The Northern War: the situation of prisoners in Sweden and Russia


In previous articles ("Poltava accident of the army of Charles XII" и "The surrender of the Swedish army at Perevolochnaya") was told about the events of 1709, the Battle of Poltava and the surrender of the Swedish army at Perevolnaya, the result of which was the capture of about 23 thousand "carolins". They were not the first Swedish prisoners of war of the Northern War. The Swedes themselves believed that by 1706, 3300 soldiers and officers were already in Russian captivity. They did not take into account people of other nationalities, meanwhile, only after the victory of Sheremetev at Gummelsgof (1702) several thousand Livlans (with non-combatants) were captured.


The situation of prisoners of war in Russia and Sweden


Both Russian and Swedish historians sometimes write about the "unbearable conditions" in which prisoners of war of their countries were held. And those, and others, of course, rely on some kind of documents.

In Stockholm, for example, it was only in 1707 that two works were published denouncing the "cruelty of the Russians." The first of these was “A truthful account of the non-Christian and cruel treatment of Muscovites in relation to captured high and junior officers, servants and subjects of His Majesty the King of Sweden, as well as their wives and children.” The second - “An excerpt from a letter sent from Shtenau on July 20, 1707, about the terrifying acts of Muscovite Kalmyks and Cossacks.”

On the other hand, F. Golitsyn, who conducted unsuccessful negotiations on the exchange of prisoners, wrote to A. Matveev in November 1703:

“The Swedes keep these generals and Polonians of ours in Stekgolm, like animals, locked up, and starve that they can’t freely send theirs to them, and many of them have truly died.”

After the Battle of Poltava, Charles XII, knowing that there were many captured Swedes in Russia, wrote to the Riksdag from Bender:

"Russian prisoners should be kept strictly in Sweden and not enjoy any freedom."

He did not even think about the fact that the Russian authorities could take retaliatory measures.

The incident that occurred at the famous feast of Peter the Great on the day of the Poltava battle is indicative. Having drunk for the "teachers", the tsar promised them that they would treat the Swedish prisoners "with dignity." And then Ludwig von Allart (Hallart), who himself fell into Swedish captivity after Narva, could not stand it: he suddenly attacked the Swedes with reproaches for the ill-treatment of Russian prisoners of war in Stockholm, including himself. This is how the person “got sick”: the tsar had to reassure him, and Menshikov apologized for him. And Hallart is not a corporal or even a captain, but a lieutenant general, and not a “Moscow barbarian”, but a real “European”: a Scottish nobleman who began his service in the Saxon army, as they say, his own on the board. Even if he drank grief from the Swedes, one can imagine the conditions in which ordinary Russian soldiers and even officers were kept.

The Northern War: the situation of prisoners in Sweden and Russia
Ludwig Nikolaus von Allart. In the Battle of Narva, he took part as a “foreign specialist”, still being a Saxon general. Until 1705 he was held captive in Sweden, was exchanged for General Arvid Gorn (he also had to pay 4 thousand thalers). In 1706, after the abdication of Augustus of Saxony the Strong from the Polish throne, he joined the Russian army. He was at enmity with Menshikov, because of the intrigues of which he twice resigned

In Sweden, despite the agreement on mutual financing of “feed money” concluded in 1709, Russian prisoners often simply went hungry. This was explained, among other things, by the difficult economic situation of this country, in which at that time most of its own citizens did not eat enough. But this fact cannot serve as an apology, because Russia transferred the money to support its prisoners in full and without delay, and the allocated amounts increased from year to year. For example, in 1709, 9796 rubles were transferred 16 money, in 1710 - 11317 rubles, 23 altyn 2 money, in 1713 - 13338 rubles, in 1714 - 13625 rubles 15 altyn 2 money.

Despite the timely receipt of this money by the Swedish treasury, in 1714, 1715, 1717 and 1718 the “salary” to Russian prisoners was paid incomplete, and some of them did not wait at all.

After returning from captivity, Captenarmus Verigin claimed that he had not received any funds from the Swedes for nine years, Sergeant Malyshev from 1713 to 1721. He received payments only three times: in 1713, 1716, 1719.

But the Swedish authorities did not regularly allocate money for the maintenance of their prisoners of war, which could not but affect their well-being. In full, funds were allocated only for three years - in 1712, 1714, 1715. And in 1716 and 1717 this money was not received from the Swedish treasury at all. As a result, Corporal Brour Rolamb over the years spent in captivity (1709-1721), received from his state 374 thalers instead of 960. The captain Karl Tol, who was captured by Perevolnaya, received 179 thalers 18 era instead of 1000 thalers. Thus, the dependence of the captured Swedes on the content allocated by the Russian treasury was extraordinary, and, in the event of any delay, their position at all became critical. But some found a way out of this situation, having engaged in entrepreneurial activity or the organization of some services (this will be discussed below).

Nevertheless, it is worth recognizing that the position of Swedish prisoners of war in Russia was perhaps less difficult.

So, a very important privilege for them was the permission of correspondence with relatives.


"Letter home." Goransson, illustration from Oberg and Joransson’s book “Caroliner”

And already on October 24 (November 4), 1709, Peter I issued a decree according to which seriously wounded prisoners of war at state expense were to be sent to their homeland. In addition, the wives and children of Swedish prisoners of war were allowed to return home, but only a few took advantage of this opportunity. In 1711, 800 prisoners were sent to Tobolsk, but more than a thousand people arrived in the capital of the Siberian province: the spouses of the officers went with them, anticipating the fate of the Decembrists.

The letter from the Swedish admiral Ankershtern to his “colleague”, the Russian vice admiral Cornelius Krujs, in which he thanked him for his good treatment of the prisoners, is known. And even in the English magazine "The Tatler" ("Chatterbox") admitted that "His Royal Majesty treats his prisoners with exquisite courtesy and reverence" (August 23, 1709).

Much depended on the official status of a prisoner of war, among which, by the way, were not only Swedes, but also Finns, Germans, residents of the Ostseen provinces. And among the captured Swedish sailors fleet also met the British, Dutch and Danes.

Categories of Swedish prisoners in Russia


At that time, prisoners in Russia were divided into three categories: those who lived “on different grounds with private individuals”, who were assigned to state institutions and the army, and who received passports (who enjoyed limited freedom and lived their own labor).

