Sunset of the nuclear triad. Cold War missile defense and Star Wars

Sunset of the nuclear triad. Cold War missile defense and Star Wars

Missile defense appeared as a response to the creation of a powerful weapons в stories human civilization - ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads. The best minds of the planet were involved in creating protection against this threat, the latest scientific developments were researched and put into practice, objects and structures comparable to the Egyptian pyramids were built.


Missile defense of the USSR and the Russian Federation


For the first time, the missile defense problem began to be considered in the USSR in 1945 as part of counteracting the German Fau-2 short-range ballistic missiles (the Anti-Fau project). The project was carried out by the Scientific Research Bureau of Special Equipment (NIBS), headed by Georgy Mironovich Mozharovsky, organized by the Zhukovsky Air Force Academy. The large dimensions of the V-2 missile, the short firing range (about 300 kilometers), as well as the low flight speed of less than 1,5 kilometers per second, made it possible to consider anti-aircraft missile systems (SAM) being developed at that time designed for air defense (air defense).


The V-2 launching ballistic missile is a harbinger of a missile threat

The advent of ballistic missiles with a flight range of more than three thousand kilometers and a detachable warhead by the end of the 50s made it impossible to use “conventional” air defense systems against them, which required the development of fundamentally new missile defense systems.

In 1949, G.M. Mozharovsky introduced the concept of a missile defense system capable of protecting a limited area from the impact of 20 ballistic missiles. The proposed missile defense system was supposed to include 17 radar stations (radars) with a range of up to 1000 km, 16 near-field radars and 40 precision bearing stations. The capture of the target for escort was to be carried out from a distance of about 700 km. A feature of the project that made it unrealizable at that time was an interceptor missile, which should be equipped with an active homing radar (ARLGSN). It is worth noting that missiles with ARLGSNs became widespread in the SAM near the end of the 350th century, and even now their creation is not an easy task, which is confirmed by the problems in creating the latest Russian S-40 Vityaz air defense system. On an element base of the 50s - XNUMXs, it was unrealistic to create missiles with ARLGSN in principle.

Despite the fact that it was impossible to create a really functioning missile defense system based on the concept presented by G.M. Mozharovsky, it showed the fundamental possibility of its creation.

In 1956, two new missile defense system projects were submitted for consideration: the Barrier zonal missile defense system, developed by Alexander Lvovich Mints, and the three-range missile defense system, System A, proposed by Grigory Kisunko. The missile defense system "Barrier" assumed the sequential installation of three meter-long radars oriented vertically upwards with an interval of 100 km. The trajectory of a rocket or warhead was calculated after the successive intersection of three radars with an error of 6-8 kilometers.

G.V. Kisunko’s project used the Danube-type decimetric station, the most recent at that time, developed at NII-108 (NIIDAR), which made it possible to determine the coordinates of an attacking ballistic missile with meter accuracy. The disadvantage was the complexity and high cost of the Danube radar, but taking into account the importance of the problem being solved, the issues of economy were not priority. The ability to aim with meter accuracy allowed to hit the target not only with a nuclear, but also with a conventional charge.


Radar "Danube"

In parallel, OKB-2 (Design Bureau "Fakel") was developing a missile, which received the designation B-1000. The two-stage missile included the first solid-fuel stage and the second stage, equipped with a liquid-propellant engine (LRE). The range of controlled flight was 60 kilometers, the interception height was 23-28 kilometers, with an average flight speed of 1000 meters per second (maximum speed of 1500 m / s). The rocket weighing 8,8 tons and a length of 14,5 meters was equipped with a conventional warhead weighing 500 kilograms, including 16 thousand steel balls with a tungsten carbide core. The defeat of the target occurred over a period of less than one minute.


Missile defense V-1000

Experienced missile defense "System A" was created at the Sary-Shagan training ground since 1956. By mid-1958, construction and installation work was completed, and by the fall of 1959, work on connecting all systems was completed.

After a series of unsuccessful trials, on March 4, 1961, the R-12 ballistic missile warhead was intercepted with a weight equivalent of a nuclear charge. The warhead collapsed and partially burned in flight, which confirmed the possibility of successful destruction of ballistic missiles.


R-12 missile warhead intercept frames V-1000 missile defense

The accumulated backlog was used to create the A-35 missile defense system, designed to protect the Moscow industrial area. The development of the A-35 missile defense system began in 1958, and in 1971 the A-35 missile defense system was adopted (the final commissioning took place in 1974).

The A-35 missile defense system included a decimeter-wave Danube-3 radar with 3 megawatt phased array antennas capable of tracking 3000 ballistic targets at ranges up to 2500 kilometers. Target tracking and missile guidance were provided respectively by the RCC-35 tracking radar and the RCT-35 guidance radar. The number of simultaneously fired targets was limited by the number of RCC-35 radars and RKI-35 radars, since they could only work on one target.

The heavy two-stage anti-missile A-350Zh ensured the destruction of the enemy missile warheads at a range of 130-400 kilometers and an altitude of 50-400 kilometers with a nuclear warhead with a capacity of up to three megatons.


A-350Z missile

The A-35 missile defense system was modernized several times, and in 1989 it was replaced by the A-135 system, including the 5N20 Don-2N radar of the 51T6 Azov long-range interception missile and the 53T6 short-range interceptor missile.


Radar 5N20 Don-2N

The 51T6 long-range interceptor missile ensured the destruction of targets at a range of 130-350 kilometers and an altitude of about 60-70 kilometers with a nuclear warhead of up to three megatons or a nuclear warhead of up to 20 kilotons. The 53T6 short-range interceptor missile provided for the destruction of targets at a range of 20-100 kilometers and an altitude of about 5-45 kilometers with a warhead of up to 10 kilotons. The modification 53T6M maximum height of the lesion was increased to 100 km. Presumably, 51T6 and 53T6 (53T6M) missile defense systems could use neutron warheads. At the moment, 51T6 missiles are withdrawn from service. On duty there are modernized 53T6M short-range interceptor missiles with extended service life.

Based on the A-135 ABM system, Almaz-Antey Concern is creating a modernized A-235 Nudol ABM system. In March 2018, the sixth tests of the A-235 rocket were conducted in Plesetsk, for the first time with a full-time mobile launcher. It is assumed that the A-235 missile defense system will be able to destroy both ballistic missile warheads and objects in near space with nuclear and conventional warheads. In this regard, the question arises of how the missile guidance will be carried out in the final section: optical or radar guidance (or combined)? And how will the target be intercepted: direct hit (hit-to-kill) or directional fragmentation field?


