Poland, spring forty-fifth. Case of Sixteen

Poland, spring forty-fifth. Case of Sixteen

The trial of sixteen in Moscow, June 1945. General Leopold Okulitsky argues with the prosecution. The defendants refused protection because everyone was fluent in Russian and had a law degree


The insidious arrest by the Soviet counterintelligence of sixteen leaders of the Polish underground in March 1945, followed by their trial in Moscow, for obvious reasons, did not receive much attention of historians and journalists of the Polish People’s Republic. It would seem that a change in the political system was to remove the curtain of silence over this history. But the hype caused by glasnost and perestroika quickly passed, and the veil of silence again fell over the fate of sixteen persons involved in the Moscow process. And there are good reasons for this.

Sixteen prominent politicians, with experience of underground struggle, fell into a primitive police provocation - entered into negotiations with unknown colonel Konstantin Pimenov, head of the SMERSH NKVD task force in Radom, and accepted invitations from him to meet with a general at dinner with his last name ( Ivanov) per kilometer staged with a pseudonym. Even ordinary readers of espionage novels know that such invitations, as a rule, are only a preliminary step to arrest. However, no one demanded the presence on the Soviet side of high-ranking and well-known figures not related to the special services. The Poles also neglected to notify their Anglo-American allies. Amazing naivety for experienced underground workers.

More interesting. General Ivan Serov (aka Ivanov), authorized by the NKVD on the 1st Belorussian Front and head of the rear guard of the 1st Belorussian Front, later the head of the GRU and the first chairman of the KGB, did not hide the true objectives of the provocation: to seize the leaders of the underground domestic delegation of the Polish government in London and ensure the work of the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity, negotiations on the creation of which were about to begin in accordance with the agreement of the leaders of the Big Three in Yalta. From the telegram sent by Serov to the head of the Soviet special services Lavrenty Beria, he dedicated the members of the provisional government of Poland, President Boleslav Bierut and Prime Minister Edward Osubka-Moravsky, who did not object to the Serov plan, but only asked to postpone holding his life until an agreement is reached with Moscow on the organization of negotiations with the London delegate on the subject of its representatives joining the government of national unity or attracting their cooperation. According to Serov’s alleged diaries, in response to his telegram, he received a strict order not to get involved in boyhood and to take measures to capture the Polish underground. At the end of 2019, the authenticity of Serov’s diaries was disputed, but it is known for certain that Serov did keep diaries. Periodically, fragments fell into scientific circulation, allegedly taken from his diaries, which alleged that Serov had informed Berut and Osubka-Moravsky that the leaders of the underground had disappeared and there was a suspicion that someone had warned them of the impending arrest. It is only known for sure that in April 1945, Vladislav Gomulka, the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish Workers' Party, who arrived in Moscow to sign a friendship treaty between Poland and the USSR, argued with Joseph Stalin about this and demanded to punish Serov on the grounds that he acted on the territory under Polish jurisdiction without the consent of the Polish side. Serov was eventually transferred to the Soviet zone of occupation in Germany, and this incident was over.

Those of the leaders of the underground who remained in an illegal situation (like Stefan Korbonsky or Jozef Nechko) or surrendered to the Polish authorities (like Stanislav Banychik) remained at large, and some even joined the political life of socialist Poland.

The leaders of the Polish resistance movement, oriented towards the emigration government in London, were dominated (with few exceptions) by the desire to wishful thinking. They were also characterized by boundless vanity and ambition. But their ideas about domestic and international situation diametrically diverged from reality. Among them, the prevailing opinion was that the Red Army could not defeat the retreating without Polish help. Wehrmachtthat the Soviet authorities without an agreement with the London delegate will not be able to effectively control the rear of the fronts advancing on Berlin, that in direct negotiations with Stalin they will be able to bargain for themselves better conditions than the British and Americans did in Yalta, especially since they were ready to agree with some its decrees as the Polish-Soviet border along the Curzon line. It seemed to them that in the current situation they would be able to ignore the Western allies and even the emigration government. And the people’s army and power, which comes into its own in the liberated territories, were not taken into account at all, being sure that they would be easily dispersed.

This attitude towards reality fatally reflected in their relations with the Western powers. The governments of Great Britain and the United States of America, after unsuccessful attempts to persuade the emigrant government in favor of adopting Yalta resolutions (the Curzon line, personnel compromises, and concessions in favor of the socialist model of development) ultimately decided to do without the London government. But they were not going to refuse the political capital of this government in Poland and abroad in the hope of using it in the future in their own interests. In Yalta, the British and Americans agreed to the wording:

A new position was created in Poland as a result of its complete liberation by the Red Army. This requires the creation of a variable Polish government that would have a broader base than was possible before, until the recent liberation of western Poland. The current interim government in Poland must therefore be reorganized on a broader democratic basis with the inclusion of democratic figures from Poland itself and Poles from abroad. This new government should then be called the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity.

Shortly before the start of the conference, British Foreign Minister Sir Anthony Eden asked the Polish emigration government to provide him with a list of leading figures in the London underground in Poland with the aim of securing personal security for them at the meeting of the Big Three in the liberated territories of Poland. However, he did not receive such a list, since the emigration government ordered its politicians and the military to remain underground. And when he changed his position and acquainted the British side with the composition of the delegate, it was already too late to do anything.

Only after the Yalta Conference did former Prime Minister Stanislav Mikołajczyk, who was no longer a member of the London government and became the main Western candidate for negotiations on the future Polish government, pass on to the British and Americans several names of Polish politicians selected for these negotiations.

At the end of February, the ambassadors of both Western powers in Moscow were instructed to demand from the Warsaw government to stop litigation and other repressive measures against political opponents, with the exception of war criminals and perpetrators of crimes against the Red Army.

