent on the development of the country. Still, Peter was a rather impulsive person and made many mistakes and, to put it mildly, vile things. Although this does not detract from the genius of Peter.
  7. Timurleng 31 January 2020 08: 24 New
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    Empire formed and disintegrated. Kings come and go. But in the end, the civilian population suffers. How many widows, orphans and raped women are not comprehensible to the mind
  8. arhitroll 31 January 2020 08: 50 New
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    But what about the totalitarian despot king who did not spare his subjects? Is there such an opinion in Sweden?
    1. Engineer 31 January 2020 09: 13 New
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      Of course there is. You can see for yourself. The work of Englund Poltava posted on the milter.
    2. VLR
      VLR 31 January 2020 09: 14 New
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      Present as one of the points of view, but, in general, ordinary Swedes treat Charles XII in much the same way as the French do to Napoleon, only more soberly, without exalted admiration and adoration: a hero who shook Europe with his victories. Then, of course, both countries almost destroyed their countries, but this was already in an undertone. Of course, one cannot compare with the Mongols and their cult of Genghis Khan.
    3. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 31 January 2020 10: 38 New
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      They say that in Sweden there is such an opinion. I heard from those who were there. However, the king did not spare himself either.
  9. Korsar4 31 January 2020 08: 50 New
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    The Northern War is one of the facets of Peter's activity. His bright side.
    1. Engineer 31 January 2020 09: 18 New
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      And still black and white. Like all activities)
      1. Korsar4 31 January 2020 09: 31 New
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        Here is another question of shades. With all the ambiguity, and in the small sense of the estimates.
        1. Engineer 31 January 2020 10: 10 New
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          Kychanov wrote about Temujin something like “such people will always be written in black or white” I think the same thing with Peter
  10. Ros 56 31 January 2020 09: 06 New
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    About three hundred years have passed, but still the soul rejoices in the victories of its ancestors.
    I do not know, and the day of the celebration of Peter the Great is available in our country, and even more so in St. Petersburg, if not, we should establish it. This is not necessary for us old, it is necessary for children to honor their history and not be Ivanes who do not remember kinship,
    1. Moskovit 31 January 2020 14: 25 New
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      You are heard)). The 350th anniversary will be celebrated to the fullest.
      In St. Petersburg, they discussed a plan to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the birth of Peter I. This date will be celebrated in our country in June 2022.

      According to Acting Governor Alexander Beglov, more than 110 events will be timed to the anniversary date.

      Literally in every district there will be lectures, concert programs, conferences, creative contests, theatrical performances. The birthday of the founder of St. Petersburg - Peter I - is celebrated every year on June 9. City law officially established this memorable date back in 2009. But the year 2022 will become special in this sense: after all, June 9 will mark exactly 350 years since the emperor’s birth.

      In addition to this date, which will become the center of celebrations, the City Day (May 27), the Day of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul (July 12), and the Day of the Russian Guard (September 2) will be timed to the anniversary of the Tsar Reformer.

      It is also important to note that almost 20 events at the suggestion of the government of the Northern capital are included in the draft federal plan for celebrating the anniversary. Among the most significant is the International Petrovsky Congress, which will be held on June 9 and will be devoted to the study and popularization of the historical and cultural heritage of the Petrine era, the influence of this period on subsequent times and cultural ties between Russia and other countries.
  11. smaug78 31 January 2020 09: 23 New
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    Thanks for the wonderful series of articles!
    "... the Swedes do not give up their history, are not ashamed of it, do not spit on anyone and do not slander anyone. It would not be a sin for us Russians to learn from such a rational approach to assessing their history." I applaud !!!
  12. Konstantin Shevchenko 31 January 2020 09: 41 New
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    The Russian people for Peter I is a personal instrument multiplied by his Russophobia. But the fact that Peter was ambitious and not lazy, his merits to the fatherland, this is of course a big contribution to the formation of RI.
    1. Astra wild 31 January 2020 19: 05 New
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      Konstantin, take a look at any dictionary: phobia is fear, fear. This is Goebbels, and then the Americans were afraid of the Russians. Let's cut it right
      1. Hantengri 31 January 2020 19: 58 New
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        Quote: Astra wild
        Let's cut it right

        Wai, Sentyabrynka hon, why is Vee so stupid? Let us not be either "cut out", neither right nor wrong, yes! Let us simply express ourselves correctly? laughing hi
      2. Konstantin Shevchenko 31 January 2020 20: 08 New
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        How will be correct? Russophobia on cultural and ideological grounds? According to the wiki
        Russophobia (German: Russophobie, French russophobie, from Rus [2] and other Greek. Φόβος - fear) - a biased, suspicious, hostile attitude towards Russia [3], Russians [4], a specific direction in ethnophobia [ 5] (in a narrower sense - fear of Russia or the course of Russian foreign policy [6]). According to some experts, Russophobia, like anti-Semitism, unlike most other national phobias, often acts as a whole ideology, that is, as a special set of ideas and concepts that has its own structure, system of concepts, a history of genesis and development, as well as its typical manifestations [7]. At the same time, Russophobia is found among the Russians themselves, that is, it does not appear as xenophobia, but as "Russian hate"(Auto-aggression) [7].
        . I highlighted it boldly, maybe they wanted to say this?
        This is Goebbels, and then the Americans were afraid of the Russians
        Why do we need to copy their worldview for their internal use? Then confusion arises. They would write how to express themselves correctly.
    2. Hantengri 31 January 2020 19: 51 New
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      Quote: Konstantin Shevchenko
      The Russian people for Peter I is a personal instrument multiplied by his Russophobia.

