The surrender of the Swedish army at Perevolochnaya

The surrender of the Swedish army at Perevolochnaya

As we recall from the previous article ("Poltava accident of the army of Charles XII"), after the defeat at Poltava, the Swedish troops retreated to their wagon train, which was under the protection of 7 regiments near the village of Pushkarevka, located southwest of Poltava.


The Swedes, who at that time were next to Charles XII, report that at first the king did not look dejected, claiming that this "embarrassment" does not matter much. He even wrote a letter to his sister - Ulrike Eleanor (who would later replace him on the royal throne), which said between the cases:

“Everything is going well here. Only ... because of one special case, the army had the misfortune to suffer losses, which, I hope, will be corrected in a short time. ”


Ulrika Frederick Pash. Portrait of the Swedish Queen Ulrike Eleanor, sister of Charles XII

The mood of Charles XII changed after the report that Field Marshal Rönschild, the head of the Campaign Office Pieper and "Little Prince Maximilian" were taken prisoner. Learning of this, the king exclaimed:

"How? Captured by the Russians? Then it is better to die among the Turks. Forward!"


Maximilian Emanuel, Duke of Württemberg-Vinental, “The Little Prince” - “brother by arms»Charles XII. At the time of capture - Colonel of the Skonsky Dragoon Regiment

They did not learn anything about the real situation in Sweden at the end of August 1709, when a new letter from Karl, written in Ochakovo, arrived:

“It turned out thanks to a strange and accident that the Swedish troops suffered losses in the field battle on the 28th of last month ... however, we are now busy finding funds so that the enemy would not gain any advantage and would not even get the slightest benefit.”

And only from foreign sources did the Swedes understand that their formidable army, which went with Charles XII to the Russian campaign, no longer exists.

But we will return on that great day of Poltava Victoria.

The retreat of the Swedish army from Poltava


Delighted with his victory, Peter seemed to decide to play giveaways with the Swedes: feasting feverishly with captive "teachers", he forgot to order the pursuit of the enemy army.


Thus, he repeated his mistake in the battle of Lesnaya, when, without organizing the pursuit of the retreating Swedes in time, he allowed Levengaupt to bring part of his corps to the king. But now, General Levengaupt was destined to limp the entire remaining army.

R. Bour and M. Golitsyn at the head of the Dragoon detachments were sent in pursuit of the Swedes only late in the evening. The next day, A. Menshikov was assigned to pursue the Swedes, who was entrusted with the overall leadership of the operation.


M. van Musscher. Portrait of A. Menshikov, painted in Holland during the Great Embassy, ​​1698

The one who would capture Karl was promised the rank of general and 100 thousand rubles.

And only on June 30 Peter I himself, at the head of the Ingermanland and Astrakhan regiments and accompanied by a company of the life squadron, also moved after the Swedes.

But on the first day, the Swedish army, practically uncontrolled and unchallenged by anyone, quickly retreated south along the coast of Vorskla.


The path of the Swedish army from Poltava to Perevolochnaya

Suffering from leg pain and fever, Karl was among the remains of the Upland Horse Regiment. General Levengaupt retired from all affairs and did not even try to somehow manage the retreat of this still large enough army. As a result, "no one obeyed anyone, everyone was afraid only for himself and tried to break ahead."

On the way to the retreating Swedes, the regiment of Major General Meyerfeld, squadrons of Lieutenant Colonels Funk and Silverielm, who did not participate in the Poltava battle, joined.

To slow down the movement of Russian troops, Meyerfeld was sent to Peter I, who proposed to begin peace negotiations.


Johan August Meijerfeldt, portrait painted in 1729, during which time Meyerfeld was governor of Swedish Pomerania

The general said that the chief of the field office of Charles XII, captured by the Russians, was endowed with such powers. But Peter already understood that the Swedish king was almost in his hands and managed to detain the dragons Menshikov for only 2 hours.

To get to lands subject to the Ottoman Empire or the Crimean Khanate, the Swedes had to cross the Dnieper or Vorskla.

Recall that the Crimean khans belonged to the steppes of the Northern Black Sea region, and the famous island of Khortitsa, for example, was located on the border of the khan lands. But the Crimean peninsula itself belonged to the Tatars only partially: the territory of Gothia (with the center in Kef - Theodosius) and the former colonies of Genoa (Kerch with its environs) were part of the Ottoman Empire (Kefin eyelid)


Map of the Black Sea, Nicolas de Fer, 1705

The path to the possession of the Ottoman Port (via the Dnieper) was shorter, but this river was wider and deeper than Vorskla.

Axel Gillenkrok (Yullenkruk), sent for reconnaissance, found a relatively shallow spot and 8 ferries in Vorskla near Kyshenok. But some Cossack told him that the ruined city of Perevolochna on the Dnieper has an even more convenient place for crossing, where you can cross the river in carts, and Gillencrock went to look for this ford, ordering him to take the ferries with him. On the way, this "Ivan Susanin" was lost, and it turned out at Perevolochnaya that the river in this place is very wide and deep, and the carpenters who arrived with it found only 70 logs on the shore. Gillencrock sent a messenger, indicating to stop the army at Chicken, but was late. Pursued by the Menshikov dragoons, the Swedes were already approaching the Dnieper. Here, seeing that there was little chance of an organized crossing, the soldiers, in a panic, began to try to independently cross over to the other side. Some paid 100 thalers per place on ferries, or rafts and boats built, others - swam, holding on to the mane of horses - and many of them drowned. Then Mazepa and his young wife crossed over to the other side, as well as the Cossack colonel Voinarovsky. Part of the hetman’s property drowned, which later gave rise to rumors about Mazepa’s treasure, which many were looking for in those places.