And living conditions were different for everyone. It is impossible to compare the position of the prisoners who participated in the construction of the bastion at the Nagolnaya Tower and the Sretensky Gate of the Moscow Kremlin and Marta Skavronskaya, who began her “court career” as a concubine of the Russian field marshal, continued her metress with the “half-armed” favorite, and ended her life by the Russian empress. The life of the Swedes working on the construction of the Nevsky Prospect (Nevsky Prospect) and the Peter and Paul Fortress, and a certain Schroeder, who planned and arranged the Mikhailovsky Garden in St. Petersburg, was very different.


"Swedish prisoners at the construction of St. Petersburg." Drawing by the Swedish prisoner of war Karl Frederic Coyet, 1722


St. Petersburg, Mikhailovsky Garden, photographs of the early twentieth century


St. Petersburg, Mikhailovsky Garden, modern photo

The position of the captured officers, of course, was much easier. Just in 1709, the above-mentioned agreement was concluded, according to which the “feed money” allocated to captured officers in Russia and Sweden was equalized (before that, money for their maintenance was transferred irregularly). However, even after the signing of this treaty, Charles XII ordered that only half of the official salary of captured officers be transferred to Russia: the other half was received by his “understudy” - a man who replaced the prisoner with his posts.

As a “day feed” to prisoner lieutenant colonels, majors and provisionmasters in Russia they paid 9 money a day, to captains and lieutenants - 5, non-commissioned officers - 3; orderlies and other lower ranks - 2 dengi (1 kopeck).

The most striking thing is that the families of the Swedish officers were allowed to come to them, in this case they also took on maintenance: wives and children over 10 years old received half the “salary” of this officer, children under 10 years old - 2 kopecks per day.

Is it a lot or a little? Judge for yourself: for half a penny (dengu) you could buy 20 eggs, a ram cost 7-8 cents.

Senior officers were on a special account. So, after Poltava and Perevolochnaya, they were initially distributed among the Russian military leaders. Levengaupt, for example, was determined to stand by the already mentioned General Ludwig von Allart. And Field Marshal Ronschild and the generals Kreutz and Kruse took over B. Sheremetev.

Subsequently, high-ranking prisoners received maintenance in accordance with their ranks and did not feel any special need.

Rear Admiral N. Erenshedd, who was captured after the Gangut battle, received from the Russian treasury the contents corresponding to the salary of the Russian vice admiral (2160 rubles a year), and even products from the royal table, but at the same time complained about a lack of funds and even borrowed 100 rubles from Menshikov. At the end of December 1717, he was convicted of espionage and sent to Moscow. The salary of the Russian vice admiral was kept for him, but they refused the tsar’s table, which made Erenschold quite indignant. Returning to Sweden in February 1722, he nevertheless thanked Peter I in writing for "the mercy and goodness that your royal majesty showed me when I was in captivity."


Rear Admiral Nils Ehrenschiöld

But in 1707, captive Swedish sailors held in Dorpat were given 7 pounds of fresh meat per person, 3 pounds of cow butter, 7 herring, “yes bread against Salda dachas” per person per week.

Prisoners engaged in construction work in St. Petersburg received a "bread salary" along with the Russian lower ranks: two quads of rye flour, a small quartet of cereals per person per month, and fodder money at 2 deng per person per day.


St. Petersburg in the drawing of the Swedish prisoner of war P. Betun, circa 1715

Of course, sometimes there were delays in the maintenance of money, noncomplete commanders and quartermasters could also arbitrarily cut back their "bread salary" or deliver low-quality products, but Russian soldiers and sailors were not immune from such abuses. A. V. Suvorov said that “after any 5 years of service, any quartermaster can be hanged without any trial.” And Catherine II, alluding to the “convenient opportunities” provided by her official position, answered once to the President of the military college, interceding for a poor officer:

"If he is poor - it is his fault, he commanded a regiment for a long time."

As you can see, the theft by the subordinates was considered by the “mother-empress” to be ordinary and perfectly acceptable.

Swedish captives of "private individuals"


The situation of prisoners who found themselves “on different grounds with private individuals” also varied greatly. Some officers were fortunate enough to find teachers and tutors in Russian noble families. Some educated Swede was a teacher of the children of the boyar F. Golovin (Admiral General and Field Marshal). And Jacob Bruce later hinted that the stately fair-haired “Vikings”, in addition to studying with children, sometimes provided some other services to their mothers, who rarely saw their husbands officers or widows.

A certain captain Noreen, taken by the tutor of the sons of one of the Galich landowners, after the death of the head of the family, became the managing director of the estate and the guardian of orphans. He performed his duties exclusively honestly and with great benefit for the guardians, who loved him as a father and were very sad when, after the conclusion of peace, this captain left for Sweden.

One of the Swedes got a job as a servant to secret adviser A.I. Osterman (future vice chancellor and first cabinet minister). The senator J.F. Dolgoruky Swedes served as coachmen. In addition, Swedes were willingly hired by foreign merchants as servants.

Ordinary soldiers who came into families as simple servants, or were handed to them for lack of servitude, often fell into dependence on their masters, who soon began to treat them as serfs, and did not even want to let them go home after the conclusion of the Nystadt peace, which guaranteed the prisoners "release without any ransom. ”

Swedish prisoners in Russian service


Now let's talk about the "Carolina" who entered the Russian service: there were from 6 to 8 thousand of them.

Those of them who agreed to serve in the Russian army did not experience any discrimination and received a salary on a par with Russian colleagues.

According to Danish Ambassador Yu. Yuel, after the surrender of Riga, about 800 soldiers and officers signed up for Russian service. Among them were one major general (Ernst Albedul), one colonel, five lieutenant colonels, 19 majors, one commissar, 37 captains, 14 lieutenants, two ensigns, ten assessors. 110 Livonian noblemen and 77 civilian commanders also entered the Russian public service.

After the capture of Vyborg, more than 400 soldiers and officers joined the Russian army. Some soldiers of the army of Charles XII were part of the Yaitsky Cossack army and even took part in the unsuccessful Khiva campaign of Prince Bekovich-Bulatov (1714-1717).