Presumably SPU P222 of complex 14TS033 Nudol on the MZKT-79291 chassis

US missile defense


In the United States, the development of missile defense systems began even earlier - in 1940. The first anti-missile projects, the long-range MX-794 Wizard and the short-range MX-795 Thumper, were not developed due to the lack of specific threats and technology imperfections at that time.

In the 1950s, an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) R-7 appeared on the armament of the USSR, which spurred work in the United States on the creation of missile defense systems.

In 1958, the U.S. Army adopted the MIM-14 Nike-Hercules anti-aircraft missile system, which has limited ability to destroy ballistic targets provided that a nuclear warhead is used. The Nike-Hercules SAM missile ensured the destruction of enemy missile warheads at a range of 140 kilometers and an altitude of about 45 kilometers with a nuclear warhead with a capacity of up to 40 kilotons.


Anti-aircraft missile system MIM-14 Nike-Hercules

The development of the MIM-14 Nike-Hercules SAM system was the LIM-1960A Nike Zeus complex developed in the 49s with an advanced missile with a range of up to 320 kilometers and a target hit height of up to 160 kilometers. The destruction of ICBM warheads was to be carried out with a 400-kiloton thermonuclear charge with an increased yield of neutron radiation.

In July 1962, the first technically successful interception of an intercontinental ballistic missile by the Nike Zeus missile defense system took place. Subsequently, 10 out of 14 tests of the Nike Zeus missile defense system were recognized as successful.


Missile missile defense system LIM-49A Nike Zeus

One of the reasons that prevented the deployment of the Nike Zeus missile defense system was the cost of missile defense, which exceeded the cost of ICBMs of that time, which made the deployment of the system unprofitable. Also, mechanical scanning by rotating the antenna provided an extremely low response time of the system and an insufficient number of guidance channels.

In 1967, at the initiative of US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, the development of the Sentinell (Sentinel) missile defense was initiated, later renamed Safeguard (Precaution). The main objective of the Safeguard missile defense system was to protect the positional areas of American ICBMs from a sudden strike by the USSR.

The Safeguard missile defense system created on the new element base should have been significantly cheaper than the LIM-49A Nike Zeus, although it was created on its basis, more precisely, on the basis of an improved version of Nike-X. It included two missile defense systems: the heavy LIM-49A Spartan with a range of up to 740 km, capable of intercepting warheads in near space, and the light Sprint. The LIM-49A Spartan missile with a 71 megaton W5 warhead could hit an unprotected ICBM warhead up to 46 kilometers from the explosion epicenter, protected up to 6,4 kilometers.


Missile defense LIM-49A Spartan

A Sprint missile with a range of 40 kilometers and a target strike height of up to 30 kilometers was equipped with a W66 neutron warhead with a capacity of 1-2 kilotons.


Missile Sprint

Preliminary detection and target designation was carried out by a Perimeter Acquisition Radar radar with a passive phased antenna array capable of detecting an object with a diameter of 3200 centimeters at a range of up to 24 km.


Radar Perimeter Acquisition Radar

Missile Site Radar radar guided missiles were guided and guided by missiles.


Radar Missile Site Radar

Initially, it was planned to protect three airbases with 150 ICBMs on each; in total, 450 ICBMs were thus protected. However, due to the signing of the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense between the USA and the USSR in 1972, it was decided to limit the deployment of the Safeguard missile defense only at the Stanley Mickelsen base in North Dakota.

In total, 30 Spartan and 16 Sprint anti-ballistic missiles were deployed at positions at Safeguard missile defense positions in North Dakota. The Safeguard missile defense system was put into operation in 1975, but already in 1976 it was mothballed. The shift of emphasis of the American Strategic Nuclear Forces (SNF) in favor of the submarine missile carriers made the task of ensuring the protection of ground ICBMs from the first strike of the USSR irrelevant.

"Star Wars"


On March 23, 1983, the fortieth president of the United States, Ronald Reagan, announced the launch of a long-term program of research and development to create a groundwork for the development of a global missile defense system (ABM) with space-based elements. The program was designated the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and the unofficial name for the Star Wars program.

The purpose of the SDI was to create a layered missile defense of the North American continent against massive nuclear weapons strikes. The defeat of ICBMs and warheads was to be carried out on almost the entire flight path. Dozens of companies were involved in solving this problem, billions of dollars were invested. Briefly consider the main weapons developed by the SDI program.


The sequence of operation of the layered missile defense system developed under the SDI program

Laser weapons


At the first stage, the take-off Soviet ICBMs were to meet chemical lasers placed in orbit. The operation of a chemical laser is based on the reaction of certain chemical components, an example is YAL-1 iodine-oxygen laser, which was used to implement an aviation version of missile defense based on a Boeing aircraft. The main disadvantage of a chemical laser is the need to replenish the reserves of toxic components, which in relation to a spacecraft actually means a one-time use. However, within the framework of the objectives of the SDI program, this is not a critical drawback, since most likely the entire system will be disposable.


The advantage of a chemical laser is the possibility of obtaining a high working radiation power at a relatively high efficiency. In the framework of Soviet and American projects on chemical and gas-dynamic (a special case of chemical) lasers, it was possible to obtain a radiation power of the order of several megawatts. As part of the SOI program in space, it was planned to deploy chemical lasers with a power of 5-20 megawatts. Orbital chemical lasers were supposed to defeat the starting ICBMs before the separation of warheads.

Perhaps it is a chemical or gas-dynamic laser that can be installed in the Russian Peresvet laser complex. This is with a pessimistic assessment of its design and capabilities.

The USA built an experimental MIRACL laser based on deuterium fluoride, capable of developing a power of 2,2 megawatts. During tests conducted in 1985, the MIRACL laser was able to destroy a liquid ballistic missile fixed at 1 kilometer.

Despite the absence of serial spacecraft with chemical lasers on board, the work on their creation provided invaluable information on the physics of laser processes, the construction of complex optical systems, and heat removal. Based on this information, in the near future it is possible to create a laser weapon that can significantly change the appearance of the battlefield.

An even more ambitious project was the creation of nuclear-pumped X-ray lasers. A package of rods made of special materials is used as a source of hard X-ray radiation in a nuclear-pumped laser. A nuclear charge is used as a pump source. After the nuclear charge is detonated, but until the rods evaporate, a powerful laser pulse is formed in them in the hard X-ray range. It is believed that for the destruction of ICBMs, it is necessary to pump a nuclear charge with a capacity of about two hundred kilotons, with a laser efficiency of about 10%.

