Combat aircraft. Unsuccessful fly swatter with foggy perspective

Combat aircraft. Unsuccessful fly swatter with foggy perspective

Since we already talked about the winner of the capsule competition for serial production, it makes direct sense to pay attention to the loser. It is clear that the winner is the Ne-219, the aircraft is more than worthy and advanced in technical terms, and the loser is here. Fokke-Wulf Ta-154.


I will allow myself to go back a little and just recall how all the fuss with heavy twin-engine fighters began in general.

It all started in fact with two problems: the first was the lack of such aircraft at the Luftwaffe and the presence of the Mosquito at the British Royal Air Force. Yes, the flying wooden structure (“British plywood”) made of balsa simply made an indescribable hemorrhoids to the German command, since the radars took Mosquito badly, and the fighters simply did not catch up.

In general, the Luftwaffe urgently needed a plane that could catch up with or find the Mosquito and destroy it. And for the sake of this, a whole program was developed.

At one time, the merry and optimistic German Goering said: "Not a single bomb will fall on Germany." Bombs fell, and from the very beginning of the war. And despite the fact that Tanks and dive bombers confidently conquered the countries of Europe, at night the British fugaski regularly fell on the houses of residents of German cities.


But this did not diminish optimism, however, on the orders of Goering, Colonel Kammhuber began to create nightly anti-aircraft forces. But, given what Kammhuber did this according to the residual principle, recruiting both pilots and materiel according to the principle “I blinded him from what was”, no special progress was observed at first.

True, with the accumulation of experience and further development, night air defense began to really disturb the crew of British bombers.

I must say that in the years 1940-1941 it all looked pretty peculiar. According to the then accepted standards, night planes were transferred to aircraft, which had nothing to do during the day. Whitley, Wellesley, Windsor. Slow-moving and slightly armed, and even the tactics were simple, like a Lee-Anfield rifle.

The British bombers simply took off from their airfields and flew whoever was what they were, almost on their own. As a result, when German night fighters met such an extended system (I note that they themselves were not masterpieces of aircraft construction: Bf. 110, Do-17, Do-215), then the British quite expectedly suffered losses that reached 10%.

Kammhuber’s desire to equip the night air defense forces with modern specialized aircraft did not meet support. The Luftwaffe believed that it makes no sense to spend time and resources on night fighters, if all the emphasis is on day aircraft, which will help to conquer everyone and everything.

In November 1941, under the influence of the "successes" of the Luftwaffe in the USSR and Africa, the Reich Commissioner ended his life and career. aviation Ernst Udet. Replacing it, Erhard Milch was a sharp opponent of the development of night aviation, arguing that the existing types of aircraft do their job perfectly, and the industry is obliged to make up for the loss of daytime aviation on the Eastern Front and in North Africa.

A cold shower and complete sobering for the German command came on the night of May 31, 1942. Neither the Kammhuber Line with floodlights and air defense batteries, nor night fighters, on ground radars could provide at least some resistance to the armada of British aircraft that smashed Cologne into rubble.


The British command gathered everything that could fly: the Hampden, Whitley, Stirling, Lancaster, Wellington, Manchester, Halifax. 1047 bombers dropped 1455 tons of bombs on Cologne, and only 43 British aircraft were able to shoot down all air defense (both fighters and artillery), which amounted to less than 4%.

Suddenly it became obvious that the Luftwaffe could not oppose anything to the British bombers.

Realizing that not everything is as beautiful as it seemed before, the Ministry of Aviation decided to nevertheless attend to the problem of a normal night fighter, which will be properly equipped and will replace the flying junk like the 110s Messerschmitt and 15th and 17th Dornier ".

The technical department issued an urgent task for the development of specialized night fighters to the Junkers, Heinkel, and Focke-Wulf firms.

Specialists from Junkers did not invent a bicycle; there was enough work to convert night bombers into night fighters. So they took the Ju-188 project as a basis, on the basis of which they developed the Ju-188R night fighter, the prototype of the future Ju-388J.


Ernst Heinkel and the company simply returned to the Kampfzerstorer P.1060 project two years ago, on the basis of which he created the miracle of the German aircraft industry He-219.


But Kurt Tank and Focke-Wulf had their own way. Fascinated (as, however, by many in the Luftwaffe) with the successes of Mosquito, Tank proposed the creation of a double night attack aircraft, in the image and likeness of Mosquito. Wooden.


The project was first rejected by officials of the ministry as unnecessary, but now Tank was ordered to make an anti-mosquito plane based on the German variation Mosquito. There was no particular problem here, especially since there was enough wood in Germany, a desire to save strategic aluminum, too, and there was already an engine for the aircraft, Jumo211.

Work on the project began in September 1942. By October 14, the developers carried out all the necessary calculations, and another five days later a draft design was submitted for consideration by the commission.

The fighter was offered in single and double variants of an all-weather fighter capable of operating at any time of the day. The glider was to be built on 57% of wood, 30% of steel, and only 13% accounted for aluminum alloys and other scarce materials. The defense of the project was successful, and in November the company received an official development contract with the highest priority.

The aircraft was named Ta. 154 - in honor of the merits of Kurt Tank. The final refinement of the aircraft was assigned to the senior engineer Ernst Nipp, chief engineer Ludwig Mittelhuder, aerodynamics Gottold Matthias and Herbert Wolft.

The team worked as Stakhanovites, given the very tight deadlines set by the ministry: eight months. So it is not surprising that the design, strength tests and assembly of prototypes went simultaneously or in parallel.

In the course of the work, it turned out that not everything is as smooth as we would like. The tree was not always ready to withstand such stresses that were on the shoulder of the metal. And here the Germans made a small technological miracle: Ta.154 was the first aircraft in the power set of which were used elements from Lignofol L90 or Dynal Z5 plastics. These materials had a modulus of elasticity close to the tree and, as it turned out, were able to replace the tree in conjunction with metal.

