Will our armored vehicles be protected? The operational combat readiness of KAZ Drozd-2 is not far off


Undoubtedly, active defense systems, as well as mounted and built-in dynamic defense systems of the 2nd and 3rd generations, are an integral component of maintaining the combat stability of mechanized units of the ground forces, covering fortified areas or carrying out offensive throws in those operational areas that are replete with dozens of anti-tank enemy missile systems equipped with monoblock and tandem cumulative warheads with armor penetration of 900+ mm behind elements of dynamic protection.


Equipping Russian armored vehicles with the Drozd-2 active defense systems in the TKB-0252 modification can radically change the balance of forces in the most important strategic areas of the European theater of operations


Against this background, information on the start of full-scale tests of the active defense complex (KAZ) TKB-0252, also known under the code "Drozd-2", provided extremely serious food for thought in expert communities and at military-analytical forums. According to the Rossiyskaya Gazeta news publication, which refers to a test order document posted by the Tula Design Instrument Design Bureau named after Academician A. G. Shipunov JSC on the public procurement portal on December 17, 2019, an “optional package” is being prepared for testing at the Drozd- 2 "will be represented not by the standard protective shells (anti-shells) ZOF53, previously used in the ammunition of the first modification of the Drozd complex (" Product 1030M-01 "), but by the perspective protective shells-interceptors ZOF77, now constituting basis of a complex of active protection "Afghani".

As a result, the modernized version of Drozda-2 (TKB-0252) can boast a number of technological advantages both over the standard modification of the complex (Drozd-2) and the modernized brainchild of the Kolomna Scientific and Production Corporation Engineering Design Bureau - active protection complex T09-06 "Arena-M".

First of all, the ZOF77 protective shells boast the presence of a “shell” with a more powerful throwing charge, which ensures the interception of attacking shells at distances of more than 20-30 m (compared to 7-10 m for shells of the ZOF53 family of the standard KAZ Drozd / -2 "). It is logical to assume that this feature will significantly reduce the likelihood of damage or incapacitation of optoelectronic sighting devices (multi-channel combined gunner’s sight “Sosna-U”, panoramic sight of the commander) and radar guidance modules of the KAZ TKB-0252 “Drozd-2” defense pieces of equipment with fragments of intercepted high-explosive shells, ATGMs, multi-purpose tactical air-to-surface missiles, etc.

Moreover, intercepting enemy shells at a distance of several tens of meters will significantly reduce the risk of high-speed fragments falling into the Relic dynamic defense elements 4C24 with further initiation and, accordingly, “bare” armor plates in front of armor-piercing fired projectiles of kinetic action. When destroying attacking means of air attack at a distance of 7-10 m from the defended unit of armored vehicles, such a risk is quite large.

Secondly, according to numerous military-technical portals that refer to competent sources, ZOF77 defensive anti-shells are equipped not with a standard high-explosive fragmentation warhead, but with a strike-type warhead with spatial optimization of the shot-strike sector directly in the direction of the attack shell the enemy, which is realized thanks to the programmed initiation of a certain array of several dozen fuses located on the back of the container with the “impact core”.

This principle of interception is similar to the concept of kinetic destruction of ballistic targets by the hit-to-kill method (direct hit), where either a controlled super-maneuverable combat level or a missile defense interceptor as a whole is used as a kinetic interceptor. In the case of ZOF77, an uncontrolled “impact core” is used as an interceptor, having the form of a pest and a speed of the order of 2,5-5 km / s. Therefore, for its direct hit in a small-sized high-explosive fragmentation projectile, anti-tank guided projectile, rocket-propelled grenade or core of an armor-piercing feathered sub-caliber projectile of the enemy, filigree accurate target designation, transmitted to the computerized control unit of the fuse group of the protective projectile ZOF77, from the critical moment of intercepting a hundredth of a second projectile.

