Corrosion: the main enemy of the fleet


TARKR "Admiral Lazarev" after several years without proper maintenance. All major structural elements are rusty. Photo Forums.airbase.ru


The transition from wooden to metal shipbuilding gave certain advantages, but led to new problems. Seawater in the form of liquid and aerosol is a very aggressive medium that can damage and destroy metal parts. Over time, ships become covered with rust, which must be fought. Fortunately, several basic methods for the prevention and disposal of corrosion exist and are actively used.

Navy issues


The other day in the American media there were interesting publications on the topic of maintaining and restoring the technical readiness of US Navy ships. Despite all the successes of shipbuilders, corrosion remains a serious problem, the solution of which costs significant amounts.

According to the press, in 2014, the US Navy spent about $ 3 billion on rust removal and structural processing, about a quarter of the total cost of repairing military and auxiliary personnel fleet. It is noted that corrosion affects all ships and vessels, regardless of their design. Maintenance requires both steel aircraft carriers with a displacement of tens of thousands of tons, and lightweight aluminum boats.

Corrosion control is carried out in several ways and in all conditions. Some measures are taken during construction or dock repairs; other techniques can be used for minor repairs by crew directly during the trip.

Nevertheless, despite all the efforts of the crews and repairmen, ships often do not look the best. Seams, corners, holes and other structural elements are quickly covered with a characteristic brown coating, and its removal on large ships turns into a continuous process. After working in one area, you have to move to another, and so without interruptions.


The underwater part of the landing ship USS Makin Island (LHD-8) after standard operation. US Navy Photos

It should be noted that all fleets of the world suffer from corrosion, including and ours. In fact, on any ship - especially after military service - you can find rusty parts and characteristic marks on the paint. The exception is perhaps the ships preparing for the festive events. Their crews take all measures of a technical and aesthetic nature.

Obviously, the fight against rust is a significant part of the costs of the Russian Navy for the maintenance of ships. However, exact figures of this kind have not yet been published in open sources. It can be assumed that the share of such expenses is not too different from American practice.

It should be noted that not only the ships themselves suffer from corrosion. External factors adversely affect the work and resource of ship systems, weapons, deck aviation etc. In all cases, it is necessary to take measures to prevent and combat rust.

Rust theory


Warships, like other metal objects, suffer from corrosion due to external factors. The main one is salty sea water and its vapors. There are also other factors that can lead to rust, weakening and destruction of parts.

In general, it is customary to separate the three types of corrosion. More rare in shipboard practice is chemical corrosion due to the action of some substances on the metal in a dielectric atmosphere. More frequent is electrochemical corrosion, in which the metal is destroyed by various chemicals and electric currents of different nature. The latter can appear due to leaks in ship networks (electrical corrosion) or may be formed due to the interaction of metals and other substances (electrochemical).


USS Pueblo (AGER-2) reconnaissance vessel in the North Korean port, 2012. 44 years without repair had a bad effect on the structure. Later, the ship was repaired and sent to the museum. Photo by Usspueblo.org

The foci of rust are superficial, subsurface and intergranular. Damage to the surface is immediately visible, while subsurface damage leads to swelling of the metal, which also simplifies detection. Intergranular corrosion, affecting the face of the material crystals, has no external manifestations and is the most dangerous.

In the early stages, corrosion leads to brown spots and unaesthetic sagging. Then the damage to the metal begins to affect the strength of the structure. If measures are not taken in time, one should expect the appearance of deep damage or even through holes in the metal, depending on its thickness. Loaded parts, losing strength, can collapse with the most serious consequences.

Problem prevention


Several basic methods for protecting a ship from rust are known and applied. They are constantly being improved, but the basic principles as a whole remain unchanged.

A radical solution to the problem is the use of non-metallic materials or alloys that are slightly susceptible to corrosion. Wood, plastics and composite materials of various kinds do not rust - although they are subject to other risks with prolonged exposure to salt water. Aluminum structures are also not protected from the negative effects of the environment, but are more resistant to corrosion in comparison with the main grades of steel.

When using materials susceptible to corrosion, several basic methods of protection are used - both individually and in various combinations. Protection can be mechanical, chemical, electrochemical and electrical, and is carried out using various means.


USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) crew gets rid of corrosion, 2003. Photo by US Navy

Protection against electrical corrosion is carried out by the correct construction of the ship's electrical systems, eliminating leaks to the hull. It is also necessary to ensure the insulation of the case, which does not allow contact of the metal with water. Electrochemical protection is based on the idea of ​​changing the course of the reaction using special means. An example of this is protection with zinc - coating or bars on the outer surface of steel parts. Under the influence of salt water, zinc is destroyed, but the steel remains intact.

Mechanical and chemical protection involves the application of coatings or the creation of oxide films on the surface of a metal in one way or another. In this case, the contact of the metal with water and, as a consequence, the formation of rust is prevented.

Active struggle


It is impossible to completely and guaranteed to prevent the formation of rust, and therefore regularly have to deal with existing structural damage. Such repairs can be either simple or quite complicated - depending on the size and depth of the damaged areas.

If a rust spot is found, it is required to clean the part to intact metal, and then treat it with a protective compound and apply a regular paintwork. During the campaign, these tasks can be solved with the help of a hand tool, and more complex equipment is used in the docks.

It should be noted that getting rid of corrosion is not only difficult, but also expensive. According to well-known data, the US Navy now uses the two-component protective composition Ameron PSX-700 to process cleaned surfaces. A gallon of such a mixture costs about $ 250 and theoretically enough for 27 sq.m. surface. At the same time, the PSX-700 is considered not only effective, but also one of the cheapest means of its class.


