Poltava catastrophe of the army of Charles XII

Poltava catastrophe of the army of Charles XII

In the previous article ("Charles XII and his army") we talked about the events that preceded the Battle of Poltava: the movement of the Swedish troops to Poltava, the betrayal of the hetman Mazepa and the state of the Swedish army on the eve of the battle. Now it's time to talk about the siege of Poltava and the battle itself, which forever changed history Sweden and our country.


Siege by the Swedes of Poltava


We remember that the losses of the Swedish army by that time were already so great that the king sent letters to Poland with orders to General Krassau and Stanislav Leschinsky to lead his troops to Ukraine. At the disposal of Poltava, Charles XII had about 30 thousand people. The Swedes settled as follows: the king, his headquarters, the Drabants and the guard occupied the Yakovetsky Monastery (east of Poltava). To the west of the city was infantry. The cavalry units that did not take part in the siege and assault were located even to the west - about 4 versts. And south of Poltava, a convoy was located, which was guarded by two dragoon regiments.

In the garrison of Poltava, headed by A. S. Kelin, there were 4182 soldiers, artillerymen with 28 guns and 2600 militias from the townspeople.


Map of Poltava at the beginning of the XNUMXth century


Poltava, a monument to the defenders of the city and the commandant of the fortress A. S. Kelin, was opened in 1909.

There wasn’t much sense in the siege of this town, but Karl said that “when the Russians see that we seriously want to attack, they will surrender at the first shot at the city”.

Even the generals of Karl did not believe that the Russians would be so kind. Renscheld then said: "The king wants, until the Poles come, to have fun."

The further course of events was determined by the famous stubbornness of Karl, who did not want to leave Poltava until he took it.


Batov A. Swedes storming Poltava, modern illustration

The Russians also insulted the Swedish king when a dead cat thrown by someone from the townspeople fell into his shoulder. Now Karl was tightly “attached” to such a disrespectful city.

“If even the Lord God sent his angel from heaven with a command to retreat from Poltava, I would still stay here”

- said the king to the head of his field office, Karl Pieper.


Charles XII


Karl Pieper. Copy of D. Kokk from a picture of D. K. Ehrenstral

Defenders of Poltava, in turn, killed a man who offered to surrender the city.

The exasperation of the Swedes came to the point that they, in front of the defenders of the city, alive burned two captured Russian soldiers.

The defeat of the Chertomlytsky Sich and the subsequent fate of the Cossacks


Meanwhile, in May 1709, a detachment of Colonel Yakovlev, in order to avenge the Cossacks for treason, captured and ruined the Chertomlytskaya Sich (at the confluence of the right tributary Chertomlyk into the Dnieper).


Zaporizhzhya Sich in different years, map

This "pirate republic" rose like a phoenix from the ashes at the mouth of the Kamenka river (Kherson region), and was again defeated in 1711. However, the Cossacks survived until June 1775, when the last, eighth in a row, Pidpilnyanskaya Sich was liquidated by order of Catherine II.

The Cossacks were divided into two parts. Outcasts incapable of peaceful labor and scumbags went to the territory of the Ottoman Empire, establishing the Trans-Danube Sich. Under an agreement with the Sultan, they sent 5 Cossacks to his army, who calmly and without the slightest remorse fought against the Orthodox - Russians, Ukrainians and Greeks. After 53 years, some of the Transdanubian Cossacks returned to Russia, received forgiveness and settled in the historical region of Novorossia near Mariupol, forming the Azov Cossack army. Of the remaining, the “Slavic Legion” was organized, which the sultans did not use in the wars against Russia, fearing that these Cossacks would go over to the Russians.

And the most adequate Cossacks in 1787 entered the sovereign service as part of the Black Sea Cossack army.

On June 30, 1792 he was granted “for eternal possession ... in the region of Taurida, the island of Fanagoria with all the land lying on the right side of the Kuban river from its mouth to the Ust-Labinsk redoubt - so that on one side the Kuban river, on the other, the Sea of ​​Azov to Yeisk town served as the border of the military land. "


Land of the Kuban (formerly Black Sea) Cossacks

In addition to the “real” Cossack-Sechoviks, immigrants from Little Russia, “zholnera” who left the Polish service, “treasury departments”, people of the “peasant rank” from different Russian provinces and people of “unknown rank” came to Kuban with them. (apparently runaway and deserters). There were also a number of Bulgarians, Serbs, Albanians, Greeks, Lithuanians, Tatars, and even Germans. The adopted son of one of the Kuban Cossacks, Pole P. Burnos, wrote:

“Vasil Korneevich Burnos is a Pole, I am a Circassian, Starovelichkovsky Burnos is a Jew.”

And all of them were now Kuban Cossacks. And in Ukraine since then, the Cossacks remained only in songs and fairy tales.

Charles XII Wound


For the Swedes, the situation in 1709 worsened every day.

At that moment, Gabriel Golovkin came to Karl as ambassador to Peter, who brought a peace offer in exchange for recognizing the Russian conquests in the Baltic states and refusing to intervene in Polish affairs. The king refused. And on the night of June 16-17, he received his famous heel wound.

According to one version, the king went to inspect the Russian camp, and, seeing two Cossacks sitting by the fire, shot one of them, receiving a bullet from the second.

“To blame the Cossack today / And exchange a wound for a wound,” - says Mazepa in the poem by A. Pushkin “Poltava” about this incident.

According to another version, when he saw a Russian detachment crossing the river, he assembled the first soldiers he came across and entered the battle, forcing the enemy to retreat, but was wounded when he was about to leave.

It is unclear why, he did not allow the doctor to immediately remove the bullet - at first he went around to check the Swedish guards. As a result, the wound inflamed and the leg swelled so that they could not remove the boots from it - had to be cut.


Figurine “Dressing the legs of Karl XII after being wounded”. In fact, Karl was injured in his left leg.

Peter I at Poltava


What did Peter do at that time?


Henri Frederic Schopin. Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia

At the beginning of the campaign, Peter I had at his disposal an army of more than 100 thousand people. Its main part of 83 thousand people was under the command of Field Marshal Sheremetev. In Ingermanland there was the corps of General Bour - 24 thousand people. In addition, in Poland, the Russian ally was the crown hetman Senyavsky, whose army was about 15 thousand cavalrymen.

The tsar arrived in Poltava on April 26 and, having settled down on the opposite bank of the Vorskla (north of the Yakovetsky Monastery), until June 20 he collected regiments gradually approaching the site of the future great battle. As a result, the Swedish army was surrounded: in the south was the heroic Poltava, in the north - the camp of Peter I, in which 42 combat soldiers and officers were before the battle, Russian cavalry generals Bour and Genskin acted in the east and west.

Military Council of Charles XII


But why did he stand at Poltava without engaging in battle with the Russians Karl? He, in turn, was expecting the Krassau corps, which was in Poland, the army of Leshchinsky and the Crimean Tatars, negotiations with which were conducted through the mediation of Mazepa. In a hurry to get rid of the rebellious city, on the eve of the general battle, he again sent his troops to storm: twice the Swedes tried to take Poltava on June 21, and on the 22nd they managed to climb the walls, but this time they were thrown off them.

On June 26, a military council gathered at Karl, at which the commander of the Dalekarli regiment, Sigroth, declared that his soldiers were in a state of depression. For two days now they have not received bread, and horses have been fed leaves from trees. Due to the lack of ammunition, bullets have to be poured from re-molded officer services or Russian cores are used for these purposes. And the Cossacks are ready to rebel at any moment. Field Marshal Ronschild supported him, saying that the army was decaying in front of his eyes, and that there were only one big battle for cores, bullets and gunpowder.

Karl, who didn’t understand why he was delaying the battle with the Russians, although time was clearly not on his side, finally gave the order “to attack the Russians tomorrow”, reassuring his generals with the words: “we will find everything we need in the reserves of the Muscovites”.