Here, on the banks of the Dnieper, General Levengaupt caught an ermine climbing into his hat. He considered this beast a symbol of the Swedish army, which also “lured itself into a trap,” and from that time completely lost heart.


Adam Ludwig Levengaupt, in this portrait he is a major general, governor of Riga and has not yet lost a single battle (the first will be a defeat at Lesnaya)

Arriving at the Perevolochnaya Charles XII was inclined to give another battle, but the generals and officers who were with him persuaded him to cross to the other side. General Kreutz said that if the Russians came up with one cavalry (as it happened), the Swedes could fight back without Karl. If the whole Russian army comes, the presence of the king will not help the soldiers.


Baron Karl Gustav Kreutz, cavalry general

We agreed that Karl would expect his army in Ochakovo. Further, it was planned to move to Poland in the hope of connecting with the Swedish corps of General Krassau and the Polish troops Stanislav Leshchinsky. Thus, the size of the army could be increased to 40 thousand people. In addition, an order was sent to Stockholm to conduct an urgent recruitment of new recruits.

1500 Cossacks and 1300 Swedes crossed with the king, among whom were generals Sparre, Lagerkrona, Meyerfeld, Gillenkrok, commander of the Drabant Chord, secretary of the royal chancellery Joachim Duben.


Crossing of Charles XII across the Dnieper

Remaining for the commander, General Levengaupt ordered to burn the carts, distribute supplies and treasury to the soldiers, but the Swedes did not have time to leave the Perevolochnaya. On June 30, 1709, three hours after the crossing of Charles XII, they saw horseback detachments of Alexander Menshikov in front of them, among whom were soldiers of the Semenovsky regiment mounted on horses. In total there were about 9 thousand people.

The surrender of the Swedes at Perevolnaya


Arriving at Perevolnaya, the Semenovites dismounted and stood in a square, the cavalry was located on the flanks.


The arrow of the Dnieper and Vorskla on the modern map is the place of surrender of the Swedish army on June 30, 1709.


The surrender of the Swedish army at Perevolochnaya. Scheme from the book of P. Englund “Poltava. The story of the death of one army. " Line A - Swedes, Line B - Russian battle formation, Line C - spare horses of the Russian corps

There were much more Swedes (Swedish historians, which, in this case, you can probably trust, counted 18 people), and you often hear that the main culprit of their surrender was Levengaupt. However, in fairness, it should be said that among the Swedes panic began. General Meyerfeld’s dragoons refused to ride their horses. “They only looked at me as if I were crazy,” Levengaupt later complained.

Some soldiers desperately rushed into the water, others - in small groups went to surrender. A large part of the army, according to Levengaupt, “was in a stupor” and “no more than half of the lower ranks and officers remained with their banners”.

And yet there were units ready to obey the orders of Levengaupt. The noble regiment of Ramsverd and the regiment of Wennerstedt were lined up for battle, and the dragoons of the regiment of Albedil, according to eyewitnesses, calmly awaited orders, lying by saddled horses and reading prayer books.

According to the most conservative estimates, Levengaupt would be able to gather forces equal to 6-7 regiments (this is about half the army that was with him), and either drive away the Menshikov detachment (which, of course, would inspire other soldiers who lost their spirit), or break through with those who had remained combat-ready connections to the intestines.

The Swedish general Kreutz, who climbed the hill to clarify the situation, claimed that the Russian cavalry was extremely tired of the long passage: some horses literally fell down from fatigue. The powerful blow of the fresh cavalry units of the Swedes could be fatal for the Russian dragoons, but the morally broken Levengaupt did not dare to give such an order. Instead, he gathered regiment commanders and asked them to answer what they think about the relatively mild surrender terms proposed by Menshikov, and can they vouch for the reliability of their soldiers? Those, in turn, declaring personal allegiance to King Karl, began to blame everything on the soldiers, saying that they either put down their guns at the sight of the enemy, or could not defend themselves due to lack of ammunition, and only a few assured the commander that their subordinates ready to fight.

Unsatisfied with their answers, Levengaupt now addressed the same questions directly to the soldiers, who were at a loss, and were divided in opinions. Many took this as a sign of hopelessness of the situation in which they found themselves - after all, the charter of the Swedish army forbade not only to surrender, but even to retreat: the officers “had the power to deal with such rebels, because they must either fight and die at the hands of enemies of the state, or fall from the retaliation of the commander. " Previously, generals and colonels were not interested in their opinions and never asked about anything.

Albedil’s life-dragoons (those who read the prayer books while attuning to the battle) said that they would “do everything in their power”, but most of the soldiers were gloomy silent, and this further increased Levengaupt’s anxiety and insecurity. He again gathered the officers, who now agreed that "it is better to surrender on any terms of honor, than to continue to experience happiness with arms."

According to the drawn up agreement on surrender, the Russians were transferred weapons, horses and the entire convoy. As trophies, Menshikov received 21 guns, 2 howitzers, 8 mortars, 142 banners and 700 thousand thalers (some of this money belonged to Mazepa).