      Could you explain what exactly was Russophobia of Pyotr Alekseevich? Could it be that, by the means available to him, he managed to carry out the urgently needed reforms, thanks to which Russia, as a state, once again managed to survive, surrounded by "good" and "caring" partners, in the political process?
      1. Konstantin Shevchenko 31 January 2020 21: 18 New
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        Why turn VO into Yandex Zen? Let us leave the topic to professionals about the non-love of Peter the Great for the Russian language, Russian culture and tradition. A lot has been said about Peter of contemporaries from different eras, both positive and negative. But among the Russian people, it was not popular, it is confirmed by various sources. One of the reasons: serfdom was intensified - the merger of serfdom and possessive peasants
        Peasants, divided into state, landowners and monasteries, were taxed with poll tax. The landlords fully controlled the serfs - they could not leave their village without the written permission of their owner
        the topic is big, a lot of letters; the second construction of St. Petersburg - forced labor; the third repression against the Orthodox in favor of Catholics and Protestants, Peter was popularly called the "Antichrist"; massacre on the Don ..; and married arap laughing; etc. In the "NH" also a lot of interesting notes. The list of positives is also voluminous. The most important thing is the military reform, territorial expansion (although Russophobes could not be taken under one wing, especially for gold), administrative reform, printing houses and museums appeared. It turns out a double edged sword.
        1. Hantengri 31 January 2020 21: 48 New
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          Quote: Konstantin Shevchenko
          There are also a lot of interesting notes in "HX".

          "HX" is the New Chronology? If yes, then call. Communication with representatives of the glorious de`Bills tribe was not part of my plans today. hi
          1. Konstantin Shevchenko 31 January 2020 22: 46 New
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            And I look, you too insult the European integrator in Latin. Asked the question answered. I will not blame you for being rude. I am neutral towards HX, I am familiar with their work, but I am not a fan, so I did not cite a single note from their work. Yes, what can you discuss with you if you are a layman in history but you know who de'bills laughing
  13. Viktor Sergeev 31 January 2020 09: 56 New
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    Fools or traitors refuse history, no matter what the story. Well, and the assessment that it is different for everyone. Many in Sweden believe that after death, finally Sweden has become a normal state with concern for itself and its people.
  14. Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 10: 16 New
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    Wattrang reacted to this by sending to the northern coast of the peninsula the 18-gun Pram "Elephant" (sometimes it is mistakenly called a frigate)

    All school textbooks say about the frigate, but the fact that "Elephant" is a pram was first learned from Shirokorad from his book "Northern Wars of Russia." Alexander Borisovich there is extremely outraged by this historical inaccuracy. laughing
    To the author - Valery, I bow! hi
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 31 January 2020 22: 14 New
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      Hi Nikolay! Regarding the type of Elephant, the question is still not closing! Parm has a pronounced flat-bottomed hull for operations in shallow water. Frigates were built keel. Both types of ships provided one enclosed deck with guns. The latter were armed with full (direct) sailing weapons of three masts. Parma could be either three or two mast. Sailing weapons are mostly direct. Elephant, reliably (based on the preserved engravings and images), was a three-masted ship with direct (full) sailing weapons and one ship closed by the gun deck. The only refinement Elephant was equipped with oars! What bottom did he have? This is a snag, although Gangut’s trophy was valued by Peter and was left to "edify the first Russian maritime Victoria to the descendants." True He served and stood on a pedestal, he did not last long. Because of the rotten forest, it was dismantled. So in the surviving sketches of the elephant he has a pronounced keel bottom !!! So, while serving in the Swedish Crown fleet, he could be a Parma, and in Russian a rowing frigate.
      R.S. The variety of frigates is so great that the encyclopedia shows off the following types: small, newly invented, rowing, akat ..... and they are all frigates !!!
      Regards, Vlad!
  15. Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 10: 29 New
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    The Swedish flagship was overtaken at about 12 noon, after a three-hour battle, he was forced to surrender.

    For the capture of the Wahmeister with two other ships, a medal was minted, which was awarded to officers of the Russian squadron. Another thing is interesting - all these medals were ... of different values!
    The personal decree of Peter given to the President of the Coin Office:
    - "On the making of gold medals for distribution to naval officers who took three Swedish warships."
    Mr. President! Upon receipt of this, write to Moscow so that at the Mint they immediately make gold coins for distribution to naval officers who took three Swedish military ships Maya on the 24th day of this year, 1719, namely the number of all 67 different varieties, and order everyone to do battle on one side sea, and on the other side usually our Person.

    Here is one type of this medal:
  16. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 31 January 2020 10: 35 New
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    Superb, super! In the end, after reading, I even shed a tear !!! Now I’ll print it and at a dinner in the smoking room we will discuss with the men! Thank!
  17. Ryazan87 31 January 2020 11: 39 New
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    Of course, the image of an ascetic king who loved the war "with Norman passion" is not without charm. However, it would be a great blessing for the Swedes if they had decided it 10 years earlier. Absolutely abnormal maniac.
  18. Trilobite Master 31 January 2020 11: 51 New
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    Valery, thanks for the material. hi In general, I liked the cycle, it was interesting and useful.
    In relation to this article, its last part, the comparative assessments of Peter and Karl, aroused the greatest interest.
    Already wanted to be outraged, but the last phrase, namely
    However, one cannot fail to admit that, as a result of the reign of Charles XII, Sweden turned into a secondary, little meaningful state at the outskirts of Europe, and the barbarian kingdom of Muscovy during the time of Peter I was transformed into the Russian Empire