Maritime aircraft also need maintenance. A repairman inspects the interior of the EA-6 and Prowler. NARA Photos

The naval forces of other countries use other coatings and compositions of the same purpose with different cost and different unit consumption. However, the principles of repair do not change: removing rust, applying protection, painting.

The fight without end


Corrosion and destruction of metal structures is a serious problem requiring constant attention at all levels. According to various estimates, rust annually destroys the equivalent of 10-15 percent in the world. total annual steel production, and developed countries have to spend up to several percent of GDP to combat it.

Together with other structures, the naval forces of different countries suffer from corrosion. At various stages of the design, construction and operation of ships, all necessary measures are taken, but it is not possible to completely eliminate the damage to the metal structure. And the characteristic leakage on the surface of the ships is not the biggest problem.

Unfortunately, all existing measures can only reduce the likelihood of damage to ships from corrosion, as well as reduce its negative effects - but not completely eliminate it. A radical solution to the problem may be associated with the rejection of metals in shipbuilding, but with the current development of technology this is simply impossible. Therefore, the fight against rust will continue.
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  1. Same lech 18 January 2020 05: 06 New
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    Why not use composites as the hulls of marine vessels and aircraft ... although they are expensive but they are not inferior in strength and strength ... and forever to swell money for corrosion protection is an expensive pleasure ... we will build an expensive aircraft carrier and we will swell costly expenses for its endless repair ... it’s not economically masterful ... advanced technologies should be given priority in this case.
    1. Ross xnumx 18 January 2020 05: 16 New
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      Quote: The same Lech
      Why not use composites as the hulls of marine vessels and aircraft ...

      It also seems to me that this will somehow reduce the problem. Let even the ships of the internal marine zone begin to build from composites ...
      1. Same lech 18 January 2020 05: 18 New
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        Well, minesweepers are already built from composites.

        Head minesweeper of the project 12700 "Ivan Obukhov"
        1. Ross xnumx 18 January 2020 05: 54 New
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          Quote: The same Lech
          Well, minesweepers are already built from composites.

          I know. But the fleet does not consist solely of mine minesweepers. It's time to swipe at a frigate or destroyer. Even if in a single (for now) instance ...
          1. Same lech 18 January 2020 06: 05 New
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            Even if in a single (for now) instance ...
            Dreams Dreams. smile
          2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 January 2020 07: 17 New
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            Quote: ROSS 42
            Quote: The same Lech
            Well, minesweepers are already built from composites.

            I know. But the fleet does not consist solely of mine minesweepers. It's time to swipe at a frigate or destroyer. Even if in a single (for now) instance ...

            Quote: The same Lech
            Even if in a single (for now) instance ...
            Dreams Dreams. smile

            1 question? Possible maintainability of composite hulls of ships of the 1st rank, especially underwater holes !!! Not installing a temporary patch, but a full repair is possible or not!
            2. In the Soviet Union, they waved at the titanium cases of submarine nuclear submarines - Komsomolets! What is more expensive to use frigate made of stainless steel or composites!
            3. The use of composite materials leads us to an interesting facet - “the possibility of creating an unsinkable ship”!
            Well, somewhere like that!
            1. Ross xnumx 18 January 2020 08: 03 New
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              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
              3. The use of composite materials leads us to an interesting facet - “the possibility of creating an unsinkable ship”!

              good
              Quote: Monar
              Minesweepers are built of plastic, not for the reason "does not rust."

              yes Clear! So that the mines do not react to the metal ...
              Quote: Monar
              The same titanium has excellent corrosion resistance. But one drawback is the price.

              good
              The development of new metal alloys based on aluminum gives hope. Strength is equal to steel. The truth is that so far - expensive ...
              Although, if you look more carefully, is it not more profitable to periodically add new electronic stuffing and weapons to the “eternal building” with all the “contours and hydrodynamics”?
              request
              1. Monar 18 January 2020 08: 29 New
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                Are you able to predict what internal volumes and their configuration will be needed in the future? Yes, the same science of hydrodynamics is not a panacea. Like aerodynamics. Driving layouts in pools and pipes.
          3. knn54 18 January 2020 11: 28 New
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            Galvanic / electrochemical couples are not mentioned in the article
            In the manufacture of the Volkhov / Kommunar hull, a special viscous malleable ship steel was used, the secret of which is now lost. For almost a century, riveting wear did not exceed 13%
            1. Gleb-Kiev 18 January 2020 13: 55 New
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              It was somewhere about the Volkhov — the steel there was quite usual, just with a thick protective layer of either scale or bluing — I don’t remember now.
            2. sharp-lad 19 January 2020 21: 40 New
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              or formed due to the interaction of metals and other substances (electrochemical). Mentioned, casual. hi
          4. Amin_vivec 19 January 2020 15: 08 New
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            Even a composite metal coating, instead of painting, would be nice to play
        2. Monar 18 January 2020 07: 00 New
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          Minesweepers are built of plastic, not for the reason "does not rust."
        3. Andrzej k 19 January 2020 13: 24 New
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          minesweepers have been built from composites for a long time. In Poland, proj. 207 ships with hulls made of polyester laminate have been under construction since 1981. Last minesweepers
          The Kormoran type is made of magnetic steel, which looks awful. As if the corps were tired of many years of service:


          In any case, not only from such steel. Here is the new unfinished ORP "Ślązak".