Private property of the Swedish army was left personal property and promised the possibility of exchange for Russian prisoners of war, or ransom. The officers, in addition, were promised maintenance at the expense of the royal treasury. But they took away jewelry, gold and silver utensils, gold and silver brocade, sable fur coats and skins ("acquired by overwork" during a trip to Ukraine and Poland).

The Cossacks who joined the Swedes were regarded as traitors, and the treaty did not apply to them.

Thus, the 49 best Swedish regiments ceased to exist in the four days that elapsed from the Poltava battle, until the surrender at Perevolnaya.


"The final defeat of the Swedes at Perevolochny." Engraving Larmessen from a picture of Martin Jr.

Charles XII wrote to his sister that

"Levengaupt acted contrary to command and military duty, in the most shameful way, and caused an irreparable loss ... Always before he showed himself from the excellent side, but this time he, apparently, did not possess reason."

And Levengaupt, who did not believe in the possibility of resistance, then justified himself by saying that he was more afraid of the king’s wrath than “the omniscient God, who severely asks for intentional murder.”


Medal minted in Russia in honor of the capture of General Adam Levengaupt

Having concluded a surrender agreement, Menshikov, following the example of Peter I, arranged a feast for generals and senior officers of the Swedish army. During this dinner they had the pleasure of seeing the sad picture of the disarmament of their once formidable army. The infantrymen laid down their weapons in front of the formation of the Semenovsky regiment: they saluted the muskets and lowered them to the sand, after which they removed swords and cartridge rifles from themselves. Squadrons of cavalrymen, one after another, marched in front of a line of R. Bour dragoons and threw timpani, standards, swords and carbines onto the ground in front of them. According to eyewitnesses, half of the soldiers threw weapons with a feeling of obvious relief, others with indignation, some of them cried.

The Flight of Charles XII and Mazepa


On July 1, 1709 (the day after the surrender of the Swedish army), Tsar Peter I himself arrived at the Perevolochka. He ordered Major General G. Volkonsky, at the head of 2 thousand “draconian dragoons,” to continue the persecution of Charles XII, and Field Marshal Lieutenant G.fon der Loach in Volyn was sent an order to block the king’s path to Poland.

On July 8, Volkonsky caught up with a mixed detachment of Swedes and Cossacks (2800 people) at Bug and killed most of it, 260 people were captured and only about 600 (including Karl and Mazepa) managed to cross to the other side.

Charles XII will soon end up in Bender, where he will at first be warmly received by the Ottomans, but very soon the Sultan will bitterly regret his decision to grant asylum to the inadequate Swedish king. His long stay in Turkey was described in an article. "Vikings" against the Janissaries. The incredible adventures of Charles XII in the Ottoman Empire.

Mazepa will die in Bender on September 21 (October 2), 1709. By order of Peter I, a “order of Judah” weighing 10 pounds was made for him in Russia, and the “Cross of Ivan Mazepa” was established in Ukraine on March 26, 2009 by order of the third president of this country V. Yushchenko. Among the “laureates” of this dubious (from the point of view of every normal person) award was Mikhail Denisenko, excommunicated in 1992, better known as Filaret. This is his cunning patriarch of Constantinople Bartholomew cleverly spent with the delivery of the enslaving tomos:

“We do not accept this tomos, because we did not know the contents of the tomos that we were given. If we knew the content, on December 15 we would not have voted for autocephaly ”
Filaret said on June 11, 2019.
Since in Soviet times, Filaret gratefully accepted the Order of Friendship of Peoples (1979) and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1988) from the government, the presentation of the traitor's cross to him seems quite logical and justified.

Ivan Skoropadsky became the new hetman of Left-Bank Ukraine.


Getman Ivan Skoropadsky

At his request, Peter I issued a manifesto on March 11, 1710, in which it was forbidden to insult the people of Little Russia, reproaching him with betrayal of Mazepa.

Swedish prisoners at Perevolnaya


How many soldiers and officers of the army of Charles XII were captured by Perevolnaya?

E. Tarle wrote:

"When the Swedes were gradually subsequently caught, scattered through forests and fields ... then the total count of captives gave the figure of about 18 thousand people."

The Swedish historian Peter Englund gives the following figures:

Officers - 983.

Non-commissioned officers and soldiers - 12 (including 575 cavalrymen).

Nestroyevs - 4809 people, including 40 pastors, 231 musicians, 945 masters of various specialties, 34 courtiers of Charles XII and 25 royal footmen, as well as grooms, horsemen, clerks, furiers and others.

Women (wives of soldiers and officers) and children - 1657.

Thus, the number of prisoners reaches 20 thousand people (together with those who surrendered at Poltava - about 23 thousand).

Three generals were captured under Perevolnaya: Levengaupt, Kruse and Kreutz. Later Quartemaster General Axel Gillenkrock joined them, whom Charles XII sent with a small detachment to the Polish border. In Chernivtsi, he was captured by the Russian detachment and taken to Moscow.


Axel Gyllencrock (Yullencrook)

Recall that during Poltava, Field Marshal Rönschild, generals Schlippenbach, Roos, Hamilton, Stackelberg and the head of the Royal Campaign Office Karl Pieper were also captured.