    I was somewhat reassured.
    I re-read this part again and, in general, realized that there was nothing particularly criminal in it.
    The attitude in Sweden towards Carl among adequate people is quite adequate - it’s part of the story, you can’t get anywhere from it, what happened, it was. The purely positive assessments of his activities among the nationalist radicals and the teetotopical radicals rather amused me, and the "Stuffed Dog Day", timed to the date of his death, was like a cherry on a cake. Well, there’s nothing good to remember more than a man, so even so - his king, after all ... Well done, the Swedes, a wonderful example of self-irony, you can really learn from them.
    I think that the personality of Gorbachev or Yeltsin deserves such a holiday, for example, for Gorbachev it would be worthwhile to establish a "Perestroika Day", in which you do not need to engage in creative work, but just break something and throw it away. It’s more difficult to come up with Yeltsin — his personality is associated exclusively with vodka, and vodka doesn’t need to be popularized with us ... Unless, on the Day of Perestroika, demolish the Yeltsin Center as a banter, or establish "The Day of the Great Mess" on his birthday ... laughing
    But with Peter we have a more complicated question. I will not discuss Voloshin’s work, I don’t know how much hangover he wrote his verses about Peter and Petersburg, but he was clearly out of sorts at that moment. "Everyone has the right to write a book and everyone has the right not to read it." I do not like Voloshin’s work, and indeed I am more than cool about the Silver Age. But I have an unequivocal attitude towards Peter I - he does not arouse any feelings except admiration and gratitude. In St. Petersburg, his name sounds in the most positive sense twice a year - on City Day and Fleet Day.
    Let's compare with cabbage rolls? I think not worth it. smile
    1. Ryazan87 31 January 2020 12: 18 New
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      I don’t want to say banalities in the style: “Peter was a complex person and its meaning is debatable,” but, in my opinion, he laid down and made the completely vicious paradigm of the mobilization development of the state very popular in our society. The results of the development of the state within the framework of such a paradigm are initially brilliant, the victims are justified by the achievements, but the problems come in and shoot after decades ...
      1. IS-80_RVGK2 31 January 2020 17: 28 New
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        This is you in vain. This is more likely historically due to many circumstances.
        1. Ryazan87 31 January 2020 17: 53 New
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          What happened?
          The fact that the fleet built, less than 10 years after the death of the emperor came into complete disrepair?
          the fact that less than a dozen of the founded factories were modified at least until the time of Catherine?
          The fact that the country stupidly drank the province simply without a glimpse of common sense?
          The fact that the church was turned into a public institution and forever undermined its spiritual authority, combining this. however, with severe religious persecution?
          The fact that they got into people's personal lives, indicating which pants they wear and how to shave their beards?
          That tightened the nuts in the enslavement of the peasants so that the thread began to fly off?
          I am silent about the question of succession to the throne - would it not be desirable to ensure a century of palace coups and omnipotence of a completely unbridled guard and parasite noblemen?
          The biggest sin, however, is different: the most severe spiritual split in Russian society, the consequences of which, by the way, are easy to see on this forum. I’m not talking about reliance on foreign nobility (those same “Germans”), the introduction of the idea that economic and technical development is easily achievable if all tools are reduced to orders, a whip and mass reprisals. And, of course, a passion for foreign policy chimeras to the detriment of resolving internal problems.
          1. Sergey S. 31 January 2020 21: 22 New
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            I really did not want to get involved in hopeless bickering.
            But the questions are very serious, and have real meaning for today.
            Populists are not those who are for the people, they are those who disguise themselves as popular interests and, supposedly popular thoughts, populists are those who try to climb to the top of power in the simplest way, crushing the people and their interests.
            now to the point.
            Quote: Ryazanets87
            What happened?
            The fact that the fleet built, less than 10 years after the death of the emperor came into complete disrepair?
            the fact that less than a dozen of the founded factories were modified at least until the time of Catherine?

            How could it be otherwise?
            Before Peter there was no Admiralty, ship scaffolding, special warehouses for drying wood ...
            Built from what it was.
            By the way, Peter understood this. He tried to buy ships from the sea powers.
            even in England ...
            Got the smallest ships. This practice is almost recognized unreasonable.
            And ships with a service life of 8 years completed their combat mission. Two years in the battles of Kronstadt defended a new capital.
            Quote: Ryazanets87

            The fact that the country stupidly drank the province simply without a glimpse of common sense?

            Has the country increased?
            Factor of?
            It could be possible to share somewhere else. But in general, the decision is right.
            And where does the word "sawed" here? Peter, what did you take bribes from governors or subjects for this?
            Quote: Ryazanets87

            The fact that the church was turned into a public institution and forever undermined its spiritual authority, combining this. however, with severe religious persecution?

            Spiritual authority belongs to individuals.
            The schismatics were well aware of this. And they proved it with their lives.
            But the church was made a state institution by those. who did not envision personal efforts to strive for spiritual authority.
            It would be nice to live at the end of the 17th century, but without relying on personal experience I have to express the idea that Peter's reforms were the result of understanding the real state of society ... including the state of the clergy ...
            Quote: Ryazanets87

            The fact that they got into people's personal lives, indicating which pants they wear and how to shave their beards?

            And once it was different?
            Any reforms get into the personal life of citizens.
            Nowadays, a complete disaster - bank cards, smartphones, personal data - is not even a passport system.
            What is Peter to blame, or is it a question of civilizational lawful changes?
            Quote: Ryazanets87

            That tightened the nuts in the enslavement of the peasants so that the thread began to fly off?