Immediately after the Battle of Poltava (in early July 1709), some Swedish gunners agreed to go to the Russian side: at first 84, a little later - another 25. They were received literally with open arms, and some made a good career. Those of the gunners who did not want to serve in the Russian army were sent to work in the cannon yard. Six highly skilled craftsmen were sent to Armory the ward, where they were engaged in the repair of captured weapons and muskets.

"Government work"


Among the prisoners, "assigned to state institutions and the army," about 3000 were assigned to the "army and its needs," another 1000 to the fleet.

Quite a lot of prisoners of war were employed in construction work in various Russian cities. A large number of them worked in the Ural factories in Alapaevsk, Perm, Nevyansk, Solikamsk, Uzany, and some other cities. It is known that at the disposal of the Demidovs and the Stroganovs, three thousand people were sent who were “in charge of the craft” - 1500 of each “last name”. More than 2500 prisoners were assigned to weapons factories. It was difficult to call their position easy, a lot depended on the immediate bosses, because "God is high, the king is far away", and the clerk of Nikita Demidov is right there.

Among the prisoners, those who had at least some idea of ​​ore mining and metallurgy were especially valued. “To the commander of the Ural and Siberian plants” V.N. Tatishchev was very lucky with a certain Shenstrom - the owner of his own ironworks in Sweden: he became an adviser and closest employee of a Russian official, and rendered him great help in organizing the metallurgical industry.


V.N. Tatishchev. Portrait of an unknown artist in the first half of the XNUMXth century

The Swedes who entered the state or military service, but remained Lutherans, were still considered foreigners. They could significantly facilitate further career advancement by adopting Orthodoxy and becoming Russian subjects, but in this case they lost the opportunity to return to their homeland.

“Swedish prisoners who have art in ore matters and in trading, and wish to go to the service of the sovereign” were eventually allowed to marry Russian girls without conversion to Orthodoxy (“Message from the Holy Synod to the Orthodox on unhindered marriage with non-Gentiles”). But their wives were forbidden to go into Lutheranism, and children from such marriages were required to become Orthodox. It was also forbidden to export wives and children to Sweden (Germany, Finland).

Swedes in Siberia and Tobolsk


The Siberian Governor General M.P. Gagarin was sympathetic to the captured Swedes.


A road leaf issued in 1717 by the Siberian governor M. Gagarin to the Swedish captive lieutenant Yuri Tyrol, who was released from Tobolsk to deliver honey, church wine, wax, sugar, wood oil and cloth to Yakutsk

The Tobolsk colony of Swedes (in which there was one drabant Charles XII and thirteen captains, many junior officers) was the most organized and prosperous in Russia. This city was the only one where the Swedes built their own Lutheran church (in other cities they rented premises for worship). A certain pastor Laurs made a city clock in Tobolsk. In his notes on Russia, the Hanoverian envoy Friedrich Christian Weber reports on a lieutenant from Bremen who, “having lost his health in the frosty winter near Poltava and not knowing any craft, started a puppet comedy in Tobolsk, which flocks a lot of citizens who have never seen anything like it” . To the regimental doctor, Yakov Schulz, even from Tyumen and other Siberian cities came to see Tobolsk. Kurt Friedrich von Wrech opened a school in Tobolsk, in which both Russian and foreign students (adults and children) studied.


Tobolsk in 1710, engraving

In Tobolsk, Swedish prisoners of war, led by Jagan, built the famous Rentery (treasury, the author of the project is S. Remezov), also known as the "Swedish chamber".


Tobolsk Kremlin, view of Renterea

In 1714, Gagarin sent a group of prisoners of war to Okhotsk, where, having built ships, they were able to organize communication with Kamchatka via the waterway.

Cornet Lorenz Lang, who entered the Russian service (in the engineering corps) with the rank of lieutenant, went to China on official business 6 times and rose to the rank of vice-governor of Irkutsk. In this city, he founded the Naval School.

Captain Stralenberg was in Tobolsk from 1719-1724. took part in the Siberian expedition of Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt.


Philip Johann von Stralenberg

He was the first to put forward the assumption about the Ugric origin of the Bashkirs, wrote the book “Historical and Geographical Description of the Northern and Eastern Parts of Europe and Asia” and compiled a map of Russia and the Great Tatarstan.


Map of Eastern Siberia compiled by Stralenberg. Paris. 1725 year

M.P. Gagarin is the only one in Russia who dared to arm part of the captured Swedes, whom he enlisted in a special detachment, subordinated only to him alone. He also ignored the order banning stone construction issued in 1714.


M.P. Gagarin

As a result, Gagarin was accused not only of bribery and embezzlement, but also of trying to separate Siberia from Russia. Two Swedish prisoners turned out to be so close to him that after the arrest of the omnipotent Siberian governor they went to jail - like his accomplices and accomplices (Gagarin himself was hanged in March 1721 under the windows of the justice collegium, and he was not forbidden to remove his corpse from the loop Seven months).


A romanticized portrait of M. P. Gagarin on a memorial plaque in Tobolsk: at least “bribe taker and embezzler”, but “your own”!

Swedish specialists "on a password"


Now let's talk a little about those prisoners who enjoyed limited freedom and lived their labor.

Some soldiers who possessed a “scarce” specialty were “on a password” (that is, released on parole) and lived freely in cities, practicing crafts, with the only restriction not to leave them for more than two or three versts without permission from the authorities. They made glasses, wigs and powder, carved snuffboxes and chess from wood and bone, jewelry, clothes and shoes.

I must say that many of the Swedish officers who were in Russian captivity also did not sit idle and succeeded in business.

For example, captain Georg Mullien was engaged in jewelry and painting, captain Friedrich Lyxton was engaged in the production of leather wallets, Cornet Bartold Ennes organized a wallpaper artel, captain Mule - a tobacco artel, Lieutenant Raport was engaged in brick production, captain Svenson - manufacture of wicks, which he bought from him. Russian treasury.

Peter Vilkin, who was the treasurer of Count Apraksin and the clerk of the English merchant Samuel Garzin, eventually took the “treasury” from the treasury and became the owner of a whole network of “free houses” (establishments where you could have “cultural rest” with a pipe and a glass of wine) in Moscow and Petersburg.

