Hunger and war. Yeast instead of pork


Yeast under the microscope


This article has long been conceived in a cycle under the general title "Hunger and War." Such a cycle involves the consideration of various measures against hunger, which usually accompanies any war of any length. Starvation during the war arises for many reasons, among which there is a drop in production, depletion of food supplies, the seizure of producing areas or supplies by the enemy, the destruction of food during the war, the enemy blocking the supply routes and so on.

This is a serious problem that should occupy a prominent place in the system of measures of military-economic training. You can fight without food, but not for long.

My interest in this topic is explained by the fact that in the literature on stories military economy there are absolutely no works devoted to this particular issue. Moreover, both in Soviet and German. In some places, especially among German authors, there are separate references to attempts to resolve food difficulties, in particular, the use of various kinds of food substitutes and, so to say, unusual food products, such as the same yeast. This is strange in light of the fact that hunger and war are a combination, in general, of the ordinary. Therefore, this topic needs to be developed.

The topic of yeast, or rather, alcohol-yeast production, was very interesting and interesting for me, so that I even did some experiments to study this issue.

Nutritional yeast


Yeast is mentioned as a food product in the puffy volume of the fascist German professor of food, Dr. Wilhelm Ziegelmeyer, who after the war became a major food specialist already in the GDR. A review of German literature provided some information on the nutritional use of yeast in Germany. Already during World War I, IfG, with the support of the government, built ten yeast factories with a total capacity of 5 to 10 thousand tons of yeast per year. They were used in bakery, as animal feed and as dietary protein.

Yeast in general in nutritional value is similar to pork (in 100 grams of product):

Hunger and war. Yeast instead of pork

Yeast is slightly more nutritious than pork, and contains a wider variety of nutrients, vitamins and trace elements. 598 grams of yeast covers 100% of the daily protein requirement. Because yeast was used in Germany as an additive to meat.

The raw material for the production of yeast was molasses - an ovark during the processing of sugar from sugar beet juice. Germany was notable for its large production of sugar beets, so at first there was enough raw material for production. However, already in 1916, the cultivation of beets was reduced, and yeast production had to be reduced, which led to the cessation of food consumption of yeast.

The Nazis approached yeast production on the other hand. The main raw material was sulfate liquor - a waste of wood processing for cellulose. IfG Director German Fink believed that about 14 thousand tons of yeast can be produced from 50 million cubic meters of sulfate liquor in cash. During the war years, yeast production did not reach this indicator, but was significant: 18 thousand tons in 1944. There is mention of the nutritional use of yeast.


Yeast is now used as food. In the photo, just such food yeast

In the USSR, yeast, apparently, was deliberately not allowed to be consumed for food, but there were some references to baking yeast being prepared for food: they were fried with vegetable oil, and a product was obtained that was somewhat reminiscent of a meat paste. With a shortage and high cost of meat, yeast went as a delicacy.

Fast production


Yeast differs from other types of products in an extremely fast production cycle. Vegetation of wheat takes 110 days, potatoes - from 40 to 100 days, a pig reaches marketable weight in 8 months of fattening. Yeast is produced much faster. With a special dilution, 8 mg of yeast turns into 65-70 tons of finished products in just 11 days. This product is enough for 320 people during the year.

Yeast also does not require arable land, warm weather is not required (fermentation tanks can be heated to the optimum temperature by burning wood or mineral fuel), so that yeast production can be year-round. It is easy to calculate that one fermentation tank per 200 cubic meters will produce 2310 tons of yeast per year, which is enough for 10,5 thousand people during the year. The military-economic benefits are quite obvious.


Large Yeast Factory - A Well-Equipped Enterprise

In addition, there are different methods for producing yeast. For example, during hydrolysis, 1 ton of coniferous wood can be obtained by alcohol-yeast production up to 180 liters of ethanol and up to 40 kg of yeast; in furfural-yeast production up to 80 kg of furfural and up to 100 kg of yeast; or in pure yeast production up to 200 kg of yeast.

In Russia, in 2018, 140,2 thousand tons of yeast were produced, mainly baking and fodder.

Practical experiences


It would seem that there is no problem. But you need to consider some points that may occur during the war. All yeast in Russia is produced on molasses, while the main areas of sugar beet production are in the zone in which there may be active military operations in a large war. That is, beets can be lost. Moreover, under military conditions, the production of sugar beets and sugar is inevitably reduced with the transfer of arable land for crops, which are more important than sugar in nutrition. If beetroot drops, then molasses and yeast fall along with it.

The hydrolysis production of yeast looks better. However, in wartime, it may not be in sufficient quantities of the necessary sulfuric acid and lime, or their transportation may encounter difficulties.