            Here everyone should agree ... And offer another way to solve state problems.
            At all times, in especially dangerous situations for the state, the load (oppression) on the people is intensifying.
            By the way, if today this same oppression is not organized, Russia will not be able to get out of the attack ... Western "friends" dream of our slackness and carelessness ...
            Quote: Ryazanets87

            I am silent about the question of succession to the throne - would it not be desirable to ensure a century of palace coups and omnipotence of a completely unbridled guard and parasite noblemen?

            The Guard ultimately did the main thing, figured it out ... and reigned Catherine the Great on the throne.
            Further responsibility for what is happening is no longer for the Petrine guards.
            Quote: Ryazanets87

            The biggest sin, however, is different: the most severe spiritual split in Russian society, the consequences of which, by the way, are easy to see on this forum.

            ... ???
            Did I ruin the chapel too?

            Seriously, do you think so?
            That is, someone will say something or even do something, and you immediately quarrel with your brothers and friends yesterday and fight ???
            What would be clear - from the time of the epic constantly someone from Russia (Muscovy, Russia, ...) escaped ...
            Grozny and Godunov sent youths to study in Europe ...
            And only those sent by Peter returned to the Motherland to serve.
            Quote: Ryazanets87
            I’m not talking about reliance on foreign nobility (those same “Germans”), the introduction of the idea that economic and technical development is easily achievable if all tools are reduced to orders, a whip and mass reprisals.

            Timmerman, Butler, Lefort, Kruys, Cruz, Lombard, Voinovich, Kumani, Kinsbergen, Crown, Paul Jones ... - this instantly came to the memory - Heroes of Russia !!!
            And about tools for orders - this is not for Peter, but for educational science.
            Quote: Ryazanets87
            And, of course, a passion for foreign policy chimeras to the detriment of resolving internal problems.

            Created an empire?
            The empire stood for 300 years.
            The zone of responsibility of Peter the Great is success, many times overriding failure.

            Or can you name a more successful state leader of Russia during the period of complex economic development, army reform and extremely dynamic development of social processes?
            1. Astra wild 1 February 2020 12: 07 New
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              Sergey, in many respects I agree with you, but let me say: Lefort, Paul Jones, Cruz and others are MERCENARIES.
            2. Ryazan87 3 February 2020 20: 50 New
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              Well, a little discussion doesn't hurt:
              How could it be otherwise?
              Before Peter there was no Admiralty, ship scaffolding, special warehouses for drying wood ...
              Built from what it was.

              Ship forests in Russia, of course, existed regardless of Peter. As for the warehouses ... i.e. to build ships from damp forests at high cost and after 6-7 years to send them for firewood is correct, but to build warehouses (or sheds) for drying wood is "not our method." Moreover, the Peter's covenant earnestly vomited until the end of the era of sailing ships in the Russian Navy.
              He tried to buy ships from the sea powers.
              even in England ...
              Got the smallest ships. This practice is almost recognized unreasonable.

              Well, the 50-gunners for the then Baltic Fleet were clearly not the smallest. For instance:
              Armont, 50 op. (formerly Eng. Armont) - Acquired for the Russian fleet in 1713, dismantled in 1747
              Arondel, 50 op. (formerly English Arundel) - Acquired for the Russian fleet in 1713, withdrawn from the fleet in 1747.
              1. Sergey S. 4 February 2020 01: 26 New
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                Quote: Ryazanets87
                As for the warehouses ... i.e. to build ships from damp forests at high cost and after 6-7 years to send them for firewood is correct, but to build warehouses (or sheds) for drying wood is "not our method." Moreover, the Peter's covenant earnestly vomited until the end of the era of sailing ships in the Russian Navy.

                We know the events, but we pretend that the reasons that gave rise to them can be ignored ...
                This is extremely unhistorical.

                Just the opposite.
                Peter is one of the few figures in the history of Russia. who understood the need. cost, scale, ... infrastructure.
                He laid the cities with the prospect, and the fleet considered. as an infrastructure project, and, most obviously, it was Peter who built the warehouses and pre-harvested ship timber.

                And further. Warehouses are not sheds. in those days they are closer to the mansions.
                Premises. in which the trunks stand vertically and periodically unfold ... Heated and ventilated.
                Moreover, the scale of the phenomenon is huge - the tree dried for several years.
                1. Ryazan87 4 February 2020 12: 20 New
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                  Peter is one of the few figures in the history of Russia. who understood the need. cost, scale, ... infrastructure.

                  There was really no shortage of large-scale projects. The question is in the quality of their study: storming, megalomania and nailing with a microscope. The capital was indeed laid with the prospect of: floods and wars, in order to push the border away from it.
                  The problems are obvious: the lack of a systematic education of Peter himself, unlimited power (i.e. there are no regular filters for eliminating unsuccessful decisions, normal assessment and analysis of costs and effects), personal addictions.
                  You yourself write that the fleet is an infrastructure project, so it’s logical to start with just the warehouses, with the study of varieties of wood (this is also fooled), drying it, preparing the sailors. But these are years and years of systematic work. Therefore, they did it differently: they built an “armada” with tremendous tension and sacrifices, which, for obvious reasons and military benefits, brought minimum damage and became worthless in a decade. The first 4 founded shipyards did have to be closed during the life of Peter. Meanwhile, in essence, the Russians did not need anything at sea, except for floating batteries for the defense of Kronstadt and the galley fleet for skerries. Instead, only in 1702-1707, 46 units of the ship fleet were built in the northwest. By 1712, all this wealth, without firing a shot at the enemy, went to firewood.
                  This is not work for the future, not a manifestation of strategic thinking, as you think, but amateurism and capriciousness, from which the country washed itself with blood.
                  R.S. however, when everything was limited to the "naval" issue, then this would still be nothing. The main issue of Peter's deeds is social and social.
                  1. Sergey S. 8 February 2020 04: 08 New
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                    Quote: Ryazanets87
                    with great tension and sacrifices they built an “armada”, which, for obvious reasons and military benefits, brought minimum damage and became worthless in a decade. The first 4 founded shipyards did have to be closed during the life of Peter.

