Pupil of Ermolov. The first Chechen artist

Pupil of Ermolov. The first Chechen artist

Pyotr Zakharov-Chechen. Self portrait


The fate of Peter Zakharovich Zakharov-Chechen is inextricably linked with the terrible assault on the village of Dadi-Yurt. This topic is heavy and potentially explosive, because many ethnically engaged historians try to use it in political games and cultivating the growth of social tension. They succeed for the reason that the modern layman, living in the virtual world of so-called mimicry, cannot for a moment imagine either the realities of 19th-century society, or that legal world that is very far from modern norms. In addition, many facts in this stories deliberately hushed up and missed.

Assault Dadi Yurt


Dadi-Yurt was a very rich village. Up to two hundred capital stone houses surrounded by no less powerful hedges. Almost every inhabitant of the aul was armed, which was required by their craft. Indeed, the wealth of Dadi-Yurt was not based on cattle breeding or farming, but on business quite legitimate for that mountain society - raids. Oddly enough, but robbery in those places was as widespread and legitimate as the slave trade in the lands of the Circassians. Forcing the Terek, the warlike inhabitants of Dadi-Yurt fell upon the Tere villages, taking people into slavery and stealing cattle and horses. Numerous peace treaties concluded with the residents of Zerechye were easily violated.

The last straw of patience of General Alexei Petrovich Ermolov, who was already serving in the Caucasus then, was the theft of a large herd of horses, which, according to one source, turned up to two hundred cavalry into infantry. A plan of reprisal, i.e. military expedition, which aims to punish the enemy, redress and liquidation of the enemy base. Such practice was then generally accepted and quite legal.

Before the assault on September 14, 1819 (according to the old style), on the orders of Ermolov, the inhabitants of the aul were offered to voluntarily leave away from the Terek, and hence from the Cossack Terek villages they ruined. The obstinate mountaineers refused, a bloody assault began. Each house turned into a fortress, which had to be taken using artillery. Even the women of the aul fought fiercely, rushing at the Cossacks and soldiers with a dagger in their hands. A bloody meat grinder was going on.


Many women were executed by their own husbands right in front of the Russians. They became hostages of a rumor deliberately cultivated for political purposes that the terrible Yarmul, the so-called Yermolov, ordered the selection of beautiful Chechen women, and the sale of unattractive young ladies to the Dagestan Lezgins a ruble apiece.

And in the evening, when the aul was aflame, and hundreds of bloodied corpses of mountaineers, soldiers and Cossacks lay around, Russian soldiers found a crying boy in one of the houses broken by battles. The boy was terrified, so a soldier named Zakhar took him away from this terrible place. It is this soldier who will accept the child for education. It is generally accepted that Zakhar was a Cossack by the name of Nedonosov, however, recent research shows that Zakhar was a soldier, and the surname attributed to him is not found at all in historical documents.

There are also different colors in the date of birth. Most often indicate that Peter Zakharovich was born in 1816, but this date is taken from the ceiling. Just one of the soldiers who discovered the child said that the boy looked no more than three years old, so the soldier’s assumption was the birth date of the future artist.

In the Yermolov family


The boy was baptized in 1823 in Mukhrovani, which is 30 kilometers east of Tiflis. At baptism, he received the name Peter, according to one version chosen by Yermolov himself, who took an active part in the fate of the peculiar "sons of the regiment." After all, Peter Zakharovich was not alone. Under Ermolov many children grew up, who were orphaned due to the endless Caucasian war. Officially, they were still being watched by Major Ivan Ivanovich Simonich.

Formally, the children were considered prisoners, but this, true, is the only case in history when prisoners were given shelter, clothes, food, and most importantly, an education that was unusually difficult and expensive at that time — as a ticket to life. For example, during the capture of the same aul Dadi-Yurt, a two-year-old boy “brought up” by Baron Rosen was “captured”. Later this boy will become a famous Chechen poet and will rise to the rank of college assessor under the name of Konstantin Mikhailovich Aibulat.


Portrait of Peter Ermolov by Peter Zakharov

In Tiflis and Mukhrovani, Peter spent about five years, brought up by Zakhar and Alexei Yermolov himself. After these five years, in 1824, the guy was transferred directly to Yermolov, but not to Alexei Petrovich, but to his cousin - Pyotr Nikolayevich, at that time colonel, commander of the Georgian Grenadier Regiment. Peter was single and did not have children, so he was glad to such an adopted son and called him only affectionately Petrusha. Ermolov quickly noticed that while learning to read and write, Petya constantly draws everything that comes to hand.

