An-124 Ruslan aircraft: details of modernization disclosed


Photo: Ainur Kazymova


Superheavy domestic transport aircraft An-124 Ruslan is planned to be modernized once again. According to the Interfax agency, more than a billion rubles will be needed only to develop a new technical project for the modernization of aircraft. A deeply modernized version of the legendary military transport aircraft will receive Russian-made equipment. The modernization project will affect both the replacement of on-board electronic equipment, as well as general aircraft systems.

An-124 Ruslan, created in the USSR by Antonov Design Bureau specialists, is still a unique aircraft and the most load-carrying among all production models of similar equipment. The first flight of a super-heavy transport aircraft took place on December 24, 1982. The aircraft was mass-produced between 1985 and 2004. During this time, 55 Ruslanov were released. Of these, 36 were collected in Ulyanovsk on the basis of the Aviastar-SP large aviation enterprise. It has been in Ulyanovsk since 2004 that the modernization and repair of the Russian Ruslan has been carried out.

Especially for the armed forces, a modification of the An-124-100 aircraft for the BTA was created at the enterprise in Ulyanovsk. It is these vehicles that are in service with the military transport aviation Russia, it is planned to modernize in the near future. According to The Military Balance 2019 annual bulletin, the Russian military transport aviation is armed with 9 An-124-100 Ruslan aircraft. Also, the operators of Ruslan aircraft in Russia are the 224th Flight Detachment (a subsidiary of the Ministry of Defense, specializing in irregular commercial cargo transportation), there are at least 8 Ruslanov in the company's fleet, as well as the Volga-Dnepr cargo airline, whose fleet has 12 An-124-100 Ruslan aircraft capable of transporting bulky cargo weighing up to 120 tons.


Photo: Pavel Adzhigildyaev

What will be replaced in the An-124 Ruslan aircraft


After the upgrade, the flight performance of the updated An-124 Ruslan heavy transport aircraft will remain the same. This means that the altitude and maximum flight speed, as well as a set of geometric characteristics will not change. The main objectives of the modernization of the aircraft: the transition to equipment and components of Russian production, a significant extension of the airworthiness of the machines, as well as improving flight safety and protection from possible attacks from the ground.

It is planned that during the modernization, the service life of the An-124-100M aircraft will be increased to 50-60 years. At the same time, a special program will be created to maintain the airworthiness of aircraft that have served for more than 45 years. Initially, the life of the An-124 aircraft was 24 thousand hours of flight or 25 years of operation. And if the planes are not approaching the first indicator, then a quarter of a century has already exchanged almost all Ruslans, the construction of the vast majority of which was completed before 1995. After 1995, only three An-124 aircraft were completed in Ulyanovsk.

As part of the modernization, An-124-100M military transport aircraft will receive modern avionics (BREO). The airborne communications system, the sighting and navigation flight system, and the airborne information system will be updated. It will affect the modernization of military aircraft and airborne transport equipment, lighting, oxygen and household equipment, the entire power supply system. The workplaces of the transport aircraft crew will also be replaced. Ultimately, with the upgraded version of Ruslan, it is planned to completely replace all obsolete, non-manufactured and imported equipment.


Photo: UAC

A distinctive feature of the An-2020 aircraft being modernized in the 124s will be the presence on board of a special defense complex, the main purpose of which is to protect the transporter from defeating MANPADS from the ground with radar and optical-electronic homing anti-aircraft missiles. The terms of reference state that the airborne self-defense system installed on board the Ruslan should automatically protect the aircraft from defeat in one attack with a probability of at least 90 percent of the following man-portable air defense systems distributed around the world: Stinger, Needle, Mistral.

Also in the technical task, some of the features of which were in the public domain and were published in the Russian media, it says that the modernized An-124-100M aircraft should become less noticeable to the enemy radar. In particular, it is planned to carry out work to reduce the radar, laser, acoustic, optical and radio visibility of military transport aircraft.

Fully "Russian" An-124 will retain Ukrainian engines


After modernization, the Ruslans will finally become Russian planes in every sense of the word. Finally, it is planned to put into practice what was said throughout the 2010s, especially actively after 2014 - the An-124 aircraft will receive exclusively Russian equipment and assemblies. True, one “but” still remains. The upgraded version of the transporter will retain the Ukrainian D-18T engines.