In general, it’s great to produce yeast, the only question is the source of sugar. Sugar for yeast should be extracted as easily and simply as possible, without additional reagents that may not be available or that may be transferred for more important production. It was precisely this problem that I was puzzled with.

A study of the literature showed that it is relatively easy and simple to obtain sugar from wood or other plant materials. The juice of most tree species contains about 3-4% sugar. Some types of wood juice, sugar maple, and birch are used to make sugar syrup, alcohol, or even alcohol. Experiments have shown that juice containing 200 grams of sugar can be squeezed out of 6,8 grams of fresh wet pine shavings.

Thus, the extraction of freshly chopped wood pulp (fresh wood chips, shavings, sawdust is suitable) by itself makes it possible to obtain juice suitable for subsequent fermentation. Ethanol is distilled off from the fermented juice, and yeast is filtered out from the remaining stillage for further processing.

But you can go further. In this direction, I conducted some practical experiments. Sugar dissolves well in water, moreover it dissolves more readily in hot water than in cold water. Sugar contained in juice and partly in wood can be extracted with hot water. Taking wood chips and shavings from different tree species, I conducted a series of experiments on soaking wood in hot water (about 60 degrees).


Pine chips - non-food raw materials, can be used for food production. You can procure a lot of this good.

It turned out that only 15-20 minutes were enough to get a very decent sugar syrup. Alder gave an infusion of light brown color, resembling brewed tea. The pine tree gave an infusion of delicate light golden color. Birch is almost transparent. The infusion has become noticeably more viscous than water, with a characteristic oily consistency. All samples were perfectly fermented with yeast, gave an alcohol yield of about 4% and a good yeast residue. And without acid hydrolysis it works.


A roaming infusion looked something like this

The next series of experiments consisted in repeatedly soaking wood in hot water. It turned out that wood gives a fermentation suitable for fermentation for 3-4 soaks.

Can be soaked in cold water. Quick soaking gives a low result, significantly worse than hot water. But if you leave the wood in cold water for about a day, it also works well and the fermentation of this infusion is going pretty well.

The military-economic advantage of this method is its simplicity. It does not require sulfuric acid and lime to extinguish it; intermediate processing steps are excluded. No acidproof containers required; any buckets, containers or barrels that have turned up under the arm are suitable for soaking, the main thing is that it is convenient to drain the infusion and dig out the crushed wood (or turn the container over to remove it). I also used plastic trash bags placed in boxes made of construction plywood. Yeast can be drained from water using a fabric filter before distillation of the fermented infusion or after it. Used and dried wood pulp can then be used as fuel.

The whole cycle can be done not only at the factory, but also in the field, if there is enough wood and there is some equipment that can be found or made from improvised materials. I think that no one needs to be taught how to make the simplest moonshine. If the war didn’t go according to plan and you ended up in an isolated area with obviously inadequate food resources, then you can support your strength with fried yeast and moonshine obtained from fermented wood juice and infusion. The smell of both will be so-so, but this, you see, is much better than eating any carrion, grass and bark.

I conducted only part of the experiments, as far as my capabilities were enough. But it is better to do everything to the end, with the preparation and tasting of the finished product. Perhaps this will be done in the future.

Preparation for a major war sometimes does not require millions and special institutions. Enough desire, inquisitiveness, ingenuity and perseverance.
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  1. mark1 26 January 2020 07: 01 New
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    Yeast as a substitute for soy, how much is it real and reasonable?
    Dmitry, did you make experiments for scientific and educational purposes or were you looking for a new recipe for a stool? (joke, no offense)
    1. WILL 26 January 2020 08: 43 New
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      Photo of a wandering infusion - leads to certain thoughts (of course, you can always write that the photos are taken from the Internet belay)
      I will tell you one more promising direction - insects ... Special farms for their cultivation are already being created! sad
      I'll go for breakfast, there is cottage cheese - as long as there is such an opportunity ...
      1. svd-xnumx 26 January 2020 18: 52 New
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        Photo of a wandering infusion - leads to certain thoughts
        It seems to me that the author of the article is preparing an “excuse” for “organs” when they press him for moonshining. The mole is not for profit, but for scientific interests. And the production of alcohol-containing liquids from sawdust Vysotsky V.S. condemned even more than forty years ago. lol
        1. ANB
          ANB 28 January 2020 09: 40 New
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          Home-brewing for own use is now officially permitted.
    2. Olgovich 26 January 2020 08: 43 New
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      Quote: mark1
      Yeast like soybean substitute, how much is it real and reasonable?

      The author writes that as a substitute .... pork (by calorie content).

