Libya: the indivisible legacy of Muammar Gaddafi

Libya: the indivisible legacy of Muammar Gaddafi

Berlin, Munich, again Berlin ...



The "selective" nature of the Berlin Libya summit in a number of ways immediately reminded the notorious Munich-1938. The main exception is the lack of a direct aggressor in the forum, which Nazi Germany was eighty-odd years ago. But this does not change much in essence. It is far from the first time that the Great Powers are trying to solve everything with varying success, and right away for those who are not considered to be great.

The summit in Berlin turned out to be extremely representative - such that all European leaders, the US Secretary of State, as well as the presidents of Russia and Turkey, gathered in recent years, a few times. But in terms of retrospect, it is very characteristic today that it was in Berlin in 1885 that the colonial division of Africa was officially formalized.


For many people, it didn’t just seem like that against the background of other European powers, the first violin was played by the diplomats of the young German Empire, inspired by the recent success of Bismarck at the previous Berlin Congress - in 1878. It also seemed that it was the Berlin word in the 1885 section that was decisive, but three decades later it became clear that this was not at all the case.

Nevertheless, Germany today seems ready to take on the same role as an “honest broker”. And it is by no means accidental that among the countries neighboring with Libya, only Egypt and Algeria were invited to this summit. Not in this register Tunisia, Malta, Sudan, Mali, Niger, Chad. Although the authorities of all countries that remained outside the framework of the Berlin Forum have repeatedly proposed a settlement of the Libyan crisis on the basis of their collective mediation under the auspices of the UN Security Council.

They repeatedly proposed the same thing during the first war in Libya (2011-2012), but also in vain. For NATO has set, as you know, the goal of overthrowing the regime of Muammar Gaddafi and dividing the colossal oil and gas resources of Libya. The first and main subject of the section was the seaside hydrocarbon reserves exported mainly through the port of Tripoli. Where is it already up to the task of rebuilding a united Libya and its capable government?


Together with the fact that the participation in the forum of Marshal of the Libyan National Army Khalifa Haftar and the head of the Libyan Government of National Accord, Fayez Sarraj, is deliberately indicated on the last page of the list of participants, this leads to very definite thoughts.

Restless neighbors


At the same time, some other countries, in addition to the "great" ones, are literally eager to join the Libyan redistribution. For example, representatives of Egypt have intentions to voice old claims to a number of areas of Cyrenaica (eastern Libya), including the port strongholds of Benghazi and Tobruk. Observers do not exclude that Cairo in this regard will try to use the Libyan aggravation and the Berlin forum to implement in some form these claims.

Among other things, the option of a completely precedentful, that is, "as in Munich," Egyptian request, in the form of a "zone of responsibility" for the cessation of hostilities located in eastern Libya, is not ruled out. The situation is extremely complicated by the fact that it is all the neighbors of Libya, including the "miniature" Malta, that are now overwhelmed by Libyan refugees, and their number continues to grow.


Characteristically, the reception of Libyan refugees has to deal primarily with those countries that are not represented in Berlin today. But, most likely, this factor is not at all the main one in the context of the Berlin summit. For example, in addition to African neighbors, Greece is also absent from the forum, where the number of Libyan refugees is also growing.

But this is only in the first place, and secondly - the maritime borders of Greece, the Republic of Cyprus and Libya, more precisely, the former Libya, are mutually adjacent over a very considerable distance (over 430 km). Finally, thirdly, and perhaps the most important thing: Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said on the eve of the Berlin forum that Athens would veto any political decision on Libya if the separate memorandum of understanding between Ankara and " by the pro-Turkish General F. Sarraj on the delimitation of maritime zones between Turkey and Libya (November 2019).

Recall, this memorandum provides for the inclusion in the sea zone of Turkey's economic interests of more than 70% of the total, moreover, very significant reserves of gas and oil in the north-eastern part of the offshore border area of ​​the former Libya. During the reign of Colonel Gaddafi, the borders in this sea area were only planned to be “clarified” at the beginning of the 2010s at the negotiations between Tripoli, Athens, Nicosia and Ankara.

Libyan domestic interest


As for Libya itself, here, of course, the struggle for its colossal oil and gas resources (including marine) is intensifying. Partially orphaned, partially redistributed between the warring factions shortly after the overthrow and assassination of Muammar Gaddafi (2012).

At the same time, the West is really seriously interested in using, rather than freezing, these resources, primarily to curb rising oil prices. At the same time, for Russian business, and along with Saudi Arabia, a real incentive to control the same hydrocarbon bins is the opportunity to gain leverage to further increase these prices.