Photo: Igor Bubin
D-18T engine

In total, during the deep modernization of the aircraft, which, according to Denis Manturov, will make it possible to consider the aircraft Russian, it is planned to completely replace 29 units of Ukrainian production and three production systems of NATO and EU countries. The issue of import substitution in the development of experimental design documentation for a modernized aircraft is specifically addressed in the terms of reference.

In this case, the engine is more or less clear. Developed back in the 1980s at the Zaporizhzhya engineering design bureau Progress, the D-18T turbojet dual-circuit engine was specially created for the super-heavy aircraft An-124 Ruslan and An-225 Mriya. In Russia, this engine at this point in time simply has no analogues, as previously mentioned by the Director General of the Central Institute of Aviation Motors named after P.I. Baranova Mikhail Gordin.

In this regard, the numerous statements of Russian officials who have been discussing for a long time the possibility of resuming the serial production of the An-124 Ruslan aircraft in Russia appear to be ordinary populism in the current political situation. There would be nothing to install on new aircraft, since the available fleet of Soviet-made D-18T engines is seriously limited.


Photo: wikimedia

In the absence of new engines and the termination of cooperation with the Ukrainian company Motor Sich, Russia was able to establish repair and maintenance of D-18T turbojet engines with take-off thrust of 23 kgf. The fact that in Russia it was possible to establish a full-fledged repair of these engines, it became known in July 430. In an interview with Interfax, Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov, who oversees the country's military-industrial complex, said that the first repaired D-2019T engines had already been received. In the future, it is planned to repair 18 of these engines a year, which will allow us to upgrade or extend the flight life of three aircraft. According to Borisov, such a repair rate is enough to increase the serviceability of the entire fleet of aircraft.

In the distant future, Russia will create its own aircraft engine of high thrust. This project is known under the designation PD-35. This new Russian dual-circuit turbojet engine is designed for installation on promising military transport aircraft, as well as wide-body civil airliners, including the Russian-Chinese passenger plane CR929. In its capabilities, the PD-35 should significantly surpass the Soviet D-18T engine. The new engine, which Mikhail Gordin refers to the sixth generation models, will have a thrust of about 35 kgf. True, at present the project is still at the stage of research work. The first demonstrator is planned to be presented only in 000, and the full completion of engine development is planned for 2023.

Billion project


Design work on the modernization of the world's largest cargo serial transport aircraft will cost the Russian budget in excess of a billion rubles. According to the information contained in the SPARK-marketing system, during 2019 Ilyushin managed to conclude 15 contracts for the implementation of the bulk of development work on the creation of a modernized version of the An-124-100M aircraft for the needs of Russian military transport aviation . It is expected that the design, scientific and technical groundwork created in the framework of these works will be used in the future and in the creation in Russia of a promising aviation complex for military transport aviation (PAK BTA).


The total cost of design documentation to create a modernized version of the military transporter and its units exceeds one billion rubles, while the lion's share of the allocated funds will go to the EMZ company, the Myasishchev experimental engineering plant (EMZ). It was with this enterprise that Ilyushin entered into a contract for about 830 million rubles. The contract involves the creation of a technical project for the An-124-100M aircraft, the expected completion date is the end of this year.

Preliminary figures are also known for the cost of re-equipping existing An-124-100 military transport aircraft with the An-124-100M modification. Back in mid-2019, it was reported that the Ilyushin Aviation Complex expects to modernize the first An-124 Ruslan aircraft by 2022. Work will be carried out in Ulyanovsk at the facilities of Aviastar-SP. Earlier it was reported that the conversion of one aircraft to the An-124-100M variant, as well as conducting its comprehensive tests, would cost the Russian budget 3,5 billion rubles. Thus, we can roughly imagine that the modernization of all 9 An-124-100 aircraft of the Russian military transport aviation will cost more than 30 billion rubles, and if in the future the modernization of the aircraft used by the 224th Flight Detachment is carried out, then the cost of the project will more than double.
Author:
Photos used:
224lo.com and aviastar-sp.ru
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  1. The leader of the Redskins 22 January 2020 05: 39 New
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    For BTA domestic use, this modernization will, of course, also be a plus, but we will have to forget about international lines for now ...
    1. g1washntwn 22 January 2020 06: 52 New
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      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      about international lines, while you have to forget