In total, during the years of the Northern War, approximately 250 thousand people of various nationalities were captured in Russian, among whom were “non-combatants” - attendants (blacksmiths, carpenters, horsemen, laundresses and others), and residents of some border cities resettled deep into Russia. The name of the most famous laundress, which the Russians got as a trophy, is familiar to everyone. This is Marta Skavronskaya, who was lucky in Marienburg to draw the attention of Count B. Sheremetev (but there is evidence that another hero of Poltava, R. Bour, became her first patron). This woman gradually rose to the rank of the Russian Empress, surpassing even the spoiled child of Alexander Menshikov in her fantastic career.


Jean Henri Benner Catherine I (Marta Samuilovna Skavronskaya - Cruz)

The fate of the Swedish prisoners in Russia and the end of the Northern War will be described in the following articles.
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  1. 210ox 21 January 2020 05: 43 New
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    A wonderful series of articles, thanks to the author. I am even ashamed that in the sixth decade I did not know many facts about the Northern War.
    1. rich 21 January 2020 07: 31 New
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      I am joining. Wonderful cycle. Good author's style, excellent illustrations and schemes. thanks
      1. Mountain shooter 22 January 2020 15: 09 New
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        It became clear how Karl escaped captivity, although the defeat was utter. I suppose Peter didn’t really understand what to do with Karl if he was held captive. wassat And he did more harm to his country, maintaining his status laughing
  2. Comrade 21 January 2020 05: 58 New
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    only about 600 (including Karl and Mazepa) managed to cross to the other side.

    There was information that, after the crossing, the Swedes robbed Mazepa of the treasury of Ukraine, which he appropriated and carried with him.
    1. rich 21 January 2020 07: 29 New
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      After the capture of the remnants of the Swedish army at Perevolochny in the Northern War, a radical change occurred. Denmark and Saxony rejoined the Northern Union, declaring war on Sweden, and the latter now had to not attack, but repel allied attacks.
  3. Mityay65 21 January 2020 07: 16 New
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    I like the cycle. Thanks to the author! Sometimes an earlier unknown and interesting view of the author’s things comes across.
    What is of interest in this regard: is there any data on the strategic plan of Charles 12 for the war? After all, he was not going to wage a war of 2 decades, it is ruinous. Probably, there was an initial strategic plan of the war on a gigantic piece of land from Denmark to Moscow (such is the theater, as I believe). Or did ideas about the capture of Moscow come later from hopelessness?
    And the second is Karl’s very strange trip to Moscow from Minsk near Poltava. Thus he was moving away from Moscow, and not approaching. What is the meaning of such a plan? Maybe he was expecting something, counting on something? Outwardly, he simply wasted time and, in addition, tormented the army with winter crossings, which were pretty aimless. After all, he clearly had little strength to march on Moscow. Here, too, the strategic plan is completely unclear.
    I would like these 2 questions to be somehow revealed.
    1. VLR
      VLR 21 January 2020 07: 37 New
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      Karl’s strategy is reminiscent of Porthos’s life principles: “I fight because I fight!”
      The army, despite the skepticism of some commentators, it had a magnificent, the best in the history of Sweden, and better than the North Leo, who rewritten the history of Europe, Gustav Adolf. Karl got it "ready to eat," and in Europe everyone was really afraid of the new Swedish king. All Germany lay at his feet, Denmark was defeated, in Poland he made his "king", the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, on the orders of Charles, meekly gave religious freedom to the Protestants of Silesia. And there was nowhere to put money after the victory over Augustus. Sweden at that time was not a country, but an empire, including the Northern and Eastern Baltic states, and a bunch of German lands. Finland and Pomerania were saved even after the defeat in the Northern War.
      The purpose of the Russian campaign is the deposition of Peter 1: neither more nor less.
      He went to Smolensk, but turned south due to the desperate condition of the army, and hoping to get supplies from Mazepa. After the fall of the Hetman’s capital Baturin and the defeat of Levengaupt at Lesnaya, of course, it was necessary to retreat. But Karl underestimated the Russian army: he believed that he would break it in a big battle and solve all problems. And about the attitude of Karl to his subordinates (from whom he demanded to be the same Vikings and berserkers as he himself) is written in the article "Karl 12 and his army."
      1. Catfish 21 January 2020 08: 53 New
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        Karl’s strategy is reminiscent of Porthos’s life principles: “I fight because I fight!”


        This is cool! But I wondered who Karl reminds me of, either a pugnacious cock, or ... Well, now there is an exact definition.