Over the next months, the Western Allies repeatedly appealed to Stalin in favor of the arrested group of sixteen, emphasizing that we are talking about the leaders of political parties - civilians. However, the last chief commandant of the Craiova Army, General Leopold Okulitsky, was not a civilian, which was clearly voiced on May 3 in a conversation between the Soviet People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav Molotov and Eden and US Secretary of State Eduard Stettinius.

It is widely believed that the gentleness of British and American petitions in the interests of the arrested Poles stemmed from their compliance with Stalin. One can hardly find a more absurd argument than this. British and American politicians were personalities in a format that hardly made them tremble before the personality cult of an ideological adversary. Their policies stemmed from the logic of war. They themselves did not tolerate any clandestine organizations in the rear of their troops, especially military ones, and severely disarmed such organizations in Italy, Greece, France and Belgium, Burma and the Philippines. For the same reason, they did not intend to prevent their ally from doing the same in the rear of the Eastern Front. The leadership of the Polish emigration and the underground knew this and did not notify the British about the creation of a successor to the Craiova Army, an organization No, nor about other initiatives in the rear of the Red Army.

In December 1944, reporting to London on the creation of a new military-political underground organization, gene. Okulitsky, in particular, radiated:

Lviv, Vilna, Lublin should already be untwisted, since people from there were sent first. For security reasons, we keep in strictest confidence the details of the organization and the directive and correspondence on this topic is undesirable.
It seems to us that we should not burden ourselves with responsibility in the international market by working against the Soviets.

The strictest secret that Okulitsky insisted on was actually a fiction. The British were well aware of everything, as the whole exchange of information between London and the occupied territories passed through their hands. If necessary, they were quite capable of manipulating the content of messages and the sessions of their transmission.

Okulitsky went to "negotiations" with Ivanov-Serov, despite a direct ban on the chief of staff of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Army, General Stanislav Kopansky. Okulitsky referred to the unconditional demand of the delegate. But was this the only reason? On the tenth day of the arrest, in a letter addressed to Beria, the general offered sincere negotiations on the activities of the Home Army, subject to security guarantees to the persons who would be named during these negotiations.

Further, on April 5, Okulitsky personally wrote upright 50-page confessions in typewriting. In them he outlined in detail everything he knew about the Home Army, its structures, weapons, and command. He defended the correctness of the decision to raise an uprising in Warsaw, but admitted that the main argument against this decision was the lack of interaction with the Red Army command. He also openly posed the issue of maintaining the residual organization and headquarters after the dissolution of the Home Army. He did not see any signs of hostility towards the USSR in this, but expressed the assumption that the London government could have its own vision of the tasks of these structures. Okulitsky quite frivolously called the names, surnames and call signs of a number of colleagues who remained underground, among others, the gene. Augustus Fielddorf. He also strongly condemned the emigration government. Crimean Conferencethe general wrote turning to the solution of the Polish question bypassing this government, finished off the Polish government in London in the eyes of the Polish public. The importance of this government in Poland is already extremely small. The Peasant Party has the greatest power in Poland, more than 50% of the country. Okulitsky placed the Polish Labor Party in second place, evaluating its influence by 20%.

General Okulitsky expressed full support for the Yalta decisions as the starting point for further initiatives to resolve the Polish question:

In my opinion, the future interim Polish government should pursue a policy of the interim Lublin government, friendly to the USSR. (...) The Soviet government has the right to demand that the new government of Poland be created from democratic elements, which should guarantee that good-neighborly relations between Poland and the USSR will be preserved in the future and that Poland will not be used by external forces against the USSR. The Soviet government must provide freedom for the development and life of Poland as an independent and fully sovereign state. I am sincerely convinced that when these general principles are respected, the cooperation of the Polish people with the peoples of the USSR will develop harmoniously and without any friction in the future. (...)
Literally the same thing I would write, remaining at large.

Of course, it is likely that Okulitsky did not write sincerely, but led his own game with the NKVD, which he did not play. At the trial, the general changed tactics and began skillfully polemicizing with the prosecution. However, the Process of Sixteen, carefully staged and timed to coincide with the Moscow Conference, which addressed the creation of the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity, did not arouse much interest in the foreign press and revealed the political loneliness of the accused. The political parties of the London camp in Poland were already preparing for legitimate activities in the new reality, and the fate of compatriots convicted in Moscow did not bother them. Sigismund Zhulavsky, a socialist who was very wary of the Communists, described the course of the Moscow Conference in a letter to a friend:

“All the professionals and almost all the leaders of the former organization yearn for this or that cooperation. Abstinence cannot be sustained in the long run, and complaints about relationships are indeed sometimes unbearable, but waiting for “mercy from God” or war cannot give us anything. ”

The politicians of the London camp, mainly agrarians and socialists, participants in the conference in Moscow, were not interested in the fate of the comrades who were convicted just in the same city, literally three blocks away. Mikolajczyk was considering the possibility of some spectacular protest, but British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill talked him out of this. After the trial, Churchill, in conversation with Molotov, asked for the clemency of the convicts. Molotov replied: "Let’s think it over." US Ambassador to the USSR Averell Harriman and US Presidential Envoy Harry Hopkins petitioned Stalin for amnesty, while carefully avoiding the mention of General Okulitsky. Stalin reassured them with the promise that sentences would be lenient and that an amnesty would follow immediately. Hopkins notified the US Department of State that there was no need to worry more about this.

British Ambassador Sir Archibald Clark Kerr informed his government of the trial in a very objective note, in which he was relieved to note that Britain was beyond suspicion, and expressed satisfaction that due to the leniency of sentences, case sixteen did not affect the agreement to create a new Polish government .