          Afraid to think what will happen after several years of service!
        4. Barracuda 148 24 January 2020 18: 23 New
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          Technology does not yet allow. While the minesweeper, and there apparently, they will try something else.
      2. Vadim237 18 January 2020 20: 31 New
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        A case made of such materials will cost more.
    2. Monar 18 January 2020 06: 58 New
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      Can. But there are two obstacles.
      1. Plastic with similar characteristics is quite expensive. Have you seen how to hull ship hulls?
      2 The same plastic needs to be repaired. In addition to corrosion, there are purely mechanical damage. Well, if primitive. A patch for a metal hole is a piece of iron and 5 minutes of welding.
      My humble opinion. There is currently no acceptable technology. The same titanium has excellent corrosion resistance. But one drawback is the price.
      1. comradChe 18 January 2020 10: 52 New
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        Not really. Simply titanium is corrosion resistant, but a pair of titanium-steel spills into a problem for the latter.
        1. knn54 18 January 2020 18: 26 New
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          Fix zinc-aluminum alloy sheet (s) to the casing. It forms an electrochemical pair with steel .. And until the "alloy" is destroyed, the steel will not rust.
          CLASSICS "Whoever interferes with us will help us!" - ("Prisoner of the Caucasus").
    3. karabass 18 January 2020 08: 10 New
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      Because it is unprofitable! Each product and ship, in particular, is calculated for a certain service life. It is possible to build a tank or a ship from a stainless steel, but it will cost much more, and after 30 to 40 years it will still be decommissioned, only for other reasons. As they say for our age is enough, grandchildren will come up with something
      1. Mar.Tirah 18 January 2020 08: 26 New
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        Quote: karabass
        and after 30 to 40 years, still write off,

        Need new technologies, or lost old ones. Of course I don’t want to praise the fascists, but in our backyard in time, German self-propelled guns pulled ashore were redone under warehouses with paints and varnishes. So how many years have passed, and it stood like new, and it was assembled It was not a welding method but riveted. Modern pontoons, barges, ships all covered and corroded by rust, looked not very beautiful in relation to it. German hulls were assembled very high quality, and their steel was of the highest quality, Krupp, WOTAN, Schiffbaustahi brand 52 (St. 52). In places with a complex configuration, milder steel of the St.45 grade and shipbuilding mild steel of N-52.KM were used. We must strive for quality.
        1. Monar 18 January 2020 09: 44 New
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          And you do not compare so directly. Ships are not built from such steel. And the conditions and requirements are different.
          Over in the 15th year, the T-34 was pulled out of the swamp. Virtually no rust. So maybe you should strive for this quality? And do not sing praises of Krupovskaya.
          1. Mar.Tirah 18 January 2020 10: 01 New
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            Quote: Monar
            And do not sing praises of Krupovskaya.

            But in vain. No one has canceled the quality of German steel, and we need to strive for the same. For example, we have poor steel 3 joint ventures where they just do not stick, because the other is not available or expensive, well, about metal processing and assembly technology Do not forget. In the swamp, any equipment will be stored for decades without access to oxygen, I know about this tank. In addition, I myself helped an experienced boiler-maker, and I saw the technology of welding bodies in reality.
            1. Monar 18 January 2020 10: 04 New
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              Typical fallacy. We do not stick with us 3SP wherever.
              1. Mar.Tirah 18 January 2020 10: 12 New
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                Quote: Monar
                Typical fallacy. We do not stick with us 3SP wherever.

                Maybe they don’t stick with us, we did it everywhere. Especially during the repair. Now of course they don’t put it, because there is no fleet, there are no repair bases, not at all. It’s empty with us. Even the old cases were cut to metal and taken out, including including repair self-propelled guns ..
          2. Luty 18 January 2020 14: 58 New
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            Swamp is not sea water metal objects are ideally stored there
            1. novobranets 18 January 2020 15: 56 New
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              Quote: Luty
              Swamp is not sea water metal objects are ideally stored there

              Not just metal ones. There is a video on YouTube where Russian search engines pick up Messerschmitt 109 from the swamp. A corpse was found in the cockpit, I emphasize that it was the corpse, and not the skeleton, of a German pilot, quite well preserved. Marshes, especially peat bogs, are a kind of preservative.
          3. Svetlana 18 January 2020 20: 35 New
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            In the swamp, in peat at the bottom, there was no oxygen, and the metal did not oxidize.
          4. vadim dok 18 January 2020 20: 51 New
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            The tank was in a swamp, completely under water, almost without O2. Also, the steel hulls of ships found under sea water are ALMOST not controlled for decades. The most dangerous for steel structures is air + sea water,
          5. Andrzej k 19 January 2020 12: 59 New
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            Swamp and sea water are completely different environments. In a swamp, there is often a very limited or complete lack of oxygen, different soil acidity, etc. In addition, armored steel, thanks to the addition of precious metals, is less sensitive to corrosion than ship steel.
          6. sharp-lad 19 January 2020 22: 03 New
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            At least Bismarck and Tirpitz were built using st 52 steel. hi
          7. balunn 21 January 2020 15: 23 New
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            fresh water and salt water are essentially two different environments
        2. volodimer 18 January 2020 10: 20 New
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          I agree:

          This year he will be 105, of course, cleaned and painted, but still the quality of steel used to be apparently higher.
          1. Paul Siebert 19 January 2020 06: 43 New
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            During my time in the Navy I did not part with a paint brush.
            Our ship entered the strip of tests and exercises.
            We were constantly “in the seas”, fired, launched rockets, drove marching engines at maximum speed.
            I had to paint again every week.
            Especially "got" rocket firing. After them, the sides were burned, became black, scary.
            From me constantly carried paint, solvents, drying oil.
            It was almost impossible to get rid of the smell. No matter how much you wash ...
            The girls, when they met on dismissals, turned up their noses: "There - again, that painter was painted!"
            After DMB, he could well paint houses at a construction site.
            Would have fun. After all, at home so often do not need to repaint ...
            1. phair 19 January 2020 07: 29 New
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              The smell is half the trouble. Cyclic hydrocarbons, ketones, mercaptans, etc. are lipotropic (accumulate in subcutaneous fat). Chyprom can be hammered;) or disappears after 10-14 days (the physiology of elimination is different for everyone). Phosphoric is good after processing. But seawater and phosphate takes.
            2. Mar.Tirah 20 January 2020 07: 19 New
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              Quote: Paul Siebert
              From me constantly carried paint, solvents, drying oil.
              It was almost impossible to get rid of the smell. No matter how much you wash ...

              From me she was mixed with the smell of fuel, rubber carried 26 years. Who went to the seas, although he himself did not handle the shell, he knows this smell. As smartly said phair !!!!!
          2. krjugerfred 19 January 2020 12: 59 New
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            Awesome ship. Clambered him in 2015
          3. Andrzej k 19 January 2020 13: 05 New
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            It is possible that the thickness of the coating was greater. Just "Volkhov" was built, suggesting a very long and not very intensive operation. Thanks to this, you now have a wonderful ship, which is a huge piece of the history of shipbuilding. Envy!
        3. novobranets 18 January 2020 15: 48 New
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          Quote: Mar. Tira
          German self-propelled gun pulled ashore. So how many years have passed, and she stood like new, and it was assembled not by welding but riveted.
        4. 30143 18 January 2020 20: 26 New
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          A cloud of negatively charged particles is created around the ship. In a small dose, about 4 months, it is even useful for crew members, and more than 6 months is harmful. There are a number of works on this subject. And nowhere to hide from this cloud.
          You just need to change the hardware more often.
          But there is the oldest rescue ship in the Black Sea Fleet. At VO there was a publication about the steel from which it was made.
        5. sharp-lad 19 January 2020 21: 50 New
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          and their steel was of the highest quality, Kruppovskaya, WOTAN, brand Schiffbaustahi 52 (St. 52).
          It was also used for the construction of battleships. hi
    4. arkadiyssk 18 January 2020 08: 50 New
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      Only small ships can be built from composites when the hull is completely laid out initially, but large ships have long been built (at least in the states) from ready-made modules that are simply joined together by welding. With composites, this will not work.
      1. Andrey77 18 January 2020 13: 19 New
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        If the series - yes. But in our series only submarines (nuclear submarines).
    5. Andrey77 18 January 2020 13: 17 New
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      Because defense orders for the next 20 years are scheduled. You are not a chick, you know everything perfectly.
    6. ProkletyiPirat 18 January 2020 14: 44 New
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      Quote: The same Lech
      Why not use composites as the hulls of marine vessels and aircraft ..

      1) Because PCMs are also destroyed in seawater, especially in the northern regions ...
      2) In the case of large vessels, changing the protective coatings of a metal is cheaper ...
      3) The most corrosion-resistant vessels are concrete vessels, but there are problems with the internal layout, maximum dimensions and emergency repairs
    7. bk0010 18 January 2020 16: 19 New
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      Quote: The same Lech
      though expensive but forever
      Forever not necessary: ​​the ship becomes obsolete. And how to repair ships with a hull made of composites, you can’t weld it. In addition, there are still all sorts of nuances, such as the one that appeared on Sheffield (the alloy did not rust, but burned).
    8. opus 18 January 2020 17: 11 New
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      Quote: The same Lech
      composites ... although expensive but forever and in strength they are not inferior to steel

      1. very expensive
      With the manufacture of bulkheads, the situation is somewhat more complicated. They have to be done manually. Literally creating layer by layer. Such painstaking work takes a lot of time.


      + the problem is so and so
      carbon (graphite) fibers, whiskers, and high-tensile metal fibers, such as boron, are less sensitive to water than glass fibers, because they are not so hydrophilic.
      Wyatt and Ashby compared the effects of water on polyester composites reinforced with carbon fibers and E-glass. In both withthe swelling of the resin was observed, however intensely stratified fiberglass only.

      The mechanical properties of polymer composites with mineral fillers are especially negatively affected by the accumulation of water at the interface. Water can leach soluble substances from the interface, which causes filler corrosion under stress or cracking of the resin due to osmotic pressure, the resin acts as a dielectric in the electrochemical corrosion of metals.

      2. the problem of the strength of large-panel products is not solved
      anisotropy of reinforcing fibers, dispersion of component strength, the presence of the third phase in the form of a matrix boundary layer near the fiber surface

      Yes, and the very opportunity to "make"
      According to shipbuilders, the technology developed at the SNSS allows creating hull structures of the ship displacement up to 1 thousand tons.