      Also, the car writes:
      I conducted only part of the experiments, as far as my capabilities were enough. But it’s better to do everything to the end, with cooking and tasting the finished product.

      That is, for all his advertising of the product, he himself .... never tried belay request
      Yeast differs from other types of products in an extremely fast production cycle. Vegetation of wheat takes 110 days, potatoes - from 40 to 100 days, a pig reaches marketable weight in 8 months of fattening. Yeast is produced much faster. With special breeding 8 mg of yeast turns into 65-70 tons... finished products in just 11 days. This product is enough for 320 people during the year.
      Me still tormented by vague doubts recourse

      milligrams will turn into ... tens of tons in 10 days ?! Weight will increase
      в 10 billion time? belay How's that? belay no
      1. Mordvin 3 26 January 2020 08: 59 New
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        Quote: Olgovich
        That is, for all his advertising of the product, he himself .... never tried

        Snack yeast brew .... request Well, a day, two ... And will the author survive a couple of months? recourse
        1. AU Ivanov. 26 January 2020 12: 21 New
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          After a couple of days of such a diet, you will be forced to think only about restocking toilet paper.
      2. mark1 26 January 2020 09: 15 New
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        Quote: Olgovich
        The author writes that as a substitute .... pork (by calorie content).

        Duck, soy is also used as a substitute, at least something, at least meat, at least chocolate, at least milk.
        Quote: Olgovich
        milligrams will turn into ... tens of tons in 10 days ?! Weight will increase
        10 billion times? What is it like?

        Hana planet - yeast will eat us all! wassat
        1. Olgovich 26 January 2020 10: 49 New
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          Quote: mark1
          Hana planet - yeast will eat us all!

          So I’m talking about that: at such a pace, yeast would have lived on the planet long ago, but no, something is wrong! recourse
          1. Reptiloid 26 January 2020 12: 36 New
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            Quote: Olgovich
            ...... So I am talking about that: at such a pace, yeast would have lived on the planet long ago, but no, something is wrong! recourse
            Something went wrong ...... Yeast ---- moody beasts. lol
            On the one hand, they are probably not killed. In the cold they freeze and then recover * after high oven temperatures ---- they do not die. Such an eternal laughing life good drinks
            At the same time, they operate in a small temperature mode! And then for sure, everyone would be devoured!
          2. andrewkor 26 January 2020 15: 47 New
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            Robert Sheckley "Absolute Weapon" - something like that!
      3. Nyrobsky 26 January 2020 14: 12 New
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        Quote: Olgovich
        milligrams will turn into ... tens of tons in 10 days ?! Weight will increase
        10 billion times? What is it like?

        How much does a watermelon seed weigh and how much does a watermelon grown from it weigh? Yeast also grows, but unlike watermelon much faster. They do not need a root system and they are not so demanding on growing conditions, it would be warm and humid, and therefore begin to grow almost immediately. In principle, there is definitely something in what the author offers. Only by casting doubt on sugar beets, since the main places of their cultivation may be in the war zone, the author overlooks the fact that, as an alternative to sugar beets, potatoes can be grown everywhere from Kaliningrad to the Far East, the varieties of which zoned and grown in several northern regions for a short summer. Frozen potatoes acquire a sweet aftertaste, and as far as I have heard, it is precisely such sweet potatoes that become the basis for fermentation with subsequent distillation of moonshine. At one time, scientists worked hard to study plants suitable for food with a high protein content for military purposes, but plants are a seasonal source, and wood is a year-round resource. Respect for the article and inquiring mind. Everything when it happens for the first time and tasting yeast from wood, too. Success hi
        1. Cetron 26 January 2020 18: 09 New
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          There is such disgusting "Sosnovsky Hogweed," scored all the uncultivated wastelands. I recently read that the sugar content in the juice is slightly less than in sugarcane. That's just his cleaning is akin to chemical deactivation of the area, with us the workers mow it in the OZK.
        2. astepanov 27 January 2020 10: 57 New
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          Not everything is so sweet and smooth. In wood, there is free sugar only in a thin layer between the bark and the massif, where sap flow takes place. So you cannot drive a lot of sugar (and, consequently, alcohol) from washed sawdust, no matter how hard you try. This is the first. And here’s the second: the protein in yeast is not taken from sugar at all: protein is a polypeptide, i.e. amino acid condensation product. Amino acids contain (necessarily!) The group —NH2, including nitrogen. There is no bound nitrogen in sugars. Those crumbs of nitrogen that are in the tree sap will give crumbs of yeast. Where nitrogen comes from in the industrial hydrolysis of wood pulp is a separate matter, and it goes beyond the scope of the BO format. Believe me, the old chemist .... So the author’s experiments, of course, are funny, but they have little practical benefit.
          1. Nyrobsky 27 January 2020 11: 06 New
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            Quote: astepanov
            Believe me, the old chemist .... So the author’s experiments, of course, are funny, but they have little practical benefit.
            It's hard to argue with chemists. yes But it is commendable that there are amateur enthusiasts who are in search of what can be useful to humanity. It often happens that simple solutions help to implement complex issues. hi
          2. wehr 27 January 2020 11: 18 New
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            Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are added.
            1. astepanov 27 January 2020 11: 21 New
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              Right And sugar is obtained by acid hydrolysis of wood. Excess acid is precipitated with lime. Waste - gypsum and lignin - is separated by mechanical means.
      4. opus 26 January 2020 15: 51 New
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        Quote: Olgovich
        All the same, vague doubts torment me