Noticing this creative inclination of the “son”, Ermolov began to bombard all possible authorities and comrades with letters asking them to accept Petrusha to the Imperial Academy of Arts of St. Petersburg. Unexpectedly, Pyotr Nikolayevich ran into the wall of the Academy’s charter of those years, which forbade serfs and foreigners to be trained. But such a trifle could not stop the hero of the war of 1812 and the Caucasus. During the coronation of Nicholas I, he asked to pay attention to the gifted boy to the president of the Academy, Alexei Nikolayevich Olenin, who advised first to give the boy a professional painter to test skills. Finally, Ermolov, coming from a noble family, raised all his ties, and soon the Society for the Encouragement of Artists took Zakharov under his care, and he went to Petersburg.


Armenian Nersesov and Chechen Zakharov. Figure M.I. Scotty

At about the same time, Yermolov's health began to fail. Affected by many years of campaigns and endless war. In 1827, at the age of forty, Yermolov submitted a letter of resignation and moved to the Moscow Region, where he devoted himself to his family. However, he did not for one minute lose touch with Zakharov, keenly interested in his affairs and consisted in correspondence not only with him, but also with Alexander Ivanovich Dmitriev-Mamonov, who took custody of Peter Zakharovich in the capital.

In 1833, Zakharov finally entered the Academy, where he studied extremely well, earning a number of praises to the joy of Yermolov. Already in 1836, Peter was preparing for his first academic exhibition. According to some reports, this was a work on the national theme “Fisherman”. The exhibition, consisting of almost 600 works by various authors, was visited by Nicholas I himself and his wife. Among the works he noted was the work of Zakharov.

Chechen is a free artist


Already on August 10, 1836, the Council of the Academy awarded Zakharov the title of free artist. And in February 1837, the artist received the official certificate of the Academy. Peter immediately notified the adoptive father that he was now engaged in custom-made portraits and was already giving painting lessons himself. Despite the impressive list of portraits, few of Zakharov’s works have reached us. Also, despite their number, the young artist still needed money.


Children of Peter Ermolov. Pyotr Zakharov-Chechen

During this period, Zakharov signs his work in different ways, apparently, sometimes feeling loneliness, because I had to move often. So, there are simply signatures of Zakharov, Zakharov-Chechen and even Zakhar Dadayurtsky. In 1939, Peter visited his adoptive father and painted a group portrait of his children. This picture clearly shows the fraternal atmosphere in which Zakharov grew up. Peter loved his “brothers and sisters” very much, always speaking with tenderness about them. Here is how he wrote to Ermolov and his children in those days:

“I pray to God for the extension of your days and your entire family, Katerina Petrovna, Nikolai Petrovich, Alexei Petrovich, Varvara Petrovna, Nina Petrovna, Grigory Petrovich! To your whole family of good health and good achievements in science, it was nice to know the successes in drawing of Nikolai Petrovich, Katerina Petrovna and Alexei Petrovich, they sometimes promised to send their works ... "

By the 40th year, Zakharov’s financial situation had become difficult, and he joined the Department of Military Settlements as an artist, working on illustrations for the publication “Historical Description of Clothing and Arms of the Russian Forces with Drawings Compiled by Highest Order: 1841-1862”. In that year, he completed more than 60 drawings of uniforms and weapons of the Russian army. At the moment, just over 30 of his works of that time have reached us. Having adjusted his finances in this way, he applied to the Council of the Academy of Arts to receive a program for the title of academician. At the same time, he was forced to leave the capital for health reasons.


The famous portrait of Alexei Ermolov by Zakharov

At the end of April 1842, Zakharov-Chechen came to Moscow, settling in the house of his adoptive father in 236 Chernyshevsky Lane. It was during the “Moscow” period of his work that Peter Zakharovich would write, truly, his most famous work, thanks to which every reader of these lines Without knowing it, I am familiar with Zakharov in absentia. This is a portrait of General Alexei Petrovich Ermolov. The very portrait in which the stern general looks menacingly at the viewer against the backdrop of the darkening Caucasus Mountains. This portrait was the very program for obtaining the title of academician.

Pyotr Zakharovich Zakharov-Chechen became the first artist-academician of Chechen origin in history. The future seemed cloudless, but fate had its own evil plans ...