Based on the fact that the ZOF77 cannot be adapted to accommodate the active radar seeker Ka / W-ranges due to the technical impossibility of overlapping the facing of the “impact core” (fraught with deviation of its flight path), the main source of target designation for the fuse initiation control module can only be radar KAZ TKB-0252 module located on the tower of the defended tank and having a resolution of 0,05-0,1 m, as well as the highest performance of the device for processing radar information to minimize reaction time when working on the cores of armor-piercing shells and other high-speed targets. Naturally, the standard radar guidance module of the Drozd-2 complex did not previously have an elemental base with similar capabilities.

It is easy to assume that the Drozd-2 complex in the TKB-0252 version will be re-equipped with a 128-millimeter hard-drive AFAR radar from the Afghanit active defense complex. This product has an accuracy of the order of 0,29 ° and a high-performance radio-electronic architecture of the transmitting and receiving tract, which provides detection and tracking of ultra-small cores of armor-piercing feathered sub-caliber shells approaching at speeds of the order of 1600-1700 m / s and having EPR in thousandths of a square meter, not to mention already about low-speed ATGM with an effective reflective surface of about 0,05-0,08 square meters. m

As you can see, in the case of successful passing control tests and gaining operational combat readiness by the TKB-0252 Drozd-2 active defense complex, in the foreseeable future we should expect the conclusion of large contracts between the Russian defense department and the Central Design and Research Bureau of Sports and Hunting weapons (a subsidiary of the Tula KBP JSC) for the supply of these systems to motorized rifle and tank brigades of the Russian NE, which will sharply increase their combat stability in the most important strategic areas of the European conventional theater of operations.

Meanwhile, the "genetic disease" of the Drozd-2 and Arena-M complexes, which consists in the impossibility of intercepting ATGMs, tactical missiles and guided artillery shells diving at defended units at angles of more than 45 degrees or more in the "hill" mode, - It remains as before, since the elevation range of the TKB-0252 radar guidance modules is only 20 degrees, while transport-launch mortars with protective shells ZOF77 are also stationary and do not have devices for adjusting the angle of rotation. The situation in this case can be saved by equipping both the radar guidance modules and the mortar with electromechanical dovor drives in the elevation plane.
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  1. Vladimir_2U 23 January 2020 05: 07 New
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    BOPS knocking it down is very cool! And diving all the same by other means will have to! And I think it will be simpler, although all together it will become more expensive.
    1. Lexus 23 January 2020 05: 51 New
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      It is very difficult to achieve not only a “filigree” target designation, but also the formation of a precisely targeted strike nucleus when intercepting a high-speed BPS with a deviation from the longitudinal axis of the “counter ammunition”. It’s easier to protect yourself from above: add an antenna sheet that is responsible for the upper hemisphere and place appropriate launching devices that can be turned around with shrapnel and shrapnel striking elements, since ammunition attacking from above cannot even boast high speeds.
      1. Aerodrome 23 January 2020 05: 54 New
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        (multi-channel combined gunner’s sight “Sosona-U”, panoramic sight of the commander)
        "pine" was renamed.
      2. Vladimir_2U 23 January 2020 06: 21 New
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        I completely agree, and although it is possible to beat from above with an impact core, which is difficult to intercept, it is stopped by spaced armor.
      3. antivirus 23 January 2020 08: 36 New
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        so we decided - to erect a monument to the hard worker, the cat 50 years ago paid 50 thousand tanks, they only need to be modernized - you need to add the little things (?).
        T60-70-80 will live longer than US carriers.
        and cheaper than Almaty (there is no new generation in NATO yet)
      4. riwas 24 January 2020 06: 38 New
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        ammunition attacking from above, even in the long run, will not be able to boast of high speeds.