        Thank you, Valery! hi I'm going to brew coffee and sit down to read it thoughtfully. smile
        1. IS-80_RVGK2 21 January 2020 16: 15 New
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          Porthos was just very pragmatic. smile
      2. Korsar4 21 January 2020 09: 22 New
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        Interesting. A specific image is created. And then you follow him. And the environment too.
      3. sivuch 21 January 2020 10: 08 New
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        Some commentators are probably me yes . Perhaps the best in Swedish history - it may well be. But if you compare it with the French (only to have someone at the level of Villars at the head) or the Austrian with Prince Eugen, the Russian army would have had more problems.
        By the way, it would be worth adding that the Austrian emperor had reasons to be quiet and tolerant. There was a terrible war for the Spanish inheritance plus the Rakoczi Ferenc uprising in Hungary and another empire front was completely unnecessary
        1. Okolotochny 22 January 2020 14: 08 New
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          So the Russian army at that time again learned to fight. Fast forward 60-70 years - from all of you listed "feathers flew." The "plucking" was done by the Russian army.
          1. sivuch 22 January 2020 17: 23 New
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            For example, the French were plucking the Austrian army, and with varying success. And the Russian army was an ally of the Austrians throughout the 18th and 19th centuries and fought with them only once - in the WWII.
            1. Okolotochny 23 January 2020 12: 24 New
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              Yes Yes. As with Israel - so in Russia everything is bad. The Seven Years War - on whose bayonets was it won? War with the Turks - Fokshany and Rymnik, on whose bayonets the Austrians were among the winners? The war with Napoleon is the same, the Austrian emperor FULLY capitulated to Napoleon, his daughter was held hostage to him (for wives). Well, in the WWI - if it were not for the Kaiser army, then from the Austro-Hungarians not only feathers would fly.
      4. Kronos 21 January 2020 15: 33 New
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        Well, in general, Russia by that time had completely seized Ingermanland from Sweden, so I would not say that everything from the Swedes was brilliant
      5. Astra wild 21 January 2020 17: 17 New
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        "Karl got her" ready to eat "and he mediocre" used "... If Gustav Adolf was instead of Karl, then he could create a great empire.
        1. 3x3zsave 21 January 2020 18: 30 New
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          My admiration, Beautiful Stranger! hi
          But what if Karl Birger Magnusson Volkung were in place of Karl?
          1. Korsar4 21 January 2020 19: 46 New
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            Something else would be founded.

            But if Clara were in the place of Karl, then a well-known non-trading operation with corals and clarinet would happen.
            1. Hantengri 21 January 2020 20: 50 New
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              Quote: Korsar4
              But if Clara were in the place of Karl, then a well-known non-trading operation with corals and clarinet would happen.

              Without Karl, this non-trading operation, Clara could not happen, by definition.
              1. Korsar4 21 January 2020 21: 03 New
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                Carl could come back.
          2. Catfish 21 January 2020 20: 54 New
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            "And if he was carrying cartridges !?" (FROM) laughing
  4. Boris55 21 January 2020 09: 12 New
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    Quote: Ryzhov V.A.
    The surrender of the Swedish army at Perevolochnaya

    Why surrenderand not a rout? Again there is a substitution of concepts.
    First - defeat, and only then - surrender.

    To understand the dog, it is not necessary to get on all fours and begin to bark

    ps
    For V. Ryzhov to his interest in previous comments about: "the evolution of his (Paulus) views on what is happening." His evolution of consciousness is exactly the same as that of any criminal, traitor, who fell into the hands of justice. Paulus, at the Nuremberg trials, had a choice: to be in the dock or to be a witness. He, in order to survive, surrendered all his former bosses with a bite. He does not cause me any interest, but only contempt and hatred.
    1. VLR
      VLR 21 January 2020 09: 53 New
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      1. The defeat was at Poltava. And at Perevolochnaya, the Swedish army did not even try to resist, but immediately capitulated.
      2. Feelings for historical characters can be any, including contempt and hatred. But this does not mean that their personality and their activities should not be or harmful to study. On the contrary, often this is very useful, and allows certain and very important conclusions to be drawn.
      1. Boris55 21 January 2020 10: 09 New
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        Quote: VlR
        at Perevolochny, the Swedish army did not even try to resist, but immediately capitulated.

        Not capitulated, but surrendered! It was she who, after the rout, in Poltava, capitulated. Small units do not capitulate. They either die heroically or surrender to the mercy of the winner.

        France capitulated on March 31, 1814. Germany - May 9, 1945, although some units continued to resist.

        Quote: VlR
        But this does not mean that their personality and their activities should not be or harmful to study.

        With this - to the psychiatrists.
        We don’t need to get into the shoes of nonhumans who have come to our land in order to kill and rob us.

        We are the winners and their experience, their defeats, we do not need anything.

        .
        1. Deniska999 21 January 2020 10: 36 New
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          The experience of defeats should always be studied so as not to repeat mistakes, boasting laurels of the winner.
          1. Boris55 21 January 2020 11: 52 New
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            Quote: Deniska999
            Defeat experience always needs to be studied

            Yes, it is necessary, but only his own, and not a stranger. When was the last time we published memoirs of our commanders? And how many books of our enemies have been published? Here is the answer to what is imposed on us and what we forget.
            1. Deniska999 21 January 2020 12: 55 New
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              This is a one-sided look. Conservation within oneself is not the best way out.
        2. Hantengri 21 January 2020 20: 22 New
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          Quote: Boris55
          We are the winners and their experience, their defeats, we do not need anything.