Playing cards and children's toys made by captured Swedes were in great demand in Russia.

It is curious that after the prisoners returned from Russia to Sweden, based on their stories, certain conclusions were made and future military officers were also taught certain “peaceful” specialties in military schools - so that, if captured, they would not depend on the grace of the enemy and could feed themselves.

Feldt Commissariat of Rönschild and Pieper


In Russian captivity, the ancient enemies of Rönschild and Piper reconciled and joined forces to help the Swedish prisoners, making a list of places of their resettlement. It turned out, for example, that soldiers and officers of various armies of Charles XII ended up in 75 settlements in various provinces of Russia.

Gradually, Rönschild and Pieper began to play the role of intermediaries between the State Council and the Swedish State Office and the Russian authorities. Trying to achieve justice, they sometimes reached Peter I, and the tsar often took their side, but of course he could not consider all cases of abuses of local officials.

Piper, being a very wealthy man, opened an account in the Hamburg office to help prisoners of war, where he contributed 24 thousand thalers from his own funds, and his wife in Sweden received a state loan and was able to bring this amount to 62 302 thalers.


Karl Pieper

Rönschild in Moscow held an open table for the needy Swedish officers and gave them lectures on strategy and tactics.


Karl Gustav Rönschild, lithograph by Axel Jacob Salmson

The care of Ronschild and Pieper about captured compatriots once led to their arrest: they vouched for four colonels who were released to Sweden, giving their word of honor to return after completing the necessary cases, but chose to stay at home.

After Pieper’s death and the departure of Rönschild, the field commissariat was led in turn by generals Levengaupt and Kreutz.

The fate of Swedish prisoners in Russia


The fates of the high-ranking captives of Peter I developed in different ways.

Cavalry Major General Volmar Anton Schlippenbach in 1712 accepted the offer to enter the Russian service: he began as Major General, rose to the rank of Lieutenant General, member of the Military Collegium and the Supreme Court.

Field Marshal Karl Gustav Rönschild in 1718 was exchanged for General A.M. Golovin, who was captured under Narva, in the Northern War he still managed to fight in Norway.

Infantry General Count Adam Ludwig Levengaupt died in Russia in 1719, was buried with military honors at the German cemetery in Lefortovo, in 1722 his remains were reburied in Sweden.

He died in Russia (in Shlisselburg) and the head of the field office of Charles XII Pieper - in 1716. Two years later, his body was reburied in Sweden.

Maximilian Emanuel, Duke of Württemberg-Vinental, Colonel and commander of the Skonsky Dragoon Regiment, close friend and ally of Charles XII, from 14 years old, who has always been close to him (not for nothing he was called the "Little Prince"), was released to his homeland, but fell ill in ways and died at the age of 20 years - September 25, 1709.


Maximilian Emanuel von Württemberg-Winnental (1689–1709)

Six more Swedish generals were released after the conclusion of the Nystadt Peace in 1721.

Major General Carl Gustav Roos died in 1722 on his way home in the city of Obo (Abo).

The fate of the others turned out to be much more prosperous. Two of them rose to the rank of Field Marshal: these were Major General Berndt Otto Stackelberg, who later commanded the Swedish troops in Finland and received the title of Baron, and Major General Hugo Johan Hamilton.


Berndt Otto Stackelberg


Hugo Johan Hamilton

Two more resigned as generals from the cavalry: Major General Karl Gustav Kruse (whose only son died in the Battle of Poltava) and Karl Gustaf Kreutz.

Quartermaster General Axel Gyllencrock after returning to his homeland received the rank of lieutenant general and the appointment of commandant of Gothenburg and the land of Bohus, and later the title of baron.

After the start of peace negotiations with Sweden (even before the official signing of the Nistadt Treaty), all Swedish prisoners were released, those who expressed a desire to stay in Russia were given a mortgage loan, the rest later received assistance in returning to their homeland.

Of the 23 thousand people captured at Poltava and Perevolnaya, about 4 thousand soldiers and officers returned to Sweden (different authors call the figure from 3500 to 5000). No need to think that everyone else died in Russian captivity. Some of them simply were not Swedes and left for other countries. Many remained in Russia forever, enrolling in public service. Others started families and did not dare to part with their wives and children. Of the thousands of Swedes stationed in Tobolsk, 400 people wanted to stay in this city.

In the next article we will talk about the end of the Northern War.
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  1. GKS 2111 26 January 2020 06: 05 New
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    “The Swedes keep these generals and Polonians of ours in Stekgolm, like animals, locked up, and starve that they can’t freely send theirs to them, and many of them have truly died.”
    Why be surprised? This is at their genetic level. Academician E.V. Tarle wrote: "In the battle of Fraustadt, the Swedes discovered an incomprehensible, truly brutal cruelty about the Russians precisely ... The Swedish army captured all those who were not killed and did not manage to escape. Everyone except the Russians!"
    Thanks for the series of articles, I look forward to continuing!
    1. Vladimir_2U 26 January 2020 08: 15 New
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      Few things are changing in relation to Russia in Europe.
      But I’m not going to make a joke about a sad joke-anachronism:
      In 1714, Gagarin sent a group of prisoners of war to Okhotsk
      it is possible that with the words: "Let's go!))
      1. Machito 31 January 2020 17: 30 New
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        He said: “Let's go !!!”, and washed down with water. laughing
  2. Far B 26 January 2020 06: 11 New
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    No, well fuck. This, that is, like this, Peter didn’t have enough money for guns, that he tore the gilding from churches ??? And to feed the Swedish "generals" in three sips - was there enough money? All the same, the sovereign sovereign had some unhealthy admiration for all the Westerners. Even during the war with the West. “Let's drink for our teachers!”, Yeah. Ambiguous person, yes.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 January 2020 07: 10 New
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      I repeat after Valery (Author).
      .
      A romanticized portrait of M. P. Gagarin on a memorial plaque in Tobolsk: at least “bribe taker and embezzler”, but “your own”!