      3. if modular, how to dock? there will be metal or allium iniya- the same corrosion (maybe there will be threaded connections made of metals)

      Ehk
      when applying metal fasteners to products made of epoxy resin -0,5- reinforced with carbon fiber. A similar phenomenon is characteristic of many other combinations, where metal parts are in contact or q are in close proximity to more inert composite materials of epoxy resin and carbon fiber

      4. maintainability
      4. The specifics of "sailors"
      - in aircraft structures, insensitivity to local damage is required,
      - in shipbuilding resistance: to corrosion and cavitation
      Complex processes of material destruction based on the phenomena of wear, cavitation, fretting

      - in returned spaceships — resistance to ablation and mass entrainment
      6. Composites "same eggs"
      The mechanical and other properties of fiberglass based on finished fibers after exposure to a warm moist environment for several years also significantly worsen.
      7. and so on and so on. the same 10-20 years operational life


      Quote: The same Lech
      Well, minesweepers are already built from composites.

      but not only because of corrosion resistance
      It is noteworthy that such a body is poured in its entirety, despite its impressive size. For example, the length of the mine sweeper project 12700 is about 70 meters, the height is more than 8 meters.
    9. Vladimir1155 18 January 2020 19: 03 New
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      because the price of the composite (fiberglass) is $ 10 per kg, and the metal is an order of magnitude cheaper, the strength of the steel is still more than the composite, so it will turn out to be very thick cases, it is not difficult to repair the composite, but all this is manual work and you will have to hire a thousand Uzbeks to glue the frigate ... the composites are destroyed in the tropics by bacteria, and in cold weather, osmosis can start if air bubbles get stuck in the plastic when glued, so fiberglass vessels must be lifted ashore for the winter
    10. exo
      exo 18 January 2020 23: 02 New
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      From experience in civil aviation, on modern Western aircraft, where there are a lot of composites, I can say that their repair requires a very high culture of production and modern equipment. I am afraid that it can be problematic in the Navy.
    11. Trotil42 19 January 2020 02: 39 New
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      Titanium submarines have a place to be .. the scope of application dictates the material .. minesweepers on composites .. airplanes ..
    12. Chaldon48 19 January 2020 02: 43 New
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      Some structural elements may be better made of stainless steel, of course it is more expensive, but since further costs are already known, it may ultimately be more profitable, well, use plastic that is resistant to destruction, for example, such as polyethylene or even fluoroplastic or coatings from it, and of course composites.
  2. Glebovich 18 January 2020 08: 00 New
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    Modern two-component epoxy paints, subject to the application technology, surface cleaning to the degree of Sa 2.5 and removal of efflorescence, etc. allow protecting metal from corrosion up to 20 years. The cost of such coatings per 1 square meter is from 1000 to 3000 rubles.
    1. Monar 18 January 2020 08: 37 New
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      Can I have a little more detail? Well, I would like clarification. How do they withstand the shock of the wave during the deformation of the body? Well, the metal then has a certain plasticity. Slightly deformed under load. Then he straightened up.
  3. Avior 18 January 2020 09: 09 New
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    Some modern paints and primers have “built-in” rust protection through the use of additives that chemically interact with rust and transform it.
    In principle, the main causes of rust are either two spots left under the paint and, when moisture penetrates under the paint, serve as a catalyst, or such a center reappears.
    That is, the main two areas of struggle are the creation of resistant coatings so that moisture does not penetrate with time, and additives to the primer to prevent the appearance of new foci of rust if they suddenly begin to occur.
    But the war on rust seems to go with varying success smile
    1. Glebovich 18 January 2020 10: 17 New
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      All these additives in the paint are the myths of the manufacturers, someone adds zinc to the paint and position their paint as an added protective protection. Zinc with metal only works when applied by hot dip galvanizing with the formation of a strong diffusion bond. Responsible manufacturers add mica and other reinforcing additives to increase the strength of the coating. There are only two basic conditions for ensuring the quality of paint coatings: sandblasting or shot blasting, degreasing, maintenance, i.e. surface preparation and high-quality paint.
      1. max702 18 January 2020 23: 29 New
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        There is such a company HEMPEL just specializes in coatings for the ship segment, if you paint by observing the technology and more or less follow the coating for 15-20 years in a light .. It all depends on compliance with the application technology ..
      2. Chaldon48 19 January 2020 08: 46 New
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        At the enterprise where I worked, some intricate details covered the cadmium in the galvanic workshop for morphlot, on the grounds that the cadmium coating is more resistant to sea salt than zinc.
  4. Narak-zempo 18 January 2020 09: 43 New
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    After all, there is a radical way to deal with the deterioration of equipment.
    Ships - do not go, close to fresh water pools, or simply set up indoor dry docks. Output only for parades and exercises once in 5 years.
    Aircraft - do not fly, put in hangars. At the same time, accident rate will decrease in an unprecedented way.
    Cover the tanks and other land equipment with a centimeter layer of solid oil, put under the roof and prevent warped arms.
    Do not give out a shooter.
    Pack the clothing in vacuum bags and close in the lockers - let them take clothes from a citizen.
    Lease out soldiers and sailors instead of Tajiks, officers instead of managers (let them learn planning and management).
    Then the army and navy will turn from a cost item into a profitable one.
    1. svd-xnumx 18 January 2020 18: 48 New
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      But what about the law of the sea: "If an object moves, salute it, if it does not move, paint it." laughing
    2. Vladimir1155 18 January 2020 19: 07 New
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      laughed but by the way with tanks and vehicles they do so, as far as I know, there is a battle group of 10 units (in salidol) and a combat training unit of 1 unit.
  5. Observer2014 18 January 2020 10: 17 New
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    That would be from this article designers and technologists of the operating ship "Commune" neighing from the heart hi It is a pity that they have been in the afterlife for more than a hundred years.
  6. Tests 18 January 2020 10: 22 New
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    Monar (Alexey), respected, in the swamp, especially peat, there is little oxygen and a lot of tannins. Any equipment raised from it is in better condition than stored in the same period of time in the open air. And the corpses of animals and people in the peat bog are mummified, please remember the marsh people of Northern Europe.
    And about steel you are right. Half a century ago, in the USSR, they learned how to cook low-magnetic steel and use it in underwater shipbuilding.
  7. srha 18 January 2020 10: 27 New
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    In fact, corrosion is rather a financial problem. Make ships of gold and they will not rust. Joke. But there is some truth in it - they will not rust. You just need a cheap production of good stainless steel. Russia has everything for this (deposits, production, energy), except for the desire to produce, not sell.