We add, perhaps, that Charles XII still could not walk due to a wound to the heel, and inflammation due to untimely treatment of the wound caused fever. Field Marshal Karl Gustav Rönschild, who was to be commander in chief of the upcoming battle, could not heal the wound received during the storming of the town of Veprik. And General Levengaupt, appointed to command the infantry, suffered from diarrhea. After the meeting, this “invalid team” began to prepare its army for a general battle.

Swedish army on the eve of the battle


At that time, about 24 thousand people were ready for battle in the Swedish army - not counting the Cossacks, whom the Swedes did not trust, and who did not rely on too much.


"Cossack". Illustration from the book of Sementovsky N. Starin Little Russian, Zaporozhye and Don. SPb., 1846

Further events showed that they appreciated the Cossacks and their desire to fight correctly. The Swedish lieutenant Veye described their participation in the Battle of Poltava as follows:

“As for the Cossacks of the hetman Mazepa, I don’t think that more than three of them died during the whole battle, because while we were fighting, they were in the rear, and when they happened to run away, they were far ahead.”

There were 2250 people injured and sick in the Swedish army. In addition, the army consisted of about 1100 officials of the chancellery, about 4000 grooms, orderlies and workers, as well as 1700 strangers in general — wives and children of soldiers and officers.

And the number of combatant Russian troops at that time reached 42 thousand people.

Nevertheless, the Swedes were supposed to advance in the upcoming battle, because, as was shown in the previous article, their army was rapidly weakening and degraded, and it was already impossible to delay the battle.

They had to step along the field between the Budishchensky and Yakovetsky forests (two to three miles wide), on which, according to the order of Peter I, 10 redoubts were built: these were quadrangular defensive fortifications with ramparts and ditches surrounded by slingshots, the length of one redoubt face was from 50 to 70 meters.

Thus, the battle inevitably fell into two parts: a breakthrough through the redoubts, and a battle before the redoubts (or an assault on the Russian camp, if the Russians did not accept an open battle and hide in it).


The layout depicting the battlefield of Poltava. Poltava, Museum of the Battle of Poltava


Poltava Battle Field, restored redoubt

On the morning of June 26, the non-commissioned officer of the Semyonovsky regiment Schulz fled to the Swedes, so it was decided to dress the soldiers of the exemplary Novgorod regiment in the uniforms of recruits.

At 27 a.m. on June 8200, 4 Swedish infantrymen, assembled in 4 columns, began to take up their positions. They were given only 28 guns, while 109 guns with a sufficient number of charges remained in the train. 7800 cavalry squadrons and drabants (with a total number of 3 men) advanced even earlier. They were supposed to support 8 thousand Cossacks. Other Cossacks, along with Mazepa, remained with the wagon train. And on the Russian side, in the battle of Poltava, XNUMX Cossacks fought.

Karl, lying on a stretcher made for him, was on the right flank of his troops.


Charles XII before the Battle of Poltava

It was brought by the Drabant and guards, allocated for protection, here the stretcher was fixed between the two horses, officers of the retinue stood nearby.

A fragment of an engraving depicting a stretcher of Charles XII

Battle of Poltava


At sunrise, the Swedish infantry moved forward - and came under the artillery strike of the guns of Russian redoubts (a total of 102 guns were installed on them). The power of Russian artillery fire was such that the cores reached the place where the Swedish king was, one of them killed three drabants and several guards of Charles XII, as well as a horse carrying the king’s stretcher, and the second broke the drawbar of this stretcher.

The Swedish commanders did not understand the carelessly composed disposition. Some battalions marched in battle order and stormed the redoubts, others marched in marching order, and going around them, they moved on. The commanders of the columns could not find the companies that had gone ahead, and did not understand where they were disappearing.

Cavalry units followed the infantry.


Nerke-Vermanland Regiment near Poltava, book illustration

The first redoubt was captured by the Swedes almost immediately, the second - with difficulty and with heavy losses, and then confusion began.


Poltava field, battle at the redoubts, layout

The soldiers of the Dalekarli regiment, who were delayed by storming the second Russian redoubt, lost sight of other Swedish units. The commander of the column, Major General Karl Gustav Roos and the colonel of this regiment Sigroth led him forward at random and stumbled upon a third redoubt, where they met with the battalions of Nerke, Jonkoping and the two battalions of the Westerbotten regiment that had unsuccessfully attacked him. Having united, the Swedes again went on the assault, but since they did not have stairs and other necessary equipment, they suffered terrible losses (1100 people were killed, including 17 captains out of 21, Colonel Sigroth was wounded), and were forced to retreat to the outskirts of Yakovetsky forests, finally losing touch with the rest of the Swedish army.


Fight at the redoubt. Reconstruction of the Poltava battle

Roos sent scouts in all directions, who were supposed to find the "missing" Swedish army, and far ahead, Field Marshal Rönschild unsuccessfully searched for these formations.

And the Swedes who had advanced ahead were met by the Menshikov cavalrymen.


Yu. Kashtanov. Cavalry Commander Alexander Menshikov

Swedish dragoons and drabants rushed to the aid of their infantry, but because of the tightness they could not line up in a battle line and were repelled. Inspired by the success, Menshikov ignored the two orders of Peter I, urging him to leave the line of redoubts, and when he nevertheless began to retreat, the Swedish cavalrymen who were rebuilding, drove his detachment north - past the Russian camp, under the protection of which he did not manage to bring his subordinates. And they drove the Russian cavalry directly into the ravine, in which all of it was supposed to die - if Ronchild did not order his cavalry to turn back. Firstly, he simply did not know about this ravine, very terrible for the Russians, and secondly, he was afraid of the environment of his infantry units, which were now between the redoubts and the Russian camp. Moreover, Rönschild forbade Levengaupt immediately attack the Russian camp, ordering him to move to the Budischensky forest - to join with the cavalry units.

Löwenhaupt later claimed that the battalions of the Uppland and Ostergetland regiments each took a redoubt in the transverse line, the Russians were already starting to withdraw and point the pontoons through Vorskla, and Rönschild, by his order, deprived the Swedes of their only chance of victory. But Russian sources deny the capture of these redoubts by the Swedes. Peter not only did not want to retreat, but, on the contrary, was very afraid of the Swedes' retreat, and therefore, in order not to frighten the enemy with the size of his army, he decided to leave 6 regiments, Cossacks of Skoropadsky and Kalmyks of Ayuka, in the camp, three more battalions were sent to them Poltava.

One way or another, the battle died down for about three hours. Hiding from the Russian artillery in a hollow near the Budishchensky forest, Rönschild waited for his cavalry to return to the infantry units, and tried to find out the fate of the “lost” battalions of the Roos column, Peter put the cavalry in order and prepared his regiments for a general battle.

Charles XII was also brought to the parts of Ronschild. Accepting congratulations on the successful completion of the first stage of the battle, the king asked the field marshal if the Russians went beyond the boundaries of his camp for the battle, to which the field marshal replied:

“Russians cannot be so impudent.”

At this moment, the commander of the Cossack regiment, who was fighting on the side of the Russians, having decided that the battle was lost, turned to the "Little Prince" Maximilian with a proposal to switch to the Swedish side. The Württemberg Duke replied that he could not make a decision on his own, and that he had no opportunity to contact the king - and thereby saved both this fool and coward, and his subordinates.

And Rönschild finally discovered the missing Dalekarli regiment and sent General Sparre to help him. But the Russian regiments, led by Renzel, were ahead of him, who, on the way, stumbled on Schlippenbach's stray detachment and captured this general. Then they defeated the battalions of Roos, which broke with a part of the soldiers to the so-called "guard trench" on the banks of the Vorskla, but when he saw Russian guns in front of him, he was forced to surrender.

Sparre told Rönschild that “there is no need to think more about Roos,” because if he “cannot protect himself from the Russians with his six battalions, then let him go to hell and do what he wants.”