Turkey is a completely different matter. This country, an importer of oil and gas, has long wanted to “stock up” (also for free) at least part of Libyan resources. Probably, the forgotten Turkish nostalgia for Libya also works, which until 1912 was a colony of the Ottoman Empire, after the fall of which until the mid-40s came under the complete control of Italy.

And really - who now pay in Libya, which has actually broken up, for its oil and gas? Like in the film “The White Sun of the Desert” (1969), when the leader of the Basmachi-smugglers answered the question “Did you take a lot of goods, Abdullah?” And all without a duty, ”he reasonably specified:“ But who should pay? There is no customs, everyone fled. ”

Recall that under Muammar Gaddafi back in the early 70s of the last century, all the country's raw materials and their infrastructure were nationalized. Colonel and enlightened dictator Gaddafi, unlike representatives of the pro-Western Libyan monarchy, who ruled from 1951 to 1969, did not give out oil and gas (and other raw materials) concessions to foreigners.

This practice concerned even friendly countries, including the USSR and China. Since the mid-80s, Libya began to increase the production and export of various oil and gas products, moreover, based on the development of its own industries for the technological support of the oil and gas industry.

Today in Libya there is not only the oil and gas processing industry, there is none at all. But does it simplify negotiations on a settlement in the country?
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  1. andrewkor 20 January 2020 05: 17 New
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    The West in the form of NATO has created a problem for the entire region of the Middle Sea and is now making a peacemaking face mine for a naive people!
    1. Mavrikiy 20 January 2020 06: 49 New
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      The colonel and the enlightened dictator Gaddafi did not give out oil and gas (and other raw materials) concessions to foreigners.
      Where do we get this?
      1. Bolo 20 January 2020 10: 56 New
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        So that you would kill him for these benefits?
        1. Mavrikiy 20 January 2020 13: 40 New
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          Quote: Bolo
          So that you would kill him for these benefits?

          Liberalists killed him, and skakuasy like you, programmed on the Maidan.
          1. Bolo 20 January 2020 13: 54 New
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            No, uncle, he killed his biomass, to which he gave everything he could, but they were all few and few! Conclusion: the benefits should be deserved, not presented!
            1. Mavrikiy 20 January 2020 13: 58 New
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              Quote: Bolo
              No, uncle, he killed his biomass, to which he gave everything he could, but they were all few and few! Conclusion: the benefits should be deserved, not presented!

              Yes, no son, request the enemies of Lebanon, the Europeans who wanted free oil and gas, killed him. And people simply did not protect and did not save what they had. Like us sinners.
              1. Bolo 20 January 2020 14: 03 New
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                The people to whom he gave everything simply did not want to fight for him! And now they are breaking into a well-fed Europe, that is, from one feeding trough to another, but they do not need to restore their peace ...
                Does it resemble anything? ...
          2. Bolo 20 January 2020 13: 57 New
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            We do not need Gaddafi, we need Stalin (only not Georgians)
    2. Ros 56 20 January 2020 10: 21 New
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      Honestly, I would add to “the entire Middle Sea region”, “practically the whole world”, wherever you go, there are NATO troops everywhere, there’s a plug in every barrel.
  2. Same lech 20 January 2020 05: 23 New
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    Today in Libya there is not only the oil and gas processing industry, there is none at all. But does it simplify negotiations on a settlement in the country?

    Today, Libya doesn’t exist as a state ... the former colonialists gathered in Berlin with the question of how to divide its territory and its oil, we will.
    Eh would have known Gaddafi how his help would end. Sarkozy would be wary of dollars to contact these capitalist predators.
    1. Uncle lee 20 January 2020 05: 55 New
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      Quote: The same Lech
      capitalist predators.

      Oh! Such a flourishing country was torn apart! And now the jackals are going to pull the remnants ....
      1. bessmertniy 20 January 2020 06: 25 New
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        Today, it is the past of Libya under Gaddafi that remains the basis for an obstacle to the division of the country. And the main goal of the majority of those gathered in Berlin is to pull Libya to pieces.
  3. rocket757 20 January 2020 05: 23 New
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    Big dregs with a poorly predictable result!
  4. Hunter 2 20 January 2020 05: 24 New
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    The number of countries wishing to "warm" their hands in the Libyan conflict is definitely more than the possibilities that Libya has! I doubt that a political solution will be found in the near future, but ... nevertheless, negotiations need to be continued. Although most likely the fate of Libya will be decided on the Battlefield.
    In fact, two coalitions clashed in Libya, the Turkish coalition (on the side of Sarraj) and the Saudi, Egyptian and UAE (support Haftar). Plus third countries ... wishing to receive part of Libyan oil and gas contracts.
    1. Same lech 20 January 2020 06: 00 New
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      In fact, two coalitions clashed in Libya,

      And today I clashed with the Greek on the Rambler ... the same you understand, I’m not happy that Russia and Turkey appeared in Libya ... so that the sharing will be serious.
      1. Bolo 20 January 2020 11: 00 New
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        The Greek did not mention that they taught us Orthodoxy? And then they love it!
  5. Gardamir 20 January 2020 06: 06 New
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    The authors wrote everything interestingly, but why is it for Russia.
    1. Same lech 20 January 2020 06: 10 New
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      The authors wrote everything interestingly, but why is it for Russia.