          It's a matter of taste. Smart people learn, as a rule, from the mistakes of others. Representatives of the glorious de`Bills tribe prefer on their ...
        3. phair 23 January 2020 08: 19 New
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          Why do psychiatrists need them? Pathologists are their destiny.
      2. Trilobite Master 21 January 2020 11: 07 New
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        Valery, thanks for the article. hi
        I, it seems, understood what Boris wants from you, if I am mistaken, he will correct me. smile
        He has nothing against studying history in principle, but in his opinion it is highly desirable to adhere to a strict set of rules when describing historical events.
        - If Russia does not participate in the events, you don’t need to know, and accordingly, write about them.
        - The war should not end in peace, but in victory. Therefore, the war continues now.
        - There are no opponents in the war, there are enemies. One who was an enemy once remains him forever.
        - The enemy is always to blame for starting a war and bears full moral and material responsibility for its consequences.
        - It is necessary to speak about enemies in a derogatory sense, in exceptional cases you can mention its advantages with the obligatory reservation that these advantages are overlapped by numerous shortcomings.
        - Always remember that the successful actions of the enemies are exclusively temporary and are the result of either their vile intrigues, or an unfortunate combination of circumstances, but not the valor and courage of the soldiers or the skill of the commanders.
        - Any attempts to look at events from the point of view of the enemy, attempts to understand his motivation, decision-making algorithms are considered treason.
        - Attempts to show sympathy for the enemy are considered particularly cynical betrayal and are equated with the act of Kolya from Urengoy, with the obligatory mention of the latter.
        - The use of definitions and epithets similar in emotional content when describing the actions of the enemy and the Russian (Russian, Soviet) army is unacceptable.
        The application.
        Epithets and definitions recommended for use in describing the actions of the Russian (Russian, Soviet) army:
        Heroic, valiant, courageous, wise, generous, just retribution.
        Epithets and definitions recommended for use in describing the actions of the enemy army:
        Crazy, cowardly, adventurous, vile, treacherous, cruel, deserved punishment.

        I think, Valery, if you strictly adhere to these rules, then no more complaints from Boris will follow.
        1. Boris55 21 January 2020 11: 33 New
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          No, not at all like that. I apologize for not being able to clearly express my opinion. Maybe the answers to your idea of ​​me will help me understand.

          “I'm interested in the experience of other people's wars.”
          - Any war ends in peace.
          - Hitler (fascism), unlike the German people, will always be an enemy for me.
          - The enemy is always the one who attacks and he is fully responsible for the consequences (Nuremberg Tribunal).
          - One must speak of the enemy as an enemy, and not seek excuses for verbiage to him.
          - We need to talk not about temporary victories of the enemy, but about our failures. We are winners!
          - It is necessary to study our mistakes.
          - What kind of sympathy can be for the enemies that came to our land to kill our wives, mothers, old people and children? What are you talking about? Are you Kolya from Uringoy? In your family, no one died at the hands of the invaders, so do you sympathize with these villains who wished to profit at our expense?
          - We must clearly indicate our position and the position of the enemy. Liberalism is not permissible.
          - The Russian and Soviet army - there is a liberating army. Is it not for you?
          “The enemy must never be left unpunished.” Every crime must have consequences.
          1. Trilobite Master 21 January 2020 12: 57 New
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            Quote: Boris55
            No, not at all like that.

            No, by and large you actually subscribed to my comment with the exception of a few points. But it’s bad luck, it’s precisely they that contradict most of your other comments, including this one.
            Quote: Boris55
            I'm interested in the experience of other people's wars

            Judging by the number and content of your comments under articles that are not directly related to the history of Russia, it is unlikely.
            Quote: Boris55
            Any war ends in peace.

            Just not for you. You are still in your thoughts surrounded by enemies and traitors whom you seek out, at least here, on the site, with enviable persistence. We look at the following points:
            Quote: Boris55
            One must speak of the enemy as an enemy

            Quote: Boris55
            What could be sympathy for enemies

            Quote: Boris55
            It is necessary to clearly indicate our position and the position of the enemy.

            Quote: Boris55
            The Russian and Soviet army is the liberating army.

            Quote: Boris55
            The enemy should never be left unpunished.

            There is no contradiction with the previous one? It seems to me to eat.
            Otherwise, everything is in strict accordance with my rules.
            And by the way, I have already pointed out to you a gross mistake made by you in the name Urengoy, but for some reason you repeat it. The way you write this name is illiterate and offensive.
            And the last - so, rather, just a designation of a logical mistake made by you:
            Quote: Boris55
            The enemy is always the one who attacks

            The one who attacks is the aggressor. Russia repeatedly waged aggressive wars. Such was, including the Northern War. All territorial acquisitions of Russia were made as a result of aggressive wars. On your part, it would be more correct to write otherwise, for example, "The enemy is always the one who is at war with Russia." This is more suitable for your worldview and does not contradict what you wrote earlier, and you will also write, as I am sure, in the future.
            1. Boris55 21 January 2020 13: 14 New
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              Quote: Trilobite Master
              Judging by the number and content of your comments under the articles

              I have no complaints about the content of the articles. I have complaints about their headlines. The modern West does not leave us the right to midtones.
              1. Trilobite Master 21 January 2020 14: 23 New
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                Quote: Boris55
                The modern West does not leave us the right to midtones.

                Well, and you say
                Quote: Boris55
                completely wrong.

                smile
                Exactly and no other way ... smile
                And, you see, if all the authors in VO wrote according to the rules formulated by me, there would be practically no criticism from your side. Just imagine the same article, with exactly the same set of facts, written according to my "rules". Lepota turns out, a real balm for the soul. smile
              2. Astra wild 22 January 2020 07: 21 New
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                Boris, in something I agree with you to a greater extent in something less, but I do not agree about the headlines. Valery in the headlines accurately conveys the essence: "A hard lesson. The Russian and Swedish armies in the battle of Narva" the Russian army was NOT READY for a modern war and as a result of defeat. Peter 1 correctly assessed the situation: "for the gun to fire here, it must be charged in Moscow."
                'Poltava catastrophe of Charles 12 and his army "in reality it was the catastrophe of Charles 12
          2. Deniska999 21 January 2020 12: 57 New
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            And in my opinion, what emotions can be when describing the events of 300 years ago. Actually, according to this logic, the Byzantines should also be hated, because they fought against Russia, but this is absurd.
            1. Korsar4 21 January 2020 19: 49 New
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              Byzantines can experience the whole gamut of emotions.