And at the same time, Rönschild received a message that the “impudence” of the Russians exceeded all his expectations - they were leaving their camp. It was 9 a.m., and the battle, as it turned out, was just beginning. Russian troops were commanded by Field Marshal Sheremetev, Peter I took over one of the divisions of the second line.


Portrait of Count B.P. Sheremetev, engraving by an unknown German master, circa 1710


Peter the Great. Engraving

The Russian infantry was built in two lines, the first of which was 24 battalions, the second - 18, total - 22 thousand people.

Viskovatov V.V. Pikiner of the Preobrazhensky Regiment, from 1700 to 1720

In between the infantry units, 55 cannons were deployed.

The Swedes could now oppose the Russians with only 10 battalions (4 thousand people) and 4 guns. Two more battalions sent to help Roos did not have time to return.

Bour's cavalrymen (45 squadrons) stood on the right flank of the Russian army, and Menshikov, who returned, was located at the head of 12 squadrons.


Viskovatov V.V. Fuselier of the Dragoon Regiment, from 1700 to 1720

But the Swedish cavalry did not have enough space to stand on the flanks: it was located behind the infantry battalions.

Lowenhaupt recalled that from the picture he had seen, "his heart sank, as if from a stab":

“These, so to speak, foolish and unfortunate rams going to slaughter, I had to lead against all enemy infantry ... It was beyond human imagination to imagine that even one soul out of all our unprotected infantry would come out,”
He wrote later.
And even civilian Piper said then:

"The Lord must work a miracle so that we can get out this time too."

Sometimes you hear: the Russians were very lucky that Charles XII could not command his army in the Battle of Poltava due to wounds. I hope you now understand that if anyone was lucky that day, it was Charles XII. Being healthy, the king would certainly climb forward with his drabants, be surrounded and either die or be captivated by some brave seedling or preobrazhenets - like Renschild, the “Little Prince” Maximilian of Württemberg, Karl Pieper and others. And the Northern War would end much earlier.

Back to the battlefield. The weak and small Swedish battalions, having already suffered heavy losses, moved to the strong positions of the Russians almost without artillery support. The soldiers, accustomed to obeying their commanders, did what they were taught. And many of their commanders no longer believed in success, two people kept their coolness and inexplicable calm - Rönschild and Karl, who this time completely relied on his field marshal. Even in this difficult situation, they did not begin to invent anything new, the tactics were ordinary: it was decided to crush the Russians with a bayonet strike.

The bayonets were relatively new at the time. weapons: they replaced baguettes (bayonets), which first appeared on the arsenal of the French army in 1647 (and in the Russian army only in 1694). The bayonets differed from baguettes in that they were mounted on the barrel (rather than inserted into the barrel of a musket) without interfering with firing, and the French also began to use them first - in 1689 the Swedish guard received bayonets (about 50 cm long) in 1696. - even before the accession to the throne of Charles XII. The soldiers of the rest of the army, they appeared in 1700. And Russian troops began to switch from baguette to bayonet in 1702.

So, according to the recollections of the participants in the battle, the Swedes moved against the superior forces of the Russians and attacked with an “unprecedented fury”. The Russians responded with volleys of cannons, firing 1471 shots (a third with buckshot).


A. Semenov and A. Sokolov. "Artillery in the Battle of Poltava"

The losses of the attackers were huge, but, following their traditional tactics, they went forward. As soon as they came close to the Russian ranks, the Swedes fired a volley of muskets, but the gunpowder became damp, and the sound of these shots was compared by a pair of gloves to the weak clap of his palm.

The bayonet strike of the caroliners on the right flank nearly knocked over the Novgorod regiment, which had lost 15 guns. The first battalion of this regiment was almost completely destroyed, in order to restore the broken line, Peter I had to personally lead the second battalion, it was at this time that the Swedish bullet pierced his hat, and the other hit the saddle of his beloved Lysette horse.


Louis Caravac. Peter I in the Battle of Poltava

The battalions of the Moscow, Kazan, Pskov, Siberian and Butyr regiments also moved back. For the Swedes, this was the only, albeit small, chance of victory, and the moment could be decisive in the whole battle, but the Russian battalions of the second line resisted and did not run.


A fragment of the drama “Poltava battle” (Performed by artists of the studio named after N. Grekov)


Battle of Poltava, frame from the film "Servant of the Sovereigns"

Now, according to the military regulations of the Swedes, the cavalry had to deliver a massive blow to the retreating units of the enemy, overturning them and taking to flight, but she was late. When Kreutz’s squadrons nevertheless approached, the Russians, lined up in a square, repulsed their attack, and then they were pushed back by Menshikov’s dragoons. And at that time the Swedes did not even have time to engage in battle on the left flank, and a gap now formed between the flanks, into which, at any moment, the Russian units could wedge. Here stood the regiments of the guards brigade: Semenovsky, Preobrazhensky, Ingermanlandsky and Astrakhan. It was their blow that became decisive in this battle: they overthrew the battalions of the left flank and the cavalrymen of General Hamilton (who was captured). Soon the right-flank Swedish battalions faltered and rolled back. The retreating Swedes were caught between the Russian units attacking them from the north and east, the Budishchensky forest in the west and their own cavalry units, which were in the south. The official Russian report says that the Swedes were beaten "like cattle." The losses of the Swedish army were horrific: in the Upland regiment of 700 people survived 14, in the Scaraborg battalion - 40 out of 500.


The scheme of the Poltava battle


"Battle of Poltava", German engraving of the XVIII century

Charles XII was not captured only by a miracle: the Russians did not know that the king himself was part of one of the units, and therefore, having received a rebuff, they lost interest in him - they retreated, choosing lighter prey, which was plentiful around. But the cannonball smashed the king's stretcher, killing the front horse and several people from his retinue. Karl was mounted on the horse of one of the guards - and almost immediately another nucleus tore off the stallion's leg. The king was found a new horse, and the bullets continued to literally mow down the people standing around him. At that moment 20 drabants, about 80 guardsmen of the North-Skonsky regiment, one of the doctors and several courtiers of Karl, including his chamberlain and historian Gustaf Adlerfelt, died.


“Charles XII on the Battle of Poltava”, a drawing by an unknown artist

In the second hour of the afternoon, Karl and his retinue made it to the convoy of his army, which was defended by three cavalry and four dragoon regiments, there was almost all artillery (only 4 guns were used in the Battle of Poltava!) And a large number of Cossacks. These Cossacks "participated" in the battle, giving two volleys of muskets for the detachment of Charles XII, which they mistook for the advancing Russian troops.

Chaplain Agrell later claimed that if the Russians had then struck the wagon train, not a single Swede “would have been able to carry away his legs.” But Peter had already begun to celebrate the victory, and did not give orders to pursue the enemy. The prisoners Rönschild, Schlippenbach, Stackelberg, Roos, Hamilton and Maximilian Württemberg at that time handed him their swords. Peter I said cheerfully:

“Yesterday, my brother, King Karl, asked you to sit in my tents for lunch, and you, as promised, arrived in my tents, and my brother Karl didn’t grant me a tent with you, which he didn’t keep his password in. I very much expected him and sincerely wished for him to dine in my tents, but when His Majesty did not deign to visit me for dinner, I ask you to have dinner in my tents. ”

Then he returned the weapons to them.


Peter I after the Poltava victory returns swords to captured Swedish generals

And shots still sounded on the battlefield, and the Swedes continued to fight at the besieged Poltava. Unaffected by the general panic, they held out until they received orders from Charles XII, who ordered them to join the wagon train, connecting with 200 guards located three miles to the south.

This mistake of Peter, apparently, was explained by the euphoria that engulfed him. The result, indeed, exceeded all expectations, the victory was decisive and unprecedented, all the Swedish guns participating in the battle (in the amount of 4 pieces), 137 banners, the royal archive and 2 million golden Saxon thalers were captured.