The rods can be oriented in parallel to hit a single target with high probability or distributed over several targets, which will require several guidance systems. The advantage of nuclear-pumped lasers is that the hard X-rays generated by them have high penetrating power and it is much more difficult to protect a rocket or warhead from it.


Since the Outer Space Treaty prohibits the deployment of nuclear charges in outer space, they must be put into orbit immediately at the time of the enemy’s attack. To do this, it was planned to use 41 SSBNs (nuclear submarine with ballistic missiles), which previously housed the Polaris ballistic missiles removed from service. Nevertheless, the high complexity of the development of the project led to its transfer to the category of research. It can be assumed that the work has come to a standstill largely due to the impossibility of conducting practical experiments in space for the above reasons.

In 2012, information appeared that in the Russian RFNC-VNIITF a gas laser pumped by a nuclear reactor operating at an atomic xenon transition with a wavelength of 2,03 μm was created. This is another type of nuclear-pumped laser - it uses reactor core pumping. The output energy of the laser pulse was 500 J at a peak power of 1,3 MW. In an optimistic scenario, the Peresvet complex can be equipped with a laser pumped from the reactor core, which can make it a truly dangerous and promising weapon.

Beam weapons


Particle accelerators, the so-called beam weapons, could be even more impressive weapons. Accelerated neutron sources located on automatic space stations were supposed to hit warheads at a distance of tens of thousands of kilometers. The main damaging factor was to be the failure of the electronics of the warheads due to the deceleration of neutrons in the material of the warhead with the release of powerful ionizing radiation. It was also assumed that the analysis of the signature of the secondary radiation arising from neutrons entering the target would make it possible to distinguish real targets from false ones.

The creation of beam weapons was considered an extremely difficult task, and therefore the deployment of this type of weapon was planned after 2025.

Rail weapon


The rail guns, dubbed the “railguns” (steel railguns), were another element of SDI under consideration. In railgun, the dispersal of shells is carried out using the Lorentz force. It can be assumed that the main reason that did not allow the creation of railguns in the framework of the SDI program was the lack of energy storage devices capable of ensuring the accumulation, long-term storage, and fast energy output of several megawatts. For space systems, the problem of guide rail wear, which is inherent in "ground" railguns due to the limited time of the missile defense system, would be less critical.


The defeat of the targets was planned to be carried out by a high-speed projectile with a kinetic defeat of the target (without undermining the warhead). At the moment, the United States is actively developing a combat railgun in the interests of the naval forces (Navy), so studies carried out under the SDI program are unlikely to be wasted.

Atomic Buckshot


This is an auxiliary solution designed for the selection of heavy and light warheads. The detonation of an atomic charge with a tungsten plate of a certain configuration was supposed to form a cloud of fragments moving in a given direction at a speed of up to 100 kilometers per second. It was assumed that their energy would not be enough to defeat warheads, but enough to change the trajectory of light false targets.

The obstacle to the creation of atomic buckshot, most likely, was the impossibility of their early placement in orbit and testing due to the US Space Treaty.

"Diamond Pebbles"


One of the most realistic projects is the creation of miniature satellite interceptors, which were supposed to be put into orbit in the amount of several thousand units. It was assumed that they will become the main component of the SDI. The defeat of the target was to be carried out in a kinetic way - by hitting the kamikaze satellite itself, dispersed to 15 kilometers per second. The guidance system was supposed to be performed on the basis of a lidar - a laser radar. The advantage of “diamond pebbles” was that it was built on existing technologies. In addition, a distributed network of several thousand satellites is extremely difficult to destroy with a preemptive strike.


The development of "diamond pebbles" was discontinued in 1994. The developments on this project formed the basis of the kinetic interceptors currently used.

conclusions


The SDI program is still causing a lot of controversy. Some blame her for the collapse of the USSR, they say, the leadership of the Soviet Union got involved in an arms race that the country could not pull, others talk about the most grandiose "cut" of all time. Sometimes it is surprising that people who proudly recall, for example, the domestic Spiral project (talking about a ruined promising project), are immediately ready to write any unrealized US project into a cut.

The SDI program did not change the balance of forces and did not lead to any massive deployment of serial weapons, nevertheless, thanks to it, a huge scientific and technical reserve was created, with the help of which the latest types of weapons have already been created or will be created in the future. The program’s failures were caused by both technical reasons (the projects were too ambitious) and political ones — the collapse of the USSR.

It should be noted that the existing missile defense systems of that time and a significant part of the development of the SDI program provided for the implementation of many nuclear explosions in the atmosphere of the planet and in near space: missile defense warheads, pumping x-ray lasers, volleys of atomic canister. With high probability, this would cause electromagnetic interference that would render most of the remaining missile defense systems and many other civilian and military systems inoperative. This factor, most likely, became the main reason for the refusal to deploy global missile defense systems at that time. At the moment, technological improvements have made it possible to find ways to solve missile defense problems without the use of nuclear charges, which predetermined a return to this topic.

In the next article, we will consider the current state of US missile defense systems, promising technologies and possible directions for the development of missile defense systems, the role of missile defense in the doctrine of a sudden disarming strike.
Author:
Photos used:
warspot.ru, rocketpolk44.narod.ru, militaryrussia.ru, Star Wars: Illusions and Dangers, 1985
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  1. Ross xnumx 23 January 2020 05: 15 New
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    Sunset of the nuclear triad. Cold War missile defense and Star Wars

    Thanks for the interesting stuff. I could not understand one thing - why the cycle is called "The Sunset of the Nuclear Triad"? We have already familiarized ourselves with the alleged characteristics of hypersonic weapons. Even today, given its capabilities, it is possible to counteract elements (warheads) flying at hypersonic speed with the same efficiency as shooting down bullets from a slingshot ...
    The appearance of such speeds in land, sea and air attack weapons can raise many questions about sunset.
    hi
    1. Shopping Mall 23 January 2020 08: 57 New
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      Quote: ROSS 42
      Sunset of the nuclear triad. Cold War missile defense and Star Wars

      Thanks for the interesting stuff. I could not understand one thing - why the cycle is called "The Sunset of the Nuclear Triad"? We have already familiarized ourselves with the alleged characteristics of hypersonic weapons. Even today, given its capabilities, it is possible to counteract elements (warheads) flying at hypersonic speed with the same efficiency as shooting down bullets from a slingshot ...
      The appearance of such speeds in land, sea and air attack weapons can raise many questions about sunset.
      hi


      Thanks you!
      In any case, the triad will undergo a transformation, and will no longer be the classic "Nuclear Triad." Initially, 2-3 articles were planned, but as the material was disclosed, the number of articles had to be increased, otherwise it turned out either completely superficially, or the articles would become unreadable.