        And torment correctly
        1. shiver like that

        / Thermal resistance in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Volume 72, No. 2. March - April, 2011 • Pages. 140–149 /
        10mg (albeit for simplicity), per hour (albeit superfodder, some kind of parasite prophylaxis)
        doubling every 2a hours, i.e. logarithmic growth phase
        11 days = 11 * 24 hours = 24264 hours, with a 2-hour measure = 12 132 measures
        a (n) = a1 * r ^ (n − 1)
        a (12132) = 10 * 2 ^ 12131 = my brain began to boil how much it turns out, I forgot everything, the online calculator went crazy

        It seems to be very similar to the truth (if trembling does not die of course), but see doubts 2
        Quote: Olgovich
        How's that?

        see above . geometric progression, my friend, you know, such.

        2. The author can be checked like this
        To assess the growth and reproduction rates of cells in yeast production, a relative (specific) growth rate, which is an increase in biomass per unit time, is usually used. Given that under favorable conditions, yeast cells multiply according to the law of logarithmic growth, the specific speed μ is determined by the logarithmic ratio of the amount of biomass m1 obtained over time t to the number of yeast m0 seeded in a yeast-growing apparatus:

        mu = ln (m1 / m0) / t = ln (65000 / 0,008) / 24264 = 15,91 / 24264 =0,00655
        and should be according to Kalyuzhny 0,32
        Lied Dmitry
        3. can go from the opposite

        0,32 = ln (m1 / 0,008) / 24264
        7 764,48 = ln (m1 / 0,008)
        ln (m1) -ln (0,008) = 7
        ln (m1) - (-4,828) = 7
        ln (m1) = 7
        m1 = e ^ 7 769,3
        again
        Quote: opus
        my brain is boiling

        gonna fly Now hi
        1. wehr 26 January 2020 16: 01 New
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          Do not bother yourself. This is a multi-stage process of breeding yeast. 4 stages in a laboratory, then 2-3 stages in a capacity of 10 cubic meters, and then 2 more stages in a capacity of 200 cubic meters.
          1. opus 29 January 2020 13: 55 New
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            Quote: wehr
            Do not bother yourself. This is a multi-stage process of breeding yeast. 4

            what does this have to do with breeding?
            Ideally, 2,3 generation per hour
        2. Grandfather Crimea 28 January 2020 18: 56 New
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          There are people without whom it would be boring, have fun and bewildered at the same time))))
      5. aybolyt678 26 January 2020 16: 55 New
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        Quote: Olgovich
        milligrams will turn into ... tens of tons in 10 days ?!

        exponential growth: microbial body, two microbial bodies, four, sixteen, 32 .....
        The bread we eat is essentially a plant substrate enriched with microbial protein. The trouble is that intermediate products are formed, for example, alcoholic fermentation produces butyric acid, methanol (a very poisonous thing) and other other things. Bread, which is peroxide, is hard to eat, for diarrhea, is a protective reaction of the body, aimed at emptying the intestines from the contents. The same vomiting. Therefore, the yeast-containing substrate must still be cleaned and enriched.
    3. wehr 26 January 2020 14: 11 New
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      Well, yes, there was interest in alcohol. But scientific and educational. laughing
      1. mark1 26 January 2020 15: 45 New
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        [quote = wehr] Well, yes, there was interest in alcohol. But scientific and educational. [/ Quote]
        [quote] Everywhere, explore hourly, What is great and beautiful.
        • Mikhail V. Lomonosov
        [/ Quote]
        [quote] The beautiful cannot be known, it must be felt.
        • Johann W. Goethe
        quote]
      2. opus 26 January 2020 15: 58 New
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        There will be no vitamin B hypovitaminosis (if you chew one shake)
  2. Maki Avellevich 26 January 2020 07: 04 New
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    it seems that sooner or later we’ll have to use something special.
    There was a Harry Harrison book, Move over! Move over!, Based on her motives, they shot the movie Zelena Soylent.
    in the film, the truth is that food is obtained from less appetizing sources than described in the article.