      Peter I “ghoul”, “antichrist”, etc. etc., but ours! However, the legacy of the humane attitude of contemporaries of Peter and him personally, in no way related to European values, but rather the Asian (Tatar trace) of our history! The Moscow sovereigns, starting with Vasily the Dark, did not shun prisoners from making prisoners! An example is the Kasimov Khanate, which was ruled by the Tatar beks under Boris Godunov and led by the Kazakh sultan. The rest also did not deprive the villages. God grant me a memory, the same Shamil, ended his life in Kaluga, and not in a cage or on stand. Pragmatic simplicity had its result. The Swedes helped to squeeze the metallurgy of the Stone Belt, discover Siberia, pacify the Nogais! However, like the captured Siberian khans walked near the hand of the Russian tsars near Narva and Riga!
      The same V. Tatishchev, in a letter to Peter from the hand of De Gennin (a Scot by birth) was referred to as the “Kalmyk face”! And how many of these did Mother Mother Russia shelter and feed? Offhand: Karamzin, Yusupovs, Barclay de tolly, Bagration, Osterman, Beginson, Ganibal! Without the last, there was no our Pushkin! But the Scot Lermont, who remained in Russia after the turmoil. Our ancestor - M. Lermontov !!!
      Conclusion, not Peter is ambiguous, but the whole system of the Russian state from the 14th to the 20th century inclusive! I even find it difficult to define all this in one word, I can be mistaken, let there be "generosity" !!!
      Regards, Your Kote!
      Ps. Thank you Valery !!!
      1. VLR
        VLR 26 January 2020 07: 32 New
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        Yes. I agree. By the way, all the troubles of present-day Ukraine are that its rulers cannot realize that it is a large fragment of the Russian Empire, different people live in different regions, representing different ethnic groups and sub-ethnic groups, carriers of different cultures. But the Zapadents who came to power break society through the knee, demanding that everyone become mankurts, “Great Ukrainians,” who do not want to obey them, declare people of the 2nd and 3rd grades. If they did not like the Russian experience, they could use the experience of Switzerland or Canada. But - they do not want, rejecting the Russian path and declaring a "European choice", they are on the third, completely different and very dangerous side. The result is an extremely disappointing society, the most educated and hardworking people from Ukraine are fleeing - some to the EU, some to Canada, some to Russia (who is closer), some even whole regions. The war began in the east. And to people of other nationalities and other languages ​​every year it becomes more and more uncomfortable in this country.
        1. Undecim 26 January 2020 22: 32 New
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          Probably only from Ukraine returned?
      2. Olgovich 26 January 2020 08: 01 New
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        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        the same Shamil ended his life in Kaluga, and not in the cage and not on the rack.

        Not so: he died in Medina, after performing the hajj in Mecca, where he went to .... permission of the emperor Alexandra from Kiev. Here is such a respectful attitude to the worst enemy!
        Recall that Jamaluddin, the son of Shamil, honestly and sincerely served as a lieutenant for the good of Russia
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        The Swedes helped to squeeze the metallurgy of the Stone Belt, discover Siberia, pacify the Nogais! However, like the captured Siberian khans walked near the hand of the Russian tsars near Narva and Riga!
        The same V. Tatishchev, in a letter to Peter from the hand of De Gennin (a Scot by birth) was referred to as the “Kalmyk face”! And how many of these did Mother Mother Russia shelter and feed? Offhand: Karamzin, Yusupovs, Barclay de tolly, Bagration, Osterman, Beginson, Ganibal! Without the last, our Pushkin wasn’t! But the Scot Lermont, who remained in Russia after the turmoil. Our ancestor - M. Lermontov !!!
        Conclusion, not Peter is ambiguous, but the whole system of the Russian state from the 14th to the 20th century inclusive! I even find it difficult to define all this in one word, I can be wrong, empty there will be "magnanimity" !!!
        I completely agree: Russia is an amazing and generous country, which has become a new homeland even for former enemies. She received everyone, welcomed everyone: remember that most of the Great Army simply disappeared into the vast expanses of our country.

        Thanks to the author for an interesting and rare perspective on the coverage of the war: rarely does anyone write about the fate of prisoners, although wars do not end in battles ...
        1. VLR
          VLR 26 January 2020 08: 25 New
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          Look at:
          Shamil’s house in Kaluga and a sofa in this house.






          Shamil’s fourth son was promoted to major general of the Russian army, his two daughters from their last marriage were in turn the wives of Dakhadayev. in whose honor Makhachkala is named.
          Shamil's youngest son was born in Kaluga, but lived in Arabia and Turkey.
          And the second son managed to fight the Russians in the Caucasus, also lived in Kaluga, after the death of his father in Medina, he received permission to go abroad for a funeral, remained in the Ottoman Empire, where he rose to the rank of marshal.
          1. Olgovich 26 January 2020 09: 05 New
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            Quote: VlR
            Look at:
            Shamil's house Kaluga .

            I was there.
            Quote: VlR
            Shamil’s fourth son was promoted to major general of the Russian army, his two daughters from their last marriage were in turn the wives of Dakhadayev. in whose honor Makhachkala is named.
            Shamil's youngest son was born in Kaluga, but lived in Arabia and Turkey.
            And the second son managed to fight the Russians in the Caucasus, also lived in Kaluga, after the death of his father in Medina, he received permission to go abroad for a funeral, remained in the Ottoman Empire, where he rose to the rank of marshal.

            This is common knowledge.
          2. Pane Kohanku 26 January 2020 16: 49 New
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            The fourth son of Shamil

            To be honest, colleagues, most of all I feel sorry for the eldest son of Shamil - Jamaluddin. This young man could bring a lot of good to everyone - both Russians and highlanders. According to the recall of associate Shamil Gadzhi-Ali Chokhsky, Jamaluddin was “the smartest and most educated person” and wanted to use his knowledge to the benefit of the people. But ... talents are not always needed on time! sad
            A. V. Suvorov said that "after any 5 years of service, any quartermaster can be hanged without any trial."