        There are self-aiming ammunition that has a “striking core" as a striking element.
    2. 2Albert 23 January 2020 10: 39 New
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      And now we have jamming systems for GOS missiles attacking from above, the Chinese are putting lasers to illuminate optical GOS, including multispectral ones, like our Vitebsk helicopters
      1. V.I.P. 23 January 2020 12: 52 New
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        Chinese tanks burn with their laser the optical guidance devices and the retina of the eye of the gunner (judging by the press) .......... Something on the combatant tanks of the Russian Federation is not visible protection systems against anti-theft anti-tank ATGMs ..... Or, as usual, the exhibition was blinded for window dressing?
  2. rocket757 23 January 2020 05: 15 New
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    Even removing the crew from the tank will have to strengthen its defense in order to maintain the operability of the mechanisms and weapons! Heavy drones without humans !!! This is not such a distant fantasy.
    1. Ross xnumx 23 January 2020 05: 19 New
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      Quote: rocket757
      Heavy drones without humans !!! This is not such a distant fantasy.

      yes good
      It is to such a solution that problems will come sooner or later. And drones can be done as many as you want. There would be industry. With people - harder.
      1. Lexus 23 January 2020 05: 41 New
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        There would be industry. With people - harder

        If they also regret money, as usual, or "waste it".
      2. Ge⁣⁣⁣⁣⁣⁣o 23 January 2020 09: 02 New
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        Quote: ROSS 42
        And drones can be done as many as you want. There would be industry. With people - harder

        People were successfully made when there was no smell of any industry))
        1. garri-lin 23 January 2020 18: 24 New
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          As it turned out, it is difficult and expensive. The production cycle is at least 30 years. Plus rejection sometimes up to 50%.
          1. Ge⁣⁣⁣⁣⁣⁣o 23 January 2020 23: 24 New
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            Quote: garri-lin
            The production cycle is at least 30 years.

            In the short term, exponential growth (and this is how the population of people is growing under favorable conditions) may be inferior to linear or exponential (when only a part of the manufactured robots is engaged in the manufacture of new robots), but in the long term it will certainly overtake them. The main thing is to start and not slow down.
            1. garri-lin 24 January 2020 09: 50 New
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              Too much employed in the manufacturing process. And too little on the process of debugging software and technical condition.
  3. svp67 23 January 2020 06: 05 New
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    Expensive "pleasure", but necessary, since the life of our soldier is generally priceless and I really hope that they already understood this. And I think that with the advent of the radar it will be used not only for defense purposes, but also for long-range detection of the enemy and to increase the accuracy of firing the main weapon, especially at long ranges
  4. eagle owl 23 January 2020 06: 08 New
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    Figs his sign. Here is the curtain - it was like a breakthrough topic. And AZ - oh, not a fact
  5. smaug78 23 January 2020 08: 11 New
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    and then Damantseva suffered, found a new topic for earning shekels. but again, as in the case of the article on BOPS, crap. laughing
  6. JonnyT 23 January 2020 09: 00 New
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    The legend is fresh, but it is hard to believe that KAZ will be equipped with a large number of tanks.
  7. Nikolaevich I 23 January 2020 09: 05 New
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    A lot of incomprehensible and slurred in the "description", updated, KAZ "Drozd-2", however, as in the description of the "Afghanite"! What kind of information do we have? KAZ Drozd ... 107-mm ZUOF14 (unitary shot). In the "updated" KAZ "Drozd-2" protective ammunition ZOF77 should be used, "like on" Armata "... What kind of ammunition? For KAZ" Drozd-2 ", developed in the late 80s and intended for MBT" Black Oryol, 95 mm high-explosive fragmentation ammunition was supposed to be ... (ZUOF53 ... unitary shot) ... it looks like the same ZOF53. By the way, there are allegations that in the last years of the KAZ Drozd production they were used (maybe, like "experienced"? ...) and 100-mm rounds ... ("Drozd-AZT")
    So they came to ZOF77 and to “Afganit” ... And here again “misunderstandings” begin! Many "authors" (including Damantsev ...) believe that on "Afganit" launchers and protective shells such as "mortar" and "anti-shells" in the complex "Drozd-2"; but, only, not high-explosive, but "nuclear shock"! But the composition of the "Afghanistan" includes 2 types of protective ammunition ... hu from hu? To object to the "authors" is very difficult; in appearance, the Afganita launcher matches the opinion of the "authors" ... But a number of sources state that “Afganita” is based on project 2263268 RU, which I have met, in my opinion, in “free patents” ...As I once understood from the project’s description, “defense blocks” are used to defeat “targets”, similar to which “Trophy” defense blocks can be called, but not “multinuclear”, but forming one “shock core”, but very massive ! That is, the operation of the protective block occurs (according to the project ...) on the tank.And we are offered by the "author" protective shells "such as high-explosive fragmentation ZOF53", but only SFZ ... and called ZOF77! That is, the "protivosnaryad" must fly 20-30 m and then "fart" with the "shock core", while precisely hitting the "target"! People, what do you think (?), What is more likely to “hit” the target under such conditions: fragments of the ZOF53 or the “impact core” ... (ZOF77?). The following .... what do the letters OF in the index mean? I, by the simplicity of my soul, had previously assumed that this was a high-explosive fragmentation shell! And therefore, I just can’t understand why the "nuclear strike" projectile ... (SFZ ... but I agree to the "cumulative" one!) Is referred to as 3ОФ77; that is, "high-explosive fragmentation"? belay For obvious reasons, I don’t really hope for Damantsev, but maybe someone from the "readers" will help me deal with the "doubts"?
    1. Operator 23 January 2020 12: 32 New
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      Drozd and Afganit are twin brothers, the warhead of which is built according to the same scheme: counter-ammunition in the form of a missile fired from a tubular guide.