      3 more articles are planned: The second part is about modern American missile defense and the prospects for its development, and two articles are actually about the possible directions of transformation of the nuclear triad.
      1. vvvjak 23 January 2020 09: 11 New
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        Analysis of the effectiveness of missile defense will be? And also, is there any information about China's missile defense?
        1. Shopping Mall 23 January 2020 12: 53 New
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          Quote: vvvjak
          Analysis of the effectiveness of missile defense will be?


          To some extent ...
          Most likely in the world there is no reliable information about the effectiveness of missile defense, since there can be too many factors unaccounted for.

          This is how to suggest the effectiveness of the Maginot Line before the outbreak of World War II. And with missile defense and strategic nuclear forces is even more difficult.

          Quote: vvvjak
          And also, is there any information about China's missile defense?


          I have not studied this issue yet. But the PRC and the SPRN do not yet have a normal one. Most likely so far they can only count on a retaliatory strike. Hence their secrecy regarding the quantity and type of their strategic nuclear forces, unwillingness to crawl into all sorts of contracts.
          1. vvvjak 23 January 2020 13: 24 New
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            Quote: AVM
            Most likely in the world there is no reliable information about the effectiveness of missile defense,

            Yes, I understand perfectly. But, you must admit, if the article sounds like "V8 engine with a volume of 6 liters, 600 hp", there is a simple desire to read further "it can accelerate a car to 100 km. In 5 s., Max. Speed ​​300 km / h , fuel consumption of 25 liters per 100 km, "although the latest data are purely analytical.
            Quote: AVM
            But the PRC and the SPRN do not yet have a normal one. Most likely so far they can only count on a retaliatory strike.

            But they somehow shot down their satellite, and even at an altitude of 800 km (if memory serves). It seems to me that the PRC is hiding a couple of "trump cards" in the sleeve.
            I am not in the capacity of criticism, just purely personal wishes.
            1. Shopping Mall 23 January 2020 13: 39 New
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              Quote: vvvjak
              Quote: AVM
              Most likely in the world there is no reliable information about the effectiveness of missile defense,

              Yes, I understand perfectly. But, you must admit, if the article sounds like "V8 engine with a volume of 6 liters, 600 hp", there is a simple desire to read further "it can accelerate a car to 100 km. In 5 s., Max. Speed ​​300 km / h , fuel consumption of 25 liters per 100 km, "although the latest data are purely analytical.


              Everything is correct, but the problem is that in the case of missile defense we have a huge range of values.

              The exact unknown number of missile defense, of different versions / generations, with the unknown probability of destruction of real warheads, given the existence of a dozen different types of warheads and so on and so forth. Those. the output will be answers with a probability of intercepting missile defense, for example 30 warheads, from 0,01% to 100%

              Quote: vvvjak
              But they somehow shot down their satellite, and even at an altitude of 800 km (if memory serves). It seems to me that the PRC is hiding a couple of "trump cards" in the sleeve.
              I am not in the capacity of criticism, just purely personal wishes.


              Yes, but shooting down simple orbital targets is much easier than warhead missiles. But there is no doubt that they are working very actively on the SPRN and missile defense systems. And when there are resources, people and a clear goal, the result will be obtained.

              Now the tactical missile defense of China is a stripped down tactical missile defense of the Russian Federation, created on the basis of the S-300 air defense system, Buk air defense system, and now the S-400 air defense system. But in the strategic missile defense area, they have probably already overtaken us, because they have an exoatmospheric interceptor operatively launched by a solid-fuel rocket (or it is at the stage of completion of development), and we most likely do not have this. Those satellites that we can use (presumably) as kamikazes are most likely to be launched from the ground and launched in advance by "large" missiles.
              1. Mityay65 23 January 2020 15: 42 New
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                Quote: AVM
                But in the area of ​​strategic missile defense, they have probably already overtaken us, because they have an exoatmospheric interceptor, which is quickly launched by a solid-fuel missile

                This is not a missile defense. This is an anti-satellite weapon.
                PS Perhaps you want to expand the cycle for this view? wink
      2. ccsr 23 January 2020 14: 06 New
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        Quote: AVM
        In any case, the triad will undergo a transformation, and will no longer be the classic "Nuclear Triad."

        I would like to know how you explain this, at least from the point of view of the modern nuclear forces of Russia?
        Nuclear and airborne patrols will continue in the future, and our strategic bombers modernization program and the creation of new nuclear submarines are proof of this. The troops of the Strategic Missile Forces, as I understand it, will not be touched at all, at least no one even stutters to reduce their role.
        So in what you see the transformation and its direction - tell us more. Naturally, if a new weapon does not appear on other physical principles, we will not discuss this.
        In general, the article is very useful and informative, though I was confused by the information that in the USA already in 1940 they began developing the missile defense system, if only because for them it was then irrelevant.
  2. rocket757 23 January 2020 05: 20 New
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    ABM - the emergence, development and ... but the end of the edge of the process is not visible.
    In general, this is an endless experiment, an attempt ...... so far with limited results.
    SHIELD - SWORD, so far, thank God, no one has decided to check who is ahead! Let it be!
    1. vvvjak 23 January 2020 08: 44 New
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      Quote: rocket757
      SHIELD - SWORD, until, thank God, no one decided to check who is ahead

      Do not check, because it is obvious - the SWORD, so far, far ahead. On the topic was a good review from "Andrei from Chelyabinsk" https://topwar.ru/152769-o-velikom-i-uzhasnom-pro-ssha-informacionnoj-vojne-i-morskih-bogah.html.
      The article is unambiguously "set-off" and "plus". I look forward to continuing.
      1. rocket757 23 January 2020 08: 59 New
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        Quote: vvvjak
        Do not check, because it is obvious - the SWORD, so far, far ahead.