            A historical joke - somehow the sovereign Nikolai Pavlovich, along with the heir Alexander looked through the summary of the costs of the Crimean War. The king read the statements, and suddenly exclaimed: "Sasha! It seems that in all of Russia only you and I do not steal!" Is it indicative? drinks
            The fate of the Swedes in the Ural factories is well shown in the film "Demidov", where Vadim Spiridonov played his best role with long psychological monologues. soldier
            Valery - I bow! good
    2. Kleber 26 January 2020 09: 57 New
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      He did not strip the gilding from the churches; he removed the bronze bells from the bell towers and poured them into cannons.
    3. Catfish 26 January 2020 12: 04 New
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      Dmitriy hi probably you should not judge people of that time from the position of the current morality, especially since it is different for everyone, while others and others have no morality. At that time, military men had a certain code of honor, and future commanders and military leaders from young nails on it were brought up. Who knows, maybe we, modern ones, would seem to them just barbarians, regardless of all our electronics, tanks and planes. request smile
  3. Pessimist22 26 January 2020 07: 43 New
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    Now it’s clear where the surnames from, Weber, Schulz, Anns, Janson, knew such people in Omsk and Kazakhstan.
    1. Olgovich 26 January 2020 08: 09 New
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      Quote: Pessimist22
      Now it’s clear where the surnames from, Weber, Schulz, Anns, Janson, knew such people in Omsk and Kazakhstan.

      I don’t think: Germans were sent there (back in Komi) from the European part of Russia during the USSR
      1. Pessimist22 26 January 2020 08: 23 New
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        The first Germans appeared on the outskirts of the empire in the 18th century, as a result of sending them to the southern and eastern outskirts, then the second wave of resettlement during the Stolypin reforms of 1905-1911, and then to the USSR in the 30s and 40s.
        1. Olgovich 26 January 2020 08: 29 New
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          Quote: Pessimist22
          The first Germans appeared on the outskirts of the empire in the 18th century, as a result of sending them to the southern and eastern outskirts, then the second wave of resettlement during the Stolypin reforms of 1905-1911, and then to the USSR in the 30s and 40s.

          This is so.
          But I'm talking about primary the mass of Germans.

          In Germany there are entire colonies of Kazakhstani and Omsk Germans (he communicated with them there), their grandfathers and grandmothers hail from the Volga region, New Russia and Bessarabia.
    2. fuxila 26 January 2020 09: 57 New
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      Weber and Schulz are German surnames, I find it difficult to say about Anns, but Janson, this surname is very characteristic of the Scandinavians, where "dream" means son. But it is entirely possible that these “Vikings” of your friends did not come from overseas, but because of the Pale of Settlement.
  4. Free wind 26 January 2020 08: 24 New
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    Two lakes near the Caspian are incomprehensible on the map? Or the sea? According to the outlines, the Caspian is recognizable, but there is no Aral Sea, although it was quite well known, but there are two strange reservoirs, further to the north and east, the Ob and Yenisei, Lena, Baikal are quite recognizable, it is amazing how big Mongolia is and how small China is. Kamchatka is recognizable at least, but with the islands and peninsulas in the Far East, there are already many oddities, dear author, you can make a more detailed printout of this map. and why there was a ban on stone construction, it is not clear. There are many questions with the story about Gagarin. Yes, his corpse sagging in St. Petersburg all summer, a dubious decoration for the capital, unless of course they were removed before.
    1. VLR
      VLR 26 January 2020 08: 31 New
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      The ban on stone construction - because St. Petersburg was being built, and there wasn’t enough natural stone, it was taken from everywhere, and bricks were still not made enough. But, of course, taking stones from Siberia is very expensive, if not “gold”, then “silver”.
      And the corpse of Gagarin, indeed, hung for 7 months, but not in one place - he was periodically transported to different places of St. Petersburg, as a visual aid and a hint to other officials: they say that’s what happens to embezzlers sometimes.
      1. 3x3zsave 26 January 2020 11: 04 New
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        Thanks for continuing the cycle, Valery!
        Quote: VlR
        Ban on stone construction

        It spread to the Petrograd side of Petersburg until the middle of the XNUMXth century, when Sweden officially ceased to be considered a strategic adversary. Until this time, in the event of hostilities, all structures on Petrogradka were ordered to be burned, with the aim of giving the operational scope of the Kronverk artillery.
      2. 3x3zsave 26 January 2020 15: 26 New
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        A little more about the "ban on stone construction"
        He did not touch the elect.
        So, for example, in 1766 Count G. Orlov began the construction of a “hunting castle” on the territory of Gatchino Manor.
        1. Pane Kohanku 26 January 2020 16: 54 New
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          So, for example, in 1766 Count G. Orlov began the construction of a “hunting castle” on the territory of Gatchino Manor.

          And the "hunting castle" was more than other palaces! yes drinks
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 January 2020 08: 59 New
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      Map of Eastern Siberia compiled by Stralenberg. Paris. 1725 year

      In the historiography of the question "where does the map come from!" Most Russian historians and a minority of Swedish are inclined to believe that Coriner Stralenberg wrote it off from the tales of Remizov and his Siberian map! The latter did not live up to us. From here and inaccuracies. Remezov was a nugget, but had no education. Russia owes to the Remezov family owes much, from the Tobolsk Kremlin to Chusovy iron caravans. This topic was beautifully beaten by the writer A. Ivanov in his book “Tobol”, the film is not about anything, you have to read it!
      1. Trilobite Master 26 January 2020 17: 02 New
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        compiled a map of Russia and the Great Tatarstan.

        It is strange that our "Tartarian cartographer" has not yet appeared. In the morning there was time and mood to talk with him ... Well, okay, no and no, do not cry now. smile
        As for Remezov and his family, then it is necessary to write a separate article on it, preferably not one. And then the novokhronoholtsy rush with him like that .. like him ... with a stupa.
        Who would take the people to enlighten? repeat smile
  5. Alex 1970 26 January 2020 09: 02 New
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    There was even a “bearded” Swedish heritage in Tobolsk, among me the older generation were Scandinavian beards. Moreover, in the summer, many shaved them, and for the winter they grew again
  6. Yehudi Menuhin 26 January 2020 09: 36 New
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    Thanks to the author. Very interesting, informative article, live language. I know one family with the name Shvedkin. Apparently, the descendants of the captive Swede.
    1. Olgovich 26 January 2020 10: 42 New
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      Quote: Yehudi Menuhin
      I know one family with the name Shvedkin. Apparently, the descendants of the captive Swede.

      The surname "Swedes" is very common. He himself knew two different Swedes.