      Armata is additionally equipped with multidirectional mortars, firing grenades with an aerosol, including for shooting down the sight of anti-tank munitions with optical guidance, attacking from the upper hemisphere.
    2. Passing 23 January 2020 22: 31 New
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      It’s also not clear to me how when resolving a radar of 0,29 degrees BOPs will be lost. For 20-30 m, the radar resolution will be 10-15 cm. The diameter of any impact core is several times smaller than the diameter of the initial charge. And the mortar is, by eye, 100-150 mm. Moreover, it is not the diameter that is important, but the radius, because at the extreme points of the resolution range, the core will only climb into this range with half the diameter. Those. the probability of interception is extremely small.
      Either the resolution number is incorrect, or the BOPS will be lost at much closer distances, or the BOPS will not be planned for interception.
  8. Ratmir_Ryazan 23 January 2020 09: 32 New
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    Why turn something around ?! Why can’t you install additional KAZ shells at the stern of the tank’s turret and an additional radar that would control the upper hemisphere ?!

    And I don’t understand how this KAZ Drozd-2 will reflect side impacts ?!

    Judging by the guides, such a KAZ reflects only an attack from the front.
    1. Xenofont 23 January 2020 11: 21 New
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      It seems like the tower is turning towards the approaching ammunition, which greatly limits the capabilities of the KAZ, as for me ...
      1. Romario_Argo 23 January 2020 11: 46 New
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        Drozd-2 is an economical option like KAZ Afghanit and Arena - the principle with 3 types of detonation of a protective grenade is implemented
        1. light fragments (before defragmentation with a 2nd charge);
        2. heavy fragments (the main detonation of 2 charges);
        3. shock core (a shock core is formed from a saucer without crushing it)
        depending on the type of threat and its speed: BOPS, ATGM, etc.
        * for BMP, BMD, armored personnel carriers - at the cost of the most
      2. Nikolaevich I 23 January 2020 13: 01 New
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        Quote: Xenofont
        there is a turn of the tower towards the approaching ammunition,

        That's exactly what is “predicted”, judging by the description ...
  9. Sancho_SP 23 January 2020 09: 45 New
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    And now the most interesting: the price and the number of systems available for manufacturing per year?)
  10. Operator 23 January 2020 12: 25 New
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    Neither the "Afghan", nor, moreover, the "Drozd" have the ability to shoot down attacking ammunition at speeds above 900 m / s. Nevertheless, the nullification of the capabilities of the most numerous anti-tank weapons such as RPGs and ATGMs plus the interception of artillery caliber shells is a huge step forward.