  3. Monster_Fat 26 January 2020 07: 09 New
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    Author, but how to eat yeast? Don’t think about it, I’ve gotten drunk on yeast and you’ve been swollen .... sad
    1. Reptiloid 26 January 2020 09: 03 New
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      Quote: Monster_Fat
      Author, but how to eat yeast? Don’t think about it, I’ve gotten drunk on yeast and you’ve been swollen .... sad

      So it turns out that you do not get drunk to the dump! Whatever it’s bloated will have to eat in small pieces and with what other food?
    2. Olgovich 26 January 2020 10: 51 New
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      Quote: Monster_Fat
      Don’t think about it, you got drunk on yeast bloated.

      Once inflated, then, SAT! yes
      Rt
      1. aybolyt678 26 January 2020 17: 04 New
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        Quote: Olgovich
        Once inflated, then, SAT!

        hunger - a complex feeling consisting of a feeling of filling the ZhelKishTract, glucose level in the blood, etc. ... excessive filling of the intestines with gases will provoke increased motility, there will be a desire to eat something else sooner! to push the excess gas to the exit !!! laughing
    3. 2112vda 26 January 2020 14: 35 New
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      If you eat non-heat-treated yeast, it will be so. If you take the contents of your intestines to the toilet of the toilet outhouse, that is, the outbuilding, you will get a ton of “positive emotions” from the fermented contents. But seriously, the author writes to you, the yeast is fried in a pan. During heat treatment, the vital activity of the yeast ceases, they simply turn into fried protein, fat and carbohydrate, and that’s all.
    4. opus 26 January 2020 15: 56 New
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      Quote: Monster_Fat
      Author, but how to eat yeast? Don’t think about it, I got drunk on yeast and you’ve been swollen ..

      after bread does not inflate?
      But there is trembling !!!
      And after kvass?
      On raisins, grapes their full is full.
      I’ll tell you a terrible secret, it will come in handy if you have trembling: the acidity and temperature of your stomach will kill them
      It is known that for the normal functioning of the intestines, the presence of yeast-like fungi is a necessity. In laboratory studies, doctors call the optimal number of the presence of these microorganisms in the intestine - 10 to 4 degrees per 1 measured unit (1 gram of intestinal contents).

      Doctors believe that 5-7 grams of yeast per day provide the daily requirement of the body for B vitamins and is the optimal value.

      and beer ...

      Brewer's yeast is a real treasure of vitamins, micro and macro elements, so necessary for a woman during pregnancy
    5. Grandfather Crimea 28 January 2020 19: 00 New
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      The main thing is not to forget to tie yourself by the leg)))))
  4. bessmertniy 26 January 2020 07: 10 New
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    Whenever vodka was driven not from sawdust, then we would have had five bottles !? wink Good, necessary topic. Yeast has long been put at the forefront of serving our people. There are still white spots and ozone holes in this business. You read the author, and even somehow believe that yeast can replace us with eggs, meat, fish and vegetables. And there in the distant yeast perspective and - the onset of immortality! wassat
  5. nikvic46 26 January 2020 07: 30 New
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    It is commendable that the author raised this topic. An untouchable supply should be available for all resources, including food. This should be done not only in case of war, but in the case of ChS.Nauka there is science, and life and history completely paint other pictures. In Germany, children were born without skin, as the people were planted on a surrogate. Take brewer's yeast. They treat better than any vitamins from all evil spirits. They even once hung over workers before the shift. It was necessary not to save the world, because even the most intelligent person could not imagine the consequences of the war.
    1. Reptiloid 26 January 2020 09: 19 New
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      Under the USSR, untouchable stocks were made. In the Far North, there were some kind of underground storage facilities for this. Even in my childhood I found such storage facilities, forgotten due to the loss of documents ... I know that broken chocolate, broken soap, earflaps, boots, ------- all this went to the population for some penny. But there was no talk that they were selling or somewhere spoiled kpupy, stew were thrown away ... They probably cooked them in the dining room and fed everyone .... what
      1. Winnie76 26 January 2020 11: 43 New
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        Quote: Reptiloid
        Under the USSR, untouchable stocks were made. In the Far North, there were some kind of underground storage for this.