      What do you mean why?
      If Libya is being divided now ... tomorrow Russia will be divided.
      So Russia has to choose its place in the world of predators ... either it is a game or a predator ... it will not work to sit aside ... the weak, as our Guarantor said, are beaten and eaten.
      1. Gardamir 20 January 2020 06: 27 New
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        Suddenly! Defend Russia in Libya. Did you know that part of the Barents Sea, which is divided by Norway in area, is larger than Crimea.
        If this is the question, can Russia be cherished and kept at home? Why do we need Chinese in Siberia?
        Maybe everything is simpler, BoHatym, you need more money, and Russian mercenaries fight for this. Immediately warn you do not say. Ichtamnet. For at a meeting with Merkel Putin recognized the presence of Russian tourists.
        1. Same lech 20 January 2020 06: 46 New
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          For at a meeting with Merkel Putin recognized the presence of Russian tourists.

          Open secret smile ... Turks scream about this all over the world ... one Greek today told me about it ... so from different sources, but information is leaking to the people.
          On the other hand, since we live in an environment where there are no knightly rules, why should we do business with white gloves ... then all means are good.
          About the Barents Sea and the Norwegians, I have already spoken out ... Medvedev must answer for the surrender of our territory to a foreign state ... he bonfire him for that.
          The Chinese are really a problem ... sucking up our natural resources at an accelerated pace ... but not only they ... but this is already a more global issue affecting the systemic sores of capitalism in Russia.
      2. Ross xnumx 20 January 2020 08: 21 New
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        Quote: The same Lech
        So Russia has to choose its place in the world of predators ...

        In a pack of predators they don’t choose a place - everything is according to the hierarchy.
        And Russia has to choose its position between a herd with an old guide and a community of freely gathered people engaged in free labor.
        Quote: The same Lech
        the weak, as our Guarantor said, they beat and eat.

        This is about pensioners and the poor, about those 50 and 000 people in each category, respectively.
  6. svp67 20 January 2020 06: 23 New
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    I am afraid that these negotiations will not lead to anything.
    Turkish President Type Ergodan and US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo left the Libya conference in Berlin. This was reported by TASS with reference to DPA sources.
    According to reports, Erdogan left the conference with part of his delegation.
    The source emphasized that Turkey "played a constructive role at the summit."

    “Sultan” may have “played a constructive role,” for the time being, but just like that conferences do not leave
    1. Ross xnumx 20 January 2020 08: 26 New
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      Quote: svp67
      I am afraid that these negotiations will not lead to anything.

      And I’m just sure that no negotiations, supported by weighty arguments, will achieve any results. There - in Libya, not stupid people and everyone understands what they want from them and why they are trying to help in this way ...
      I see how the West helps Iraq, Syria, Venezuela ... Apparently, Libya is next in turn ... Foreign resources have always attracted honest "businessmen" from the time of the conquistadors ... yes
  7. Slavutich 20 January 2020 06: 34 New
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    The US fight against secular Arab regimes has led to the degradation of the region!
    1. Ross xnumx 20 January 2020 08: 39 New
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      Quote: Slavutich
      The US fight against secular Arab regimes has led to the degradation of the region!

      The US’s open confrontation with the world became possible with the disappearance of the opposing force in the form of the SVD and the USSR in particular. Feeling like the only country capable of resolving any issues with the help of force, they tried it with the assistance of NATO partners and Russia's silence. To their deep regret, rumors of the imminent demise of Russia were exaggerated. Little of. They began to understand in the world that only an adequate response can stop the presumptuous aggressors who have set themselves the goal: to solve all problems at any cost.
      At this price, they included the well-being and statehood of (non-secular) countries with natural resources. That is, those who can be robbed. Part of the poor were gathered in the satellite camp. One trouble - the calculations were made incorrectly. Some for the sake of freedom prepared for everything. This alerted the enclave sitting overseas.
      And all these negotiations, as part of a group of heads of countries and in the presence of the US Secretary of State, resemble party meetings at the enterprise in the presence of a representative of the regional committee. Do you remember? A lot of them have been decided? Are those "historical" decisions made?
      hi
  8. horror 20 January 2020 07: 35 New
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    The example of Libya, like other torn countries, shows that even now in our modern and civilized world one cannot be weak!