    As for composites, they are fragile, and the technologies that solve this problem are still more expensive than gold.
    1. Vladimir1155 18 January 2020 19: 09 New
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      stainless steel is weak and can’t be cheaply made, 9x18% is 30% non-ferrous metal, then aluminum will turn out to be more profitable
      1. Zufei 19 January 2020 18: 14 New
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        Lying. Carbon 0,9%, Chromium - 18%, Nickel - 1%, Molybdenum - 1%, Titanium - 1%. Total - 21%.
    2. Vadim237 18 January 2020 20: 39 New
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      There is another option, though it will be expensive - chrome ship hulls.
  8. Tests 18 January 2020 10: 31 New
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    Kote pane Kokhanka (Vladislav), dear, I have to correct you a little. The USSR swung at the titanium hull of the nuclear submarine at the end of the 50s, project 661 Anchar, named the Zolotaya Rybka boat on the SEVMASH because of the price. Later, titanium nuclear submarines were built in series, in addition to Severodvinsk, in Leningrad and Gorky.
  9. Usher 18 January 2020 10: 43 New
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    I have an amateur question, I don’t rummage about this topic at all. It seems that there is stainless steel, why is it not used, or expensive or something else? And the second stupid question, when the rust is cleaned mechanically, then the metal becomes thinner? Affects strength? You can’t clean off to infinity?
    1. bk0010 18 January 2020 16: 26 New
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      Also an amateur, also asked a similar question. They said that stainless steel not only costs a lot, but is still badly processed and may be deprived of some of the special properties of the metal used for ships, structures, etc. But the main thing, at that time, was a shortage of stainless steel (it was not there, it was funded, or something like that).
    2. Vladimir1155 18 January 2020 19: 11 New
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      pr designing a reserve for repairs and corrosion
  10. gridasov 18 January 2020 11: 01 New
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    As far as I remember, the topic has been raised more than once for discussion. Obviously this is not a problem for everyone if no one has asked questions and sought cooperation. Therefore, I will reiterate that corrosion is primarily an electrochemical process and more active in the movement of bodies in the medium. The solution is very simple and consists in repolarizing and changing the direction of this polarization. This may be the simplest device without moving parts or a stand-alone device for long-term parking.
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. Subtext 18 January 2020 12: 24 New
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    Did he write this special? Not a word about protectors. The boats inside the light hull are strewn with treads. True, when you pop up after patrolling they don’t look very good: o) - a huge green-blue snot hangs. After a couple of days, the base dries up, the boatswain is scraped off and everything is fine
  13. Operator 18 January 2020 12: 27 New
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    Aluminum alloys corrode.

    Composites are not flexible enough, flammable and not repairable in case of large breaks in the ship's hull.

    Paint and varnish coatings require very high-quality preparation of the steel surface, which is unattainable for large areas.

    Because only stainless steel (for NK) and titanium (for submarines).
    1. Morzh Redkovich Borschitsky 18 January 2020 18: 25 New
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      What about teflon? cast iron?
      1. Operator 18 January 2020 22: 41 New
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        Teflon has a strength close to zero, cast iron is brittle.
    2. Barracuda 148 24 January 2020 18: 32 New
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      Expensively very titanium for submarines.
  14. Flatter 18 January 2020 14: 34 New
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    Fleet rescue and longevity in glass cases.
    1. Vadim237 18 January 2020 20: 43 New
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      More likely in new metamaterials.
      1. gridasov 18 January 2020 22: 54 New
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        One has to wonder to what extent everyone is naive. Corrosion is a process and it is necessary to organize the process in a new way. So no, again, everyone is looking for material as a panacea. And with such thinking gather in the future.
        1. Golovan Jack 18 January 2020 23: 04 New
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          Quote: gridasov
          Corrosion is a process and you need to organize the process in a new way

          Do electrons run from cathode to anode? wink laughing
          1. gridasov 19 January 2020 13: 18 New
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            Apparently you are not familiar with electrolysis and methods of changing the direction of polarization. Do you know why the processes of electronic magnetic polarization in the fight against corrosion are very closely related to stealth technology. Apparently there is not that audience. And what is there to think, chopping is necessary! This is from a joke
            1. Golovan Jack 19 January 2020 13: 30 New
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              Quote: gridasov
              Apparently you are not familiar with electrolysis and methods of changing the direction of polarization

              Gridasov, you are impudent yes

              I am well acquainted with electrolysis. As for the "methods of changing the direction of polarization" - this has nothing to do with electrochemistry laughing

              Quote: gridasov
              processes of electronic magnetic repolarization in the fight against corrosion ...