        In Leningrad there were also Badaevsky warehouses. Bombed in the very first days. Then people similarly mixed the ground with sugar in a glass of water. Sugar dissolved, the earth settled. Grandma told
        1. Reptiloid 26 January 2020 12: 23 New
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          Yes, I know about that.
          Quote: Winnie76
          ... In Leningrad, there were also Badayevsky warehouses. Bombed in the very first days. Then people similarly mixed the ground with sugar in a glass of water. Sugar dissolved, the earth settled. Grandma told

          There are fewer and fewer witnesses to this. But I happened to hear the stories of those who were then small and went there with their parents
          1. Winnie76 26 January 2020 14: 38 New
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            They evacuated along Ladoga, told that bags went with flour in one direction, people were taken out to the other. The bags were torn, flour was pouring, people were shoving in their pockets. And then a lot of dies of the intestines died. In Leningrad, my aunt worked in the dining room — they poured water into an unwashed pot — drank it. Glue ate, belts, grass. And after the war, a neighbor admitted that they ate their cat. Horror
  6. samarin1969 26 January 2020 07: 43 New
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    Clear. In the war we will eat some kind of substance like the morning female "diet." laughing
    1. Region-25.rus 26 January 2020 15: 47 New
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      Quote: samarin1969
      Clear. In the war we will eat some kind of substance like the morning female "diet." laughing

      "Check it out! Corn on snot!" (C) Goblin's funny translation laughing
  7. Storekeeper 26 January 2020 07: 50 New
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    As a person with chronic gastro-duodenitis, I am waiting for the results of tasting the resulting paste. I have great confidence that you will have to go to the battle in brown pants after such a paste. laughing
    1. Reptiloid 26 January 2020 08: 54 New
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      Quote: Storekeeper
      As a person with chronic gastro-duodenitis, I am waiting for the results of tasting the resulting paste. I have great confidence that you will have to go to the battle in brown pants after such a paste. laughing