Of the sixteen leaders of the Polish underground arrested by the NKVD in March 1945, fifteen appeared before a court in Moscow in June 1945. Fourteen of them pleaded guilty on all counts. Leopold Okulitsky partially admitted his guilt, but firmly denied his involvement in crimes against the Red Army. The sixteenth accused, Anthony Paidak, the only one who completely refused to admit his guilt, was undergoing treatment at that time and appeared in court in November. Thirteen people were sentenced to prison terms:

  • Leopold Okulitsky - 10 years old (died in prison in 1946).
  • Stanislav Yankovsky - 8 years old (died in prison in 1953).
  • Stanislav Yashchukovich - 5 years old (died in prison in 1946).
  • Anthony Paidak - 5 years old.
  • Adam Ben - 5 years old (released in 1949).
  • Kazimir Puzhak - 1,5 years (released in November 1945; repressed in Poland).
  • Casimir Baginsky - 1 year (released in November 1945; emigrated to the United States).
  • Alexander Zvezhynsky - 8 months (released in November 1945).
  • Eugeniusz Czarnowski - 6 months (released in the fall of 1945; joined the political life of Poland).
  • Stanislav Mezhva - 4 months (released; repressed in Poland).
  • Zbigniew Stypulkovsky - 4 months (released; emigrated to the UK).
  • Franciszek Urbanski - 4 months (released).
  • Jozef Haczynski - 4 months (released).

Three (Kazimir Kobylyansky, Stanislav Mikhalovsky and Jozef Stemler) were acquitted; were subsequently repressed in Poland.

Sources of

  • E. Duraczyński, Generał Iwanow zaprasza. Przywódcy podziemnego państwa polskiego przed sądem moskiewskim. Alfa, 1989.
  • W. Strzałkowski, A. Chmielarz, and AK Kunert, editors. Proces szesnastu: Dokumenty NKWD. Oficyna Wydawnicza Rytm, 1995.
  • A. E. Hinstein, editor. Notes from a suitcase. Secret diaries of the first KGB chairman, found 25 years after his death. Enlightenment, 2016.
  • Op. cit. one.
  • E. Kulkov, M. Myagkov, and O. Rzheshevsky, editors. War of 1941-1945: Facts and Documents. Olma Media Groups, 2011.
  • T. Żenczykowski, Dramatyczny rok 1945. LTW, 1995.
  • Ibidem.
  • H. Czarnocka, editor. Armia Krajowa w dokumentach, 1939-1945. Volume 5: Październik 1944 - lipiec 1945. Studium Polski Podziemnej, 1981.
  • Op. cit. one.
  • Op. cit. one.
  • Ibidem.
  • Ibidem.
  • Z. Żuławski, Listy, Przemówienia, Artykuły 1945-1948. Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Ossolineum, 1998.
  • WSL Churchill, The second world war. Volume 6: Triumph and tragedy. Mariner Books, 1986.
  • Op. cit. one.
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    1. Proxima 19 January 2020 16: 56 New
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      Received 4-6-8 months! request The hero of Gaidai was right, who, through the lips of Vitsin, said: "Long live the Soviet court, the most humane court in the world .." good drinks
      1. Same lech 19 January 2020 17: 10 New
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        Received 4-6-8 months!


        Some in the liberal media said that they were tortured and shot in Stalin's camps. smile ... as we see the truth is of a completely different nature ... how easy it is to manipulate the facts and consciousness of people who do not know the essence of the matter. hi
        1. frog 20 January 2020 09: 16 New
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          Well, the first three from the list did not leave the camp. So there was a lot to say. In addition, as regards the manipulation of facts and all the rest - who knows what they were charged with? Without trying to automatically whitewash the “victims of repression,” I can see that on the other hand, no one really bothered.
      2. antivirus 19 January 2020 18: 50 New
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        everything happened before the Fulton speech - the NKVD-MGB-SMERSH grinned at the NKVD-MGB-SMERSH game in 47 g and could have been shot - there was hope to gently put Poland under control
      3. Octopus 19 January 2020 19: 40 New
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        Quote: Proxima
        Received 4-6-8 months! The hero of Gaidai was right, who, through the lips of Vitsin, said: "Long live the Soviet court, the most humane court in the world .."

        Outside June 45th. A month later, Stalin went to Potsdam, led by the nose of the very Truman, who
        If we see that Germany is winning we ought to help Russia and if Russia is winning we ought to help Germany, and that way let them kill as many as possible, although I don't want to see Hitler victorious under any circumstances. Neither of them thinks anything of their pledged word.

        Harry S. Truman, 1941
        Without unnecessary modesty, comrade Stalin did it very well. So a little out of time it was engaged in executions, I had to take a short break in this matter.
        The Russians are liars - you can't trust them. At Potsdam they agreed to everything and broke their word. It's too bad the second world power is like this, but that's the way it is

        Harry S. Truman, 1969
        1. Fitter65 20 January 2020 06: 17 New
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          Quote: Octopus
          Without unnecessary modesty, comrade Stalin did it very well. So a little out of time it was engaged in executions, I had to take a short break in this matter.

          Well, yes, and so the arm rested from the shooting, and the pistol had to be cleaned, stockpiles of ammunition, and fresh air had to be breathed. And then in the stuffy basements of the Lubyanka all the time, inhaling smoke and burnt gunpowder is very harmful ....
          1. Octopus 20 January 2020 08: 03 New
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            Quote: Fitter65
            and so the arm rested from the shooting, and the pistol had to be cleaned, stockpiles of ammunition, and fresh air had to be breathed. AND

            Well you! When it’s to your liking, you don’t get tired at all, and the inventory is always in order. And for stuffy cellars do not worry, they shot in the fresh air, as a rule.

            But not the time. Truman had already called Molotov to the White House in April, and had with him tough conversation regarding compliance with the Yalta agreements regarding the work of the Polish government recognized by London and Washington. From this hard talk Molotov and Stalin quite rightly concluded that Mr. Truman is a collective farmer from Missouri who does not understand what is happening and who he is talking to. Understood would - talked would on this subject not with Molotov, but with Marshall and Eisenhower, that’s who it was vital to give a lecture on the international situation.