Eugene Lansere. Peter I inspects trophies of Russian troops taken during the Poltava battle from the Swedes


Medal "For the Poltava battle"

The Swedes lost 6900 people killed (including 300 officers), 2800 soldiers and officers were captured, one field marshal and 4 generals. The number of injured, various researchers estimate from 1500 to 2800 people. The total losses of the Swedish army (killed and captured) reached 57%.


Monument to the Swedes who fell in the Battle of Poltava from compatriots

In addition, several hundred Cossacks, who were executed for treason, were captured. Two defectors, Mühlenfeld and Schulz, were also captured: they were put on a stake.

Swedish prisoners were led between the Cossacks and Kalmyks from those who did not take part in the battle. The Swedes were especially impressed by the Kalmyks, who in every possible way demonstrated their ferocity: they gnashed their teeth and gnawed at their fingers. There were even rumors that the Russians brought some kind of Asian cannibal tribe with them, and many then probably regretted that they had ended up in Russia, but were glad that they had not met the "cannibals" on the battlefield.


Jean-Baptiste Le Prince. Kalmyk, engraving of the XVIII century

And in Moscow, the captured Swedes were carried out through the streets for three days.

The Russians lost 1345 people killed (almost 5 times less than the Swedes) and 3920 wounded.


Monument on the mass grave of Russian soldiers. Poltava


Monument to Peter I in Poltava

The following articles will describe the surrender of the Swedish army at Perevolnaya, the fate of the captured Swedes and the further course of the Northern War.
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  1. Comrade 19 January 2020 05: 54 New
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    +25
    Very interesting, excellently illustrated article, thanks!
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 January 2020 06: 28 New
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      +16
      I fully support Comrade. Thank you very much Valery !!!
      1. Proxima 19 January 2020 11: 00 New
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        +12
        When in 1721 Peter the Great declared himself emperor, Russia an empire, no one in Europe began to object. The authority of Russia was prohibitive! Still, to break the ridge of the best army in the world, led by the genius commander, it was worth a lot! good
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 January 2020 14: 49 New
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          +5
          Not so simple. Following the declaration by Russia of the Empire, several decades of diplomatic games followed, in recognition. The last if I’m not mistaken were the French !!!
          1. Proxima 19 January 2020 15: 13 New
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            Naturally! What do you want? In Europe there was one single empire - the Holy Roman Empire and no one even tried to repeat this status, neither the French, nor the Spaniards, nor the Swedes. And here on you, some kind of bastard Russia. Naturally there was some grunt. The second attempt was repeated almost 100 years later by Napoleon Bonaparte ...
            1. Kronos 19 January 2020 18: 53 New
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              But what about the Austrian Empire?
              1. Proxima 19 January 2020 18: 57 New
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                Quote: Kronos
                But what about the Austrian Empire?

                So this is the Holy Roman Empire.
        2. Prometey 20 January 2020 07: 55 New
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          Quote: Proxima
          When in 1721 Peter the Great declared himself emperor, Russia an empire, no one in Europe began to object. The authority of Russia was prohibitive! Still, to break the ridge of the best army in the world, led by the genius commander, it was worth a lot! good


          In my opinion, you exaggerate. The best army in the world is very, very loudly said. So, the middle peasant.
  2. Same lech 19 January 2020 06: 15 New
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    Thank you Valery for the most interesting articles ... and for the whole series of articles ... I read with rapture ... as if I myself participate in these battles of past centuries.
    Since childhood, I love military history ... and when you connect your imagination, pictures of battles cleaner than Hollywood run through your eyes.
  3. Comrade 19 January 2020 06: 21 New
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    +6
    Monument on the mass grave of Russian soldiers. Poltava
    Monument to Peter I in Poltava

    Are the monuments intact, or did Bandera “de-communize” them?
    1. 210ox 19 January 2020 08: 24 New
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      +7
      For them, Peter and Menshikov are like a sickle ... These dives in the "alternative history" live.
    2. Oberst_71 19 January 2020 11: 02 New
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      +9
      Everything is intact and in place. Naturally, due to political trends, the composition has changed. A hall of Cossack glory and numerous portraits of Mazepa as a hero appeared. Poltava people are mostly adequate.
  4. Van 16 19 January 2020 06: 44 New
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    +6
    Nice, interesting article, thanks! Here a lot has been written about Poltava, but a new article is coming out and it’s interesting to read anyway.
  5. Olgovich 19 January 2020 08: 07 New
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    +7
    Karl-adventurer: a weakened army - without supplies, in the minority, without proper management and command, without artillery - attacks.

    But the skills and experience of soldiers, after all, are not enough for victory.

    Madly staked everything and lost the future of Sweden ...

    Retreat, connecting with reinforcements, replenish stocks and the war would go on for a long time and its result would still be unknown ...

    But pride leaped. The result for the Swedes-plachven ..

    But for Russia, glorious!
    1. pmkemcity 19 January 2020 14: 17 New
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      Karl adventurer

      He is not an adventurer, he is a miser - 2 million golden Saxon thalers!
    2. ltc35 19 January 2020 18: 34 New
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      We must pay tribute that Karl was a very brave man, a skilled commander. And the Poltava victory was not easy for Peter. The more valuable the result.
      1. cat Rusich 19 January 2020 21: 21 New
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        I repeat what has been said to the previous article. Carl 12 is a good COLONEL - but a bad COLONELIST. Charles 12 "did not see the field" - did not realize the strategic situation.
    3. maksbazhin 20 January 2020 08: 45 New
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      judging by the article, he is also, to some extent, a maniac.
  6. Avior 19 January 2020 08: 14 New
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    Unfortunately, the author did not consider the key moment of the Victory near Poltava, the reasons why Karl was outnumbered there with 4 guns against 102 Russians.
    But it was the guns that were then the basis of firepower, the author writes about this as an unimportant detail.
    The basis of the Poltava victory was a victory over the Swedes near the village of Lesnoe, about which the author
    mentioned casually in a previous article
    . Everything changed in 1709, when the Swedish army of Karl and the Levengaupt corps were defeated and lost to Sweden, the best Swedish commanders were captured

    In fact, the Levengaupt corps went to join Karl — 12–16 thousand troops, a convoy with supplies of 7 thousand carts, artillery — were intercepted and defeated by the corps commander by the command of Peter and Menshikov himself in the autumn of 1708, in this battle most of the Swedes were killed or scattered so that less than half got to Karl, the Russians completely seized the convoy with months-long supplies and artillery that was being brought to Karl, so that Karl was already doomed near Poltava.
    hi
    1. VLR
      VLR 19 January 2020 08: 21 New
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      You quoted the article before last - "Karl XII and his army". And in the past ("Russian campaign of Charles XII"), the battle of Lesnaya was told. Apparently, you missed it.
      1. Avior 19 January 2020 09: 13 New
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        You follow the link in the article in the first line to the last article goes exactly the one I quoted
        Indeed, I do not read all the articles on VO, only separate ones, as a rule from the news feed, and I do not track them every day, and yours didn’t get caught then, like today
        I re-read the first paragraph once more and did not see any mention of the battle near Lesnaya, although this, in my opinion, is the most important element of victory near Poltava, later in the article I didn’t come across this either
        hi
        1. VLR
          VLR 19 January 2020 09: 23 New
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          Here it is:
          https://topwar.ru/166615-russkij-pohod-karla-xii.html
          In the first half, even in the first third of the article:
          In particular:
          “This battle Peter I called the“ mother ”of Poltava“ Victoria ”(from September 28, 1708 to July 27, 1709 - exactly 9 months) and until the end of his life celebrated the anniversary of this battle. Its significance for the Russian and Swedish armies was so great that Karl XII refused to believe the news of him. "
          1. Avior 19 January 2020 09: 45 New
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            I read only this article and looked at the one to which you have in this article a link to the past.
            You are right, Peter quite naturally noted the role of that battle in the Battle of Poltava.
            But in this article about the battle of Poltava, I did not even see a mention in passing about the role of the defeat of Levengapt in the Poltava victory. It probably made sense to give a link to the article that you quoted and mention this role at least in the first paragraph, and even during the course of the article link the Poltava victory with that victory and show the connection, for example, in artillery.
            On the other hand, it seemed to me that too much of the article was devoted to descriptions of the Cossacks in that part, which was not related either to Karl and the Swedes, to the course of the Poltava battle, or to this war in general, such as the description of the dispersal of the Pidpilnen’s section and further events, it was After 70 years and with completely different rulers.
            (By the way, on the map of Khortitsky the section is marked on the island of Khortitsa, this is a mistake, there has never been a section on Khortitsa, it was on another island.)
            It would probably be more logical not to mention these events, overloading the article, and some other secondary facts, but to write in more detail about the origins of Karl’s defeat near Poltava. But this is just my opinion ....
            hi
            1. Walking 19 January 2020 14: 14 New
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              Quote: Avior
              I read only this article and looked at the one to which you have in this article a link to the past.
              :