      GE90-115B and forth, internationality will not object to its engines.
      1. neri73-r 22 January 2020 09: 01 New
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        The Russian military transport aviation is armed with 9 An-124-100 Ruslan aircraft.
        This is apparently actively used, the rest are in storage. Resource engines, there's nothing to be done.
      2. TermNachTer 22 January 2020 14: 05 New
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        I can add that the production of D - 18 in Zaporozhye was completed in the late 90s. Will they be able to restore production, even if the customer appears - a big question. And the little people ran away and the equipment may have already been lost, so that Motor can only reprofile the old engines into a new profile, with a major overhaul, possibly with some modifications.
      3. opus 22 January 2020 19: 49 New
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        Quote: g1washntwn
        GE90-115B and forth, internationality will not object to its engines.

        so ... it’s not enough!
    2. antivirus 22 January 2020 09: 02 New
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      2 times longer and more difficult to move against the glider .. and the project in time.
      there was a time - it was not necessary, even the MO.
      abandonment of Boeing will be good
      and Kohlov (albeit Russian-speaking) will have to bend - we’ll leave for “our” project and production.
    3. Bar2 22 January 2020 09: 22 New
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      it’s not clear, two D18s are 50 tons of traction, and one PD-35 is 35 tons, so you have to install two PD35 engines. And when in general it will be this engine, PD14 has not yet gone into the series, everything is checked, but certified, until the PD35 is made, the last Ruslans fall apart.
      1. alex80 22 January 2020 13: 57 New
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        If the PD-14 did not go into production, then what was shipped to Irkutsk for the 5th serial MS-21?
        Was there news today at VO, or are you up to date?
      2. Slavenin82 23 January 2020 21: 05 New
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        Sorry, I didn’t find in the article 50 tons, I found 23430 kgf, against 35000 kgf, maybe I looked?
    4. TANKISTONE 22 January 2020 13: 06 New
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      Chief of the Redskins (Nazarius)
      For BTA domestic use, this modernization will, of course, also be a plus, but we will have to forget about international lines for now ...
      I saw three pieces at the airport in Dusseldorf in 2011 or 2012 (I do not remember exactly). If it will be profitable for the capitalists to deliver a cargo of non-standard size to Ruslan, they will “put” it on sanctions, on the “green” ones and on Greta. Double standards are their thing ...
      1. The leader of the Redskins 22 January 2020 13: 14 New
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        They imposed sanctions on our Ruslans, and now the second operator of Antonov’s airline is working as a monopolist on international lines. Here is the whole layout. And if there is even more oversized, then the neighbors “mriyu” push.
        1. TANKISTONE 22 January 2020 15: 19 New
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          Chief of the Redskins (Nazarius)
          They imposed sanctions on our Ruslans, and now the second operator of Antonov’s airline is working as a monopolist on international lines. Here is the whole layout. And if there is even more oversized, then the neighbors “mriyu” push.
          I meant that the Ruslans, which do not meet the new standards of noise and environmental friendliness, will continue their flights to the countries of Western democracy. Whose planes they are will be shown by the rental price. The capitalist will want to "saw off" a piece in the form of a premium for the savings of a more profitable contract. The German-language channel N 24 showed a report on one of the Volga-Dnieper ...
    5. EvilLion 20 March 2020 08: 24 New
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      Here are just a similar C-5 all belong to the US military and transportation "Ruslans" have no alternative.
  2. Mityay65 22 January 2020 05: 42 New
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    The upgraded version of the transporter will retain the Ukrainian D-18T engines.

    This phrase says all about the essence of the modernization of Ruslan. The topic has been mumbling for many years, considered options, planned NK-32-02M2 and as a result zilch .. But is it worth it to do the modernization now? Then we must wait for the notorious PD-35 and already then do it, and now confine ourselves to repairing and extending the resource. All the same, when remotorization will have to re-test and certification. Why spend 2 times money? It is expensive. Or do we understand in advance that the PD-35 is also a fairy tale about a white bull? request
    The glider of an airplane completely flies 100 years, it’s valuable, it’s not so hot. In any case, it’s time to change the D-18T, it’s just ancient.
    1. Same lech 22 January 2020 05: 58 New
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      In any case, it’s time to change the D-18T, it’s just ancient.