The tests began also quite peculiarly. The specialists of the Graf Zeppelin Aviation Research Center, the same ones with airships, developed a method for measuring resistance in water to determine the loads on the aircraft structure.

"Tsepellinovsky" it was found that dynamic loads acting on a body moving with high speed in air can be modeled with a certain accuracy at significantly lower speeds in a denser aqueous medium.

And in the spring of 1943, tests of the bow of the fuselage on an underwater stand began on the Bavarian Lake Alatsee. It was suspended under a floating structure with measuring instruments and pulled under water at various speeds using winches.

In parallel, tests were carried out on all other structural elements and, it must be said, the first major problems went.


The main thing was that the plane was rapidly gaining weight and it became clear that the Junkers Jumo211F engine that was originally selected was completely unsuitable. Even the Jumo211N, which was 160 hp more powerful (1500 hp), could not provide the ordered characteristics. The only chance was to urgently bring to the series the latest Jumo213, which had a power of 1776 hp.

So in anticipation of the Jumo213, the Ta.154 made its first flight on the Jumo211F. The flight took place on July 1, 1943, even two weeks earlier than the allotted eight-month period.

The plane was piloted by Hans Zander, a test pilot at Focke-Wulf, and the flight test engineer Walter Schorn was in the operator’s place.

The flight, which took place in the presence of Kurt Tank, was not without incident. Immediately after take-off, the aircraft began to fall into the left roll, which forced Zander to exert a fair amount of effort on the handle and right pedal until the behavior of the machine was adjusted by trimmers. The nose support was not completely removed either, and since the readings of the pressure gauges of the hydraulic system indicated insufficient pressure, Zander did not try to release and remove the chassis again and continued flying with the semi-retracted front strut. Soon, the pressure in the hydraulic system dropped to zero, so when approaching, I had to resort to the help of an emergency landing gear and flap release system.

With further flights, there was simply a mountain of “children's” problems and diseases, but you must admit, this is normal for a machine designed in such a short time.

Under certain flight conditions, exhaust gases entered the cabin, cracks appeared on the radiators due to vibration, and coolant leaked, and problems with the hydraulic system required a change in the composition of the hydraulic mixture. Kurt Tank himself tried to fly around his creation on July 7 and was also forced to finish the flight ahead of time due to a failure of the hydraulic system.

Test pilot Zander left very flattering reviews about the aircraft. In general, Ta.154 turned out to be a very pleasant airplane to fly, it could gain altitude even on one engine.


In a number of sources in the West (and some of us repeat it), there is a statement that the Ta-154V-1 accelerated in horizontal flight to 700 km / h. However, official reports and reports indicate that the maximum speed that could be squeezed out of the plane was 626 km / h at an altitude of 6850 m. This was a good, but not outstanding indicator.

November 26, 1943 one of the prototypes of the aircraft (third) was personally shown to Adolf Hitler. This happened in Instenburg (today Chernyakhovsk). The Ta.154 show together with Me.262 went just fine, the Fuhrer liked the plane.

The second prototype with the same engines was distinguished by the presence of flame arresters and a FuG.212 Lichtenstein S-1 radar with emitter holders in the form of four horizontal rods. Radar elements reduced the speed of the aircraft by 20 km / h, but everyone was ready for such a result. Without radar, a night fighter is not a night fighter.


Work was carried out on the installation on a FuG.220 "Liechtenstein SN-2" radar with "deer horns".

The armament was installed on the plane: four 20-mm MG151 / 20EC guns ammunition. Installation weapons led to an increase in take-off weight to 8700 kg, which of course affected the flight characteristics of Ta.154.

In a combat configuration, the plane was circled by Lieutenant Bruning at the Rechlin Test Center on February 3, 1944. The Rekhlin tester did not really like the plane. Criticized in particular limited view from the cab back and sideways. In his opinion, this seriously hindered the visual detection of targets at night and made Ta.154 practically unsuitable for daytime battles with their complicated air situation.


By this time, in service with the fighter groups of the American Air Force, a large number of modernized R-51V and C appeared, seriously complicating the work of the Luftwaffe interceptors.

In addition, replacing FuG.212 with FuG.220 with its multi-lobed antenna system was accompanied by some loss of longitudinal stability, which made accurate aiming difficult. There were some difficulties when shooting - the vibration and shock waves that occurred during the operation of the shutters of the guns caused failure of the screws and locks of the hatches, as well as damage to the plywood sheathing of the bow.


However, despite this, the plane gave out at altitudes of 6-8 thousand meters 620 km / h, which was still enough for a night fighter.

As a result, the Ministry of Aviation issued an order for 250 serial copies, with the prospect of producing so many planes every month!

For combat tests, the special squadron Erprobungskommando 154 was created, armed with aircraft from the first pre-production batch.

During a few sorties, the pilots quickly found out that the armament of the four 20-mm guns was already insufficient for a night fighter, the main targets of which were the English four-engine bombers “Lancaster” and “Halifax”.

Pilots complained of limited visibility and low fuel supply. The Fokke-Wulf design bureau quickly responded to complaints and, instead of two MG.151 guns, placed two 30 mm MK.108 guns.

It was very serious. MK.108 equipped with fighter Bf.109G and FW-190A, which were part of the Reich air defense. An analysis of the photographic machine gun films showed that in most cases two to three hits are enough to destroy the American four-engine Flying Fortresses and the Liberators. Two MK.108 significantly enhanced the combat capabilities of Ta.154.


Meanwhile, the situation in the sky over Germany was increasingly tense. To balance the situation, on March 1, 1944, the Fighter Headquarters was created, which was headed by one of the leaders of the Nazi party, Otto Zaur, who received the broadest powers. Zaur was a very active person, but not very adequate. He eventually managed to slightly increase the Ta.154 release, but it was very far from the declared 250 cars per month.