              We must still read the articles that came out earlier, and then show the author claims. This puts you in a bad position.
              1. Avior 19 January 2020 15: 14 New
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                if the author believes that his previous articles are related to the current one, it was necessary to make a link to them in the text, or just write about it.
                The one that was, designated as past, I looked. This was not there, with the exception of one paragraph ..
                The rest of what I wrote is strictly related to the current article and does not affect the rest.
                Sorry, before judging our discussion with him, you should first read what exactly I wrote.
                hi
                1. Walking 19 January 2020 15: 26 New
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                  In an article of January 17, called the Russian campaign of Charles 12, the victory at Lesnaya is described and its significance for the Battle of Poltava is indicated. At the end of today's article, there is a link to all the articles of the author, read. That's all hi
                  1. Avior 19 January 2020 16: 29 New
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                    Dear, you, I see, from the breed of minusers you will, and at the same time from the fans, get into other people's conversations, without understanding the essence of the issue. There was a mistake in the article with a link to an article that the author considered important, the author dealt with this, but you decided to intervene in someone else's communication, without delving into the essence of what was written
                    hi
          2. Pane Kohanku 20 January 2020 11: 05 New
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            Valery, hello!
            As usual, I bow for a good article. hi
            The Swedes lost 6900 people killed (including 300 officers), 2800 soldiers and officers were captured, one field marshal and 4 generals. The number of injured, various researchers estimate from 1500 to 2800 people.

            I was always confused by the ratio of killed Swedes and wounded. In this regard, the question! Can we say that part of the Swedish wounded were simply killed in the heat of battle? hi
            1. VLR
              VLR 20 January 2020 11: 09 New
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              Yes, that’s exactly what it was. Most officers were captured in the Battle of Poltava. In an official report on the victory, it was written: "The Swedes were beaten like cattle."
              1. Pane Kohanku 20 January 2020 11: 11 New
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                In an official report on the victory it was written: "Swedes were beaten like cattle."

                here, and I thought so! hi drinks In fact, this is the third time I have asked this question on the forum, and before that I usually received “cons” and damnations from hurray patriots in response. laughing
  7. Oleg Kolsky 051 19 January 2020 08: 16 New
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    Good morning.
    You respected author have added drama to the description of the Battle. Dressing Novgorod Regiment in the gray uniforms of recruits was not.
    And the battle itself developed without drama, the battle on the first line and the counterattack (the second line of the Russian infantry did not enter the battle) overturned the Swedish army.
    From your story, you can conclude that only 4000 Swedish infantry participated in the battle, but the loss of killed, wounded and captured on the battlefield is twice as much.
    Peter in the battle made two mistakes: 1. When he gave the order to withdraw to the Russian cavalry, which almost led to the defeat of most of the cavalry out of the blue. 2. This is that he did not give the order to immediately investigate, thereby giving Karl time to wash off.
    1. VLR
      VLR 19 January 2020 08: 25 New
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      Quote: Oleg Kolsky 051
      From your story, you can conclude that only 4000 Swedish infantry participated in the battle

      You messed up something. Quote from the article:
      "8200 Swedish infantrymen, assembled in 4 columns, began to take their positions. They were given only 4 guns, while 28 guns with a sufficient number of charges remained in the train. 109 cavalry squadrons and drabants (totaling 7800 people) advanced even earlier . They had to support 3 thousand Cossacks. "
      A number of authors report on "dressing up", maybe someone denies it. But why believe precisely those and not others?
      1. Oleg Kolsky 051 19 January 2020 08: 48 New
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        I believe that the participants need to believe, and even that must be comprehended. But you are right, believe-not believe, a matter of taste.
        But it seems to me that the legend of dressing was inspired by a real case, during the siege of Narva, when 40% of the garrison was lured by such cunning to defeat.
        But thank you all the same for a lot of illustrations and an article.
  8. Boris55 19 January 2020 08: 28 New
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    Quote: Ryzhov V.A.
    Poltava catastrophe of the army of Charles XII

    Author, are you a Swede?
    If they were Russian, they would write about our victory over the Swedes, and not about their disaster.
    1. VLR
      VLR 19 January 2020 08: 42 New
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      There is a Russian proverb: "what's on the forehead, what's on the forehead." And this is not a separate article, but a cycle in which the personality of Charles XII and the Swedish army in the Northern War are examined (see links to other articles at the end of this). A lot has been written about Peter I and the Russian army; repeating is not very interesting. And about opponents - usually, somehow casually.
      1. Boris55 19 January 2020 12: 43 New
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        Quote: VlR
        A lot has been written about Peter I and the Russian army; repeating is not very interesting.

        If you follow your logic, then no less has been written about Stalin and the Red Army. Should I Expect the Next Article about disaster Hitler’s? Why is it impossible for you to describe our enemies through the prism of our victories?
        1. VLR
          VLR 19 January 2020 13: 09 New
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          Honestly, I don’t see any crime if someone writes about the same battle near Stalingrad through the prism of the “German look” - about Paulus personally and his 6th army, the evolution of his views on what is happening and the state of German soldiers and officers in the beginning of the battle and in its final part. Moreover, I read with interest. Moreover, the result will not change either for us or for the Germans from this shift in emphasis.
          1. Boris55 19 January 2020 14: 32 New
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            Let them write about their heroes, and we about ours. Whoever wants to, will read at least in the original, at least in translation. Why do you do their work for them? Do you think it is better than their historians to write about them yourself?

            Articles appear on VO about failures Napoleon, now here about disaster Carla, next - about the unfortunate fascists? Are you trying to arouse sympathy for our enemies? What for?
            1. VLR
              VLR 19 January 2020 14: 48 New
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              This is a one-sided view of the problem - a two-dimensional image instead of a stereoscopic one.
            2. Trilobite Master 19 January 2020 15: 13 New
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              Quote: Boris55
              Well, let them write about their heroes, and we about our

              You know among themthere are probably no stupid people to forbid them to write about our heroes. Therefore, it turns out that they write about both of them, and we only about ours ... It’s unfair.
              In addition, with your unreasonable prohibitions, you seem to consciously want to downplay the glory and honor of our ancestors, because defeating a strong and dangerous opponent is much more honorable. Let’s write that Charles XII is a dumb hysterical idiot, Napoleon is a moron, narcissistic idiot, Hitler is generally a degenerative wretchedness ... Whom did our ancestors defeat? The poor assembly? And if we recall about Narva, Austerlitz and the year 1941, when these wretched men weighed at us, do not indulge in it at all - then who are we?
              No, let’s say this: Karl XII, Frederick the Great, Napoleon, Hitler - all of them were outstanding, and some of the great figures in world history, with their strengths, achievements and victories, were nevertheless defeated by Russian weapons. It is precisely due to the fact that these were highly worthy, strong and skillful opponents that victory over them should serve and is an object of special pride.
              I strongly recommend that you reconsider your point of view on this issue and not interfere with a good author to do his good job.
              1. Maj
                Maj 19 January 2020 15: 27 New
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                Quote: Trilobite Master
                Charles XII, Frederick the Great, Napoleon, Hitler - all of them were outstanding, and some great figures of world history, with their strengths, achievements and victories, and nevertheless, were defeated by Russian weapons.