The barely begun family life, which promised happiness, quickly broke off. Back in 1838, Zakharov painted a portrait of Alexandra Postnikova. And upon arrival in Moscow, he quickly got along with the Postnikov couple. Soon, he began an affair with Alexandra. January 14, 1846 in the Church of the Intercession of the Virgin in Kudrin, Zakharov married his beloved woman. Ermolovs, led by Alexei Petrovich, were also present at the wedding.


Group portrait of the Postnikov family. Pyotr Zakharov-Chechen

Alas, the misfortune fell on a young couple a few months after the marriage. Alexandra fell ill with consumption, i.e. tuberculosis. Despite the cares of doctors, and she was also from a family of famous Moscow doctors, her beloved wife died. Almost immediately, Pyotr Zakharovich also lied. Woe from the loss of his wife and forced inaction, when the hand could not hold his hand, they killed the artist faster than a damned disease. After all, Zakharov worked all his life, and vegetation for him was unthinkable. The last days of his brightened up only by communication with the "brothers and sisters" Ermolov, because Alexey Petrovich was constantly busy in the State Council, and Pyotr Nikolaevich had already died.

On July 9, 1846, an outstanding artist of his time, who greatly enriched the culture of the Russian Empire with excellent works, died. They buried Zakharov-Chechen at the Vagankovsky cemetery under a tombstone with his wife.

Life after death


After death, creators begin to live in their creations. Zakharov is no exception. Only in this sense he was unlucky several times. In 1944, when the deportation of part of the Chechen and Ingush peoples began, in some kind of doctrinaire ideological impulse or wanting to curry favor with the authorities, cultural officials began to delete the name of Zakharov-Chechen from catalogs, and some works were ascribed to other authors. Now it is very difficult to restore historical justice.

Zakharov’s work also suffered during the war in Chechnya. As early as 1929, several paintings by Zakharov were sent from the Tretyakov Gallery to the Chechen-Ingush Museum of Local Lore in Grozny. During the first Chechen war, the terrorists turned the museum building into a fortified area with all the ensuing consequences. When the positions were abandoned, the museum remained in ruins, which the militants also mined. So the work of Zakharov disappeared.

The same fate was shared by the paintings of Peter Zakharovich, transferred to the Museum of Fine Arts of the city of Grozny in 1962. Now they are all wanted, and from year to year they come up at foreign auctions, where they are sold for millions of dollars.
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  1. Vladimir_2U 27 January 2020 03: 56 New
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    Great article! I will definitely show my wife, she is not indifferent to painting, and especially of such a level and with an unusual history.
    In addition to the actual painting, we have before us just a brilliant example of the overwhelming superiority of education over origin!
    That's what you can poke the nose of social racists! And even some Russians already divide into two races.
    1. Same lech 27 January 2020 05: 55 New
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      Excellent article!

      Yes, I agree hi when the peoples of the Caucasus are engaged under the competent guidance of civil work, they achieve significant success.
      1. Pessimist22 27 January 2020 06: 47 New
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        Well, Putin called Kadyrov his son, and Major General also became an academician.
        1. Same lech 27 January 2020 06: 49 New
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          smile The Caucasus is a delicate matter ... Kadyrov the Younger managed to rebuild the destroyed Grozny and squeeze all the thugs in Chechnya under him ... already a plus ... let's see what happens next.
          1. Plantagenet 27 January 2020 08: 05 New
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            “But there was one nation that did not succumb to the psychology of humility - not loners, not rebels, but the whole nation. These are Chechens.
            We have already seen how they related to the camp fugitives. As one of them, from all Jezkazgan exile, they tried to support the Kengir uprising. I would say that of all the special settlers, the only Chechens showed themselves to be convicts in spirit. After they were once treacherously pulled away, they no longer believed in anything. They built themselves huts - low, dark, miserable, so that even with a kick of their legs, it seems, topple it. And the same was all their exile economy - for this one day, this month, this year, without any osprey, stock, distant intention.
            They ate, drank, and the young also dressed. Years passed - and just as they had nothing, as in the beginning. None of the Chechens tried to please or please the authorities anywhere - but they are always proud of him and even openly hostile. Pursuing the laws of universal education and those school state sciences, they did not let their girls go to school so as not to spoil there, and not all boys. They did not send their women to the collective farm. And they themselves did not hunch on collective farm fields.
            Most of all, they tried to get chauffeurs: caring for a motor was not humiliating, in the constant movement of the car they found the saturation of their dzhigitskoy passion, in driver's opportunities - their thieves passion. However, they satisfied this last passion directly.
            They brought the concept of “stolen”, “cleaned up” into a peaceful honest dozing Kazakhstan. They could drive cattle, rob a house, and sometimes simply take it by force. Local residents and those exiles who so easily obeyed their superiors, they regarded it almost as the same breed. They respected only rebels. And it’s wonderful - everyone was afraid of them.
            No one could stop them from living like that. And the government, which had owned this country for thirty years, could not force them to respect their laws. "