Then Milch joined the Ta.154 case. The head of the ministry, who did not hide his hostility to Ernst Heinkel, did everything so that Ta.219 and Ju.154J went into the series instead of He.388. And Milch managed to ensure that the release of He.219, with might and main fought in the night sky of Germany, was stopped.

The Luftwaffe night pilots protested, because they liked N.219, but did not listen to them. However, the industrial rake hit Milkh very hard. In June 1944, new problems arose with the release of the Ta-154A, and it soon became clear that before the start of 1945 it was not necessary to wait for the serial Ju-388J.

Milch eventually received the full program, and the production of He219 was resumed. As for Ta. 154, the release of aircraft was still delayed.

Even before the first production vehicles left the assembly lines, Kurt Tank found out that some influential figures in the Ministry of Aviation were in favor of ending the program.

The funniest thing about storiesthat Milch, who received a drag from the highest authorities, who had recently supported the creation of this machine, now preferred the He-219.

The tank rushed into intrigue, trying to save the plane. He even asked his friend, commander of the Luftwaffe fighter aircraft, Lieutenant General Adolf Galland and night fighter inspector Colonel Werner Shtribe to personally fly around the Ta-154.

On June 2, 1944, both aces made one flight on the Ta-154V-14 from the Berlin-Staaken airfield. But not one of these famous pilots was impressed by the fighter, and Galland later expressed the view that the fully loaded Ta.154 was not able to counter the Mosquito strike.

By the way, the opinion of Galland was soon confirmed in practice.

And then Tank was set up in full. Things even reached the tribunal, where Goering himself presided. It was about several aircraft accidents caused by low-quality components. The funny thing is that those who produced low-quality adhesives were brought to the Tank as soon as they stopped production at the request of the Tank.

However, the tribunal figured out and Tank was rehabilitated, and Goering apologized to him.

Another funny moment: during the tribunal, it turned out that Goering until the last moment considered the Ta-154 a fast bomber (!), Which would act with impunity against England in response to Mosquito attacks on the cities of the Reich.

Tank and Milch with difficulty managed to convince Goering that Ta.154 was a night fighter.

Until the last moment, the Tank hoped to continue work on the aircraft. But in November 1944, the so-called "emergency fighter program" was adopted, according to which the production of all twin-engine aircraft with piston engines was discontinued, with the exception of the Do-335.

This was the last nail in the lid of the tomb of Ta.154.


Before the closure of production, 10 serial Ta-154s were produced: two in Erfurt and eight in Polish plants. Thus, a total of 31 aircraft were built: prototypes and pre-production - 21, serial - 10. There were no reliable data on the production of Ta-154, and in reality pre-production aircraft could be slightly larger, so the total number of aircraft built was probably close to 40.

So Ta.154 nevertheless went into battle, although in a very small number. The factories in Poznan were destroyed by bombing after literally several planes were fired. The Messengeland facility burned down on April 9, 1944, and the Kraising factory was destroyed on May 29.

There are very few documents confirming the combat use of Ta.154. The crew of the reconnaissance "Mosquito", performed on February 22, 1945 aerial photography of the Stade air base near Hamburg, where the NJG3 was based. Two Ta.154 along with Ju.88 and He.219 were distinguishable in the photographs. The British pilots noticed two more cars on March 9 - one on the basis of calibration of compasses, and the other on the shooting range. Several Ta.154 were transferred to the Einsatzkommando (EKdo) Ta-154, which was part of the NJGr10 for the purpose of studying, but there are no documents confirming their participation in the battles. A number of aircraft fell into a motley company of aircraft assigned to E / JG2, formed at the end of 1944 in Southern Germany.


The first combat flight on Ta.154 was carried out by sergeant-friend Gottfried Schneider on November 19, 1944. According to some reports, the English “Lancaster” became his prey, but then the Mosquito bombers accompanying him imposed a night duel on him, during which he chose to leave the battlefield. There is no clear evidence of a downed Lancaster.

In general, the German Anti-Mosquito could not become a competitor to Mosquito. Ta.154 simply could not catch up with the Mosquito bomber, nor flee from the Mosquito fighter. In fact, Ta.154 pilots could use only one method of dealing with British aircraft. Taking off at the signal, the Focke-Wulfs caught up with the British aircraft, approached from the bottom in the middle and launched an attack. At best, one.

Further, the Mosquito, guarded by the bombers, entered the battle, and the Fokke-Wulfam was no longer up to the bombers. Yes, excellent maneuverability saved, but not enough to neutralize the Mosquito and continue beating the bombers.

What was this airplane like?


Freestanding monoplane with an upper wing of a normal aerodynamic design with a single-tail vertical tail. The engines were located in wing nacelles.

The two-spar wing, of an all-wooden structure, one-piece, was a single unit. Mounting to the fuselage - with four bolts. In the nose of the wing between the nacelle and the fuselage housed cartridge boxes.

The fuselage is also wooden. The lining of the nose of the fuselage and hatches are metal panels, the rest of the lining of the fuselage is plasticized plywood. The cockpit was in the bow. The crew of two was housed in tandem, the radar operator sat facing forward. Crew protection was provided by 50 mm frontal, 30 mm side bulletproof glass, 12 mm armored plate on the first frame and 8 mm armored plates on the sides. The radar operator’s seat had an armored head. The cabin reservation weight is about 150 kg.

Chassis. The tricycle with the nose wheel has a hydraulic cleaning-release system. The telescopic front strut retracted back into the fuselage, while the wheel rotated 90 degrees and lay flat under the pilot's seat. The main struts of the lever circuit with a remote shock absorber retracted into the engine nacelles. The low height of the landing gear made it possible to serve the aircraft without ladders.