              And according to the beloved A.K. Tolstoy:

              "There is a man and a man.
              If he doesn’t drink the crop,
              I then respect the man. "
          3. Prometey 21 January 2020 13: 17 New
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            Quote: Boris55
            The Russian and Soviet army is the liberating army.


            Whom did the Russian army liberate in the Northern War?
            1. fuxila 21 January 2020 16: 46 New
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              Whom did the Russian army liberate in the Northern War?

              Here you are not quite right, because among the territories connected according to the results of the Northern War there were also ancient Novgorod lands (for example, Oreshek-Noteburg-Shlisselburg), where by the way there remained a small Russian population and Orthodox Karelians. These lands can be safely called liberated from the rule of the Swedish occupiers.
    2. Catfish 21 January 2020 10: 33 New
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      Excuse me, dear, and Paulus is here sideways?

      "- And then on the ruins of the chapel ...
      - Excuse me, am I also a chapel ...? "(C)
      1. Boris55 21 January 2020 11: 14 New
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        Quote: Sea Cat
        excuse me, dear, and Paulus is here sideways?

        I wrote in the afterword that this is a continuation of the dialogue in comments on the author’s previous article:

        “To be honest, I don’t see any crime if someone writes about the same battle near Stalingrad through the prism of the“ German look ”- about Paulus personally and his 6th army, the evolution of his views on what is happening and the state of German soldiers and officers at the beginning of the battle and in its final part. Moreover, with interest I will read. "
        1. Catfish 21 January 2020 14: 54 New
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          ... the evolution of his views on what is happening and the state of German soldiers and officers at the beginning of the battle and in its final part. Moreover, I’ll read it with interest. "

          So what, I also read with interest the memoirs of German warriors, and not only warriors. I don’t see any “crime” here.
          PS And you, by chance, are not members of the club of active "friends" of the author of this article? wink
      2. Astra wild 22 January 2020 07: 24 New
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        Quote: Sea Cat
        Excuse me, dear, and Paulus is here sideways?

        "- And then on the ruins of the chapel ...
        - Excuse me, am I also a chapel ...? "(C)

        From the movie: "Caucasian Captive"
        1. Catfish 22 January 2020 10: 52 New
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          And who did Paulus play there?
  5. Olgovich 21 January 2020 09: 42 New
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    , and Perevolochnaya it turned out that the river in this place is very wide and deep, and the carpenters who arrived with him found only 70 logs on the shore.


    So not to possess basic knowledge of the theater of war is the height of incompetence and adventurism.

    The result is logical ...

    Nestroyev - 4809 human,

    Women - 1657.


    Women, as well as, almost always, among the people ... were not included .... request
    1. fuxila 21 January 2020 16: 16 New
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      Women, as well as, almost always, among the people ... were not included ....

      So after all the events took place in Ukraine, and they had a woman ... well, no matter how a man ... I myself observed such a picture in a Ukrainian restaurant: there are inscriptions on the toilets, “cholovichi” on the men’s, and “reaper” on the women’s. So it turns out that at the epicenter of the events described, a woman is a special kind not related to humans ... winked
      1. Astra wild 22 January 2020 07: 38 New
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        Purely from the opposite: "cholovichi" or "zhinochiy" "- features of the Ukrainian language. In the same way, foreigners perceive the Russian language for example:" terribly beautiful "foreigners who do not know the peculiarities of the Russian language do not understand alogism
    2. Korsar4 21 January 2020 19: 51 New
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      I wonder where the number 70 came from? Dismantled a couple of houses?
  6. Operator 21 January 2020 09: 46 New
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    The Swedes surrendered to the Russians (of whom there were fewer) at Perevolnaya for the reasons:
    - impressions of the Poltava battle, where they were "slaughtered like cattle";
    - lack of gunpowder;
    - hunger for several days;
    - physical fatigue (fighting during the first day and flight to a distance of several tens of kilometers during the second day);
    - lack of escape routes (crossings);
    - Awareness of Karl’s inappropriateness to organize military operations against the Russian army

    PS Half a century later, Sweden was punished by the Russian fleet both for the ruin and genocide in the border regions of Russia through massive naval landings and tactics of scorched land on the coast of Scandinavia.
    1. fuxila 21 January 2020 16: 35 New
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      I would also add here the demoralization of Swedish soldiers by my own Commander-in-Chief Levengaupt, who, instead of giving clear and clear orders, hit democracy, questioning the opinion of the soldiers about whether they want to continue fighting or not. It reminds one of the “revolutionary-democratic" Russian army of the 1917 model: some are ready to fight to a victorious end, others shout that bayonets are in the ground and it’s time to bring them home. In both cases, the result is logical ...
  7. Timurleng 21 January 2020 14: 23 New
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    So much for the Katyusha laundress. It was unlikely that she was just a laundress))))
  8. Looking for 21 January 2020 16: 11 New
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    the author strangely compares the careers of Menshikov and Catherine. Menshikov’s career was the result of his extraordinary deeds. And Catherine’s “career” was only a consequence of her physical attributes.
    1. VLR
      VLR 21 January 2020 16: 52 New
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      Marta Skavronskaya is a mystery of Russian history. After all, she absolutely did not manifest herself as an empress. There were no state abilities, and there was no inclination and desire to engage in public affairs. But what kind of men intercepted her from each other: the main commander of the Petrine era, Sheremetev, the reckless super passionary Menshikov, the creator of the empire Peter I. And the talented cavalry general R. Bour was still perhaps the very first. After all, none of them had ever experienced a lack of women, and all of a sudden they all went crazy because of Marta Skavronska-Kruse, who had come from somewhere unclear. Right "witch" of some kind!
      1. Trilobite Master 21 January 2020 17: 50 New
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        Quote: VlR
        Right "witch" of some kind!