            A.I.Solzhenitsyn
            1. fighter angel 27 January 2020 13: 21 New
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              Plantagenet
              I do not believe a single word of Judah Solzhetsker!
              In Soviet reports of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, before perestroika, the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was the most calm and non-criminal republic! Paradoxically, but it is a fact!
              And the liar-Judas also incited ethnic hatred with his vile scribbles.
              1. Astra wild 27 January 2020 17: 34 New
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                Fighter, my first comment is addressed to a colleague Plantinet.
                An amazing paradox: a front-line officer, awarded the Order of the Red Banner, on the site I saw that the front-line soldiers highly valued - the order, and then the ardent anti-Soviet
                1. fighter angel 28 January 2020 09: 33 New
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                  Astra, I'm sorry, but Solzhenitsker is no war veteran. He sat back in the rear, being the company commander of either searchlights or aerostats, and received the order in droves, and not for his military merits. In the best case, he was on the front lines for only a few days, and even then in the second or third tier.
                  1. Ryazan87 28 January 2020 10: 57 New
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                    A.S. Solzhenitsyn became a holder of the Order of the Patriotic War of the II degree (1943, then served as a lieutenant in the 44th Separate Heavy Cannon Artillery Brigade of the RGC, commanded a sound reconnaissance battery). The main task is a notch on sound metering of German artillery batteries, for which he was awarded. Further, he received the Order of the Red Star (1944, served as captain in the 68th Sevsko-Rechitsa cannon artillery brigade, commander of a sound reconnaissance battery). Awarded for discovering two German artillery batteries.
                    1. fighter angel 28 January 2020 11: 51 New
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                      Aren't you confusing anything, lawyer?
                      Actually, the initials of your “client” are A.I., and yours is A.S. Solzhenitsyn?
                      Sound reconnaissance is strong, of course. Sit in the trench and listen to who and where is shooting. It’s not necessary, by the way, to be at the front end.
                      With artillery strikes, the legs are in the hands and in the rear. The specialty is rare, it is necessary to protect such "specialists"! These front-line soldiers did not respect such.
                      Judging by his own "memories" - he was at the front for only a few days, from the strength of weeks, and the rest of the time, for many months - he himself wrote that he went crazy from idleness, sitting in the rear, being in reserve. Do not believe me - read the recollections of your "idol" again.
                      1. Ryazan87 28 January 2020 12: 13 New
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                        And who are you, judge? Or did they take over the functions of state prosecution?
                        Frankly, I made a mistake - I accidentally wrote another letter.
                        As for the information, they are taken from here (including scans of award sheets):
                        http://podvignaroda.ru/?#id=1009971335&tab=navDetailManCard
                        The sound technician turns out to be a useless military specialty. A connoisseur of the opinions of these front-line soldiers is obviously also a specialist in counter-battery fighting.

                        R.S. try to get a good habit: do not ascribe your thoughts to other people. Solzhenitsyn is not an idol for me, you just wrote a post about him, where there were at least two mistakes, and I gave accurate information. That's all.
                      2. fighter angel 28 January 2020 13: 04 New
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                        Ryazanets 87.
                        "... The sound meter, it turns out, is a useless military specialty. A connoisseur of the opinions of real front-line soldiers is obviously also a specialist in counter-battery fighting ..."

                        Nikita, why are you distorting? Where did I write that the sound technician is a useless military specialty? Here show just such my phrase, so be so kind!
                        I am not a connoisseur in counter-battery shooting, but I know that the same art-correctors, or artillery scouts, are an order of magnitude more popular specialties, and their work efficiency is much higher than the work efficiency of the "hearing people". I’m talking about that time, and about the state of the art, so radars and artillery systems like the Zoo don’t have to be pulled here.
                        And according to the level of danger, spotters, artillery scouts never stood by the "rumors". This is the opinion of the war veterans.