Power point. The Ta154 was equipped with piston 12-cylinder engines with direct injection of liquid-cooled fuel: Jumo211 F, N and R, as well as Jumo213A (had the same cylinder volume as Jumo-211 - 35 liters, but the compression ratio, boost and speed were increased ) The engines were equipped with two-speed superchargers.

Armament. Two 20-mm MG.151 / 20 cannons were mounted on the fuselage from above with 200 rounds of ammunition per barrel and two 30-mm MK.108 cannons were mounted under the MG.151 / 20. Ammunition MK.108 amounted to 110 shells per barrel. Cartridge boxes for MG151 / 20 were located in the wing, and for MK108 - in the fuselage. Aiming was carried out using a collimator sight Revi16B.

Ta.154 carried a very decent set of radio equipment:

- VHF radio station FuG.16ZY with radio compass unit ZVG16;
- FuG.25a friend-or-foe identification system with a range of up to 100 km for interaction with Wurzburg-type air defense radars;
- radio altimeter FuG.101a;
- blind landing equipment FuB12F;
- PeilG6 radio navigation system with APZ A-6 radio compass.

Types of radars used: FuG.212C-1, FuG.22OSN-2 or FuG.218 Neptun. FuG.350 Naxos Z receivers may have been installed on individual machines, picking up the signals emitted by the H2S British radar bomber sight.

LTX Ta.154a-1



Wingspan, m: 16,30.
Length, m: 12,55.
Height, m: 3,60.
Wing Area, m2: 31,40.

Weight, kg:
- normal take-off: 8;
- maximum take-off: 9 560.

Engine: 2 x Junkers Jumo 213E x 1750 hp
Maximum speed km / h:
- near the ground: 530;
- at height: 646.
Cruising speed, km / h: 520.

Practical range, km:
- with nominal fuel: 1;
- with 2x300 l additional tanks: 1 850.
Rate of climb, m / min: 750.
Practical ceiling, m: 10 900.
Crew, people: 2.
Armament:
- Two 20-mm MG 151 guns with 200 shells per barrel;
- Two 30 mm MK 108 guns with 110 rounds per barrel.

What can be said as a result? Despite the fact that the Ta.154 was very good in control, simple and balanced, showed very high combat maneuverability, it did not live up to expectations regarding speed. Which, in fact, sentenced him like a fighter.

But here the fault is not so much Kurt Tank and Fokke-Wulf, as the very situation in the Third Reich, in which anti-Mosquito was created. Plus already forgotten technologies for working with wood, which affected the production of the aircraft.

The intrigues that laced around the aircraft even at the very end of the war in the bowels of the Ministry of Aviation also played, if not a key, then quite a significant role in the fate of the aircraft.

If circumstances had turned out differently and fate would have been more favorable to this rather good aircraft, perhaps he could have contributed to the defense of the night sky of Germany. Especially at the final stage of the war.

But alas, complete strife in the aviation industry of Germany and frankly idiotic intrigues of Milch simply did not give Ta.154 a chance to prove themselves in battle.

However, this can be said of many German combat aircraft, the creation and deployment of which began in the second half of World War II.
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  1. Vladimir_2U 25 January 2020 06: 35 New
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    The device looks like an American, especially in the first photo, if it weren’t for “Kettenkrad” and a fragment of the “balken”, then wrestle with it, Lightning is a mess, or something like that.
    But alas, complete strife in the aviation industry of Germany and frankly idiotic intrigues of Milch simply did not give Ta.154 a chance to prove themselves in battle
    . Not alas, but very much the other way around.
    1. Lexus 25 January 2020 07: 02 New
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      The novel again "kicked below the waist." The Eagle Owl is good, but Ta.154 is even more visually quicker. "Mosquitoes" would have driven ... But that's another story. Nefig was the Germans to become fascists and climb the USSR. In this MAN, he quickly shut up the techie in me.
    2. iouris 25 January 2020 11: 50 New
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      Slightly, right away - Milch! This is europhobia.
  2. Pavel57 25 January 2020 09: 39 New
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    An interesting story, especially with the decision-making leapfrog in RLM.
  3. Ryaruav 25 January 2020 11: 15 New
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    if the Germans started mass production of push-pushing dornier everyone would not be very good
    1. NF68 25 January 2020 16: 38 New
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      Quote: Ryaruav
      if the Germans started mass production of push-pushing dornier everyone would not be very good


      The Germans produced too few engines suitable for the Do-335. DB-603 produced a total of 8758 units (excluding those produced in 1945 - this data was not preserved). Jumo-213 produced a total of 9163 units, and Jumo-222 a total of 289 in the form of several small series + prototypes.
  4. Oberleutnant 25 January 2020 13: 32 New
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    Interesting Facts. Thank.
  5. Engineer 25 January 2020 13: 41 New
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    Some kind of wrong goal setting in the Luftwaffe. From the wreckage of the mosquito, the Germans knew about balsa and had to understand that their pieces of wood would be a priori worse. Plus, the Germans also quickly identified the most important role of mosquitoes as “pathfinders”. Therefore, mosquitoes need to be counterbalanced with something high-tech. You can’t save on this. For example, He-219. And bring the TA-154 massively to replace the Me-110. Messerschmidt could focus purely on daytime fighters. It could satisfy everyone. Of course this is a retrospective conclusion, but still. On the other hand, by the fall of 1944, Germany had already lost the air war. It was too late to drink Borjomi.
  6. Kuroneko 25 January 2020 14: 37 New
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    In the course of the work, it turned out that not everything is as smooth as we would like. The tree was not always ready to withstand such stresses that were on the shoulder of the metal. And here the Germans made a small technological miracle: Ta.154 was the first aircraft in the power set of which were used elements from Lignofol L90 or Dynal Z5 plastics. These materials had a modulus of elasticity close to the tree and, as it turned out, were able to replace the tree in conjunction with metal.