                Was Napoleon defeated by the Russians? When and where?
                At the time of Hitler, Russia no longer existed. The USSR fought with him.
                1. Trilobite Master 19 January 2020 16: 08 New
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                  Quote: MJ
                  Was Napoleon defeated by the Russians? When and where?

                  Are you serious? Well, good - on the Berezina. Will it go?
                  Quote: MJ
                  At the time of Hitler, Russia no longer existed

                  RSFSR was not? The capital of the USSR was not in Moscow? And the Russian people, apparently, a historical mirage ...
                  Something recently often inappropriate beginners have come across ...
                2. hohol95 19 January 2020 23: 05 New
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                  Was Napoleon defeated by the Russians? When and where?

                  It turns out that Napoleon’s army left the aisles of the Russian Empire of their own free will and in full force?
                  Then why did you come? To drink tea and eat bagels?
                3. Boris55 20 January 2020 09: 11 New
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                  Quote: MJ
                  Was Napoleon defeated by the Russians? When and where?

                  Victory over Napoleon - on the date of signing the Act of Paris Surrender March 31, 1814. Why we are not celebrating this glorious day is a mystery to me.

              2. Boris55 20 January 2020 09: 01 New
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                Quote: Trilobite Master
                You know, among them, probably, there are no stupid people to forbid them to write about our heroes.

                Do our enemies headline their articles in this way: "No luck to the Russian army near Borodino", "No luck to the Red Army in the first months of the war"? I doubt it very much. They write about their victories and their failures, and not about ours.

                Quote: Trilobite Master
                No, let’s do this: Karl XII, Frederick the Great, Napoleon, Hitler - all of them were outstanding, and some were great figures in world history,

                And then we wonder where Koli from Uringoy comes from ...

                These (Karl, Napoleon, Kaiser, Hitler) came to our land to kill us and rob us. My grandfather burned out in a tank near Stalingrad, and you suggest to me to understand Paulus that when he was taken prisoner, he realized something there? Yes, I do not care about him and all of them.

                They, those who write about Napoleon’s failures, and Karl’s catastrophe, dream of an article appearing: “someone will write about the same battle near Stalingrad through the prism of the“ German view ”- V. Ryzhov. Why do we need a fascist view of our a story?

                Can't you see that they, as it were through neutral articles, launch an overtone window to ward off our memory?

                ps
                There are so many minuses stuffed. Do they all sympathize with our enemies that those failed to kill their parents ...
                1. Trilobite Master 20 January 2020 11: 39 New
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                  Quote: Boris55
                  from Uringoy

                  You have now insulted the inhabitants of the whole city.
                  Quote: Boris55
                  you offer me to understand Paulus

                  Where. You. It. I have. Did you see?
                  Not to "understand", much less to "forgive," but to know. Know who Carl, Napoleon and others are. I understand that you have a war in your head, there are enemies all around, but at least at such a primitive level as “the enemy must be known in person” can you accept the idea of ​​the need to study history?
                  1. Boris55 21 January 2020 08: 30 New
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                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    the enemy must be known in person

                    Yes. The enemy must be known in person and written about him as an enemy, and such epithets as "failure", "catastrophe" are more suitable for describing us, but not as an enemy. There is a smooth substitution of concepts ...

                    About Paulus - you have identified with the author of the article and for V. Ryzhov to his interest about: "the evolution of his views on what is happening." His evolution of consciousness is exactly the same as that of any criminal who has fallen into the hands of justice. Paulus, at the Nuremberg trials, had a choice: to be in the dock or to be a witness. He, in order to survive, surrendered all his former bosses with a bite. He does not cause me any interest, but only contempt and hatred.

                    Again. Writing about enemies as "failure", "disaster" is unacceptable.
                    In general, I remain in my opinion.
            3. Kronos 19 January 2020 18: 57 New
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              With this view, you need to write purely about the wars of Russia, but this is not how history
            4. Prometey 20 January 2020 11: 04 New
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              Quote: Boris55
              and IN there are articles about Napoleon’s failures, now about the disaster of Charles, the next about the unfortunate fascists? Are you trying to arouse sympathy for our enemies? What for?

              Everyone perceives the measure of corruption
  9. VLR
    VLR 19 January 2020 08: 30 New
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    Quote: Olgovich
    Retreat, connecting with reinforcements, replenish stocks and the war would go on for a long time and its result would still be unknown

    Charles XII could no longer retreat. From the south - Poltava, which it was not possible to take, from the north - the camp of Peter, from the east and west - detachments of the Russian cavalry. There were no supplies, but there were many sick, wounded and non-combatants who would have to be abandoned. The only chance to get out is to agree to a peace on the terms that Golovin brought him: to recognize all the Russian conquests and get out of Poland. But Karl could not agree to them, since for him they were overly shameful.
  10. Korsar4 19 January 2020 08: 38 New
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    Thank. It is surprising that in the detailed description of the Poltava battle, one can see Pushkin’s lines.

    Once again, you understand the genius of Alexander Sergeyevich, when even small details come to life.
  11. Sertorius 19 January 2020 08: 44 New
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    And in Ukraine since then, the Cossacks remained only in songs and fairy tales.

    It is unlikely. As an estate, Little Russian Cossacks in official documents continued to exist in Chernihiv, Poltava and several districts of the Kiev province. Chuguev Cossacks (not Ukrainians) lived in the Kharkov province. In the regimental lists of the times of Alexander the First, the phrase "from Little Russian Cossacks" is very common. And in 1812, of them and the former so-called. "assistants" (of whom 450 male souls had accumulated with the Cossacks) will be recruited by 22 Cossack regiments to fight Napoleon. Formed regiments began to be called Little Russian (18 regiments) and Ukrainian (4 regiments) Cossack troops, which existed until the mid-19th century. And then the Cossack history of Little Russia ended.
    As for the article as a whole, I look forward to continuing.
    1. VLR
      VLR 19 January 2020 08: 49 New
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      But these were temporary formations, called Cossacks by old memory. And also the "old Cossacks" who settled in Little Russia, already Cossacks (by way of life) without actually being. But the Cossacks, just like a military estate, disappeared in Ukraine.
      1. Avior 19 January 2020 09: 25 New
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        Sorry, you are confusing the Cossacks, a significant number of whom existed then on the territory of Little Russia, divided into regiments close in style to other well-known Cossacks (and about which Pushkin, however, writes, Ukraine), and the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, who made up a completely special group, with way of life, very different from other Cossacks ....
        Here Zaporizhzhya Cossacks as a phenomenon disappeared, others survived for a long time
        hi
  12. svp67 19 January 2020 08: 49 New
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    The Russians also insulted the Swedish king when a dead cat dropped by someone from the townspeople fell into his shoulder.
    That is who would have imagined that a dead cat that had just been launched would save Russia and turn history into the right direction. But you must admit, you won’t refuse courage to Charles XII, how far away from the besieged positions did he put forward his “NP”, with the head of it, that he received such a “gift”, 20, 30 meters? He was lucky that the besieged had something more substantial and heavy by that time over.
    And here's another aspect, the Cossacks-traitors, apparently still worth calling us now, just as they did then - Cherkasy. And immediately it becomes clear who it is and from where
    1. Korsar4 19 January 2020 09: 02 New
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      Even if there was a cat, there is no direct analogy with the tail of the leader of the Dogs that Mowgli pursued.
      1. svp67 19 January 2020 09: 05 New
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        Quote: Korsar4
        Even if there was a cat, there is no direct analogy with the tail of the leader of the Dogs that Mowgli pursued.