                    What is the quality of education among the population, such are the possible actions.
                    Peter acted extremely systematically. He fought - built - fought. Armada brought him victory in the Northern War. Have you heard of the operation to force Sweden to peace?
                    When, in 1719, the galley fleet, under the cover of a linear fleet, landed troops on the Swedish coast and practically destroyed the cannon production, burned ship forests, took prey ... Not only did the fleet secure the Victory, it also brought and brought prey.
                    Quote: Ryazanets87
                    Meanwhile, in essence, the Russians did not need anything at sea, except for floating batteries for the defense of Kronstadt and the galley fleet for skerries. Instead, only in 1702-1707, 46 units of the ship fleet were built in the northwest. By 1712, all this wealth, without firing a shot at the enemy, went to firewood.

                    We heard these arguments ... And each time they ended in a new harder war ... For Russia it is difficult. And about the defense of St. Petersburg from the Ankershtern squadron in 1704 - 1705 did not hear?
                    I recommend at least this - http://istmat.info/node/22000
                    By the way, even if it went for firewood. but the capital is intact. it is already a success.
                    We are now dreaming of such successes. And God forbid ...
                    Quote: Ryazanets87
                    This is not work for the future, not a manifestation of strategic thinking, as you think, but amateurism and capriciousness, from which the country washed itself with blood.

                    Dilettanism - without knowing the facts, draw conclusions.
                    I’m not hinting at anything, but.
                    This is clearly not about Peter the Great.
                    Quote: Ryazanets87
                    R.S. however, when everything was limited to the "naval" issue, then this would still be nothing. The main issue of Peter's deeds is social and social.

                    So what. start over?
                    The fleet for Peter became the most important social and social project.
                    1. Ryazan87 8 February 2020 11: 49 New
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                      What is the quality of education among the population, such are the possible actions.
                      Peter acted extremely systematically.
                      - of course. The lack of education of Peter himself led to extremely unsystematic reforms, which then somehow tried to settle down to Catherine II inclusive. No plan, no sequence, no synchronization.
                      And about the defense of St. Petersburg from the Ankershtern squadron in 1704 - 1705 did not hear?
                      I recommend at least this - http://istmat.info/node/22000

                      thanks, of course, for taking care of my enlightenment, but I'm sorry that Peter the Great Magazine was still a schoolboy reading. Would you like a quote:
                      "... Our ships were not many then, and they are much less cannon, namely: Oliphant, Dumokrakht, Kronshlot, Standard, Narva, Petersburg, Shlyutelburg, Mihai- Lo Archangel "(all 24-guns); schnyavy:" Deras "," Yakim "," Munker "," Koporye "," Falk "," Ivan-Gorod "(12-guns); 2 firewalls; 7 large galleys. .. "(which are well named after the link you provided).
                      There, the main work was done by infantry and coastal batteries.
                      Actually, for the defense of St. Petersburg in that operation, this was not necessary except for floating batteries or gunboats.
                      I’m not hinting at anything, but.
                      This is clearly not about Peter the Great.

                      I don’t hint. Just to build more than two hundred large enterprises - it sounds very cool. But if, for example, you recall that half of them went broke exactly after the death of the empressor, and 1/10 did not live up to Catherine, then you start to look at it differently.
                      1. Sergey S. 8 February 2020 12: 30 New
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                        Quote: Ryazanets87
                        Just to build more than two hundred large enterprises - it sounds very cool. But if, for example, you recall that half of them went broke exactly after the death of the empressor, and 1/10 did not live up to Catherine, then you start to look at it differently.

                        Beyond the trees, the forests are not visible.
                        Everything that the autocrats tried to do from Ivan the Terrible to Alexei Mikhailovich was obtained by Peter the Great.
                        I don’t understand your calculations about 1/10. And I understand that there is no data for a correct statement on this topic.
                        Indirectly, it is refuted by the fact that experts wandered under Peter — Pereslavl, Voronezh, Taganrog. Sysya, Olonets, Solombala, Petersburg are shipyards and not all.

                        And more about the education of Peter. I would like to understand what level of education you are hinting at. Peter knew mathematics, projection drawing, the basics (that were then) of shipbuilding, turning, military affairs.
                        And I’m paying attention, Peter didn’t assign ranks to himself, and passed examinations for officer ranks. And he became rear admiral following the results of the Battle of Poltava.
                        No need to defame the honest name of Peter the Great, although he was mistaken. but the one who gave the life for Russia.
                        And if you do not stop, please call more successful. In your opinion, the tsar or the emperor (Only not Catherine the Great), we will wash the bones for him, I promise, it will not seem enough ...
                      2. Ryazan87 8 February 2020 14: 58 New
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                        Everything that the autocrats tried to do from Ivan the Terrible to Alexei Mikhailovich was obtained by Peter the Great.

                        If you are talking about access to the sea, then he was at the same Ivan the Terrible (and Godunov returned for a while). But after all, it is necessary to create ports, promote infrastructure, promote the trading class, and attract capital. We’d better ram our forehead - “enough people.” Although I agree, Peter already had no choice.
                        I don’t understand your calculations about 1/10. And I understand that there is no data for a correct statement on this topic.