    For some reason, the gloomy Aryan genius never thought of delta wood, although there were examples in the form of broken-up or captured LaGGs.
    1. Sandy 25 January 2020 17: 08 New
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      For some reason, the gloomy Aryan genius never thought of delta wood, although there were examples in the form of broken-up or captured LaGGs.
      - Who told you that you didn’t think of it? Before the war, the USSR purchased phenolic resins, including from the Germans.
      1. Aviator_ 25 January 2020 17: 36 New
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        Resin is a resin. And delta wood is a structural material. For some reason, the Germans decided to do without him. Probably, the delta wood still did not reach the level of balsa.
        1. Sandy 25 January 2020 19: 48 New
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          Replacing aluminum alloys with wood is not just about aluminum alone. The question is also in the press equipment required in the production. For the manufacture of delta wood, press equipment is also needed. Moreover, more power than for stamping aluminum ribs, for example. Yes, and the time required for holding the press of a delta-wood part under pressure is measured by the clock. So the point is not that the Germans did not know how to make delta wood, but that they had to make planes cheaply and, most importantly, quickly. Therefore, the delta wood remained out of work. And in terms of specific strength, delta wood is much stronger than wood.
        2. Dmitry V. 27 January 2020 16: 43 New
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          Quote: Aviator_
          Probably, the delta wood still did not reach the level of balsa.

          Of course not, it is familiar to modelers.
          Balsa is both lighter and stronger than impregnating ordinary wood with resins.
      2. Kuroneko 25 January 2020 17: 40 New
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        They could not repeat the process technology.
        1. Sandy 25 January 2020 19: 50 New
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          They could not repeat the process technology
          - rather, they considered it unprofitable in terms of production and time costs.
        2. Sandy 26 January 2020 18: 37 New
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          They could not repeat the process technology.

          Resin is a resin. And delta wood is a structural material. For some reason, the Germans decided to do without him.

          I quote Airwar (from where this article was rewritten almost one-on-one):
          "The fuselage. The oval cross-sectional wooden fuselage along the length of the cross section was made as a whole from the first frame to the axis of rotation of the rudder. The skin of the nose of the fuselage and hatches are metal panels, the rest of the skin of the fuselage - plasticized plywood"
          Now we look at what is "plasticized plywood" (http://www.allfanera.ru/articles/view/30.htm):
          "One of the most effective methods for increasing the technical properties of wood is plasticization based on its chemical and piezothermal (pressure and heating) processing.
          .
          Lignofol is a laminated wood plastic made from peeled veneer which is treated with formaldehyde resin. The processed veneer is folded into bags of a certain thickness, which are then pressed.
          .
          Depending on the method of veneer pretreatment, the quality of the resin and the method of packing, various types of lignophole are obtained with the names: delta wood, balanite, axlide, chipboard-10 (aviation delta wood), etc. "

          I would be careful not to say that the Ta-154 design dispensed with "delta wood," as it was called in the USSR.
        3. Dmitry V. 27 January 2020 17: 07 New
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          Quote: Kuroneko
          They could not repeat the process technology.


          There is nothing particularly complicated.
          Aviation delta wood (DSP-10) according to GOST 226-41 was obtained by hot pressing of birch veneer with a thickness of 0,5 (longitudinal layers) and 0,55 mm (transverse layers), impregnated with a water-alcohol solution of phenol- or creosol-formaldehyde resin of the SBS brands -1, SKS-1 and SKS-2. For sheet delta wood veneer thickness 0,35 ... 0,55 mm, depending on the thickness of the sheet being manufactured. After impregnation with resin and drying, the veneer was collected in packets, and every 10 sheets of veneer with a longitudinal direction of the fibers, one sheet was laid in the transverse direction. The thickness of the package is an average of 50 layers. The collected packages were laid between the plates of the hydraulic press and were pressed at a temperature of 140 ... 150 ° C and pressure up to 150 kg / cm² for about 3 hours (for a plate 18 ... 20 mm thick). At such temperature and pressure, the wood was compacted almost twice, and the resin was completely cured, which gave the resulting material completely different properties compared to ordinary wood. The finished product contained about 80% wood fiber


          Delta wood had a temporary tensile strength of 27 kg / mm²,
          in pine, this parameter was 11 kg / mm²,
          for heat-treated and aged duralumin D-1A - 37 kg / mm²
          duralumin D-16 - 43 kg / mm²


          delta wood - heavy material: specific strength 13, for comparison fiberglass - from 37 to m
  7. Gissar4537 25 January 2020 16: 34 New
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    I liked the article.
    1. rubin6286 25 January 2020 18: 57 New
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      Here, as promised:
      POST-WAR PERSONAL FIGHTERS

      When designing the first fighter jets, a number of Soviet aircraft designers chose the so-called edited layout of the engine. Characteristic for it is the placement of the engine in the lower part of the fuselage, while the output nozzle of the engine is at a certain angle to the longitudinal axis. The layout of the aircraft is extremely simplified and repeats the classic scheme of a single-engine piston aircraft of the past war. The position of the center of gravity and the center of mass of the machine almost coincide, which makes it statically stable and positively affects its controllability. Thus, “childhood diseases” arising from tests of a jet machine can be “cured” just as it was on piston machines and no special surprises should be observed. The aircraft can be put into operation in the shortest possible time and accepted for serial production, while the creation of the MiG-15 and La-15 had unexpected problems. For all the shortcomings identified, the reactive Yaks became better from model to model and liked by the pilots, all the more so to former front-line soldiers who considered the standard of the Yak-3 fighter.
      It soon became clear that, with all its simplicity, the edited circuit has a small potential for modernization and can be considered transitional when creating new, more high-speed and high-altitude machines. Yak-23, adopted for service in 1947-48 was the most advanced of the Jacob jet, but its design was already lagging behind the requirements of the time.