                        PS You will not be disturbed by a good habit: do not think up for other people, and do not ascribe to them what they did not say. Something like that. All.
                      3. Ryazan87 28 January 2020 14: 19 New
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                        You wrote worse:
                        "Sound reconnaissance is strong, of course. .... The specialty is rare, it is necessary to take care of such" specialists "! These front-line soldiers did not respect such."
                        I think they respected some specific people, and despised cowards, scoundrels and fools who did not know their business.

                        In counter-battery shooting, not a connoisseur, but I know that the same art correctors, or artillery scouts, are much more in demand specialties


                        Yeah, you know:
                        "Sound reconnaissance missions:
                        - reconnaissance of artillery and mortar batteries of the enemy by the sound of their shots;
                        - monitoring the fire activity of explored batteries;
                        adjusting the fire of your artillery. "
                        The actions of artillery units in World War II. Collection 1. Combat examples. - M .: Military Publishing House of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, 1947.

                        ".... 26.06.44/XNUMX/XNUMX two enemy batteries fired flanking across the river Drut and our advancing infantry. Comrade Solzhenitsyn ... managed to detect these two batteries and adjust the fire of our batteries on them..., thereby ensuring the unhindered crossing of our troops and moving forward "(from the award sheet
                        http://podvignaroda.ru/?#id=19998057&tab=navDetailDocument (скан)
              2. Astra wild 28 January 2020 15: 02 New
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                Fighter, in this in the Second World War awarded all who were in the rear? But on the website they said that the veterans respected the Order of the Red Banner? And my deceased grandmother said that at the front there were several rewards respected by soldiers and among them the Order of the Red Banner
          2. Plantagenet 27 January 2020 19: 00 New
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            "And the liar Judas also incited ethnic hatred with his vile scribbles."

            Russian with Chechen brothers forever? winked
            1. fighter angel 28 January 2020 09: 38 New
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              Plantagenet
              And why immediately to the extreme?
              If people can coexist peacefully and normally in one state, then it should be so. There are enough scoundrels and scoundrels for any people ... As well as decent people.
        2. Astra wild 27 January 2020 16: 39 New
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          Do you personally trust Solzhenitsyn?
          1. Plantagenet 27 January 2020 18: 58 New
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            In the description of the Chechens? Yes. He is absolutely right. (however IMHO)
          2. fighter angel 28 January 2020 11: 39 New
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            Aster.
            No. I do not believe. Lied once, lied twice and thrice!
      2. Aviator_ 27 January 2020 08: 48 New
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        Kadyrov Jr. managed to rebuild the destroyed Grozny and squeeze all the scumbags in Chechnya under him ..

        To feed the region, of course, is better than to fight with it, there is no doubt. This option was implemented in Afghanistan under Najibullah, only EBN passed it. Again, I’m glad that I pressed it “for myself”, but how will everything go further when he becomes old and sick?
  • svp67 27 January 2020 06: 28 New
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    Yes, really ... our story is wonderful. On the one hand, there’s a whole village of “zenocideli” ... but the children were not only spared, but they didn’t stop jabbing around and walking with a bag ...
    Baptized boy
    Because he became an artist, the Muslim forbids the Muslim to do this
    1. pin_code 27 January 2020 07: 05 New
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      I agree, faith is forbidden to depict people, even on postage stamps, except perhaps the paintings of artists.

      .
  • Olgovich 27 January 2020 07: 25 New
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    Now they are all on the wanted list and from year to year they come up at foreign auctions, where sold for millions dollars.

    For example?

    (did not find any such). recourse
    1. rich 27 January 2020 15: 12 New
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      Dear Author. Thank you so much, you can’t even imagine why!
      I was surprised to learn in the illustration you brought to this article.

      an old Soviet postcard that I sent to my great-grandmother on March 8, 1968, and which she carefully kept in my school diary. January 25 was her angel's day.

      He took out an old box with her things .. went through it ... He plunged into memory .. He remembered his grandmother.
      Thank you very much
  • knn54 27 January 2020 08: 49 New
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    Ermolov is not only an outstanding general, but also a talented administrator.
    "East wind", as always, on top.
    1. Karen 27 January 2020 10: 05 New
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      Quote: knn54
      "East wind", as always, on top.