                        Why? Just find out the number of industries opened under Peter, then you are interested in how many of them worked for at least 25 years. Although the problem is not this, but that economic processes were commanded as recruits on the parade ground. For example:
                        ".... the campaign for handicraft weaving meant to support large linen manufactories that were started at the same time (one of them belonged to the Empress), this can hardly be doubted. But Peter did not have the patience to wait until the capital began to flow to this matter, and he tried to drive capital into linen manufactories with a club. As a result, in place of tens of thousands of ruined weavers, we obtained one linen manufactory of Tames, where, it’s true, the goods were manufactured, according to the opinion of foreigners, not worse than foreign, but which could five ends meet only by the fact that a reinforcement thereto was attributed integer large village (Kohma) 641 homesteading. "
                        Slave labor (on which all this industry rested), administrative management, severe pressure on small and medium-sized businesses (merchants) and the cultivation of oligarchs on state orders.
                        And more about the education of Peter. I would like to understand what level of education you are hinting at.

                        Systematic. You graduated from a university / institute for sure? here it is. I hope you understand the meaning and advantages of this education. Its use is not to hastily learn the turning craft.

                        R.S. however, I think the further discussion is meaningless: we just have different views conceptually and the values ​​in priority are also different. Thank you, by the way, for the courtesy and correctness, at VO this is not often seen.
                      3. Sergey S. 8 February 2020 15: 49 New
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                        Quote: Ryazanets87
                        R.S. however, I think the further discussion is meaningless: we just have different views conceptually and the values ​​in priority are also different. Thank you, by the way, for the courtesy and correctness, at VO this is not often seen.

                        I agree, and thank you for your courtesy and correctness.
          2. Sergey S. 4 February 2020 02: 15 New
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            Quote: Ryazanets87
            Well, the 50-gunners for the then Baltic Fleet were clearly not the smallest. For instance:
            Armont, 50 op. (formerly Eng. Armont) - Acquired for the Russian fleet in 1713, dismantled in 1747

            We look at reference books ... Veselago or at least Danilov ....

            The first Baltic ship bought (meaning a battleship) - the 50-gun "Anthony", bought in Hamburg in 1711 ... Obviously justified. For then they themselves built about the same ...
            But already in 1711 the 60-gun ship St. Catherine was built in St. Petersburg ... the founder of a large series of ships.
            In 1712, the 64-gun Ingermanland was built - again the prototype parent of a large series.

            So the ships bought in England were the smallest in the Baltic Fleet ...
            Another thing is that Peter really needed them in order to overtake time ...

            By the way, the last 52-gun ships in Russia - “Selafail” and “Varahail” were built in Arkhangelsk in 1714. I can’t say for sure, but the reason for this could be the lack of harvested oaks, and the use of the local larch experience (which turned out to be quite successful) .
            1. Ryazan87 4 February 2020 12: 24 New
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              Well, if you meant exclusively linear ships (here, sorry, I did not understand) and bought only in England, then please:
              "Leferm" (70) In 1713 it was bought not new in ENGLAND. In service 16 years (overhaul - 1719-1723). He participated in the war for the Polish inheritance in 1734. Dismantled in 1737.
              B / y has survived almost all of Peter's peers, by the way.
  • Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 12: 22 New
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    I will not discuss Voloshin’s work, I don’t know how much hangover he wrote his verses about Peter and Petersburg, but he was clearly out of sorts at that moment.

    and I was at his estate! Although the idea of ​​Cimmerian painting and do not share. Moreover, I agree on a misunderstanding of Voloshin’s poems. hi
    Voloshin himself joked that the cape of Mount Kara-Dag, which is visible from his house, repeats his profile! good

    and in Koktebel in 2011, they were tasty fed in a cafe on the pier. The dish was called "Burning Kara-Dag." Finely chopped chicken mixed with egg, cheese (maybe something else, I don’t remember). It was brought, covered with a bowl, to give the appearance of a mountain. Then, on the table, something was poured and set on fire, causing the cheese to melt .... winked Eeeh, youth! crying
    1. Mihaylov 31 January 2020 14: 50 New
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      Eeeh, youth!

      As you precisely noticed: I was there in 2000.
      1. Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 15: 32 New
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        As you precisely noticed: I was there in 2000.

        Well .. I was not thirty then .. recourse I’m sorry that I can’t stand the heat badly. request On the second day I was so impressed that I was lying around with fever and other symptoms for two days. laughing Probably what kind of virus ... But they fed it very tasty, and I liked the sea-beach. We went to Kerch, were on Mount Mithridates, in Ardzhimushka ... soldier
        1. Mihaylov 31 January 2020 15: 52 New
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          Now Koktebel probably will not be recognized, they say the boarding house in which we lived seemed to be demolished. It was almost still Soviet at that time, it will always be remembered how they would give a glass of dry wine or half a glass of local port wine for dinner.
  • Catfish 31 January 2020 15: 40 New
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    Hi Michael! hi Well, pleased, so pleased. I mean the "Day of Perestroika" and the demolition of the Yeltsin Center on this holiday. He laughed heartily.

    Demolish the building, and leave the figure. laughing
  • Operator 31 January 2020 12: 30 New
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    Spitting on Russian history is a tradition of the local "intelligentsia" since the time of Leo Tolstoy, for which it is so valued in the West.

    The West has always been vitally interested in belittling the achievements of its geopolitical adversary, Russia, in order to restrain the expansion of its territory (which ultimately ensured the security of our country in all the cataclysms of the old and new times).