            The Soviet government should have got those gesheft that existed in a situation of burdock - the US president. And it will be possible to shoot the Poles, if necessary.
            1. Fitter65 20 January 2020 11: 52 New
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              Quote: Octopus
              And for stuffy cellars do not worry, they shot in the fresh air, as a rule.

              And how much did you shoot? You just sometimes look at already known data on the number and composition of convicts, how many people and under what article, otherwise, God forbid, it turns out like a well-known writer that they condemned him in one year, they shot him in more than 30 years.
              1. Octopus 20 January 2020 12: 47 New
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                Quote: Fitter65
                And how much did you shoot?

                We will talk about Comrade Stalin’s achievements in this regard another time. They asked why the Soviet court was so matched to the counter and saboteurs, who, at their place in Poland, let the Soviet echelons derail.
                I suggested that the Soviet court is a politically competent court. He always understood the international situation well.
      4. Krasnoyarsk 19 January 2020 21: 26 New
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        Quote: Proxima
        Received 4-6-8 months!

        What can I say? - Bloody NKVDesh executioners! No other way.
      5. maidan.izrailovich 20 January 2020 16: 38 New
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        Proxima (Sergey Obolensky)
        Received 4-6-8 months!

        Not all.
        Leopold Okulitsky - 10 years (died in prison in 1946).
        Stanislav Yankovsky - 8 years (died in prison in 1953).
        Stanislav Yashchukovich - 5 years (died in prison in 1946).
        Anthony Paidak - 5 years.
        Adam Ben - 5 years (released in 1949).
    2. Basil50 19 January 2020 17: 19 New
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      That is strange. The British and Americans destroyed all those who were just suspected of disloyalty. They were not very worried about legal delights.
      Years passed and today there are no claims to the regimes of Western democracies that were established by the British-Americans. There is no claim ONLY to the SOVIET UNION who fought with Nazi Germany and the helpful Nazi footmen. Coquetry with Polish memory more than once led to embarrassment. And in this article it is shown that the Poles from AK in close cooperation with the British conducted provocative activities in the rear of the warring RED ARMY. Caught provocateurs JUDGED. They were not shot during the arrest and in the * basements * were not tortured. They were convicted by the court, and so much displeasure. Why so? Are they really afraid that details of AK’s activities under the leadership of London sitters will come up?
      1. karabass 19 January 2020 17: 41 New
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        There is reliable evidence that a UK court acquitted and released a German spy (a British citizen) due to an investigator’s mistake during WWII. But in our USSR there was a proverb - “if there was a man, there would be an article” Or do you think why our high-ranking criminals seek refuge in England? A? Think!
      2. mikh-korsakov 19 January 2020 19: 56 New
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        Dmitriy! In the subject of double standards. When I worked in Germany, I often heard frau on TV telling the burghers about the inexpressible suffering that the German population suffered from the Red Army — they raped and shot through one, and humiliated them, starved them, making people stand in huge queues to field to the kitchens where the genocide took place, because the poor Germans received porridge that was unusual for their stomachs, from which they had stomach aches and no medicines. I worked for a company located in the former French occupation zone. Still there were old people who told what atrocities were committed by the occupying forces, consisting of blacks and Arabs of the French colonies. It was literally impossible for women to go out, and as for food, no field kitchens. Like yourself, yourself ...
        1. Octopus 19 January 2020 20: 11 New
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          Quote: mikh-korsakov
          occupation forces, consisting of blacks and Arabs of the French colonies. It was literally impossible for women to go out, and as for food

          Negroes at de Gaulle? Very interesting, thanks. Although in part you are right, the French in general and de Gaulle in particular are still fruit. And Eisenhower himself went over very much with anti-fascism, one cannot but admit this.
          1. Unknown 19 January 2020 21: 02 New
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            and this is who, teach history
            1. Octopus 19 January 2020 21: 22 New
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              Quote: Unknown
              who's that

              Blacks in earflaps !!! fellow good fellow
              Quote: Unknown
              learn history

              I'm used to taking your posts seriously. And you're talking about raped Germans, the next, palm off me a photo of the Belgians, God forgive me, veterans of the battles for Tanzania of the First World War. They have plaques with crowns on their earflaps, is it really not noticeable, Fighting France?
              1. Unknown 20 January 2020 06: 20 New
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                there were enough blacks in the army of de Gaulle. these are Senegalese, and other peoples of North Africa, which are part of colonial France. their skin color was clearly not white. Of course, most of them were part of the “free France” that fought in Italy, and they were in southern Germany. but in general, look at the site, military album, there are many interesting photos of that period.
            2. Fitter65 20 January 2020 06: 19 New
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              Quote: Unknown
              and this is who, teach history

              This is a very tanned French laughing good
          2. mikh-korsakov 19 January 2020 21: 48 New
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            Octopus! Until the beginning of the sixties, France had vast colonies in Africa, inhabited by Arabs (Algeria, Morocco, etc.) and blacks (Mali, Senegal and much more), I know that they were called up to the French army even during the struggle with the army of Rommel . . I just retold what I heard from the old Germans. They said that Moroccans were especially rampant.
            1. Octopus 19 January 2020 22: 03 New
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              Quote: mikh-korsakov
              I just retold what I heard from the old Germans. They said that Moroccans were especially rampant.

              Yes, this is a famous story.

              It's about Moroccan goumers.

              https://masterok.livejournal.com/4219572.html

              They became famous for their true French attitude towards women (and boys). But became more famous in Italy. In Germany, they participated extremely sporadically, and were promptly sent back to have sex with camels at the request of the Americans. First, the Americans of those years are racists. Secondly, these black panthers really had a place near the wall to everyone.