      At the moment, as I understand it, there are no other options. what
      1. g1washntwn 22 January 2020 06: 49 New
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        Quote: The same Lech
        there are no other options, as I understand it

        There is. You can put PS90A-1 sparks on B-52 smile
        1. Mityay65 23 January 2020 04: 32 New
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          Options voiced over the past 3 years:
          1. To put gearless NK-32-02M2. He put on the Tu-160, so the costs are minimal. It is because of this fact that the NK-32 version was not pleasant to everyone.
          2. To complete the forced R179-TV1 from the Soyuz AMNTK, this is an engine based on the R79V-300, which was tested on the Yak-141. The engine is actually ready, it needs 2-3 years before certification. Advanced engine with reduced fuel consumption. But AMNTK "Soyuz" is not a member of the UEC, so nothing shines on him.
          3. Quietly leisurely to kill the sea of ​​dough for a fantastic PD-35 for 12 - 15 years. In 17, it was announced that they would manage in 10 years. And somewhere in the year 35 to get dvigun. And all this time to live happily and fruitfully.
          4. Do nothing, leave D-18T, the good is to repair this product of the 70s. able, and spare parts are not a problem. And wait for the PD-35.
          Quote: g1washntwn
          You can put PS90A-1 sparks on B-52

          As for me, the option is the norm. fellow
          1. Eug
            Eug 23 January 2020 07: 46 New
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            What about the D-30KP 3 Series sparks? They have a much smaller diameter, traction, however, too.
          2. Bobrick 23 January 2020 22: 33 New
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            The first two options are very emergency. Fuel consumption will be twice as high with the same traction.
            1. Bobrick 23 January 2020 22: 59 New
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              Or remodel engines, which is also not too fast (New fan and new low-pressure compressor, at least)
              1. Mityay65 24 January 2020 01: 20 New
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                Quote: Bobrick
                remodel engines, which is also not too fast

                2-3 years if at the current pace. 1,5 years at the pace of the late 80s.
                And I think that Lavrenty Palych, known for about 8 months, would have organized a pilot industrial product with a parallel statement on production ... recourse
                This is how to work, in principle, those. sowing on both engines was made long ago.
                In principle, it is possible to organize the production of D-18T in Samara, this issue was considered. Under a different index naturally.
                Quote: Bobrick
                New fan and new low pressure compressor, at least

                Of course. A new fan is required to increase the bypass ratio. A compressor is also possible. Remove afterburner. In principle, to leave unchanged only the hot part, on its basis to mold the dvigun.
            2. Mityay65 24 January 2020 01: 24 New
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              Quote: Bobrick
              Fuel consumption will be twice as high with the same traction.

              No, both options outperformed D = 18T in terms of profitability. Still, the D-18T is a very ancient device, technology and mat. performance of the 70s. And significantly improved the characteristics of Ruslan.
              But they lost to modern engines in terms of efficiency, which is not of great importance for a heavy transport transporter.
              1. Bobrick 27 January 2020 15: 43 New
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                Only if with a rework that will last about 5 years can it be developed in 1,5 years (only testing the blades, for example, with a modern engine life of 5 thousand flight cycles for four hours, will take several months).
                It’s just that in 2-3 years they can’t even carry out the conversion of engines for onshore gas turbine plants, although the complexity is approximately the same (the hot circuit remains almost unchanged).
                It’s not worth talking about those times, yet the technology has become very complicated (if not many times, here both single-crystal blades and turbine operating temperatures are higher than the melting temperature of nickel, which is the basis of heat-resistant alloys that work in these places), and engines, with a designated resource of 100-1000 hours (VK-1, AI-20), as in the times of Beria and Khrushchev, now India and Vietnam are not needed no
                Without changes in the NK-32 and R-79, in my opinion, the consumption will be significantly higher, and here the engines will have a hotter exhaust (roughly speaking, the energy that could become the kinetic energy of the jet, if it was given to the fan, heats the air), and a higher speed of the jet (the resistance increases greatly due to an increase in resistance at the interface between a normal stream and a jet stream). All the same, the engines were originally made for supersonic aircraft.
                In general, one of the most economical engines currently on Russian military aircraft (TU-95, TU-142) is the NK-12, which is a turboprop and developed in the 50s (this is about the obsolescence of conversation designs). The bypass ratio of which is more than 20, although this concept is not entirely applicable to turboprop engines, since it is pointless (more than 90% of the thrust is created by a propeller).
          3. SID
            SID 30 January 2020 15: 14 New
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            The conversation about staging the NK-32-02M2 and P179-TV1 on the VTA glider is something fantastic, and even more ...
            If there is no desire to understand the purpose and design of the engines, you can compare at least specific indicators. The first is an engine for supersonic, the second is for a fighter with a deflected thrust vector. For "Ruslan" the engine needs a completely different character.
            Therefore, put them even in 8 pieces ... what no - fantasy
        2. Pavel57 23 January 2020 11: 36 New
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          There is. You can put PS90A-1 sparks on B-52