        By the way, a good example, both there and there they got a personal insult to the leader and kept and sent him and his army to the right place, where they put cuffs
        1. tanit 19 January 2020 09: 46 New
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          The role of wild bees is hushed up. They then did not care about any mammals. laughing
          1. Korsar4 19 January 2020 09: 57 New
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            They deceived them. Using wild garlic.
      2. Catfish 19 January 2020 12: 31 New
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        Sergey, hello. hi
        Even if the cat was

        Even if there was no cat, you just had to come up with it. smile
        1. Korsar4 19 January 2020 13: 43 New
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          Of course. The history of mankind is remembered by a series of historical jokes. And not only historical.
          1. Catfish 19 January 2020 14: 03 New
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            Right. This is sometimes not even a “history of mankind”, but its “comedy”.
            1. Korsar4 19 January 2020 15: 14 New
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              And there is. Either the Divine Comedy, or the Human Comedy.
  13. tanit 19 January 2020 09: 08 New
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    A great cycle. And a great article. Sinful and ignorant, and about S. Renzel learned only from this cycle. I tried to find at least something else about him ... but alas.
    And, moving away from the topic of the article and the cycle ... And where are the "fighters for the hysterical truth" ?! Napoleon and Alexander destroyed “tartaria”, Peter and Karl destroyed “hibernation” wassat I give an idea. laughing
  14. Ham
    Ham 19 January 2020 09: 48 New
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    critical for the Swedes was the rejection of artillery ... only 4 (four !!!) guns ...
    while 72 Russian guns (the beauty and pride of Peter!) continually spewed fire and lead ...
    1. tanit 19 January 2020 09: 51 New
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      from article -102 Russian guns were on the redoubts. The question is, what happened to them? And didn’t the Swedes get them?
      1. tanit 19 January 2020 09: 53 New
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        Critical for the Swedes was the new Russian army. However, IMHO. hi
      2. Ham
        Ham 19 January 2020 09: 55 New
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        sorry sorry ... but the essence of this does not change
        1. tanit 19 January 2020 09: 57 New
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          Victory over the strongest army in Europe - the essence does not change. Viva !!! drinks
      3. VLR
        VLR 19 January 2020 09: 59 New
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        The Swedes didn’t get Russian guns for sure. By the way, the Swedes didn’t rivet the captured guns on one of the captured redoubts (or, did they count them and pity them with their own?). As a result, when they went forward, the Russians returned and met the retreating Swedes in one gulp. During the main battle, 15 cannons were captured from the Novgorod regiment - and even used them against the Russians. But then, of course, they also left.
        1. tanit 19 January 2020 10: 02 New
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          Dear Valery Ryzhkov, is it that something and how much went to the Swedes? hi At one of the stages of the battle?
          1. tanit 19 January 2020 10: 08 New
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            The end result is understandable - the best army in Europe has ceased to be. hi
            1. tanit 19 January 2020 10: 14 New
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              But about the Renzel article will be?
          2. VLR
            VLR 19 January 2020 10: 44 New
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            The cannons of two captured redoubts and 15 cannons of the Novgorod regiment were temporarily captured, and left, along with 4 of their own.
            PS My last name is Ryzhov (but this is so, for reference).
            1. tanit 19 January 2020 12: 44 New
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              I'm talking about Renzel (I). Sincerely .. hi
              Is it possible to clarify something about him somewhere?
              1. VLR
                VLR 19 January 2020 13: 37 New
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                Well, about him can be found on the Internet. Before entering the Russian service - there is little information about him, he was an officer in France and Germany. He drew attention to himself at the battle of Fraustadt - he led his soldiers out of the encirclement, and those who were captured were killed by order of Ronschild. He participated in the battle of Poltava - captured 2 generals, besieged Riga. He received the Order of St. Andrew, but died early - in 1710. Probably, if he had lived and served longer, he would have been better known.
                1. tanit 19 January 2020 14: 04 New
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                  Date of birth - NO. The year of death is. How and why he died in 1710 - no. And the topic for research is how awesome, right?
                  1. Trilobite Master 19 January 2020 15: 34 New
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                    Quote: tanit
                    And the topic for research is how awesome

                    Given the name Renzel - Samuel - a slippery topic. smile
                    Do not be afraid that the researcher will be obstructed by ... you yourself know which side?
                    Then they try to point out the author for the fact that he writes about the Swede, what will happen if he writes about Samony Renzel?
  15. igordok 19 January 2020 10: 04 New
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    Tell me, were all the redoubts taken by the Swedes? Or were they just left? According to the article
    Levengaupt later claimed that the battalions of the Uppland and Ostergetland regiments each took a redoubt in the transverse line, the Russians were already starting to withdraw and point the pontoons through Vorskla, and Rönschild, by his order, deprived the Swedes of their only chance of victory. But Russian sources deny the capture of these redoubts by the Swedes.

    But according to the battle plan, the Swedes “passed” through the line of redoubts.
    1. tanit 19 January 2020 10: 20 New
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      According to the film "Servant of the Sovereigns" - there were no redoubts wink
      1. tanit 19 January 2020 10: 21 New
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        But, it is the attack of the Swedes - it does not look very bad there. hi
      2. Ryazan87 19 January 2020 20: 58 New
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        In the film, there are redoubts, though, rather, one redoubt, which is defended by the main characters of the picture. The Swedes took 2 unfinished redoubts:
        "... The nearest redoubt, which was not completed, was at the top of a low ridge, not far from the bushes. Four Swedish battalions attacked this fortification from two sides. They were supported by four squadrons of the Life-Dragoon regiment, which, apparently , attacked a small Russian unit standing between this redoubt and the nearest trench. The waves of the Swedish attack swept through this redoubt without stopping. The garrison, which for the most part consisted of a working team, was destroyed to the last man ...
        Continuing the attack against the longitudinal line of redoubts, the Dalekarli regiment reached redoubt number two. He attacked him too. This redoubt was better prepared than the first, and the attacking forces were slightly less, and therefore the second attack was both more difficult and paid for with large losses than the first. Despite this, the redoubt was taken, and, like the last time, all who failed to escape were slaughtered like cattle.
        Anders Pilström, a thirty-two-year-old ensign from the city of Orsa, who was considered a positive and solid person, says that they "crushed every bone of those inside" ... "
        Englund P. Poltava. Berattelsen om en armés undergång. - Stockholm: Atlantis, 1989.
        In addition, the author of the article is inaccurate: in the redoubts there was not all the artillery of the Russian army, but only about 20 guns and about 4,5 thousand foot soldiers.
        With great losses, passing through the line of redoubts, and seeing the retreating cavalry of Menshikov, the Swedes imagined that they had won. In vain)
    2. VLR
      VLR 19 January 2020 10: 45 New
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      They went around redoubts - under fire and with great losses.
    3. ddmm09 19 January 2020 17: 00 New
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      I think, in order to disperse the battle formations of the Swedes, they specially handed over part of the fortifications, created traps and other tactical methods. Therefore, the losses of the Swedes in this battle were great.
  16. Oberst_71 19 January 2020 11: 06 New
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    ph photo 2019