              You, as I understand it, are already talking about peacetime.
              1. mikh-korsakov 20 January 2020 07: 15 New
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                Octopus! If you are interested in this story, I’ll tell you how I learned about it. In the first year, the company seconded me to FZK. Accordingly, we lived in the vicinity of Karlsruhe. On weekends, we often went for a walk in Baden-Baden. There are many Russians. I met by chance and spent one day in a Russian-German company, where I found out about what I wrote. As I understand it, the Allies took these places at the very end of the war, so it was a question of peacetime. Karlsruhe was in the American zone, and in Baden-Baden was the headquarters of the French. But these cities are located close. In Baden-Baden we went by tram.
                1. Octopus 20 January 2020 08: 21 New
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                  Quote: mikh-korsakov
                  Karlsruhe was in the American zone, and in Baden-Baden was the headquarters of the French

                  Ugums. In Bavaria, Patton commanded, Eisenhower's only sane person (he quickly sent him to the States with a boot in the ass, stood out from the group of liberators). In Baden, literally nearby, there are French geeks, cannibals even in comparison with Eisenhower. Naturally, the residents of Baden, whom the Senegalese did not kill, were very unhappy.

                  But, you see, I am not a supporter of kitchen memories about black domination. I would like to understand what kind of problems were deployed. They were asked from there in the 49th, except for Saar, there were hardly any materials left.
      3. Octopus 19 January 2020 20: 04 New
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        Quote: Vasily50
        The British and Americans destroyed all those who were only suspected of disloyalty

        How interesting.
        A member of the Presidium of the Comintern, Palmiro Tolyatti (familiar name?) Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of the Italian governments of 44-46, died in Yalta in 1964.
        Maurice Thorez, member of the Presidium of the Comintern, deputy prime minister in the de Gaulle government, 46-47, died in 1964 aboard the steamer Lithuania, heading for Yalta.

        Some damned place, Yalta. And the damned year, the 64th.
      4. Basil50 19 January 2020 20: 53 New
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        I’m wondering how it turns out that * some * seem to be able to read, but they are not able to understand what they read. Both Americans and English themselves wrote about how they fought with German and Japanese * spies * and their families.
        There are plans in the OPEN admission for the Americans and the British regarding the occupied German territories and against the Germans in these territories. Really did not read? Or read and do not understand ?.
        By the way, about all kinds of people hiding in England. They do not hide the fact that they provide shelter only in exchange for loyalty to England. Does Skripal's example teach anything? By the way, promised to Skripal on behalf of the Queen * barrels of jam and boxes of cookies * for betrayal, turned out to be an outright trick. No one was going to pay him.
        Deception at the state level is a completely legitimate domestic policy of all countries with a Western democracy regime.
      5. Dur_mod 19 January 2020 23: 25 New
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        And because the peoples of these countries live like white people, and we are like slaves since the collapse of the USSR, and before that, too, was only in profile
        Years passed and today there are no claims to the regimes of Western democracies that were established by the British-Americans. There is no claim ONLY to the SOVIET UNION who fought with Nazi Germany
      6. The comment was deleted.
      7. Former naval person 20 January 2020 23: 12 New
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        mind you - they tried in an open court, in the columned hall of the house of councils, in the presence of foreign journalists. You can google a court’s movie on YouTube.
    3. Aviator_ 19 January 2020 17: 24 New
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      An interesting historical episode. The London "government" did not understand that the fate of post-war Poland would be decided at a higher level than they imagined. Its military structure, AK, is also that gangster’s office; my uncle on the mother’s side died in the collapse of the train at the time of the train collision when he returned from Germany in 1945.
      1. phair 23 January 2020 04: 55 New
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        I can’t give a link, somewhere I met that Akovtsy from 39 to 45 destroyed as many as 1000-1200 Nazis. Heroes
        1. Aviator_ 23 January 2020 07: 23 New
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          And then, probably by accident. Not understood.
    4. pmkemcity 19 January 2020 17: 24 New
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      General Ivanov - plus 2 to General Moroz.
    5. rocket757 19 January 2020 17: 32 New
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      In the archives a lot of interesting things can be found.
    6. Thrifty 19 January 2020 17: 48 New
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      Such articles need to be published in the Western media in parallel with photocopies of archives! To shut up their deceitful mouths! !!
      1. Golovan Jack 19 January 2020 18: 25 New
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        Quote: Thrifty
        In order to shut up their lying mouths ...

        ... and noses belay
      2. Former naval person 20 January 2020 23: 13 New
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        working on this :-)
    7. iouris 19 January 2020 17: 58 New
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      Quote: "... the prevailing opinion was that the Red Army would not be able to defeat the retreating Wehrmacht without Polish help, that the Soviet authorities without an agreement with the London delegate would not be able to effectively control the rear of the fronts advancing on Berlin, that they could bargain for themselves in direct negotiations with Stalin better conditions than the British and Americans did in Yalta, especially since they were ready to agree with some of its decisions, like the Polish-Soviet border along the “Curzon line.” It seemed to them that in this situation and will be able not to reckon with the Western allies "End quote.
      This strongly resembles the hysterical cry of the commander of the ukroaviapolka during the de-occupation of Crimea: "America is with us !!!"
      The publication is relevant, because the "Hyena of Europe" (not I said) is preparing to attack. Young people were prepared for this. They think they are ready.
      Even negotiations with such an audience are stupid. Only special operations. The Soviet leaders of this period were certainly not stupid. This is a story, but a story overturned into the future. I hope so.
      1. zenion 19 January 2020 18: 27 New
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        About by the way. All these games with the British, Germans, sabotage and espionage in the rear of the Red Army are described in the book "In August 44 years." They worked for the Germans, and the radio transmitters were English, which the naglitsans handed over to the AK’s. As Rud, who was a Soviet intelligence officer, said that Akovtsy shot Russians and transferred Jews to Poles in nearby villages, which handed them over to the Gestapo and SD. For this, they received rewards from the Germans. A strange war was between AK`ovtsy and Germans, just like between Bandera and Germans.
    8. BAI
      BAI 19 January 2020 18: 11 New
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      Insidious arrest by the Soviet counterintelligence of sixteen leaders of the Polish underground in March 1945