      But I do not think that these are descendants ....
  7. fuxila 26 January 2020 10: 29 New
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    The article is good, but despite the title “Northern War: the situation of prisoners in Sweden and Russia,” little is said about the situation of Russian prisoners in Sweden. In the film "Young Russia" Russian captives are shown as rowers in galleys. For example, I would like to know that this is the fiction of the author of the novel, or is it still true? When the Russians returned to their homeland and much more ...
  8. Aviator_ 26 January 2020 11: 56 New
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    The article is interesting, respect to the author. There are some doubts about
    He was the first to suggest the Ugric origin of the Bashkirs

    How did this people speaking the language of the Turkic group turn out to be of Ugric origin?
    1. Sertorius 27 January 2020 08: 17 New
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      How did this people speaking the language of the Turkic group turn out to be of Ugric origin?

      Just like Sakha (Yakuts) - Turkic-speaking Finno-Ugrians. There is nothing surprising here.
  9. lot
    lot 26 January 2020 12: 09 New
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    Thank. informative.
  10. Korsar4 26 January 2020 12: 15 New
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    It is interesting how later the fate of people and their descendants intertwined with the history of Russia. The same Schlippenbach family.

    Schroeder, who arranged the Mikhailovsky Garden, is probably still not a relative of the famous gardener Richard Schroeder.
    1. Astra wild 26 January 2020 20: 36 New
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      On TV, a long time ago, showed residents of the Poltava and Vinnitsa regions: Shlipenbakh and several more such "Ukrainian" names
  11. alexey alexeyev_2 26 January 2020 12: 51 New
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    The use of Swedish prisoners especially in the works on the development of Siberia is a long tradition of Russians. Yet Ivan the Terrible gave the captured prisoners to the Stroganovs. So they appeared in the Yermak detachment. According to the Stroganovs, they fought well ..
  12. Operator 26 January 2020 13: 22 New
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    Quote: GKS 2111
    In the battle of Fraustadt, an incomprehensible, truly bestial cruelty of the Swedes was revealed regarding the Russians

    The commander of the Swedes, General Renschild, with particular zeal, executed the special order of Charles XII not to capture Russian soldiers (unlike the captured Saxons and Poles; the French and Swiss switched to the side of the Swedes at the very beginning of the battle, which decided the outcome of the battle).

    Of the 6362 Russians, 1920 surrounded the encirclement ring, the rest were killed in battle or stabbed with bayonets after the battle (with the exception of officers).
    1. Trilobite Master 26 January 2020 14: 25 New
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      Quote: Operator
      Out of 6362 Russians, 1920 people broke the encirclement ring,

      Under the command of a certain Samuel Renzel. wink
      Incidentally, a wonderful officer was and served Russia with dignity. Though not Russian.
    2. Operator 26 January 2020 14: 50 New
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      The German Samuel von Renzel received the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called from the hands of Peter I (for selfless actions against the superior forces of the Swedes, French and Swiss after the Saxons and Poles fled the battlefield) and in the rank of lieutenant general participated in the Poltava battle, where he captured the Swedish Renschild in the rank Field Marshal.

      Peter I did not execute Renschild in response to the massacre of captured Russian soldiers (and part of the officers who voluntarily shared the fate of their subordinates) in Fraustadt, since the Swede was following the direct order of his commander in chief Charles XII.
      1. Trilobite Master 26 January 2020 16: 46 New
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        I would love to see the reaction of our patriotic-nationalist public if a comrade with that name would be appointed, for example, the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation. laughing
        1. 3x3zsave 26 January 2020 17: 11 New
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          A. Miller, of course, is not included in the power block, is not yet included, however ...
        2. fuxila 26 January 2020 19: 15 New
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          Actually, Samuel is an ordinary biblical name, for some reason it simply did not take root among the Russians, unlike Michael or Daniel ... Although the name Samuel Kuzhugetovich Shoigu would hardly shock anyone ... wink
          1. Trilobite Master 26 January 2020 19: 56 New
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            Quote: fuxila
            common bible name

            That is, Hebrew, along with those listed by you and many others - Nathanael, Gabriel, etc., one of my acquaintances would certainly add Kozpodoyl, Pivodopil, Babuubil to this series. smile
        3. vladcub 26 January 2020 22: 02 New
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          Michael, please joke? Just for a hint of such an appointment, you will be thrown with slippers. Some of our authors will write such stormy articles that computers will explode.
      2. bukhach 27 January 2020 05: 51 New
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        And why did Carl give such an order, what is the reason?
        1. VLR
          VLR 27 January 2020 06: 59 New
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          Europe and Russia created different types of civilization, so the Saxons and Danes were their own for the Swedes, the Russians were strangers. The Germans also behaved completely differently in France and Russia in World War II. And therefore, a different attitude towards the prisoners. And there is a different attitude to allied obligations: Russia concluded a separate peace only once, when, in essence, it ceased to exist as a state, for Europeans a separate peace is a common thing. In the same Northern War, Saxony and Denmark made a separate peace with Sweden, each 2 times. The first time - after the defeat, the second - after the victories, having achieved what they wanted, again leaving Russia to fight alone.
          1. bukhach 27 January 2020 07: 14 New
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            Thanks for the thorough answer, but the Swedes didn’t kill all our prisoners, so the order was valid for a certain period of time, or did it act constantly? So who are the savages or the Swedes after that?
            1. Operator 27 January 2020 11: 34 New
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              The Russians twice took revenge on the Swedes for the order of Charles XII - on the battlefield of Poltava, during the last phase of which they slaughtered the Swedes “like cattle” (the latter was helped by the fact that they were surrounded by a forest in which they draped), as well as during Russian raids a galley fleet to the coast of Sweden in the mid-18th century, when amphibious assaults implemented a plan of scorched land in the coastal areas of Sweden in order to deprive it of its means of warfare (fleets, harbors, shipyards, other industrial facilities, buildings and structures, mobresource).
              Only after this respect for the Russian prisoners was forever driven into the heads of the Swedes.