        Witch I, oh witch I
        Such is my difficult fate ...

        laughing
        About witches, Valery you already wrote. smile
        In order to drive men crazy, a woman does not have to be a written beauty; rather, it is even undesirable. A beautiful woman by nature does not need additional stimulants of male attention and does not develop other skills necessary to attract this attention.
        For example, I perfectly imagine how such a “career” is being done - something similar happened before my eyes and the girl who pursued this “career” was not at all an outstanding beauty. She knew how to radiate warmth and charm, was light, cheerful and witty, did not allow awkwardness in conversation, easily smoothed strangers if they arose. She promised only with her eyes, and gave ... well, probably not only with her eyes, but, judging by how the men were dying of her, she also knew how. Her classmate, whom she met then, brought her to the office, then he quit, she stayed, spun with the head of the department, then took her to some event where the big Moscow bosses were sitting, there she quickly found a common language with one friend and hello . Now, it seems like in Moscow, married, children, life was a success. The guy who brought her to the office was an IT specialist, I talked a lot with his work department, and I also used to sit informally in the evenings, she naturally came too, we talked. A girl under 160, in general, was slender, but a little chubby, her features were so sharp, reminiscent of a kind of mischievous fox, but how much charm, tenderness - right now I would have picked up and took it to the registry office ... smile
        I still thought: “It’s good when you are a big Moscow boss ...” And now I’ll add: “... or the Tsar”. smile
      2. 3x3zsave 21 January 2020 19: 15 New
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        "Burn it!"
        - Your Grace, but she is so beautiful !!!!?
        Mdaaa ... Well, okay .... But after that, burn !!!! "
        1. bubalik 21 January 2020 19: 22 New
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          ,,, I didn’t catch the essence recourse with subtext? what
          1. 3x3zsave 21 January 2020 19: 42 New
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            Ours to you, Sergey! hi
            Try the dialogue to lose the cast.
            1. bubalik 21 January 2020 19: 54 New
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              ,,, role-playing games for +18.
              Inquisitor and Witch smile
        2. Catfish 21 January 2020 21: 42 New
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          Witches - they happen to be different, another one whom she likes to put on the spray. wassat
  9. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 21 January 2020 16: 37 New
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    Thanks, excellent article loop! I admit to my shame that I didn’t know some things. At school, much of the Northern War was given schematically, and then there were other concerns and problems, in general, not before that. The author! You are five plus!
  10. Fishery 21 January 2020 16: 41 New
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    great stuff, thanks
  11. Pessimist22 21 January 2020 18: 54 New
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    Thanks! Waiting for an article about the fate of the Swedes.
  12. cat Rusich 21 January 2020 21: 33 New
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    For interest, in an article about the Battle of Poltava and the surrender of the Swedes at Perevolnaya, one could cite for comparison what was written about the same events in Swedish history textbooks. What do the losers themselves write about their rout, for the Swedish children ...? what
  13. alsoclean 21 January 2020 23: 40 New
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    Question - Is it true that the notorious Moritz of Saxony participated in the Battle of Poltava? If so, then apparently "unofficially" ....
    1. sivuch 22 January 2020 10: 09 New
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      So, I skipped classes. He was born in 1696.
      1. alsoclean 22 January 2020 23: 24 New
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        Well, the guy was seen to be taught quite well, so to speak, “out of class”: the 1710 siege of Riga by the Sheremetyevs, the 1715 siege of Stralsund by the Saxon-Danish-Prussians - participated and actively. So he could have visited Petr in Poltava. Well, not in the heat, of course ....
        1. Selevc 10 March 2020 19: 06 New
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          An interesting series of articles on the topic of the Northern War. It seems to be a well-known period in the history of Russia, but in fact there are many blank spots and myths ... Here are some well-known but forgotten theses:
          1. The Northern War began with the defeat of the Russians - the first pancake is lumpy, so to speak.
          2. The Northern War lasted almost the entire mature life of Peter — as they say, the most rigorous examiner!
          3. Sweden during the Northern War is a superpower of Europe - a state at the zenith of its power and strength ...
          4. Karl the 12th was inadequate as a politician and very self-confident as a commander ... Only a warlord very drunk with his victories could lead his army to the sparsely populated lands of Eastern Europe - without supplies, without infrastructure, even without accurate maps and drop it there !! !
          5. The defeat in the Northern War is not only the loss of Charles 12 personally, it is also the loss of Sweden's influence in Europe.
          6. This is a modern myth that, like the Swedes, after the defeat in the Northern War, they became peaceful and began to build a neutral state. After the Northern War, there were 3 more Russian-Swedish wars - revenge which also ended for Sweden is very sad ...