        In addition, all the main opponents have a SWORD. This is defining / stopping.
  3. mark1 23 January 2020 06: 37 New
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    For some reason, our developments, analogues of the SDI program (one of which is “Scythian DM”, are not mentioned. Maybe in the sequel ... And so, of course, interesting, thanks.
  4. asv363 23 January 2020 06: 43 New
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    The final sunset of the nuclear triad is possible by signing some new START-4, which will reduce the already minimized number of warheads and carriers under the current START-3.
    1. cloud catcher 23 January 2020 08: 35 New
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      Interesting stuff.
      "Sunset .. - this is who needs a" sunset "."
      Respect to domestic scientists and structural engineers !! But it’s better not to come in handy ...
  5. eagle owl 23 January 2020 07: 20 New
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    The author ... Can I ask a question? How the likelihood of Moscow’s defeat is estimated. Let me remind you of a covered missile defense? I think. you know
    1. Firelake 23 January 2020 07: 39 New
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      The question is always in the allocated forces. I love air defense can be overloaded.
      1. eagle owl 23 January 2020 07: 43 New
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        It’s just that I’ve been talking with the guys for a long time that they are holding a missile shield ... Since you don’t know, we used to close the mattresses in one zone. They are Alaska. we are Moscow. "Lelik, we will do the maximum - we’ll knock something down, and we can whistle in time, that it’s time to wrap ourselves in a sheet and crawl to the cemetery, holding the machine gun on outstretched arms - well, so that we don’t slap the boots with melt"
        1. Firelake 23 January 2020 07: 46 New
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          From a conversation with someone who was on duty at about Moscow time: 16-28 minutes. Hello everybody
          1. eagle owl 23 January 2020 07: 47 New
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            I heard - we can give 20 minutes. But it was a long time, now - I ninai
            1. Firelake 23 January 2020 07: 51 New
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              Time depends on where you fly. Moscow will not be anyway.
          2. eagle owl 23 January 2020 07: 52 New
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            The truth is still how to say ... In the USSR, the system was very non-acidic and you escaped. A simple example is the stadium where CSKA youth play). On the contrary, such an institution as FSUE VNIINM. and under this stadium is a three-story bunker, though)
            1. Firelake 23 January 2020 07: 53 New
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              Previously, some hospitals had. It’s not clear now.
              1. eagle owl 23 January 2020 08: 01 New
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                I agree. Only they remained - the 64th, for example, the 55th GKB) I’m completely silent about the penny, or for the “crocodile” - 600-bed on Pirogov
                1. Firelake 23 January 2020 08: 29 New
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                  In the first city, it seems like it is already gone.
                  1. eagle owl 23 January 2020 08: 39 New
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                    If you are for a penny, that is, the first - you are specifically wrong. Under for example school, aod therapy, under trauma. Everything is as it was. PiSi - the school - these are these, sisters of mercy from the Russian Orthodox Church) One bolt is also a penny
                    1. Firelake 25 January 2020 19: 45 New
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                      Behind cardioneurology was the entrance to the shelter. There is now a dump. Territory 2. At the first xs ... maybe something remains ... but there is no exact surgery. There are diesel engines now. After chagin
    2. Shopping Mall 23 January 2020 08: 53 New
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      Quote: Uhu
      The author ... Can I ask a question? How the likelihood of Moscow’s defeat is estimated. Let me remind you of a covered missile defense? I think. you know


      Unfortunately, I can only guess)
      Most likely, the Moscow missile defense is capable of repelling a strike with one or two missiles with a monoblock warhead.

      A massive strike can not currently reflect any missile defense.

      The main reason is that missile defense missiles require guidance from a radar or optical systems, but after undermining at least one nuclear warhead, the guidance systems will either fail or be blinded for some time. During this time, further explosions of the nuclear warhead will occur, which will also destroy the missile defense system and so on.

      And warheads at the final site are no longer critical guidance.
      1. eagle owl 23 January 2020 09: 01 New
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        Well, that's about it! It's not my phrase that ABM - in fact - is a slogan in a newspaper. ABM will not be able to counteract the blow, and - in principle. Once again - not my words
        1. agond 23 January 2020 10: 48 New
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          Quote: Uhu
          ABM will not be able to counteract the blow, and - in principle.

          The law has long been known, striking is easier than repelling it, the question arises: is there any sense in defense to solve the unthinkable task of repulsing a massive strike, the answer is unequivocal - it makes no sense, but provided that the attacker knows where to hit, then he will win if not, then not a fact .. therefore, the entire defense of the defending side should be based on the use of this condition. for example, the Skif bottom-based missile system meets the condition, but say an airfield with airplanes, a naval base or an aircraft carrier are easily detected and do not meet the condition, is it necessary to protect them?
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Fan-fan 23 January 2020 11: 48 New
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            If the Moscow missile defense system could theoretically intercept no more than 5 warheads, then why was there anyway? Why spend huge amounts of money on this? It is better to invest these funds in the development of attack systems.
            1. eagle owl 23 January 2020 12: 07 New
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              Once again - you are absolutely about the same)
      2. Operator 23 January 2020 13: 45 New
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        A-135 and, in the long term, S-500, are designed to intercept a limited number of warheads - of the order of one or two dozen to the missile defense area in order to allow time for the military-political leadership and part of the population / personnel of the protected object (city, industrial center, military base).

        This situation is characteristic of a local nuclear conflict or unauthorized strike.

        To intercept a massive nuclear missile strike (over ten to twenty warheads per object during a global conflict), the missile defense systems are not intended.
    3. opus 23 January 2020 12: 52 New
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      Quote: Uhu
      How is the likelihood of Moscow's defeat estimated? Let me remind you, a covered missile defense?

      In 2002, Anatoly Sokolov, the former commander of the Strategic Missile Forces and Space Defense, stated the following:
      there’s no point in supporting a dying system, since the existing missile defense is not able to provide effective protection for this area, not to mention the whole country


      press to write
      The A-135 system protects the central industrial region of Russia, due to the short range of the Gazelles they are not able to protect objects outside the neighboring Moscow region.

      fool
      1. Missile A-925 / 51T6 ABM-4 GORGON
      Interception range - 320-350 km, interception height (technical) about 200 km
      2006 April - 2007 May - disposal / destruction, probably the last three sets of 51T6 rockets and starting engines 41A6, which was carried out in Naro-Fominsk by Forpost Baltic CJSC

      January 2010 - elements of the last utilized 51T6 rocket were transferred as a teaching aid to Voenmekh (St. Petersburg (
      2. Rocket 53T6 / PRS-1 / ABM-3 GAZELLE
      Range: 80 km (never when at such a range did not shoot)
      The height of the defeat: 5000-30000 m (at 30 km, never when intercepted)
      1 + 2 where are the nonsense about the possibility of covering the "ALL industrial region of Russia"?
      3. "The new modernized missile defense system missile defense" 53T6M ...
      ?

      belay
      - TPK is the same (which looks like it’s in length * diameter), only repainted: there were yellow steel greenish
      - a breakthrough in solid propellant rocket engines, and even in solid fuel components, the Russian Federation has not had and has not, since those years.
      - there is no breakthrough in the materials of the Russian Federation, and it won’t already have “M”, the tare (dry rocket) mass is the same, except that the electronic components have become lighter (Chinese)? WHERE?