      German designers, scientists, engineers and technicians were delivered to the USSR as war trophies. Various German developments in the field of jet aircraft were worked out in detail and used by Soviet designers.

      Did German designers pay attention to the revised design? From the book “Secret Projects of the Luftwaffe Fighters”, Smolensk, Rusich, 2001, published in Russia, it is known that Blom and Foss designers with the BV P198 and Fokke-Wulf aircraft with the airplane were close to creating such structures Flitzer After the war, all the developments on the “Flitzer” came to the British and French, who launched the “Flitzer” into serial production under the name “Vampire” and “Venom”. I do not attach photos, but they can be found on the Internet or on any site of model stores. Messerschmitt in December 1944 created the P1101 fighter with a redesigned engine layout, swept wing, and although its creation "went full steam ahead", the aircraft did not have time to enter service and after the war the Americans flew over it. In silhouette, it resembles an MiG-15.
      1. Sandy 25 January 2020 19: 58 New
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        After the war, all the developments on the “Flitzer” came to the British and French, who launched the “Flitzer” into serial production under the name “Vampire” and “Venom”. I do not attach photos, but they can be found on the Internet or on any site of model stores.

        - The Vampire De Haviland DH.100 made its first flight in 1943, so the Flitzer is not. As well as the further development of "Vampire", "Venom". So either Schick and Meyer were mistaken, or you messed up something. hi
        1. rubin6286 26 January 2020 01: 50 New
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          Sasha! On this site, I answered a specific question asked earlier. Not the Germans. neither did I mess up. After the war, the victorious countries “ripped off” everything that was done better or could come in handy from the former adversary. The German “Flitzer” has flown quite successfully with a piston engine since 1942, ahead of the English prototype. After the war, the British, having acquired an airplane and a set of documentation for it, rearranged a number of structural elements, installed a turbojet engine and received, in fact, a different “Vampire”, and the French initially had to deal with the German design and their “Ven” to an even greater extent “Flitzer” It seems to me that if Flitzer were to get in the USSR, our first jet engines would probably be different .... We will not delve into this discussion, especially since the article is devoted to the Ta-154 aircraft.
      2. Saxahorse 25 January 2020 20: 21 New
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        And what is the relationship with the current article? Are you a graphomaniac or what? There is a good info so write an article, why litter in the comments?
        1. rubin6286 26 January 2020 01: 58 New
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          Saxahorse! Moderators write articles on this site, all the rest - comment. I was asked to tell and I answered. Could have kept silent and did not read what was written out of decency, if not interesting.
          1. Sandy 26 January 2020 15: 05 New
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            I was asked to tell
            - who and where?
            and I answered
            - delirium about the fact that "Vampire" is a "Flitzer"
            The German “Flitzer” has been flying quite successfully with a piston engine since 1942, ahead of the English prototype.
            - fantasy.
            (c): "Under specification Nr. 272, containing materials for a single-engine R-Gerät (Raketengerät) fighter with a rocket propulsion system in early draft dated February 1, 1944 years and later named "Flitzer", "
            Источник : https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/59b1405448c85e8437fb7a1c/proekt-istrebitelia-fockewulf-flitzer-germaniia-5df200caaad43600b2cc9b68
            After the war, the British, having acquired an airplane and a set of documentation for it, rearranged a number of structural elements, installed a turbojet engine and received, in fact, another "Vampire",
            - The British installed the turbojet engine in the Vampire back in 43rd:
            (c) "On September 20, 1943, the chief pilot √ to test the company Jeffrey de Havilland √ the youngest (the son of the founder and owner of the company) took the first prototype (number LZ548 / G) into the air from the Hatfield factory airfield. The aircraft was equipped with an engine Halford N. 1 thrust 1225 (according to other sources √ 1130) kg "
            Source: http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fighter/dh100.html
            а French people originally dealt with German design and their "Venom" even more so "Flitzer
            Venom has always been British. laughing
            We will not delve into this discussion, especially since the article is devoted to the Ta-154 aircraft.
            - Yes, no discussion. Just facts showing the level of what you write. hi
            1. rubin6286 27 January 2020 01: 01 New
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              Sasha, son! I am older than you in age and due to specialized education I have more and other information on some issues. This does not give me the right to call the opinion of other commentators frankly nonsense. Who asked me, he thanked me. Nothing prevents you from respecting someone else’s opinion .. still remaining at your place .. My advice to you is more. delve into the meaning of what you read, especially in foreign sources, and not just rewrite quotes from there. Simply put, turn on the brain. Sometimes "free translation" can distort the meaning of what is read. I don’t argue with anyone, I don’t prove anything to anyone and I don’t impose anything. If what you wrote is not a discussion, then in the manner of presentation it’s just outright rudeness.
              1. Sandy 27 January 2020 09: 46 New
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                Sasha, son! I'm older than you by age

                - Although we didn’t exchange passport data, for some reason I believe in your very advanced age and express sympathy. However, do not be imposed on me as a father. Sorry, I don’t need such a burden.
                due to specialized education, I have more and other information on some issues.

                - it remains to clarify what the profile is and to demonstrate “other” information on this profile for assessing competence. So far, neither the first nor the second.
                My advice to you, more. delve into the meaning of what you read, especially in foreign sources, and not just rewrite quotes from there. Simply put, turn on the brain. Sometimes "free translation" can distort the meaning of what is read.