      It’s necessary to throw these nafig negative brown pants.
      1. Storekeeper 26 January 2020 14: 10 New
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        How to throw it out? And what about the bare ass wrapped in toilet paper? With yeast in the stomach, such seething will begin that the company can be used as a chemical. The weapon! laughing
        1. Reptiloid 26 January 2020 14: 39 New
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          Somehow I recalled the talk about diapers in foreign armies negative ....
          That’s what it means .....
      2. Grandfather Crimea 28 January 2020 19: 07 New
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        In vain, they must be thrown to the enemy, if they do not slip, in response to attack, then they will suffocate for sure))))))))
  8. Tank hard 26 January 2020 08: 24 New
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    Interesting article. I remember how in the 90s, with a lack of nutrition and supplements in sports food, I used brewer's yeast as a supplement, sold in pharmacies as dietary supplements. I must say that he even managed to raise his own weight in this matter ... yes
  9. Vladimir_2U 26 January 2020 08: 37 New
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    Thanks to the author! The problem of survival and the fight against hunger in wartime is a strategic issue, and on a personal level no one wants to die of hunger. Does the author know about German kriegs brot and pulp molasses, and if so, is an article on this subject possible?
    A very interesting, albeit very controversial book mentioning this problem: "Apocrypha of the blockade" P.A. Kuchera.
    1. wehr 26 January 2020 14: 17 New
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      Yes, there is information about military bakery, but the same, scattered everywhere.
  10. Free wind 26 January 2020 09: 26 New
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    The article is just fire !!!!! Words from a song from a distant childhood sparkled with new colors. And Mendeleev worked for a century to insert elements into cells. Doo .... to! He would have better learned how to make moonshine from a stool. For such an article and for such experiments in the year 86 of the year 3 it was possible to get a bargain without a market. And there was no proof that it was a scientific experiment. Ostap Bender also claimed that he could make moonshine from a stool. I can also tell you that yeast can also be made from r ....... from a certain substance. We had a wicked aunt in our school, she led the singing. She got everyone. She left for the city on MAY 1. The boys threw a pack of yeast into the toilet and a sugar for the best effect. 3 days passed, the missile went to our village at 9 pm. it was already dark, this madam went home, but then she began to accelerate, well, and almost went on a run. jumping into the gate she rushed to the toilet, why she did it, I don’t know, well, it’s worth ..... at the gate. Running up to the target, she slipped around and, of the last forces rising, she tore the door ... The precinct policeman interrogated all high school students. Only now we had singing in the 4th and 5th grades. But in the mash, but will it not stink of tar with a pine base, or tar with birch sawdust?
  11. depressant 26 January 2020 09: 59 New
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    I read the article and looked predatory out the window - birch trees! Hefty! Returned to the article, outlined a recipe. You have to buy an ax.
  12. Okolotochny 26 January 2020 10: 17 New
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    The author, ask Canadians about how they produce maple sugar, and in industrial quantities. And about production from anything horrible - yes everything is possible. The question is different - the economy should be considered.
    1. wehr 26 January 2020 14: 19 New
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      Sugar maple, the juice of which contains 4% sugar. They collect it, as well as birch, and then either evaporate it or let it distill.
      1. Okolotochny 26 January 2020 19: 57 New
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        I mean the same. Everything that you have written is correct. But, as already said, it is necessary to consider the economics of processes.
  13. knn54 26 January 2020 10: 22 New
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    It is interesting to hear the opinion of Muslims and Jews about the “substitute” for pork.
  14. Pavel57 26 January 2020 10: 51 New
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    Brewer's yeast is a source of vitamins.
  15. Sergey M. Karasev 26 January 2020 11: 15 New
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    Dmitry, if I understood correctly, you used fresh wood raw materials for water extraction of sugars. And how will sugar be extracted from long-sawn dry wood?
    I think, in treeless regions, acid hydrolysis is indispensable, as there will be stress with fresh wood there.
    And not so much acid is needed. For 4-5 tons of wood, approximately 36,5 m3 of a 0,3-0,5% solution of sulfuric acid is required, i.e. about 115 liters concentrated sulfuric acid when the final product, i.e. yeast in 120-200kg. Given that during a protracted war, the production of ammunition will increase, and therefore explosives, so will the production of sulfuric acid. There are still hydrolysis methods where hydrochloric acid is used instead of sulfuric.
    Instead of wood, straw, hay, and waste paper can be used. In the latter case, there will be less waste (lignin).
    But acid hydrolysis requires temperatures up to 200 C and pressures up to 12 atm, i.e. special equipment. But here, as they say, one does not have to choose. Hydrolysis under normal conditions requires 70% sulfuric or 40% hydrochloric. If so many acids are available, then another thing.
    1. wehr 26 January 2020 14: 25 New
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      It also works well from dry wood, including long-lying ones, but here it is preferable to soak for a long time: a day or two. Better with spin.
      From 5 tons of wood, 200 kg of yeast are released by the hydrolysis method; this consumes 115 liters of sulfuric acid. That is, almost every two kg of yeast is a liter of sulfuric acid. Too wasteful for warfare. Sulfuric acid is better to put on nitration.
      1. Sergey M. Karasev 26 January 2020 14: 37 New
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        Thank you, comforted. In the taiga, no doubt your method will be out of competition. Moreover, it does not require sophisticated hardware design and is organized almost in artisanal conditions.
        But a lot will depend on the availability of raw materials. With wood hydrolysis, the yield of yeast per ton of wood is still higher.
        1. wehr 26 January 2020 15: 00 New
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          Above and below are scholastic disputes. In the absence of acid or equipment, which may well be, there will be nothing to choose from.
          It is better to prepare in advance for a severe shortage of resources, having developed the simplest technology.
          1. Sergey M. Karasev 26 January 2020 17: 30 New
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            And try soaking the grass with hay. After all, there are also sugars.
            1. wehr 26 January 2020 20: 38 New
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              Yes.
              There is a more interesting source - fallen leaves in the fall.
              And also peat.
              1. Sergey M. Karasev 27 January 2020 01: 38 New
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                I have not heard about monosaccharides in peat, but they also use it for hydrolysis. \ about leaves, I agree.
  16. Operator 26 January 2020 12: 27 New
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    In 2019, in the Penza region, from March to April, 100 tons of juice were collected from 1200 hectares of maple forest, from which 20 tons of syrup with 40% sugar content were obtained by evaporation.

    Comrade, plant the maples yourself and tell another bully
    1. Morzh Redkovich Borschitsky 1 February 2020 21: 06 New
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      "Russian, plant a forest" I have long been saying.
  17. shubin 26 January 2020 13: 10 New
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    Alexander Belyaev "Eternal bread", a childhood book.
  18. Jurgens 26 January 2020 13: 45 New
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    Nothing (nothing) meaning in either chemistry, or biochemistry, or physiology - such a heap .. This can only Verkhoturov.
    1. wehr 26 January 2020 14: 26 New
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      You, of course, are the coryphaeus of all sciences, just like Comrade Stalin laughing
      1. Jurgens 26 January 2020 15: 45 New
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        You, my dear, are clearly diagnosed with a narcissistic personality disorder. Alimemazine antipsychotics give good dynamics, as a rule. There should not be any difficulties with getting the recipe. The patient’s sincere desire to recover is also important, but problems are possible with this.)
        1. wehr 26 January 2020 16: 07 New
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          You go to a psychiatrist yourself; you obviously have some kind of frustration, since you write nasty things under any of my articles. laughing
          1. Mikhail3 27 January 2020 09: 47 New
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            Do not be sad. On the contrary, it’s worth rejoicing. Insulting without a clear argument is a sure sign that you ALREADY defeated the troll without even entering into a polemic with it. Since he began throwing waste directly at the article, then he has nothing to say, he just throws out rage. You are well done.
          2. Finn 30 January 2020 18: 50 New
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            Maybe he just tried the yeast and upset? Double.
  19. yashacat 26 January 2020 16: 29 New
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    And if I didn’t drive vodka from sawdust,
    That we were with five bottles.
  20. thekhohol 26 January 2020 20: 22 New
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    Quote: opus
    11 * 24 hours = 24264 hours

    Oh well...
    Definitely not 264?