    But the end result in terms of creating a truly effective KAZ will be the transition to guided counter-munitions with an inertial guidance system, starting vertically and turning on target in the air. Thus, it will be possible to provide complete protection of the upper hemisphere with a coverage angle of 180 degrees. Plus, the transition from an active radar (unmasking tank) to a passive electron-optical target designation for attacking ammunition.

    After this, BOPS fired from large-caliber weapons and hypersonic kinetic missiles will remain the only anti-tank ammunition.
    1. Xenofont 23 January 2020 14: 21 New
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      Afghanite is able to bring down BOPS, as stated semi-officially, at least. The reaction rate was increased to thousandths of a second according to the developers of the individual components of the complex.
    2. Nikolaevich I 23 January 2020 14: 34 New
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      Quote: Operator
      Neither the "Afghan", nor, moreover, the "Drozd" have the ability to shoot down attacking ammunition at speeds above 900 m / s.

      Well, Thrush ... okay with him! But the "Afghanit" bullet "shock core" with a speed of at least 1700 m / s, if my memory serves me right ...
      Quote: Operator
      there will be a transition to guided counter-munitions with an inertial guidance system, starting vertically and turning on the target in the air.

      Is it you so staring at "Quick Kill"? Well ... well, I’d like it myself ... But the task is so expensive and difficult that the Americans still have not solved it ...
      Quote: Operator
      transition from active radar (unmasking tank) to passive electron-optical target designation for attacking ammunition.


      “Passive” systems are already in some places ... at least in the status of “experienced” ... But they are still inferior in range, reliability (!) Of detection, capture, tracking of radar systems. Moreover, radar “detectors” are more universal ... One thing that leaves infrared, UV traces of PT ammunition, and another that planes "non-motorized" PT ammunition, barrage ammunition is "tactical" ... And yet, the composition of the "passive" "detectors" is still have to introduce, for example, laser rangefinders! And the dependence of "passive" ECO on atmospheric conditions ...
      1. Operator 23 January 2020 14: 45 New
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        The speed of the counter-munition does not affect the interception of the attacking munition (only the speed of the KAZ reaction and the accuracy of pointing the munition affect).

        Quick Kill did not take off due to the high cost of solid-state gyroscopes at that time.

        Stereoscopic optoelectronic systems - the near future of KAZ / SAZ.
        1. Nikolaevich I 23 January 2020 15: 28 New
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          Quote: Operator
          The speed of the counter-munition does not affect the interception of the attacking munition (only the speed of the KAZ reaction and the accuracy of pointing the munition affect).

          Not really ... What kind of ammunition will have a higher probability of intercepting a high-speed target (?), All other things being equal (the reaction speed of KAZ electronic means, the rotation speed of the launcher, the accuracy of pointing ...) ... the "mortar" high-explosive fragmentation " shell "thrush" or "shock core", "starting from the tank"?
          Quote: Operator
          Quick Kill did not take off due to the high cost of solid-state gyroscopes at that time.

          Well, maybe this was a serious reason “once” ... (although I “know” another reason ...), but now “solid-state gyroscopes” are even placed in children's electronic toys ... However, the "proud american eagle" does not take off!

          Quote: Operator
          Stereoscopic optoelectronic systems - the near future of KAZ / SAZ.

          Oh well ! "Come and see" - see!
  11. Gust 23 January 2020 13: 25 New
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    Quote: Sancho_SP
    But the end result in terms of creating a truly effective KAZ will be the transition to guided counter-munitions with an inertial guidance system, starting vertically and turning on target in the air. Thus, it will be possible to provide complete protection of the upper hemisphere with a coverage angle of 180 degrees. Plus, the transition from an active radar (unmasking tank) to a passive electron-optical target designation for attacking ammunition.