      The performance characteristics are classified. According to unconfirmed information, the range of new missiles of the complex may be up to 1,5 thousand kilometers, and height - up to 120.

      belay

      Quote: Andrey Mitrofanov
      The A-35 missile defense system included a decimeter-wave Danube-3 radar with 3 megawatt phased array antennas capable of tracking 3000 ballistic targets at ranges up to 2500 kilometers. Target tracking and missile guidance were provided respectively by the RCC-35 tracking radar and the RCT-35 guidance radar. The number of simultaneously fired targets was limited by the number of RCC-35 radars and RKI-35 radars, since they could only work on one target.

      No. 3 was the first experimental at the Aldan training ground
      - Radar DRLO "Danube-3M" (Kubinka-10);
      - Radar DRLO "Danube-3U" (Chekhov-7);

      4 positional areas (JRC) with Yenisei and Tobol firing systems (2 complexes in the area, 2 x 4 launchers each of the first and second salvo, total 64 launchers; Klin, Zagorsk, Naro-Fominsk and Nudol)
      Combat capabilities - defeat of 8 pair ballistic targets attacking Moscow from one or different directions

      RCC-35, number of targets followed = 2, Detection range - 1500 km

      RCT-35, the number of induced missile defense firing complex - 2 pcs (at the same time)
  6. bars1 23 January 2020 11: 19 New
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    And our 53T6 is not without looking back at Sprint!
  7. ser56 23 January 2020 11: 49 New
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    "sources of accelerated neutrons"
    what kind of nonsense? neutrons are not charged particles - they cannot be dispersed ... request
    1. opus 24 January 2020 00: 26 New
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      Quote: ser56
      what kind of nonsense? neutrons are not charged particles - they cannot be dispersed ...

      shells, bullets, etc., etc. are also not charged, but they are "dispersed."

      a fast neutron is obtained when a stationary neutron collides with a fast proton.
      In this case, the proton momentum is almost completely transferred to the neutron.
      In practice, a neutron target (beryllium, lithium or paraffin) is irradiated with a proton beam overclocked in the accelerator, this produces a beam of fast neutrons
      wink
      1. ser56 24 January 2020 11: 54 New
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        Quote: opus
        fast neutron is obtained in a collision of a stationary neutron

        Hmm, write nonsense ... there are no stationary neutrons ... bully it looks like you are a victim of the exam hi
        Quote: opus
        overclocked in the accelerator, this produces a beam of fast neutrons

        Well, where is the “acceleration" of neutrons? bully I'm not talking about the cross section of this reaction ... hi
        Quote: opus
        irradiated with a beam of protons dispersed in the accelerator

        and will you receive protons at the phasotron or synchrophasotron? It’s very interesting how you put it into orbit ... bully
      2. ser56 24 January 2020 11: 57 New
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        Quote: opus
        In practice, a neutron target

        not practical when the power densities required to affect the NF, this target evaporates .... request
  8. ser56 23 January 2020 12: 04 New
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    "due to the inhibition of neutrons in the material of the warhead with the release of powerful ionizing radiation. It was also assumed that the analysis of the signature of the secondary radiation arising from the hit of neutrons in the target would distinguish real targets from false ones."
    this passage of the author is difficult to comment at all - an explosive mixture of half-truths and ignorance ... request
    1) neutrons themselves are "powerful ionizing radiation," though indirectly-ionizing ... hi
    2) neutrons are not inhibited, they are slowed down and absorbed .... laughing Moreover, with sufficient flux, they can cause either the initialization of a nuclear charge or the degradation of its properties ...
    3) when interacting with neutrons, matter is activated due to the possibility of nuclear reactions, while the response (activation analysis) can be used to judge the composition of matter ....
    and “Target signature is a set of characteristics of the signal reflected by the target received by the observation means.”, therefore, “secondary radiation signatures” is a strange term ... hi
  9. Sergst 23 January 2020 12: 21 New
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    Quote: Fan-Fan
    If the Moscow missile defense system could theoretically intercept no more than 5 warheads, then why was there anyway? Why spend huge amounts of money on this? It is better to invest these funds in the development of attack systems.

    For example, one random missile will be reflected. And the damage from an accidental missile for Moscow can be huge, just one radioactive infection is enough. And in the modern world, the risk of an accidental launch is not entirely zero.
  10. Fisherman 23 January 2020 13: 12 New
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    I read all the articles from this topic. Loved it, I look forward to the next. The author is without any questions plus !!!!!!
  11. Operator 23 January 2020 13: 27 New
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    The only national missile defense system was the American Nike-Hercules complex, deployed in the 1950s in the amount of several thousand launchers with the corresponding number of surveillance and firing radars. All other complexes like "Seyfgard", A-135, etc. are missile defense facilities, i.e. cover only specific selective objects such as capitals, ICBM bases, command posts, etc.

    It is planned to restore the situation of the 1950s with the anti-missile defense system of the national territory only in the Russian Federation after launching the S-500 air defense system, which is designed to cover cities, industrial centers and military facilities throughout the country.

    Nike-Hercules, like the US and USSR mine missile defense systems of the 1960s and 80s, was withdrawn from service due to inoperability - the very first explosion of a nuclear warhead blocked the operation of radars with an electromagnetic pulse. Therefore, since the 1990s, anti-missiles exclusively with non-nuclear warheads / kinetic interceptors have been developed and armed.

    Existing US and Soviet anti-aircraft missiles, both land-based and sea-based, are capable of intercepting only non-maneuvering ballistic targets, and even in the absence of countermeasures - in the form of false targets in space and in the upper atmosphere, nuclear explosions of the leading warhead with the generation of electromagnetic radiation over the missile defense radar locations, as well as the use of guided warheads maneuvering in the atmosphere at the terminal portion of the trajectory.