          6 PS-90 are enough for traction.
          1. SID
            SID 30 January 2020 15: 18 New
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            Quote: Pavel57
            6 PS-90

            How to place?
    2. mark1 22 January 2020 10: 20 New
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      Quote: Mityai65
      . In any case, it’s time to change the D-18T, it’s just ancient.

      D-18T has good specific indicators, if there is an opportunity to repair, to extend the resource, this is correct. But a replacement is needed because he is not ours, we are waiting (and hope) PD-23 from Kuznetsov
    3. Operator 22 January 2020 11: 25 New
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      The PD-35 is ready for 2025 (just like the new “truck” developed by Ilyushin Design Bureau), then it will be possible to begin the process of utilization of all An-124 with replacing them with Russian “trucks" with a total thrust of four PD-35 engines of 140 tons instead of 100 tons, the D-18T.

      In the meantime, you can confine yourself to repairing engines and upgrading the on-board equipment of the An-124.
      1. Mityay65 23 January 2020 00: 41 New
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        Quote: Operator
        Readiness PD-35 - 2025

        It is not true. If everything is as always and we are lucky, in 25 there will be a prototype. And if you are lucky again, then at 28 we get a pilot-industrial machine, and somewhere in 32 serial.
        Quote: Operator
        as well as the new "truck" designed by Ilyushin Design Bureau

        I don’t know which of fifth grader drawings on toilet paper Ilyushin's projects, you mean, a lot of things are published. Campaign, they have already begun to publish in the network of graduation projects of trainees of the late 80's.
        So nothing concrete is planned, due to the lack of need for a new heavy truck. About 2/3 of the available fleet of the An-124 is constantly confined to the ground. There is no demand for either commerce or the military.
        Quote: Operator
        it will be possible to begin the process of disposal of all An-124 with replacing them with Russian "trucks

        It's just a dumb idea to dispose of Ruslan. Ruslan still fly and fly, subject to remotorization. Until the 80s hold out for sure.
        In addition, it should be borne in mind that in the current state of the company Ilyushin, the creation of a similar aircraft can take more than 20 years. This period includes a set of applicants for aircraft engineering specialties of the Moscow Aviation Institute, design specialties of MSTU. Bauman and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and organization of training of specialists in composites at specialized departments. After graduating from universities for 3-4 years, young specialists will need to be driven in practice in different design bureaus for real tasks, and only then they will begin to design a new wide-body truck. Those. if you start to enroll in summer, then in the year 29 they will finally begin.
        Quote: Operator
        In the meantime, you can confine yourself to repairing engines and upgrading the on-board equipment of the An-124.

        And you can not bother and leave everything as it is in connection with the dubious use of the event to replace "29 units of Ukrainian production and three production systems of NATO and the EU."
        There will be a dvigun, then it is worthwhile to finish modernization.
    4. garri-lin 22 January 2020 16: 38 New
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      Does an airplane glider fly off for 100 years? Tell it to B52. Everything has a limit.
    5. Grigory_78 22 January 2020 21: 27 New
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      Has anyone planned to install NK-32 on the An-124? Are you sure? I would love to read a more detailed description of these plans. Can I link?
      1. Mityay65 23 January 2020 00: 08 New
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        Quote: Gregory_78
        Has anyone planned to install NK-32 on the An-124? Are you sure?

        Stsyla on the article IN:
        https://topwar.ru/87065-ruslany-budut-letat-s-rossiyskimi-dvigatelyami.html
        Quote: Gregory_78
        I would love to read a more detailed description of these plans. Can I link?

        I recommend that you, for convenience, sign up for Google search courses in Yandex. May help in later life. I will not give the rate for the courses, I’m saying just in case hi
    6. Angelo Provolone 28 January 2020 11: 20 New
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      Why spend 2 times money?