    That would not be very smart. When a reversal is needed, a colossal disposable overload of counter-munition + gas-dynamic control is needed, this will complicate the design and reduce the ammunition. Or to increase the radius of detection of attacking power supply units, this means an increase in the energy of the AFAR and the unmasking of the tank at long distances.
    Passive guidance is much less reliable (smoke, fog, interference) and accurate. To tie the track of the attacking power supply units, it is necessary that each direction be blocked by at least three modules, and the accuracy of the tie is obviously lower than that of the AFAR (impossibility of direct active measurement of distance).
  12. Zabvo 23 January 2020 14: 05 New
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    Well, when it really will be massively installed, then you can discuss it. And so another tale of the T-14 and stuff like that.
  13. Nikolaevich I 23 January 2020 15: 04 New
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    Already there were reports of a renewed interest in the military in the KAZam Arena-M and Drozd-2 ... But before the Afghanite he also tested the KAZ Standart ... it is a more modern complex compared to Arena-M "and the Thrush!" But here is about him, something at the present time "neither to the ear, nor the spirit" ...
    By the way, in the internet I met an interesting system ... as it were, "intermediate" ... on the verge of "active armor" and KAZ! This is SMART PROTesh!

    Currently, two technologies have been developed to counter cumulative ammunition: 1.dynamic armor, an increasingly applicable solution, which is used on medium and heavy combat platforms, where the impact of a threat on a dynamic defense element causes an explosion firing steel plates to hit a cumulative jet; and active protection system (SAZ), which is designed in various ways to hit the projectile before it hits the car. Early warning sensors are deployed throughout the vehicle to detect and track an approaching projectile, and then a missile is launched from the launcher or directly from the vehicle’s body to destroy this warhead.

    Both technologies have their drawbacks, Rust said. “Cumulative tandem shells have been specially designed to overcome dynamic protection. The preliminary charge triggers the dynamic protection module, and the next, main, charge falls into an empty area and can easily penetrate the case. Dynamic protection also has a high density, that is, it adds a lot of weight to the machine.

    Active defense is more complex; all components - sensors, controllers, software, launchers, anti-missiles and power supplies - require full integration with the platform and harmonization with the passive protection system, ”he added.

    Called SMART-PROTech, the new armor consists of modules, each of which contains a sensor and one or two countermeasures, depending on the size, position and orientation of the module. Two countermeasures are installed - one from the top, directed downward, and the second from the bottom, turned upward, always at an angle, the tilt is provided by the physical form of the module; the impact surface has an angle of about 30 ° from the vertical and contains a sensor. It is insensitive to shells of small and medium caliber, so it does not work in cases where the shells can be stopped by passive armor of the machine. The SMART-PROTech module is equipped with a light protective cover, which avoids damage to system elements by external objects. When a tandem warhead gets into the car, the effect of the primary charge is neutralized by passive armor; the shock activates the corresponding countermeasure, which generates sharply directed energy, which destroys the main cumulative charge even before it detonates, thereby preventing penetration.

    It is quite obvious that IBD used developments in the field of active armor, using a similar countermeasure technology, while simplifying the system using a different triggering mechanism, which makes its integration much easier than in the case of an active protection system. The advent of SMART-PROTech will allow you to separate the elements of protection against armor-piercing and cumulative ammunition. Each SMART-PROTech module is completely autonomous and has no connection with the on-board systems. According to IBD, this will reduce the overall weight of the protection while maintaining the same free space.



    While the weight of SMART-PROTech is comparable to the weight of dynamic protection, and full-circle protection remains an unattainable goal, the new system provides a much higher probability of success when protecting against tandem ammunition compared to dynamic armor. IBD did not provide detailed technical specifications, but stated that the system had already been tested in difficult conditions and had proved its insensitivity to small arms.
    By the way, in "free patents" I came across similar proposals by Russian "authors".
  14. Operator 23 January 2020 15: 34 New
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    Quote: Nikolaevich I
    the "proud american eagle" does not take off

    For some reason, the United States is not taking off a lot now. laughing
  15. silver_roman 23 January 2020 21: 32 New
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    and where is thrush 1 installed?
    The troops are already fully equipped with KAZ Drozd - 1, what is developed and tested Drozd - 2?
    It is always like this in our troops: for some reason they are developing it, but it does not really enter the troops. It is clear that they want to make the complex better, but according to this logic, there will never be anything in the troops. Some prototypes and development on testing.