                “It's nice that you are so self-critical. I looked at V. Schik and I. Meyer,“ Secret Projects of the Luftwaffe Fighters ”at their leisure, Smolensk, Rusich, 2001:


                And I didn’t find any confirmation of the following (and I didn’t find it in other sources either!):
                The German "Flitzer" flew since 1942 and quite successfully with a piston engine, ahead of the English prototype.
                .
                After the war, the Britishhaving got an airplane and a set of documentation for it, re-arranged a number of structural elements,set turbojet engine and received, in fact, another "Vampire"
                .
                а French people originally dealt with German design and their "Venom" even more so "Flitzer

                Well, at your age it’s excusable, many people have problems with memory and perception of information.
                1. rubin6286 27 January 2020 21: 19 New
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                  Alexander! I read what you wrote to me, especially since I have a book by Schick and Mayer. The Germans began work on the Flitzer project in July 1941 and then returned to it in December 1943. What happened to this aircraft for almost two years. Its design was worked out initially with piston engines, incl. and DB 803, (which is why I wrote earlier that he had successfully flown since 1942), but its advantages could be manifested using turbojet engines. The aircraft was supposed to surpass the Me-262 in speed, range, altitude and be cheaper to manufacture. This is described in more detail in the German monograph “The Focke-Wulf Flitzer Project” published on warfiles.ru. It is quite detailed. Pay attention to the sections of the description of the aircraft - this all fell into the hands of the British in 1945. They also had problems, and not only with the engine. The Aviation Collection series includes the book The Fighter of De Havilland, The Vampire, published on the website arsenal-info.ru The first Vampire entered service with the British Air Force in April 1946, almost a year after the end of the last war. In order to understand whether the German experience was used, and what exactly was copied, it is necessary to compare the structural elements of both machines. The book contains a large list of sources on this topic. Not with everyone, but I managed to get to know some of them in the original, while in Germany. Knowledge of the language and specialized education help in this.
                  As for the Vampire plane in France, it was produced there under an English license and was called not “Venom”, but “Mistral” (we can assume that I was mistaken), but the French had access to German materials. The Mistral served in the arsenal of the French Air Force until about 1955.

                  Otherwise, I’ll remind you again, despite the “advanced age” and “memory problems”, that colds and coughs in severe frosts, believe me - it’s not a problem, diarrhea in sclerosis is much worse ... you run away and don’t remember where.
                  You will delve deeper into the meaning of what you read, especially in foreign sources, and not just rewrite quotes from there. Simply put, turn on the brain. Sometimes “free translation” can distort the meaning of what you read.

                  And more: do not allow rudeness. This is not liked either in the army or in the "citizen".
                  1. Sandy 27 January 2020 22: 14 New
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                    Its design was worked out initially with piston engines, incl. and DB 803, (which is why I previously wrote that he successfully flew since 1942)
                    - fantasies, because BMW-803 engine (not DB !!!) did not leave the bench test stage even by 1945. so neither the Flitzer nor its prototype with planned BMW-803 did not rise into the air. neither in the 42nd, nor in the 44th, nor in the 45th. Or can you give a flight test report?
                    The first "Vampire" entered service with the FAC of Great Britain in April 1946, almost a year after the end of the last war.
                    - yes, but its development began according to specification E6 / 41, dated November 1941., first flight with turbojet engine he committed in 1943. When the "Flitzer" even in preliminary calculations did not exist.
                    In order to understand whether the German experience was used, and what exactly was copied, it is necessary to compare the structural elements of both machines.
                    - you need to compare. So compare, before claiming that the Vampire is Flitzer. And compare when similar elements appeared in the first drawings. And who is the first.
                    As for the Vampire aircraft in France, it was produced there under an English license and was called not “Venom”, but “Mistral” ( we can assume that I was wrong - nit’s necessary to assume that you are wrong in the fact that the Vampire, Venom, Mistral is Flitzer), but the French had access to German materials. The Mistral served in the arsenal of the French Air Force until about 1955.
                    “They may have access, but where is the evidence that Mistral, made under the English license, is the Flitzer?”
                    You will delve deeper into the meaning of what you read, especially in foreign sources, and not just rewrite quotes from there. Simply put, turn on the brain. Sometimes “free translation” can distort the meaning of what you read.
                    - Mutually and mirror.
                    You write this:
                    And more: do not allow rudeness. This is not liked either in the army or in the "citizen".

                    thereafter?:
                    Sashason!
                    .
                    Vasya! Who you said this
                    .
                    Vasya! If this is "Ash Stump" for you, then for others it’s sheer stupidity,

                    Before reading morality, you would filter your language, dear.
      3. Alf
        Alf 25 January 2020 22: 10 New
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        Well, the stump is clear, if not for the Germans, then the whole world would still fly on Spitfire, Mustangs and Yak-3.
        1. rubin6286 26 January 2020 02: 00 New
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          Vasya! Who told you about this and why is "Stump" clear to you?
          1. Alf
            Alf 26 January 2020 21: 42 New
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            Quote: rubin6286
            Vasya! Who told you about this and why is "Stump" clear to you?