  17. Catfish 19 January 2020 12: 33 New
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    Valery, hello and thank you. I read with great interest and pleasure. Somehow I had never been fond of details before, well, there was a battle of Poltava, well, we won ... Inertia. Now I discover for myself the True history of the times of Peter. smile
    1. tanit 19 January 2020 12: 54 New
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      The multi-day negotiations are over. The cat insisted that the tree should lie initially. And then - to be thrown out. hi
      1. Catfish 19 January 2020 13: 20 New
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        Well, and what does this dream mean? hi
        1. tanit 19 January 2020 13: 24 New
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          The cat and his man. Have you read, Konstantin?
          1. tanit 19 January 2020 13: 29 New
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            In memory of Andrei Cruz.
            1. Catfish 19 January 2020 14: 00 New
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              Andrei Cruz is perhaps one of the few contemporary authors whom I could read with interest and pleasure. It is a pity that he passed away so early.
          2. Catfish 19 January 2020 13: 58 New
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            No, Vadim, unfortunately did not read. And who is the author?
            1. tanit 19 January 2020 14: 09 New
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              The author is encrypted so as not to fall under Madame the widow ....
              1. tanit 19 January 2020 14: 16 New
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                I wanted to drop the address. Alas, it is not available now. Not Atamans.
                1. tanit 19 January 2020 14: 19 New
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                  Belsky Alexander.
                  1. tanit 19 January 2020 14: 21 New
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                    The cat and his man.
                    1. tanit 19 January 2020 14: 22 New
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                      The cat was of an unusual color. On a white background - sprat-gray spots. He left the hut, sat at the door. But there are no other cats here. And there won’t be anything else! Blue glass of the sky, blue glass of the river ... What is reflected in what? The cat is waiting. After nine, no, eight days later his man would come, pat him behind his ear. The cat is waiting ...
  18. tanit 19 January 2020 12: 49 New
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    Cut, beat ... But S. Renzel hooked me. belay Separately write about it - is it possible?
    1. tanit 19 January 2020 14: 07 New
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      After all, a hero. Russian with a non-Russian name and surname. And - little known. Why?
  19. Operator 19 January 2020 15: 00 New
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    The problems of the Swedes near Poltava were not only in the commander-in-chief (bald, despite his youth), the general bet on one battle (and not on the planned war, which they actually lost 9 months ago), constraint in mobility (due to the expectation of additional approaches forces), the weakened troops (again from the inability to conduct a planned war), the lack of sufficient gunpowder for small arms, not to mention the artillery (see above), the compelled assault of Russian fortifications before the main clash, but also with relief and vegetation. n the battlefield of Poltava is essentially a pre-field, since the battle itself (before the Russian camp - the goal of the Swedes) took place after the Swedes overcame that pre-field with a frontal turn of 90 degrees from the south / north to the west / east position

    1. Fishery 20 January 2020 20: 48 New
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      his hair was given to you) was active, there is a lot of testosterone))) restless
  20. ddmm09 19 January 2020 16: 57 New
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    Quote: Olgovich
    Karl-adventurer: a weakened army - without supplies, in the minority, without proper management and command, without artillery - attacks.

    But the skills and experience of soldiers, after all, are not enough for victory.

    Madly staked everything and lost the future of Sweden ...

    Retreat, connecting with reinforcements, replenish stocks and the war would go on for a long time and its result would still be unknown ...

    But pride leaped. The result for the Swedes-plachven ..

    But for Russia, glorious!

    You mistakenly reason. Even if Karl did everything that you offer, it would only extend the duration of the war, but the Swedes would still not have won. You don’t know Russian tactics in a war. Ours won with little blood, tactics and strategy always prevailed in our warriors. Therefore, we are one of the small nations, but we live in a vast territory and are able to protect it ourselves !!!
  21. BAI
    BAI 19 January 2020 19: 28 New
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    On June 30, 1792 he was granted “for eternal possession ... in the region of Taurida, the island of Fanagoria with all the land lying on the right side of the Kuban river from its mouth to the Ust-Labinsk redoubt - so that on one side the Kuban river, on the other, the Sea of ​​Azov to Yeisk town served as the border of the military land. "

    That's where Ukraine claims to the Kuban arose.
    1. VLR
      VLR 19 January 2020 20: 47 New
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      Yes exactly. The Nazis there inferiority complex on this basis - Cossacks Russia "stole" from them. And borscht, by the way, is also at the same time: it was invented by the Cossacks in one of the campaigns: there was nothing, they found a field with beets, but there is not raw there, and not just boiled. And if the descendants of the Cossacks live now not in Ukraine, but in the Kuban ... And the Kuban in Russia ... A mess!
  22. The comment was deleted.
  23. Alexander Trebuntsev 20 January 2020 08: 06 New
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    Interesting article. Once I had a number of the Eagle magazine with a full and detailed description of the battle of Poltava. The structure of both armies was thoroughly described: the number of combat units, internal structure, weapons. There were very good illustrations. In great detail, with the indication of time, the actions of both armies were understood. Academic was a job. I kept this magazine for about 25 years and at the next move my wife, as always taking over the packaging functions, threw him out. So nowhere else did he even find it in electronic form. I don’t even remember who wrote this work.
    1. Svarog51 20 January 2020 10: 01 New
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      Alexander hi Here is the link, look if that is the magazine.
      http://www.reenactor.ru/ARH/PDF/Orel.pdf
      1. Alexander Trebuntsev 21 January 2020 10: 58 New
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        Seem to be. Thank you, downloaded. :)
        1. Svarog51 21 January 2020 11: 33 New
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          You're welcome hi Suggest to the author, maybe he will come in handy later on.
  24. podymych 20 January 2020 10: 04 New
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    Bravo, bravissimo!
  25. AK1972 20 January 2020 12: 55 New
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    Valery, many thanks for the excellent article! Could you explain to me what idiocy to drag wives with children to war?
    1. VLR
      VLR 20 January 2020 14: 15 New
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      You know, it really is surprising. But such were the traditions of the European armies. I think that most of these women and children did not go after the Swedes (who entered the army according to the Allotment system — they went there with Indels, I wrote about this), but after the soldiers and officers of the recruited regiments. But some of the Swedes probably married in Saxony, where they spent a long time before going to Russia, and in the last year did not fight, but rested at the expense of Augustus the Strong. .
      1. Ryazan87 22 January 2020 18: 06 New
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        "..." Ege, says, well, with the women? " - and shook his head.
        “That's right, I say, but, I say, do not be so kind as to worry, we will now ask them around the necks, Mr. Apostle.”
        “Well, no, he says, you’ll leave this assault here!”
        AND? what do you want to do? Good-natured old man. But you yourself understand, Mr. Doctor, it is impossible for a squadron to march without women.
        And the wahmister winked slyly. "
        "The White Guard", M.A. Bulgakov
        An old tradition) and the Russian army is by no means neglected)
  26. Mihaylov 20 January 2020 12: 56 New
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    Russians lost 1345 people killed (almost 5 times less than the Swedes) and 3920 wounded

    Artillery steers!
  27. Fishery 20 January 2020 20: 49 New
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    the article is gorgeous, and the film is the servant of the sovereigns full d))))
  28. RVAPatriot 21 January 2020 23: 50 New
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    If Western analysts studied history, how many victims could have been avoided, and there would have been no wars ....
  29. Ural resident 22 January 2020 08: 04 New
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    I have a strange impression of the article.
    It seems that the Russian troops did not fight, and the heroic Swedes comprehended one luck after another.
    The Russians had an overwhelming majority in artillery and simply shot the enemy, but where the Swedes managed to enter hand-to-hand fighting, the Russians immediately fled, despite their numerical superiority. When the exhausted, wounded and heroic Swedes ran out of people, they began to retreat, and the Russians finished off the wounded: “the Russians did not know that the king himself was part of one of the units, and therefore, having received a rebuff, they lost interest in him - they left, choosing lighter prey, which was plentiful around. "
    1. Ryazan87 22 January 2020 18: 10 New
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      "... At the very beginning of the battle, Peter ordered his troops to win, and the troops did not dare to disobey. Karl XII did not think to do this, and his troops did not know how to behave: to win or be defeated.
      After a slight hesitation, the Swedes out of two evils chose the lesser - defeat ... "
      )))
  30. marmalade 29 January 2020 02: 54 New
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    Thank you for the article