      What does "insidious" mean? They arrested for the case, expertly carried out the operation, another question - why haven’t you been arrested before?
      2. In honor of what did the site engage in the propaganda of Polish terrorists? Maybe they still put a monument and pay compensation?
    9. Amateur 19 January 2020 18: 21 New
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      Poor translation into Russian of an article by an anonymous author unfamiliar with the history of post-war Poland. Since August 1, 1944, there have been 2 governments in Poland: In London, the so-called "Government in exile" with which the USSR broke off diplomatic relations on April 25.04.1943, 26, the so-called The Lublin Government, which was recognized by the USSR on July 1944, XNUMX.
      And in the article everything is mixed in one pile.
      1. Octopus 19 January 2020 19: 52 New
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        Quote: Amateur
        the so-called The Lublin Government, which was recognized by the USSR on July 26, 1944.

        )))
        Lublin was taken by the Red Army only on July 24th, the Poles moved there in January 45th. You are talking about the Polish Committee for National Liberation, which was formed on July 21 of the 44th year.

        Comrade Stalin, we must pay tribute to him, was a thorough man and did not like to let the government go by itself. As a rule, he had a democratic government in advance, which could enter his country directly on the armor of Soviet tanks, if necessary.
    10. Operator 19 January 2020 18: 28 New
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      SMERSH arrested the leadership of Polish terrorists (who carried out sabotage in the rear of the warring Red Army), which even their London accomplices then refused.

      What does "treachery" have to do with it?

      PS The mention in the text of the article “of the Polish government in exile”, which even according to the Constitution of the Commonwealth by the year 1945 had lost legitimacy, not to mention a complete separation from Polish society, is especially significant.
    11. Radikal 19 January 2020 18: 31 New
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      Why are the sources at the end of the article extinct? winked
    12. Nikolai 19 January 2020 20: 19 New
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      Recently, there are a lot of excellent materials on the Polish theme in VO. There is not enough material about the subversive actions of Polish intelligence in the Caucasus and Central Asia against the USSR in the pre-war period. Who will write?
      1. Octopus 19 January 2020 20: 34 New
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        Quote: Nikolai Aleksandrovich
        There is not enough material about the subversive actions of Polish intelligence in the Caucasus and Central Asia against the USSR in the pre-war period. Who will write?

        Oh yeah. A lot has already been written about this.
        OPERATIONAL ORDER

        People's Commissar of the Interior

        Union S.S.R.

        August 11, 1937 Moscow

        № 00485

        The closed letter sent along with this order on the fascist-insurgent, espionage, sabotage, defeat and terrorist activities of Polish intelligence in the USSR, as well as the materials of the investigation in the POV case, reveal a picture of the long-term and relatively unpunished sabotage and espionage work of Polish intelligence in the Union.

        From these materials it can be seen that the subversive activities of Polish intelligence were carried out and continue to be conducted so openly that impunity for this activity can be explained only by the poor work of the GUGB bodies and the carelessness of the Chekists.

        Even now, the work on the liquidation of Polish sabotage and espionage groups and the organization of POWs has not been fully developed. The pace and scale of the investigation is extremely low. The main contingents of Polish intelligence escaped even operational accounting (out of the total number of defectors from Poland, numbering about 15.000 people, only 9.000 people were counted in the Union. In Western Siberia, from about 5.000 defectors on its territory, no more than 1.000 hours were counted). The same situation is taking into account political emigrants from Poland. As for the intelligence work, it is almost completely absent. Moreover, the existing agents are usually twin, framed by the Polish intelligence itself.

        The insufficiently decisive elimination of Polish intelligence personnel is all the more dangerous now that the Moscow center “POV” has been crushed and many of its most active members have been arrested. Polish intelligence, foreseeing the inevitability of its further failure, is trying to bring, and in some cases already to activate its sabotage network in the national economy of the USSR and, first of all, at its defense facilities.

        In accordance with this, the main task of the GUGB bodies at present is the defeat of the anti-Soviet work of the Polish intelligence and the complete elimination of the widespread sabotage and insurgent basement "POV" and the main human contingents of Polish intelligence in the USSR.

        I ORDER:

        1. Beginning August 20, 1937, begin a broad operation aimed at the complete liquidation of local POV organizations and, above all, its sabotage and rebel personnel in industry, transport, state farms and collective farms.

        The entire operation must be completed within 3 months, i.e. by November 20, 1937.

        2. The following shall be subject to arrest:

        a) the most active “POV” members identified during the investigation and so far not sought out according to the attached list;

        b) all prisoners of war of the Polish army remaining in the USSR;

        c) defectors from Poland, regardless of the time of their transition to the USSR;

        d) political emigrants and political exchange from Poland;

        e) former members of the faculty and other Polish anti-Soviet political parties;

        f) the most active part of the local anti-Soviet nationalist elements of the Polish regions.

        3. The arrest operation should be carried out in two stages:

        a) the contingents listed above, working in the NKVD bodies, in the Red Army, in military factories, in defense workshops of all other factories, in railway, water and air transport, in electric power facilities of all industrial enterprises, in gas and oil refineries, are primarily to be arrested. factories;

        b) secondly, all others working in industrial enterprises of non-military importance, on state farms, collective farms and institutions, are subject to arrest.

        4. Simultaneously with the deployment of the arrest operation, begin investigative work. The main focus of the investigation is to fully expose the organizers and leaders of sabotage groups, with the aim of exhaustively identifying the sabotage network. According to the testimony of the arrested spies, saboteurs and saboteurs, everyone should be arrested immediately. To conduct an investigation, select a special group of operational workers.