      Definitely !!!
  • Ryazan87 27 January 2020 12: 13 New
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    At the same time, Ermolov was sometimes very cruel to his own children. Here, for example, his own letter about his son Peter, whom at the age of 16 he sent to serve in the Caucasus as a private:
    “I don’t fear dangers for him, and death itself will not unduly upset me.”
    - "a fair fate saves him in the production of fever or diarrhea, which is much more decent than a scoundrel who did not want to learn anything [Peter studied at the Lazarevsky Institute] ... No indulgence in friendship with me and all severity and exactingness. He is not even worthy of regret, because he is rarely the creation is more insensitive, stubborn and with inclinations lower. "
    - "In a word, to say that in my life I have not met an animal more stubborn, more insensitive."
    - "Not wanting to blush for a creature hitherto deserving of a single contempt, I call him Gorsky in a certificate of origin."
    https://maxnechitaylov.livejournal.com/?skip=10
    R.S. Peter died in 1842 as a non-commissioned officer.
    1. Astra wild 27 January 2020 21: 22 New
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      Ryazanets, and you don’t know what caused this attitude to your son?
      1. Ryazan87 28 January 2020 01: 45 New
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        Almost all of Yermolov’s children (Nikolai from the Russian maid was survived, however), in fact, bastards from mountain concubines (at least 3 are known - Syuda, Totay and Sultanum). Or, as they delicately say, "temporary wives." It is not for nothing that Yermolov was called a "proconsul".
        He treated them very restrainedly, but Peter was especially dopek with him.
        By the way, admire the sons of Alexei Petrovich - a real band of abreks
        1. Astra wild 28 January 2020 14: 50 New
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          So does A.P. Ermolov have all illegitimate children? What was their fate? They look quite fierce
          1. Ryazan87 28 January 2020 15: 54 New
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            Absolutely.
            There sometimes it was almost anecdotal:
            “... Get ready to baptize,” General Velyaminov wrote to Pyotr Nikolayevich Ermolov’s brother, “dear brother Petr! You know that in 819, when we went to Akush, a terrible bad weather strangled us in Torka for 20 days without ceasing. At this time, Alexey Petrovich sent the boy’s chagrin, the perfect Bourvoy. "
            It turned out well for the majority (although daddy didn’t even want to give them the nobility, the emperor recognized them as legitimate children):
            Bakhtiyar (aka Victor) will become a lieutenant general.

            Omar (aka Claudius) will also fight in the Caucasus himself and end his service as Major General.

            Allah-Yar (aka Northerners or North) to rise to the colonel of the guard. By the way, the North served under the leadership of Baron Zass, a great original: he mummified the heads of the killed highlanders for the collection.
            ".... Having once gone into the general’s office, I was struck by some unbearable disgusting smell, and Zass, laughing, led us astray, saying that his people probably put a box with their heads under the bed, and in fact, he pulled out before us a huge chest with several heads that scaredly looked at us with their glass eyes. "Why do you have them here?" - I objected. "I digest them, clean them and send them to various anatomical rooms and friends of my professors in Berlin."
            N.I. Lorer Notes of My Time

            Sapiyat (Sophia) lived with her mother in the Caucasus, and her descendants today are not a problem to find.
            Peter died in the Caucasian campaigns.
            Nikolai (from Russian) will become a major general.
            1. Astra wild 29 January 2020 11: 34 New
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              In this case, the emperor was decent Alexei Petrovich
  • iouris 27 January 2020 12: 28 New
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    An interesting question: can Yermolov’s pupil be considered a Chechen artist? Or in another way: do Chechens consider him Chechens? Is not a fact.
    The author showed that the "blood issue" in certain circumstances is not decisive. Moreover, Russians can have any nationality. It is interesting that in the Russian (and not Russian) empire, officially subjects did not have a nationality, but only religion.
    The personality of Yermolov received coverage from a new perspective.
    1. Ryazan87 27 January 2020 17: 09 New
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      Russians can have any nationality.

      yah? Is it only the Russians that have such a unique ability? And the same Chechens, for example?
  • Free wind 27 January 2020 18: 56 New
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    Most likely, before the baptism, he himself came up with himself who would ask the soldier about the biography of the foundling. Or maybe the father-soldier told him, I shot your father, and cut my mother. Prior to this, everything is at the level of speculation and rumor. The craft of the Highlanders "touches" lived in raids. Robberies, robberies, murders, rape, slave trade, not raids. And then the massacre, and what else to do with them? Or conclude a couple of dozen contracts?
  • Aleks2000 27 January 2020 21: 14 New
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    Good article. It must be remembered.
    It is a pity that neither the artist nor the works were so unlucky.