  3. RUSLAN 22 January 2020 06: 12 New
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    More lard only for technical documentation ... Is it worth it for nine airplanes? Yes, and replacing 29 Ukrainian units and 3 European units with unspent resources, just to consider the plane purely Russian, looks more like overpowering in Ukrainian!
    1. Potter 22 January 2020 12: 44 New
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      A billion is not much at modern prices. The cost of 1 domestic commuter commuter train. And there are 29 aircraft in the country. Not in order to consider the plane Russian, but so that they can fly. Most planes are over 25 years old, and they have been actively used in recent years (you will be in Tver - see the intensity of flights to Migalovo), there in the city center you can see several "trucks" landing every day.
  4. Zufei 22 January 2020 07: 59 New
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    What can damage to it?
    1. Aviator_ 22 January 2020 08: 11 New
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      The same thing as damaged in 2014, dill paratroopers on the IL-76 in the Donbass.
      1. Zufei 22 January 2020 11: 09 New
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        When landing, the failure of one engine does not solve anything. Needle - it is stupid, it is aimed at the IR spot of the engine. “Czechs” shot down planes during take-off. This is the most loaded mode of operation. The smallest object at the entrance of the engine and the destruction is almost instant.
  5. cloud catcher 22 January 2020 09: 50 New
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    And for the "Maria", the modernized "Mriya", demand is possible. Or is the project and the “rights” lost forever?
    1. Potter 22 January 2020 12: 35 New
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      Mriya is a piece of goods created for a specific task. Ukrainians never found him a permanent job. 99,9% of the work is carried out by the existing fleet of aircraft in the world.
  6. Eug
    Eug 22 January 2020 10: 39 New
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    As I understand it, the tires on the wheels of the main chassis after each landing will not stop changing .. or have already stopped, I just don’t know?
  7. iouris 22 January 2020 12: 12 New
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    It would be cheaper in 2014 to rename our company in Motor-Sochi. Any dates and dates close to 2024 are suspicious. Why and to whom did you have to “disclose” information? It looks so dramatic (these are value judgments).
  8. Carib 22 January 2020 12: 41 New
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    [quote = mark1But a replacement is needed because he is not ours, we are waiting (and hope) PD-23 from Kuznetsov [/ quote]
    PD - Perm Engine, I think Kuznetsovsky will be called SD-25 Samara Engine, well, an extra ton is reliability and stock and efficiency. On modern materials and technologies.
    1. Bobrick 23 January 2020 22: 37 New
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      It will not, on the basis of the PD-35 generator it is planned to create a line of engines from 25 to 40 or more tons of power.
  9. Free wind 23 January 2020 07: 57 New
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    Billion???? The money is certainly not mine, but it seems oily. Especially seats for pilots, but what did not please the old ones? Yes covers, just order new ones and that's it smile
  10. Tycoon 23 January 2020 19: 45 New
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    What upgrade ??? - Ruslan is a fully analog aircraft and it is not possible to upgrade it. Moreover, the design documentation belongs to Ukraine. If you want to do something - make a new aircraft using 21st century technologies, but I think that this will not happen - there isn’t enough oil for everyone who wants it .....
    1. Zaurbek 27 January 2020 22: 03 New
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      Il76 was also analog. Rights must be considered ....
  11. TAMBU 23 January 2020 23: 55 New
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    I had a chance to work on the D-18T ... 10 years ago, Zaporizhzhya designers accelerated it to 25 ... the flow rate was really not very, but nonetheless)
    1. Mityay65 24 January 2020 01: 32 New
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      Quote: TAMBU
      10 years ago Zaporizhzhya designers accelerated it to 25

      This is probably the D-18T fifth series? I heard that the alleged fifth series is more economical.
      Well, the expense for a heavy transporter is not so important.
      1. TAMBU 24 January 2020 02: 30 New
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        no ... the 4th was ... but I liked the D-27 more ... although oil was from all the cracks, but the mutant was powerful ... =)
  12. Diverter 18 February 2020 09: 30 New
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    Our country is huge. A plane is such a value. Continuous modernization is good. They will make PD 35 and with the next modernization they will replace the 18th ones.
    If Shoigu had been in place, he would have redeemed the Libyan (if he is still alive) and Poletovsky, who would be in storage and would be included in the Air Force.