        5. All those arrested as they are found guilty during the investigation are subject to a breakdown into two categories:

        a) the first category to be shot, which includes all espionage, sabotage, sabotage and rebel personnel of the Polish intelligence;

        b) the second category, the less active of them, to be imprisoned in prisons and camps, for a period of 5 to 10 years.

        6. On the classified as the first and second categories during the investigation, every 10 days lists are compiled with a summary of investigative and agent materials characterizing the degree of guilt of the arrested, which are sent for final approval to the NKVD of the USSR.

        The assignment to the first or second category on the basis of consideration of undercover and investigative materials is carried out by the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the republic, the head of the NKVD of the region or territory, together with the corresponding prosecutor of the republic, region, territory.

        Lists are sent to the NKVD of the USSR signed by the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Republic, the chiefs of the NKVD and the Prosecutor of the respective republics, territories and regions.

        After approval of the lists in the NKVD of the USSR and the Prosecutor of the Union, the sentence is immediately carried out, i.e. convicts in the first category are shot and in the second sent to prisons and camps, according to the orders of the NKVD of the USSR.

        7. To terminate the release from prisons and camps of prisoners sentenced to prison on the grounds of Polish espionage. About each of them to submit material for consideration at the Special Meeting of the NKVD of the USSR.

        8. All the work to defeat the POV and all other contingents of the Polish intelligence was skillfully and deliberately used to acquire new agents across the Polish line.

        When selecting agents, particular attention should be paid to measures ensuring that the NKVD bodies from penetrating the network of Polish intelligence counterparts.

        Lists of all agents scheduled for recruitment, with an exhaustive description of them, should be sent for approval to the head of the GUGB NKVD Comrade. FRINOVSKY.

        9. Report the progress of the operation by telegraph every 5 days, i.e. 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th of each month.

        p.p. PEOPLE'S COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF THE USSR GENERAL COMMISSIONER OF STATE. SECURITY - EJOV

        With true true: SECRETARY OF THE GUGB NKVD USSR Kombrig (ULMER)

        (Center for the storage of modern documentation, F. 6. Op. 13. T. 6. L. 8–51)

        The order was accompanied by a closed letter "On fascist-insurgent, espionage, sabotage, defeatist and terrorist activities of Polish intelligence in the USSR" - on 30 pages. With names, surnames - if you believe it, a terrible picture of revelry of Polish intelligence in the defenseless USSR for twenty years.

        The “POV” constantly mentioned in the order and in the closed letter is the “Polish Army Organization”, created in 1914 to fight for independence. It was dissolved in 1922. The POV operating in the USSR in the 30s is like a charge of digging a tunnel from Bombay to London. But it is quite suitable for the "Polish mass operation", for mobilizing the "organs" and the population to fight against the "fifth column" of Poles living in the USSR. The country began anti-Polish hysteria, a campaign of "exposure". The operation itself did not last 3 months, as indicated in the order, but a year and a half.

        In 1937, lived in the USSR 636 220 Poles.

        According to the Central Archive of the FSB (CA FSB, F-8-os, op. 1), during the "Polish Operation" 139 835 people were convicted, of which 111 091 people were sentenced to death.


        I must admit that so far the Polish government is only interested in the episode of the liberation of the Red Army. Until the genocide of ethnic Poles in the USSR in the 30s have not yet reached.

        But they will come, there is little doubt about it.
        1. Nikolai 19 January 2020 20: 51 New
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          I thank you for the material, but it has nothing to do with the question: "... about the subversive actions of Polish intelligence in the Caucasus and Central Asia against the USSR in the pre-war period."
          From the actions of the Polish government in recent years, we conclude that Poland did not need to be "liberated".
          1. iouris 20 January 2020 12: 46 New
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            Quote: Nikolai Aleksandrovich
            Poland did not need to be "liberated."

            Do you, Nikolai Alexandrovich, consider the factor of geography? How could you get to Berlin, if not through Poland? Even the song was such with a refrain: "... that means we are there!" In fact, Poland was liberated-occupied, well, or occupied-liberated. By the way, according to the Yalta mandate, by the decision of both the leadership of the United States and Great Britain. Do you really think that the troops of the USA and Great Britain could "liberate" Warsaw in 1944 or even in 1945?
            1. L-39NG 20 January 2020 13: 35 New
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              Comrades gentlemen, or vice versa. WWII ended "a long time ago," and Napoleon was long overwhelmed. What is the point of constantly living in the old days? Nothing more to do?
              1. iouris 20 January 2020 15: 31 New
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                Quote: L-39NG
                What is the point of constantly living in the old days?

                For a long time there is an ideological justification of the method of taxing the population of the Russian Federation with tribute in the future. This is a matter of national exemption from the additional tax on energy sold to the West.
            2. Octopus 20 January 2020 14: 13 New
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              You are right, Poland was greatly spoiled by geography. So the Allies could liberate Poland in only two ways.

              Or the success of the July conspiracy and complete mutual understanding with the new German authorities (which, unfortunately, was not close, both in terms of success and in terms of mutual understanding).

              Or an early open U-turn to the war with the USSR. Then the USSR, with a high probability, would offer to pay off freed countries. Again, if Churchill had such ideas (but even Churchill did not do what was in his power in this direction), then the Americans are completely unprepared for the continuation war.
              1. iouris 21 January 2020 00: 57 New
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                Quote: Octopus
                Then the USSR, with a high probability, would offer to pay off the liberated countries.