              ... as far as I know, do not apply. Since not applicable laughing

              Quote: gridasov
              Apparently the wrong audience is here

              Right This is not a people who hawala ... here they can even bite your hand off. Be careful, Gridasov, be careful ... more thoroughly wink
              1. gridasov 19 January 2020 15: 05 New
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                I swallow everyone and anyone! In addition, you are already swallowed! You see only a particular moment, and not an algorithm of the process from and to. Apparently it’s worth saying that the project of synthesizing the human mind and computer took place and should be continued. A search is underway for people with a certain mentality and with the merits of individual individuals in the form of life experiences and practices on various topics, there are no people ready for mastering breakthrough solutions. For example, you consider electrolysis as a process within the framework of certain electromagnetic modulations in terms of parameters, but you do not see the possibility of applying other key changes. And that makes you trapped in your own frame of imagination. In addition, you don’t even understand that my logic is based on the analysis of all the possible possibilities of the development of events. You are too emotional and not practical with non-standard processes. By the way, this applies to many other persons
                1. Golovan Jack 19 January 2020 15: 40 New
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                  Quote: gridasov
                  my logic is based on the analysis of all the options for the development of events

                  It was already. Already in 2015:

                  Quote: Cat Man Null
                  Quote: gridasov
                  At a minimum, you need to start with the fact that the modern idea of ​​a person about a wheel as a device with an infinite contact surface is absolutely true

                  And more - fractals, more fractals .. and Maldenbrot


                  Bored girls request
                  1. gridasov 19 January 2020 15: 43 New
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                    Water sharpens a stone. Only a fool believes that I am conducting dialogues. I even know who my comments are for. And of course not for you.
                    1. Golovan Jack 19 January 2020 15: 47 New
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                      Quote: gridasov
                      I even know who my comments are for. And of course not for you

                      Well, ladnenko yes
                      1. gridasov 19 January 2020 15: 53 New
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                        Uh no, mister good! Do you know what physicists and mathematicians do not know? That is what they don’t know at all? This is what dynamics is. Well, as far as the analysis of diverse and differently directed processes as systemic, nothing at all. Therefore, it’s okay for you, but for the system it’s part of the events, which has its place and its significance. Train your brain!
                      2. Golovan Jack 19 January 2020 15: 58 New
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                        Quote: gridasov
                        Uh no mr good

                        Uh, yes, Gridasov. Fractals, buddy, fractals ... fractals are yours yes
                      3. gridasov 19 January 2020 16: 07 New
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                        By what principle are the general parametric properties of man built that make him the same with billions of others in the present, past and future, and at the same time make them all different from each other. The question is not that you are ironic and this is not funny, but that you are the one who will not closely master these issues. You are useless in drawing from you something new and necessary. Sorry it doesn’t make you either. You are just concrete about what you are capable of and what you don’t
  • Radikal 18 January 2020 14: 38 New
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    Corrosion: the main enemy of the fleet
    I, naively, thought that ... corruption. lol
  • Luty 18 January 2020 15: 00 New
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    Corrosion is an inevitable factor. But the content and proper operation it depends on the people. And here it is not so simple. It is worth confusing the grade of steel and electrodes for welding and the body will come a slow but steady end.
    1. alsoclean 18 January 2020 21: 20 New
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      Not only. Try to put stainless steel pipelines to the heat exchanger from sea brass LMSh - you will be unpleasantly surprised. Try to put zinc tread instead of steel on the bronze covers of refrigerators - you get nasty zinc jelly in the tubes instead of protection wink
      1. Alexey RA 20 January 2020 11: 55 New
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        And you can also stick water cannons with stainless steel cases onto a light alloy housing. Preliminarily throwing the cathodic protection in order to reduce the cost of the ship. smile