              PS The same thing happened in 1945, when the Red Army transferred hostilities to the territory of Germany itself with the complete destruction of urban development (turned into defense nodes), the constant bombing of convoys of vehicles and rail transport behind the Germans (which included retreating military units and refugees ), by torpedoing German military transports in the Baltic Sea, exporting military and civilians in violation of the Geneva Convention (as part of military convoys, without the red cross, on armed and disguised ships, without ship lights, etc.).
              In this regard, the Germans sharply respect the Russians at the moment. Probably it doesn’t come out differently.
  13. andrewkor 26 January 2020 15: 30 New
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    The most important trophy of the Northern War is Marta Skavronskaya, future Empress Catherine the 1st!
    1. 3x3zsave 26 January 2020 18: 20 New
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      There were precedents. Elena the Beautiful, Delilah ....
      1. Astra wild 26 January 2020 20: 30 New
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        You +: remember Homer and Geradot
      2. Hantengri 26 January 2020 22: 45 New
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        Quote: andrewkor

        The most important trophy of the Northern War - Marta Skavronskaya,

        Quote: 3x3zsave

        There were precedents. Elena the beautiful...

        Those. - all in the classics! Karl, insolently, set with Peter, Martha. To which Peter answered him aki, Menelaus - to Paris:
        "You have stolen, beautifully, my bride - beauty!
        I’ll open your skull and brain ... "(c)
        So, word for word, the Northern War began ... The ancients correctly spoke: "Shershey la fam, and you will understand everything!". laughing
  14. bubalik 26 January 2020 17: 51 New
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    As a “day feed” to prisoner lieutenant colonels, majors and provisionmasters in Russia they paid 9 money a day, to captains and lieutenants - 5, non-commissioned officers - 3; orderlies and other lower ranks - 2 dengi (1 kopeck).
    ,,,and why what ordinary soldiers ate less than colonels? ,,, organisms are different?
    1. 3x3zsave 26 January 2020 18: 27 New
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      Definitely different! An entity called Friedrich Paulus consumes far more calories than Hans Krause.
      1. Korsar4 26 January 2020 19: 27 New
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        "Does this mean that the comsory officers do not like lemon tea?" (with).
  15. svp67 26 January 2020 19: 42 New
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    I don’t know how our prisoners of war were, but the Swedes were used well, precisely for taking their experience in the construction of ships, in the processing of metals, etc. Many of them settled here in Siberia, the Urals and in port cities ...
  16. Pacifist with AK 26 January 2020 19: 54 New
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    Quote: Aviator_
    The article is interesting, respect to the author. There are some doubts about
    He was the first to suggest the Ugric origin of the Bashkirs

    How did this people speaking the language of the Turkic group turn out to be of Ugric origin?

    Himself in shock! I quote from Wiki (too lazy to look further):

    “In the XNUMXth century, along with the ancient Magyars, the foothills of the Urals left the clan units of several ancient Bashkir clans, such as Yurmaty, Yeney, Kese and several others. They became part of the ancient Hungarian tribal confederation, which was located in the country of Levedia, between the Don and Dnieper rivers. At the beginning X century, the Hungarians, along with the Bashkirs, led by Prince Arpad crossed the Carpathian Mountains and conquered the territory of Pannonia, founding the Kingdom of Hungary.

    In the X century, the first written information about the Bashkirs of Hungary is found in the book of the Arab scholar Al-Masoudi “Muruj az-zabab”. He calls both the Hungarians and the Bashkirs bashguards or badzhguards. According to the famous Turkologist Ahmad-Zaki Validi, the numerical dominance of the Bashkirs in the Hungarian army and the transfer of political power in Hungary to the hands of the top of the Bashkir tribes of Yurmata and Yenay in the XII century. led to the fact that the ethnonym Bashgird (Bashkir) in medieval Arab sources began to serve to designate the entire population of the Kingdom of Hungary. "
    1. Operator 27 January 2020 11: 40 New
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      Genetically, the Bashkirs and Hungarians are close: their genotype contains the same main haplogroup R1b (from 40 to 50%).
  17. Timurleng 26 January 2020 20: 18 New
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    And what happened to the Russian prisoners?
    1. VLR
      VLR 26 January 2020 20: 45 New
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      Those that survived were returning as best they could, the Swedish authorities did not help. And ours gathered all the Swedes who wished to leave in St. Petersburg and Kronstadt, put them on a ship and even gave food on the road. “The Muscovite barbarians - they don’t even know how to take money from them,” Frederick 1 and his wife Ulrik Eleanor probably thought condescendingly smiling.
      I write about the return of prisoners in the next article, talking about the Nishtadt world, but you can run a little ahead of time.
  18. Astra wild 26 January 2020 20: 27 New
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    I didn’t know such details. Many thanks to Valery for an interesting story.
    I knew from Pushkin about the health cup. And in the 90s, Shirokorad’s book came across, which in reality was not sweet for the Swedes of Russia. And she believed, and now she was once again convinced that Shirokorad was free to deal with history. More precisely, he sticks out what he likes and vice versa “forgets” everything else.
    However, he has +: he does not deal with folk history
  19. faterdom 26 January 2020 20: 40 New
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    Thank you for the article, somehow this aspect of the Northern War has not been covered much in our country.
    But in essence, this use of captured Swedes (and other Europeans) is a fact of Peter’s very humane and zealous attitude, which turned out to be wise. As a result, they played a significant role in the "Europeanization" of the Russian Empire, bringing much to the life of our cities. One first puppet theater in Siberia is worth it!
    I would like to remind future conquerors: those who revel in victories, simply destroy, destroy everything around them - they do not last long. Those who systematize, structure and assimilate - lay the foundation for centuries.
  20. iouris 26 January 2020 20: 53 New
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    Another excellent historical work of the author: a little-known page in Russian history, briefly, scientifically, clearly, relevant and instructive for those who think: if there was a war, let it surrender. Thank.
  21. vladcub 26 January 2020 21: 55 New
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    It is just amazing how the prisoners were then treated: "who were released in Sweden, having given their word of honor, to return after the performance of the necessary affairs." Probably, then still knightly customs were remembered.
    Or an example of a different kind: England was at war with France in 1710, and the French Foreign Minister, as a private person, was visiting England. This was already unthinkable even at the beginning of the 20th century. Apparently, the more humanity exists, the more impoverished it becomes
  22. bbss 29 January 2020 21: 21 New
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    One of the most common surnames in Russia is Shvedov.
  23. nemez 10 March 2020 18: 32 New
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    Read impossible error on error.