    Another thing is not clear - the hatred of the local "intelligentsia" to their own security: as if the Mongols, Turks, Poles, Swedes, French, Germans or Anglo-Saxons would retain the position of local "intellectuals" in the de-Russified territory of the former Russia, and its people would not have suffered human losses exceeding losses in all wars from the North to the Civil and WWII inclusive.

    An example of Troubles and massacres of Russians did not go to the local "intelligentsia" for the future.
    1. Sergey S. 31 January 2020 21: 26 New
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      Quote: Operator
      Spitting on Russian history - the tradition of the local "intelligentsia" since the time of Leo Tolstoy,

      And what does the Crimean War Volunteer, artilleryman, defender of Sevastopol, the author of "Sevastopol Stories" and "War and Peace"?
  • Operator 31 January 2020 12: 34 New
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    Quote: Engineer
    Northern war - defensive for Sweden

    Aha - the Scandinavian defense line passed near Poltava laughing
  • Operator 31 January 2020 12: 46 New
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    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Let's compare with cabbage rolls?

    The main thing for the local "intelligentsia" is to eat tasty and shit comfortably.
  • faterdom 31 January 2020 13: 52 New
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    With great pleasure I read this article, and with no less glance looked at the illustrations for it. I learned something new for myself, for example, about the vile role of the British in the Northern War.
  • Mihaylov 31 January 2020 14: 46 New
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    Monument to Karl XII in Stockholm.
    It is alleged that he points to Russia, with the goal of warning / reminder: according to one version, that there is no need to go there, there is danger, and on the other (opposite) - they say to us there, everything must be returned. I think for tourists invented.
    1. VLR
      VLR 31 January 2020 15: 30 New
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      In the photo at the end of the article, the mummers "caroliners" stuffed cabbage eat on the background of this monument smile
      1. Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 15: 38 New
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        Valery, if I was offered to look at the monument in Stockholm, I would go for it! drinks
        This decent man evokes more sympathy ... soldier
        1. Mihaylov 31 January 2020 16: 13 New
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          Bernadotte?
          1. Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 16: 37 New
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            Bernadotte?

            That's it! drinks No, I understand that, perhaps, in relation to his former colleagues, he acted not very nicely ... laughing But on the other hand, what's the deal? hi Personally, he brought only benefit to our country, and Sweden, too, but his former "patron", who is the "great emperor", died in anguish at the end of the world! request that is .. as Vyacheslav our Olegovich says there: "Gods love winners"so somehow? wink

            Monument to Turku, on the 200th anniversary of the fateful meeting of the Gascon and Tsar Alexander in Abo. This is somewhat reminiscent of the Tehran Conference in value! drinks
            1. Mihaylov 31 January 2020 16: 42 New
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              I always liked the story of how he with a tattoo on his chest: "Death to the kings!" managed to become king (maybe the bike of course)
              1. Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 16: 47 New
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                I always liked the story of how he with a tattoo on his chest: "Death to the kings!" managed to become king (maybe the bike of course)

                Yeah, that you don’t go to the bathhouse with the courtiers - only to yourself very quietly, in the shower, so that no one sees repeat
                There is still an opinion that there was a tattoo, only it was written differently - "Nobody except us!" "Long live the republic!" fellow
                I liked this, from Wiki:
                From the Swedish cuisine, which all foreigners considered worthless, he recognized only broths and baked apples; basically he ate omelets, chickens, veal, fish, greens and mushrooms familiar to him. The king also consumed white French bread and broke off a piece of a long baguette for each dish. For individual food consumption, Karl Johan always put a boiled egg in a stand - in case the ordered dishes were inedible for him. laughing
              2. Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 16: 56 New
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                I liked this from Pikul:
                The Swedish king Charles XIII, already old, had no children. Debate arose in the Riksdag - who should inherit the throne? Having laid bare their swords, the officers bawled that they had not forgotten the philanthropy of Marshal Bernadotte: “And may he become our king!” Perplexed, Charles XIII adopted Bernadotte, making him heir to the throne. With the Jacobin tattoo “DEATH TO KINGS”, the future king of Sweden entered Napoleon’s office for the last time. On the table was already the text of the oath of Bernadotte, so that Sweden, in alliance with France, would avenge Russia for the loss of Finland.
                “Subscribe,” Napoleon ordered, confident in advance that everything he said would be immediately fulfilled.
                “And I was no longer the Marshal of France,” Bernadotte laughed.
                “But you're a Frenchman!”
                “Now I am a Swede.”
                - Your Highness, promise that Sweden ...
                - Sweden does not promise anything to your majesty!
                tongue
                High-end trolling! good revenge..... wink
                1. smaug78 31 January 2020 18: 48 New
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                  Maybe all the same it is not worth introducing Pikul? Let us leave his work as excellent literature for the patriotic education of youth hi
                  1. Mihaylov 31 January 2020 19: 59 New
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                    I must say Pikul is not as simple as it seems: a few years ago I read Manstein’s memoirs (not that under Hitler, but that under Anna Ioannovna - Christopher Manstein) and I understand that I already read it, but when and where I just can’t remember, just some deja vu. And after some time I got a volume of Pikul in my hands, sometimes you know you want to re-read something from childhood like 3 musketeers or Aivengo and here I understand that it’s Manstein, rewritten by Pikul and not without literary abilities. And Manstein was published for the last time, sort of like in the 19th century.
      2. Mihaylov 31 January 2020 15: 54 New
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        Yes, now I took a closer look, “I didn’t even notice the elephant”, cabbage rolls got their attention, they eat appetizing painfully.
  • Catfish 31 January 2020 15: 31 New
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    Valery, hi Thanks for the entire series of articles. good
    Only after reading everything, I realized how little I knew about this war and about the people who fought on it. Thanks again. good
  • Sapsan136 31 January 2020 15: 52 New
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    The Russians honor the memory of Peter the Great, but we don’t give a damn about the opinion of the Russophobes Novodvorsky, they can roll from the Russian Federation, no one holds them here ... Good riddance and a fair wind in the back!
  • tanit 31 January 2020 16: 39 New
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    Respectfully to the Author and Commentators. hi
    It surprises me - why didn’t the chroniclers and other perverts declare the Northern War a war “to destroy Hyperborea”? laughing
    And what- Napoleon and Alexander 1 can, therefore, destroy Tartaria. laughing Can’t Karl and Peter?
    C Friday evening. hi
    1. Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 16: 42 New
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      other perverts did not declare the Northern War - a war "to destroy Hyperborea"