                It is you who interpret the story in a fantasy style. Stalin and Roosevelt forced Churchill to work as a team. The exchange was as follows: Italy, Greece and France will be included in the sphere of influence of the West, and Eastern Europe, including Poland - the sphere of security of the USSR. The United States needed the USSR to defeat Japan, because Pacific theater of operations for the United States - the main. The USSR also contributed to the decline of the British Empire in the interests of the United States, which took the place of this superpower.
                Geography cannot “spoil”. Polish politicians who frantically pursue the anti-Russian course that repeatedly led Polish statehood to disaster are spoiled. What caused the uprising in Warsaw that ended in disaster, which began without coordination with the Soviet command? Only one thing: the desire of the London "government" to show that it is they who control the country. This government, which was hostile to the USSR and Russia, was ready together with Hitler to destroy the USSR and profit from Russian territories.
                Thus, on the way to Berlin on the territory of Poland, where they acted, supported by both the SS command and the allies, the formation of the AK, the USSR whom he freed and saved from physical destruction, and whom he "occupied". And after the war in Poland, the civil war was over and the Polish communists and those who were guided by the USSR came to power. What happened then, we also know. Poland returned to its original position. The pre-war situation. There again, some hope for a war with Russia.
                1. Octopus 21 January 2020 10: 37 New
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                  Quote: iouris
                  supported by the command of the SS, and allies, the formation of AK

                  ))
                  And where and against whom did the AK units supported by the SS operate?
                  Quote: iouris
                  There again, some hope for a war with Russia.

                  Let me remind you that Poland is much larger and richer than Israel. So I would prepare for war - I would act differently. So far, Poland, like the Sailors on the embrasure, is covered by the Old Man.
                  Quote: iouris
                  What caused the uprising in Warsaw that ended in disaster, which began without coordination with the Soviet command? Only one thing: the desire of the London "government" to show that it is they who control the country.

                  Yes, it was a rebellion of the doomed. All they could do was die with weapons in their hands. It is difficult to find a good solution in the situation in which Poland found itself.
                  On the other hand, the Nazis were greedy, once again. We would like to plant a pig in the Soviet regime - they would surrender AK to Warsaw; Just the government of Poland, like no other, after Hitler, was interested in the collapse of the coalition. But Hitler was not one of the multi-walkers.
                  Quote: iouris
                  The USSR also contributed to the decline of the British Empire

                  Yes, for this the Americans were ready to forgive a lot. One of the many frenzy of the State Department and Roosevelt. They were so used to fighting British colonialism that for a long, very long time (already without Roosevelt) they refused to understand that British and any colonialism was much better than young people's democracies.
                  By the way, among the Western left this creed is still holy. Cessil Rhodes - bad, colonialism, Robert Mugabe and Pol Pot - good, democracy.
                  Although, it would seem, who knows how if not Americans. Back in the XNUMXth century, they took an African country, which was not a pity (but no one was sorry), and brought freedom there.
                  The country has since been called Liberia.
                  Quote: iouris
                  The United States needed the USSR to defeat Japan, because Pacific theater of operations for the United States - the main

                  Yes, semi-propogandons like Isaev like to push it. (Semi) the official position of the Americans - they crap. More precisely, Truman was crap, Roosevelt was insane by the 45th year, and the State Department from the time of Stettinius was a branch of the Comintern.
                  The USSR in Japan is unnecessary, it can’t do anything on the islands, since its Pacific Fleet of the 45th year. In the military sense, the USSR did not affect the fate of Japan directly. At the same time, the fact of the USSR’s participation in Chinese events became a disaster for the United States and its ally Chiang Kai-shek. The reasons are indicated above.
                  Quote: iouris
                  The exchange was as follows: Italy, Greece and France will be included in the sphere of influence of the West, and Eastern Europe, including Poland - the sphere of security of the USSR

                  What does exchange mean? Members of the Executive Committee of the Comintern became vice-prime ministers, examples above. The Americans came to the idea of ​​exchanges only in the 47th. And they exchanged, naturally, with American money, the Marshall plan.
                  As for the security sphere of the USSR, why would the imperialists suddenly respect the security of their enemy, with whom they will be at war in 5 years?
                  Quote: iouris
                  Stalin and Roosevelt forced Churchill to team work

                  Roosevelt betrayed all his allies and his country, pacifying enemy, because it was more convenient for him. Such a man.
                  1. iouris 21 January 2020 15: 55 New
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                    "Do you need stories? I have them!"
                    1. Octopus 21 January 2020 15: 58 New
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                      Do you see any inaccuracy in the facts? Or are you only confused by the interpretation?
            3. Nikolai 20 January 2020 16: 19 New
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              Iouris, look above the post of a certain Octopus and you will understand what I mean.
            4. Nikolai 20 January 2020 16: 57 New
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              There was no occupation of Poland since as a subject of law, Poland did not exist for the USSR. There was liberation from the German fascists.
            5. Nikolai 20 January 2020 17: 10 New
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              The Allied forces in the 44th year was not up to Poland. The Red Army could pass Poland by blocking cities such as Warsaw, Lodz, Krakow, others and leisurely strangle the resistance of the Nazis with the population and the ghetto. But humanism - the defining feature of the Soviet people and the leadership of the Soviet Union - cities were taken, Poles with Jews, prisoners of concentration camps were freed.
              1. Octopus 21 January 2020 08: 18 New
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                Quote: Nikolai Aleksandrovich
                But humanism is the defining feature of the Soviet people and the leadership of the Soviet Union

                good
                Quote: Nikolai Aleksandrovich
                post of a certain Octopus

                yes
                I want myself the nickname “A certain octopus”, how to change?
                1. iouris 21 January 2020 14: 14 New
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                  Quote: Octopus
                  I want myself the nickname “A certain octopus”, how to change?

                  Will not help.
    13. iouris 21 January 2020 21: 22 New
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      This article should be published in the "Expert Opinion" section, because the opinions of those who are not experts in a particular field of knowledge have no practical value, and the published opinions of "experts" in the field of psychological and historical war against the peoples of the Russian Federation should be accompanied by warnings such as : "Beware, Polish agent."
      What about yak? We then do not have the opportunity to conduct our "subversive" activities.