    In addition, all existing US missile defense systems (unlike the Russian S-500 and A-135/235) are intended exclusively for the atmospheric interception of warheads, which makes them useless for intercepting Zircon hypersonic cruise missiles and Avangard planning wing units at altitudes up to 130 km - the lower boundary of the infrared homing system of warheads and interceptors of American missile defense systems. On the other hand, existing American air defense missiles have an altitude of less than 40 km, which also excludes their involvement in the interception of the Zircon missile defense complex on the marching flight area of ​​40 km

    Given the tendency to equip all types of warheads with cosmic stealth coatings from metamaterial (making an object invisible in the entire spectrum of electromagnetic radiation) and the transition to active anti-aircraft maneuvering of UBB in the terminal portion of the trajectory (with aiming at the target using a gravitational gradiometer), the only opportunity for missile defense systems damage to the launch vehicles in the active part of the trajectory until the BB is separated from the last stage, which can only be done with the help of space-based interception facilities.

    PS The development of an X-ray “laser” within the framework of the SOI program was an adventure from the very beginning, since the divergence of its pseudo-laser radiation at the stage of preliminary calculations was determined as plus or minus bast shoe. Contractors for the development of a "laser" divorced President Reagan (an actor by profession) as a sucker and deflated a round sum from the budget laughing
    1. Mityay65 23 January 2020 15: 52 New
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      Quote: Operator
      It is planned to restore the situation of the 1950s with the missile defense system of the national territory only in the Russian Federation after launching the S-500 air defense system in

      This is in doubt. Are you exaggerating the capabilities of the S-500?
      1. Operator 23 January 2020 15: 59 New
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        And what is the exaggeration - it has been publicly stated about the goal of creating the S-500 as a missile defense system, the SAM itself is mobile (that is, there is no need to erect capital structures like A-135/235). The only question is the amount of funding in order to ensure the piecework of S-500 divisions to cover most of the significant facilities in the Russian Federation (but this is a matter of funding duration).
    2. Passing 23 January 2020 23: 32 New
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      Quote: Operator
      Planning winged Avangard blocks flying at altitudes of up to 130 km - the lower boundary of the infrared homing system of warheads and interceptors of American missile defense.

      IMHO, everything is not so rosy at all, Vanguard blocks fly most of the time along the same ballistic trajectory as the others. So they may well be hit by GBI missiles over most of the trajectory. In addition, theoretically, the SM-3 missile can hit this block in a narrow area from several hundred km to its atmospheric maneuvering mode.
      1. Operator 24 January 2020 10: 59 New
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        The Avangard design bureau from the very beginning is put into a circular orbit (similar to Soyuz spacecraft) with an altitude of about 130 km and begins to plan along a sinusoid, descending into the atmosphere to an altitude of ~ 60 km and again rising to an altitude of ~ 130 km (with decreasing sinusoid step along as the PCB decelerates) until the moment of diving onto the target.
        1. Passing 24 January 2020 12: 53 New
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          If so, then this changes the matter.
          The only thing that is painfully doubtful on the technical side of the matter is this possibility is more like Internet fantasies. Can you link to the source?
          1. Operator 24 January 2020 13: 39 New
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            Eugen Senger, Silver Bird project, third flight option.
            1. Passing 24 January 2020 14: 07 New
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              I see a fantasy project, in the 40s they clearly did not represent the whole complexity of hypersonic flights.
              I see a modern design of a space reusable spacecraft. And if this device were to implement the idea of ​​a sinusoidal flight, then questions would be reduced, but nowhere is there any confirmation of this.
              Publicly, no one has hinted at a similar scheme for Vanguard.
              So for now, this is exactly Internet fantasy.
  12. honest people 23 January 2020 15: 16 New
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    Respect interesting reading to the author! good
  13. Old26 23 January 2020 15: 22 New
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    Andrew! A few small additions to this article:
    Quote: Author
    Initially, it was planned to protect three airbases with 150 ICBMs on each; in total, 450 ICBMs were thus protected. However, due to the signing of the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense between the USA and the USSR in 1972, it was decided to limit the deployment of the Safeguard missile defense only at the Stanley Mickelsen base in North Dakota.


    It was originally planned to cover missile bases
    1. Warren (Wyoming) with 150 Minuteman ICBMs of the 90th missile wing.
    2. Malmstrom (Montana) with 150 ICBM Minuteman of the 341st missile wing.
    3. Grand Forks (North Dakota) with 150 Minuteman ICBMs of the 321st missile wing.

    After the conclusion of the ABM Treaty, it was decided to cover only one missile base - the Grand Forks missile base (North Dakota), where 150 Minutmen ICBMs of the 321st missile wing were based.

    The Safeguard system was deployed at Stanley Michelsen in North Dakota, 100 miles north of the Grand Forks missile base. The base, built near the city of Nekoma, was named in honor of Stanley Michelsen, commander of the US Air Defense Forces in 1952-1957.

    The central position of the complex included the following objects in addition to radars:
    • 30 mines (six rows of five each) of Spartan missiles, which were to intercept enemy warheads outside the atmosphere at a distance of up to 740 km from the complex;
    • 16 mines (four rows of four units) Sprint missiles - they had to intercept and destroy those enemy missiles that could manage to break through the first echelon of defense.

    Scheme of the Center position of the complex


    Around the main complex, covering the spaced positions of ballistic missiles, there were four Remote Missile Sites of Sprint missiles: positions 1 and 2 each had 12 launch silos, position 3 had 16 launch silos, and position number 4 to 14 start-up shafts. In total, up to 54 Sprint missiles had external positions.
    RSL 1 48°32′00.24″N 98°34′58.81″W
    RSL 2 48°50′58.03″N 98°25′55.84″W
    RSL 3 48°45′52.63″N 97°59′9.92″W
    RSL 4 48°28′30.91″N 98°15′23.02″W

    Quote: Author
    An even more ambitious project was the creation of nuclear-pumped X-ray lasers. A package of rods made of special materials is used as a source of hard x-ray radiation in a nuclear-pumped laser. A nuclear charge is used as a pump source. After the nuclear charge is detonated, but until the rods evaporate, a powerful laser pulse is formed in them in the hard X-ray range.

    The program was called "Escalibur"

    Quote: Author
    Rail weapon
    The rail guns, dubbed the “railguns” (steel railguns), were another element of SDI under consideration. In railgun, the dispersal of shells is carried out using the Lorentz force. It can be assumed that the main reason that did not allow the creation of railguns in the framework of the SDI program was the lack of energy storage devices capable of ensuring the accumulation, long-term storage, and fast energy output of several megawatts. For space systems, the problem of guide rail wear, which is inherent in "ground" railguns due to the limited time of the missile defense system, would be less critical.
    The defeat of the targets was planned to be carried out by a high-speed projectile with a kinetic defeat of the target (without undermining the warhead). At the moment, the United States is actively developing a combat railgun in the interests of the naval forces (Navy), so studies carried out under the SDI program are unlikely to be wasted.