        It is noteworthy that when the fleet that received the first ships announced the hull corrosion, the shipbuilders immediately accused him of its appearance, since the fleet allegedly did not take measures to combat corrosion ("none of the ships we built has any problems with corrosion - the fleet just doesn't give a damn about maintenance"). Not a word was said about the thrown out cathodic protection. And then the shipbuilders tried to get millions from the fleet on measures to prevent corrosion. smile
        1. alsoclean 20 January 2020 21: 33 New
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          Oh - oh! Water cannons! Well, there besides the anode there is the so-called "grounding protection". A cunningly constructed scheme of "bypassing" all currents of tudes-syuda smile . Oh, I'm afraid, and there "save" am
  • dgonni 18 January 2020 15: 10 New
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    In the Soviet Navy, the main enemy of the fleet was personnel. Especially young.
    As naval wisdom says
    Fear the sailor with a brush, paint over everything.
    Fear the lieutenant with a screwdriver, take it apart and break it
  • iouris 18 January 2020 15: 47 New
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    Even metal is prone to corruption. What can we say about people.
  • 7,62h54 18 January 2020 15: 55 New
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    Eco-friendly aircraft carrier made from recycled plastic - fashionable, cheap, durable !!!
  • Petrol cutter 18 January 2020 19: 14 New
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    “Unfortunately, all existing measures can only reduce the likelihood of damage to ships from corrosion, as well as reduce its negative consequences - but not completely eliminate it. A radical solution to the problem can be associated with the rejection of metals in shipbuilding, but with the current development of technology this is simply impossible. Therefore, the fight against rust will continue. "
    I put a plus to the article for the question raised. But as the last paragraph, in fact, he himself answers the whole article.
    The only thing I would like to add (it seems like I did not see this in the article) in the domestic shipbuilding are the so-called protectors. Especially on ships from AMg / AMts (this was mandatory), since our factory specialized in light-alloy ships all their lives. Now I can see the treads on the bottom of even the A40! And he has a steel case. There are suspicions that this is not casual.
    1. gridasov 20 January 2020 00: 18 New
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      What is a protector. This is the creation of a galvanic pair of materials forming a cathode - anode bond and, accordingly, a low potential current. Again, the task is to change the direction of polarization. But such pairs are incomparable in capacity and energy density. Therefore, repolarization must be done not through a galvanic pair, but in a special way - absolutely cheap and incredibly effective.
  • nm76 18 January 2020 21: 36 New
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    If the ships are left in the form of exhibition and demonstration models, then they are not afraid of corrosion.
  • Valter1364 19 January 2020 00: 24 New
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    Corrosion, primarily from the backwardness of technology in paintwork. Well, in the brain, corrosion is often found. As it was delivered about 20 years ago, paints on bitumen for lighthouses. 25 years warranty. Production Holland. Just Hempel and that’s it. And our fence rots after 2 years.
    1. Petrol cutter 19 January 2020 01: 14 New
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      Well, hello. On military orders, do not forget.
      Do you know how they are painted and checked?
      1. Valter1364 19 January 2020 01: 16 New
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        Of course in the know. I have been in this topic all my conscious life.
        1. Petrol cutter 19 January 2020 01: 29 New
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          Well, then I have nothing to say. I have no habit of arguing with professionals.
          For sim, let me take my leave.
  • Petrol cutter 19 January 2020 01: 45 New
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    "Paints and coatings require very high-quality preparation of the steel surface, which is unattainable for large areas."
    Not at all. In shipbuilding today, shot blasting preparation for painting is used to the full extent. This is a fairly fast and archieffective method. Personally observed on four orders.
    Moreover, it is used both outside and inside on modern warships.
  • kig
    kig 19 January 2020 05: 07 New
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    The main enemy of the military fleet is the enemy fleet. And the enemy of the fleet is not corrosion at all, but poor management.
    1. agond 19 January 2020 14: 01 New
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      Forgot to mention the hulls of reinforced concrete, from which yachts are being built, large ships were, maintainability at the level. and you can build quickly and cheaply
  • 75 Sergey 19 January 2020 13: 59 New
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    The main corrosion in the RF Armed Forces is corruption.
  • xomaNN 19 January 2020 16: 18 New
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    It was recalled that as early as in the 1st year of the Leningrad Ship Ship (LCI) a very competent and informative course on anticorrosion, especially electrochemical, was taught by a professor (Unfortunately, over the decades crying ) Those. the theory and practice of fighting this evil in the navy was already substantial at that time!
    1. agond 20 January 2020 08: 43 New
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      Home-made craftsmen, of those who have well-built armored cement yachts or boats, have forgotten the word corrosion immediately and completely, if paintwork materials are used, then to finish the hull, and not to protect it, the cement-cement hulls now turn out to be even heavier than plastic ones, but it’s already easier wooden, service life of tens of years with minimal cost. Of course you can’t build a yacht for racing from reinforced cement, but cruising itself.
  • Nitarius 20 January 2020 16: 34 New
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    ))) laughing laughing wink or maybe return)) to the royal ships)) they didn’t suffer like that))) and after the revolution they changed the technology))
  • John_f 21 January 2020 08: 38 New
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    I think that this problem will be solved only by moving away from the metal and switching to the same fiberglass (as with the same minesweeper) and this is only the beginning. maybe they’ll come up with something ...
    1. agond 21 January 2020 09: 24 New
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      Quote: Nitarius
      or maybe return)) to the royal ships)) they didn’t suffer like that))) and after the revolution they changed the technology

      Wooden hulls in the sailing fleet rotted much faster than steel ones
      Quote: John_f
      just moving away from the metal and switching to the same fiberglass (as with the same minesweeper)

      The choice of fiberglass for a minesweeper was not because it was better, but simply a desire to work out the technology and gain operational experience
      And then not only the ships rust, but also many other things, for example, water pipes and, by the way, TVCs can be made of reinforced cement or covered with steel pipe with cement. Cement has a property that plastics do not have, it is an increase in strength over time, and as for weight, the use of glass microspheres as a filler and graphite fiber greatly facilitates it.
  • Ghermesus 22 January 2020 17: 24 New
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    I was thinking .... What if deliberate violations were made during the construction of the ships of the Russian Navy abroad, with the aim of temporary sabotage, so that the ships were constantly under repair or in case of war it was easier to disable them? It would seem, a little scarlet rust, and what a threat!
  • Mikhail3 27 January 2020 15: 52 New
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    About 7 years ago, I threw a metal computer case in the yard. Well, as I threw it ... I put it under the thickets of plum seedlings, they say, how they get their hands, I commence on different crafts. Hands did not reach ... Do you know how corrupted this corps over all the years? Not at all. Generally. All these upstarts, unfortunate electronic engineers, do not follow industry-rooted rules. They order metal inexpensively, but it doesn’t rust at all.
    Not there, the "theory of corrosion" is looking for the guilty, not there ...
  • Brama agnihotra 29 January 2020 15: 51 New
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    Two years ago, "Admiral Lazarev" after the repair of the building and conservation. Modernization after 2022.
  • Nikolai 12 March 2020 21: 22 New
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    Corrosion is only part of the problem. And the growth of algae, shellfish? The problem is complex and is solved comprehensively at a scheduled repair - a layer of paintwork is cleaned along with rust, primed, painted. The use of special alloys and composites is very expensive and is suitable only for small and special vessels.
  • seagull 24 March 2020 05: 34 New
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    In fact, everything has already been decided for a long time (price-quality ratio) .... The case (underwater part) is protected by the installation of zinc protectors and the cathodic protection system (ICCP). Outboard fittings - by installing destructible electrodes in kingstones (Anti Fouling system). The shaft and screw + rudder feather are “grounded” on the housing with potential difference control. Exterior structures - regular restoration of paint and varnish coating + application of specialized 2-component dyes. And of course, regular docking, at certain intervals (every 5 years).
    PS The use of low alloyed (black) steels in shipbuilding is caused by constant dynamic loads, price and maintainability.
    As a defense, you can think of “rubberizing” the underwater part of the hull, like a submarine ...