      Damn, Vadim ... I applaud you! good You were the first to give such a precise definition .... by preference .. seriously! No, colleagues, really right, to the very point! good drinks
      1. tanit 31 January 2020 17: 00 New
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        Pane Kohanku,
        Quote: Pan Kohanku
        You first gave such an accurate definition ..

        Ahem ... Most likely, I have censored this definition. And until it came under a warning from the site administration. laughing
        1. Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 17: 07 New
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          And until it came under a warning from the site administration.

          I hope this does not happen - people in the administration are not stupid either. The question is that you told the truth. Conditionally, but looking at hyperboreans is really boring. hi Especially when some are also rude to others.
    2. Mihaylov 31 January 2020 16: 58 New
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      Do not give them ideas, or after a month in all the bookworms of the country: “Historians hide: how Hyperborea was destroyed” (or something like that)
      1. Pane Kohanku 31 January 2020 17: 10 New
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        "Historians hide: how Hyperborea was destroyed" (or something like that)

        Late. Already copied. laughing We wait "How Alaska was taken from the Hyperboreans, or how the Mongolian superethnos were prevented from building the pyramids". Sergey, after Alaska everyone on the forum quarreled three years ago. Some are to death! sad And very good people. Sorry, very sorry .... request
        1. tanit 31 January 2020 17: 37 New
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          That moment that I missed. For objective personal reasons. And what about Alaska?
          1. voyaka uh 2 February 2020 01: 22 New
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            "And what about Alaska?" ///
            ------
            This is a little-known episode of the Northern War.
            Little is known about the battle of the Aleutian Islands.
            The Swedes were defeated there too, but how many ships did they have? -
            no information was saved. Where did the victorious Russians go? -
            also a mystery ... However, this battle was crucial
            for the whole region. The fact that no one knows about her is a conscious attempt
            distort history in some reactionary circles.
            At the scene of the battle, two buttons from military uniforms were found:
            on one knocked out PI to another K-XII. Academic Disputes Still Burning
            about the meaning of these characters ...
  • Astra wild 31 January 2020 18: 49 New
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    "15 Leforta Scampavias" what kind of Lefort are we talking about? Fran Lefort - an associate of Peter 1, died in 1700?
    Peter also said: “I had 2 hands, and now one and even thieving”
    1. VLR
      VLR 31 January 2020 19: 31 New
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      Another, not a relative. Franz Lefort had a son, Andrei, but died in 1703.
  • cat Rusich 31 January 2020 21: 48 New
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    Finland did not have to return Sweden. Stetin needed to be left to himself (Russian Empire). For the Baltic States do not pay. Loser Sweden - capitulated anyway.
  • Astra wild 1 February 2020 11: 46 New
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    Quote: HanTengri
    Quote: Astra wild
    Let's cut it right

    Wai, Sentyabrynka hon, why is Vee so stupid? Let us not be either "cut out", neither right nor wrong, yes! Let us simply express ourselves correctly? laughing hi

    Oh, you’re harm: if I didn’t spell the word correctly, then do you have to murder a woman? As if only when I had mistakes, others didn’t.
    And lastly, "bloodthirsty" why did you decide. With equal success, I can say that you are a bloodthirsty person, by the way I have more reason to think so, what then?
    1. tanit 2 February 2020 05: 02 New
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      ahem ... So you don’t make excuses, but just rightly "cut out" laughing
      Cut out the enemy. hi
      1. Astra wild 2 February 2020 09: 50 New
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        All the same, you are not a jiltman: a real jiltman will not be happy with a woman to mock
  • Astra wild 2 February 2020 09: 45 New
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    Quote: VlR
    Present as one of the points of view, but, in general, ordinary Swedes treat Charles XII in much the same way as the French do to Napoleon, only more soberly, without exalted admiration and adoration: a hero who shook Europe with his victories. Then, of course, both countries almost destroyed their countries, but this was already in an undertone. Of course, one cannot compare with the Mongols and their cult of Genghis Khan.

    It's all about the mentality: the French are impulsive, and the Swedes are more restrained.
  • Lieutenant 13 February 2020 18: 39 New
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    Only in Sweden do people live humanly, despite the fact that this is a "secondary, little-meaning state in the backyards of Europe."
  • Gorbunov Artem 26 February 2020 19: 15 New
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    Petro is certainly great. Only when it was, did the peasants rise uprising, and the regular parts beaten up by the poor man stabbed into battle. There you have the greatness, it’s cool there, and Teran itself.
  • Molot1979 April 8 2020 05: 40 New
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    Wonderful. First, the author asks Russians to look more respectfully at their own and history. and then he first quotes the "observers," and then he himself calls pre-Petrine Russia "barbaric." This doublethink has its name in the science of psychiatry and is called .... however, for the term "schizophrenia" there is a habit of banning.