    On the other hand, 2 ^ 132 = 5444517870735015415413993718908291383296, which is also fucked up.
    1. opus 29 January 2020 14: 02 New
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      Quote: thekhohol
      Definitely not 264?

      good
      264



      Quote: Author
      With a special dilution, 8 mg of yeast turns into 65-70 tons of finished products in just 11 days



      Quote: thekhohol
      On the other hand 2 ^ 132

      why 2?

      a (n) = a1 * r ^ (n − 1)
      a (132) = 8 * 2 ^ 131 = 8 * 5,444517870735016e + 39 * 10 ^ (- 3) (milligrams to grams) = 43,52 e + 36
      the author promised
      Quote: Author
      With a special dilution, 8 mg of yeast turns into 65-70 tons of finished products in just 11 days

      doesn't fit
  21. nov_tech.vrn 26 January 2020 22: 02 New
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    As there, Vladimir Semenovich, and if vodka to drive it out of sawdust, then what would we have with three, four, five bottles. Happy Birthday to Vysotsky.
  22. Mikhail3 27 January 2020 09: 44 New
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    Author, you take a big risk. Very much. High-performance food production outside of traditional technologies severely offends the interests of "big meat", the global cartel of food producers. Given that these structures get trillions of dollars a day in profit ... Moreover, this is only part of your problems.
    Food production could long ago be made almost free and such that almost every family could provide themselves with food without significant effort. However, what capitalism is in a situation where everyone can abandon the consumption model by simply reducing needs? How to manage all these little people if you no longer have a whip of hunger in your hands?
    I would advise you to run a network search on the grounds of "meat fruit" and "star machine", but this is useless. You won’t find anything. One can already judge by this how the authorities in the world "love" this topic. You will disappear and no one will even remember about you ...
  23. Kostadinov 27 January 2020 12: 51 New
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    Thanks for the interesting topic. I beat at a classic factory for fodder yeast from wood waste in the city of Razlog. The protein content in yeast beat slightly below 50%. They served to feed animals, but nothing prevented them from eating them as food for humans. They can be boiled and made soup or fried.
  24. Kostadinov 29 January 2020 18: 05 New
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    In the USSR, yeast, apparently, was deliberately not allowed for food consumption.

    In his memoirs, Shakhurin found that in one of the aircraft factories he ate soup and schnitzel from wood waste ("sawdust").
    1. agond 29 January 2020 20: 53 New
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      A very interesting article, thanks to the author, we hope that you will continue the experiments, and for now I will ask you a question, I read Cherkasov’s book a long time ago, Notes of the Far Eastern Hunter, from which I learned that the local population often ate birch bark, and this that red caviar was available to them, I was interested in it, and I tasted fresh thick bark two or three times, which is birch bark, and you know the taste of wood, I don’t feel like eating at all, but I didn’t try to cook, although I saw pictures of porridge from birch bark, the question is how can it be eaten.?
      1. wehr 29 January 2020 21: 37 New
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        6,5% of sugars, and there is also oleanolic acid (as in olives), betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol (as in fruits, strawberries and vegetables) with a content of up to 40%. The taste is so-so, but the nutritional value is quite obvious.

        Apparently, the bark is crushed and boiled. Small particles easily pass through the stomach and intestines.
        1. agond 29 January 2020 22: 40 New
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          Quote: wehr
          The taste is so-so, but the nutritional value is quite obvious.

          About taste, but have you tried it? Cherkasov also wrote that on the approach to the villages there was heard the knock of axes of women chopping birch bark, he also mentioned hunters who brought dried red caviar along with bark to the taiga, probably bread was in short supply.
          And according to lupeol, which is 40% in the crust, and is it possible to somehow digest edible substances from the bark in order to get a bouleen.
          1. wehr 30 January 2020 00: 50 New
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            And what taste can birch bark have? laughing No, I have not tried it.
            Sugar can be extracted with water, but the oils are water insoluble, and therefore are extracted with alcohols or other solvents.