    At one time, at a time when everyone was just talking about SDI, the book "Space Weapons: The Security Dilemma" was released. And there was also about rail weapons, including and about the masses and speed characteristics of shells. True, then the term "kinetic weapon" was more often used.
    The main problem then was the problem of aiming.
    Imagine an orbital station with a railgun and large ammunition. Plus the station itself weighing several tons. The rate of fire of such a railgun was planned quite large. There were no computers capable of working in space both navigational and ballistic for firing at targets then. More precisely, they were, but low-power and the problem was that, among other things, these computers could not take into account, at a high rate of fire, the angle of rotation of the station itself. The problem of actuators and computer (this is so, if from memory)
    1. opus 24 January 2020 00: 53 New
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      Quote: Old26
      There were no computers capable of working in space both navigational and ballistic for firing at targets then.

      why shturansky? The station (if the braking impulse) does not exceed the threshold value, it will fly in orbit. with Kepler's equation

      the slide rule can handle
      and THEN there were LONG MONICA, D-17B (Minuteman I) and D-37B / D-37C (Minuteman II)
      Threat Autonetics D200 was also used to control the flight of the F-14 fighter, the MP944 MOS-LSI chipset used was developed by the company from 1968 to 1970. A 20-bit computer processed information from the sensors and provided data for a set of equipment and aircraft control.
      Quote: Old26
      other things, these computers could not take into account, at high rate of fire, the angle of rotation of the station itself.

      The start of Voyager 2 was 20 August 1977 year
      “Voyager-1” and “Voyager-2” took into account “twists” of the planets, their flight, did gravitational maneuvers, etc., etc. + transmitted information, orienting the directional antenna to the Earth, which quickly “flies” in orbit with V = 29,783 km / c (warheads "rest"), Doppler shifts from the Earth's daily rotation, taking into account the delay of the signal (there and back)
      The computer there consisted of three separate duplicated computers.
      * The first of them (CCS) performs a team role, and monitors the status of the devices (it is identical to that used in the Viking program);
      * The second (Flight Data System - FDS) performs the tasks of forming and transmitting telemetry (it was developed specifically for devices);
      * The third (Attitude and Articulation Control System - AACS) controls the orientation system and platform with scientific instruments.


      easily "controlled"
      16 one-component orientation engines (working on hydrazine decomposition) with a thrust of only 85 grams each; three gyroscopes with an accuracy of one ten thousandth of a degree (one of which was a spare); Canopus and Sun sensors (which was located in the antenna hole) + research + communication
      69,63 KB of RAM (4 thousand 18-bit words)
      the processor clock speed is only 250 kHz, while it can only perform 8 thousand operations per second.
      At the time of launching the devices from the available 4 thousand words - only two remained free (0,016 Kb)

      A preliminary calculation of the "three bodies" problem was made in 1961 on the IBM 7090 (Daniel Shanks and John Wrench used the IBM 7090 to calculate the first 100 digits of the number π) - now it’s a shame to even call it a computer)

      nothing flies so far, hzg

      It is not a matter of executive mechanisms and computers, it is a source of energy and (most important) locations ..
    2. opus 24 January 2020 01: 00 New
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      Quote: Old26
      The program was called "Escalibur"

      Sorry buddy, forgot.
      "Escalibur" or "Super Escalibur" is an unofficial name, journalism came up with.
      there was no such thing, you can check the official link here:
      http://www.nv.doe.gov (US Nuclear Text)
      Group "O" - was.
      Diablo Hawk (1978), Dauphin (1980), Cabra and Romano (1983), Correo (1984), Cottage and Goldstone (1985), Labquark (1986) - were ...
      there was no "sword"
      wink
  14. The comment was deleted.
  15. 501Legion 23 January 2020 17: 05 New
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    such articles to favorites
  16. Knell wardenheart 24 January 2020 02: 40 New
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    The USSR was forced to justify its hypertrophied heavy industry - with the machinations of enemies and their sophisticated preparations. At the beginning of the Brezhnev era, we caught up with the United States (and then surpassed) in terms of the number of nuclear warheads. Regarding them - the number of American interceptors was mildly ridiculous. However, we continued to build up and develop this area with the stubbornness of a maniac. At some point, it is likely that this imbalance state seemed really dangerous to the Americans - here they can be completely understood. The same feelings pushed us to create "Relights", "Poseidons" and "Vanguards" in response to the buildup of US missile defense components.

    However, over time, it was the USSR’s habits that made the United States what it is now — a country until fanaticism saturated with paranoid missions ..
  17. Operator 24 January 2020 11: 13 New
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    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    this state of imbalance seemed really dangerous to the Americans - here they are quite understandable. The same feelings pushed us to create "Relights", "Poseidons" and "Vanguards" in response to the buildup of US missile defense components

    Your first thesis corresponds to the situation: the USSR (before Gorbachev) pursued a strategy of intimidation in relation to its main enemy - NATO.

    The second one is not, because the Russian Federation, on the basis of its technological superiority, adheres to the strategy of guaranteed destruction of all other countries, both together (in the global nuclear conflict) and separately (in the local nuclear conflict).

    McNamartism is alive bully
  18. Operator 24 January 2020 14: 08 New
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    Quote: Passing by
    internet fantasies

    Put into service regardless of opinions, affirmations and other crap.
  19. Intruder 2 February 2020 00: 00 New
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    Quote: ccsr
    Quote: AVM
    In any case, the triad will undergo a transformation, and will no longer be the classic "Nuclear Triad."

    I would like to know how you explain this, at least from the point of view of the modern nuclear forces of Russia?
    Nuclear and airborne patrols will continue in the future, and our strategic bombers modernization program and the creation of new nuclear submarines are proof of this. The troops of the Strategic Missile Forces, as I understand it, will not be touched at all, at least no one even stutters to reduce their role.
    So in what you see the transformation and its direction - tell us more. Naturally, if a new weapon does not appear on other physical principles, we will not discuss this.
    In general, the article is very useful and informative, though I was confused by the information that in the USA already in 1940 they began developing the missile defense system, if only because for them it was then irrelevant.


    Perhaps they were afraid of the “Fau” project or something else that we won’t recognize in the coming years * to begin to develop earlier than the USSR, apparently the reconnaissance brought alarming news from the Old World! :)