            Victor, you’ll poke your wife. It’s just that until now all over the world all technical achievements are considered by the Germans. Like, if the Germans had not invented, then no one could.
            1. rubin6286 27 January 2020 00: 24 New
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              Vasya! If this is “Stump of Yasen” for you, then for others it is frank stupidity, unworthy of a decent person. Never write anything like this, keep it in yourself and for yourself.
      4. Gissar4537 26 January 2020 11: 13 New
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        Thanks Victor! My name is Vladimir. Nice to meet you! I also shoveled the materials that I have on the internet. In addition to the Yakovlev Design Bureau and the Lavochkin Design Bureau, I no longer found airplanes with a revised design. In terms of flying samples. Projects and experimental ones do not count.
        1. Sandy 27 January 2020 05: 55 New
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          Poorly searched. MiG-9, F-4 Phantom, Jaguar. This is so offhand.
          1. Gissar4537 27 January 2020 18: 49 New
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            I apologize ... yes, I lost sight of these cars .... sorry It's just that there are some doubts about the Jaguar and the Phantom. It seems that everything is correct, there is a redan ... but something still does not allow my reason to rank them among this early scheme. But it's just IMHO. Sorry again for distraction.
            1. Sandy 29 January 2020 09: 57 New
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              Redan is a ledge on the bottom. The revised scheme in aviation is the location of the nozzle under the fuselage with a ledge in front of the tail unit. It is used to reduce the length of the air intake and losses in it. The location of the cockpit, weapons and aircraft equipment relative to the engine is not specified
        2. Sandy 27 January 2020 06: 36 New
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          In addition to the Yakovlev Design Bureau and the Lavochkin Design Bureau, I no longer found airplanes with a revised design.
          - Let me ask you, which plane of the Lavochkin Design Bureau had a redannounced scheme?
          1. Sandy 27 January 2020 12: 09 New
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            In the sense of "Projects and" experimental, it doesn’t count. "
          2. Gissar4537 27 January 2020 18: 47 New
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            La-150, La-152, La-160, La-174. By the way, in VO there is an article -Lavochkin's reactive first-born, everything is there.
            1. Sandy 27 January 2020 22: 20 New
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              La-150, La-152, La-160, La-174.
              - since none of these aircraft passed state tests (by the way, they were never called “La” in any documents, but were designated “Airplane 150 (152,160,174)”, therefore they should be attributed more to experimental ones (which, in your words, - not count).
              1. Gissar4537 29 January 2020 19: 22 New
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                It’s useless to argue. Yes and why not. Just why in the literature they write not only the plane 150, etc. but also la?
              2. Gissar4537 29 January 2020 19: 44 New
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                Even in my comment there were flying or flying. With experimental, hurried. Sorry!
          3. Alf
            Alf 27 January 2020 20: 38 New
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            Quote: Sandy
            In addition to the Yakovlev Design Bureau and the Lavochkin Design Bureau, I no longer found airplanes with a revised design.
            - Let me ask you, which plane of the Lavochkin Design Bureau had a redannounced scheme?

            LA-150

            LA-160
            1. Sandy 27 January 2020 22: 21 New
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              They did not pass state tests. In fact, experimental machines.
              1. Alf
                Alf 27 January 2020 22: 39 New
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                Quote: Sandy
                They did not pass state tests. In fact, experimental machines.

                I do not argue. But there were. It’s just that Semyon Alekseevich faster than Yakovlev realized that the “redan” is a dead end.
                1. Sandy 28 January 2020 04: 53 New
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                  And I do not argue that they were. But colleague Gissar himself set a restriction - experimental does not count! And the dead end traveled to Phantom, Alpha Jet, Yak-38 and others.
  8. Kerensky 25 January 2020 22: 59 New
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    Judging by the photo, there was simply no review from it. Yes, and at night. Spotlight guessed to attach it?
  9. Corrie sanders 26 January 2020 02: 31 New
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    It was 626 km / h at an altitude of 6850 m. It was a good, but not an outstanding indicator.

    author, is this serious ??? belay this is the middle of 1943
    And nothing that not a single serial Soviet fighter even flew faster than 600 km / h by the end of the war? Well, yes, the extremely lightweight Yak-3 could squeeze something 630-650 for a short time, "at a measured mile", but after that it was most likely followed by a breakdown of the percale or overheating of the engine.
    Typhoons and Tempestes flew well for 600 in 1945, but at the same time they had a crazy engine with a crazy screw and a wild accident that P. Rychagov did not dream of with his "coffins"

    and so the article is good, +
    1. Sandy 26 January 2020 15: 12 New
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      author, is this serious ??? belay is in the middle of 1943
      And nothing not even a serial Soviet fighter flew faster than 600 km \ h even by the end of the war? Well, yes, the extremely lightweight Yak-3 could squeeze something 630-650 for a short time, "at a measured mile", but after that it was most likely followed by a breakdown of the percale or overheating of the engine.

      (c) "First departure And-220 No.01 with AM-39 Held on May 25, 1943., and in July, after debugging the VMG, they began to determine the main flight characteristics with a new engine. On tests, the I-220 with AM-39 reached speeds in combat mode 614 km / h at an altitude of 2700 m (first altitude limit) and 697 km / h at 7800 m (second limit of altitude). Aircraft gained altitude of 5000 m in 4,5 minutes, and 8000 m in 8,2 minutes. "
      Source: http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/i220.html
      But yes, not serial
      Serial La-5FN, - The maximum speed at the second border of the altitude (5800 m) reached 610 km / h,
      The serial MiG-3 is still in the 41st, - The maximum horizontal speed of the serial MiG-3 aircraft, obtained at an altitude of 7800 m amounted to 640 km / hthat almost corresponded to the speed of the experimental I-200 (636 km / h).
      About the percale on the Yak-3, is power!
      (c): “The design of the fighter was simple and rational. The base of the fuselage was a steel tubular truss. In order to reduce the weight, the truss of the fuselage was completely integral with the motor. 1 and Yak-7. In the bow, the fuselage skin was made up of easily removable duralumin hoods, the tail was covered with plywood. The Yak-9 wing is an integral two-winged wing. The wing profile is --standard Yakovlevsky ’Clark YH with a relative thickness of 3% at the root and 14% at the end of the wing For comparison, YaK-7, Yak-1, Yak-7-9% at the root and 15% at the end. The wing had a metal frame-spars, ribs and plywood sheathing. Like Yak-8, sheathing was glued to special plywood linings, riveted to the metal frame. "
      Source: http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/yak3.html
    2. Alf
      Alf 26 January 2020 21: 47 New
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      Serial LA-7 650-660.
      Serial Yak-3 with M-105 646.
      Serial Yak-9U with M-107 672.
      Quote: Corrie Sanders
      Well, yes, the extremely lightweight Yak-3 could squeeze something 630-650 for a short time, "at a measured mile", but after that it was most likely followed by a breakdown of the percale or overheating of the engine.

      This is about the Yak-3 with the M-107, and no breakdown of percale due to lack of it did not happen, but dvigun was written off.