What is the Iranian air defense force and why they shot down the Ukrainian Boeing


In the sky over Tehran, Iranian air defense shot down a passenger airliner belonging to Ukraine. Killed 167 passengers and nine crew members. Now many versions of the reasons for this tragedy are being put forward, one of which is called the imperfection of Iran’s air defense system. To understand how this version has a right to exist, let us consider in more detail what Iranian air defense is.


Why Iran needs air defense


Apart from the three militarily strongest powers, which the United States, Russia and China traditionally belong to, Iran can be called a country with a powerful and efficient air defense system in the region. Tehran has anti-aircraft missile systems of short, medium and long range, as well as radio-technical troops and a centralized control system.

The Iranian air defense system can not only provide reliable protection against possible aggressive aspirations of neighbors such as Turkey, Israel or Saudi Arabia, but it is also a significant deterrent to the United States and its allies if they try to solve the "Iranian issue" by force.

Moreover, Iran’s relations with the United States are extremely tense, especially after the assassination by the Americans of Baghd’s Commander-in-Chief Kuds Kassem Suleimani. And in the past few decades, the United States has been trying to resolve conflicts with opponents with the help of missile and air strikes against military, administrative facilities and infrastructure.

The formation of Iranian air defense


Iran's air defense was quite advanced even before the 1979 Islamic Revolution. It consisted of British and American products. Then, during the years of the Iran-Iraq war and in connection with Western sanctions, it gradually fell into decay.

Over time, Iranian specialists learned to independently repair and modernize the British Hawk air defense systems that they inherited from the Shah’s regime. In addition, in the 90s, air defense equipment was purchased in Russia and China.

But finally, the modern Iranian air defense system was formed in the 2000s. It was based on 29 Tor-M1 short-range complexes and 4 Favorit S-300PMU-2 divisions, which cover nuclear power facilities and strategically important infrastructure.

In addition, since the beginning of 2010, Iran has developed quite successful models of its own air defense equipment, in particular, the air defense systems Raad, Talash and several others that have already been successfully tested in practice. Another well-known development is the Bavar-373, which is considered an attempt to copy the S-300.

It should also be mentioned that Iran has an advanced detection and control system. It includes various radars - from old Soviet and British to modern Russian.

Who and why shot down the Ukrainian Boeing


The protection of a number of the most important facilities is not carried out by the armed forces of Iran, but by the Corps of Guardians of the Islamic Revolution (IRGC). This organization is entrusted with the protection of airspace over the capital's airport. Therefore, in the vicinity of Tehran are "Tor-M1" of Russian production, owned by the air defense of the IRGC.

There are different versions of why the passenger liner died. It should be understood that the tragedy was preceded by the elimination of the Iranian general IRGC in Baghdad and Tehran’s retaliatory strikes on American targets in the Middle East. Naturally, Iran’s air defense was in suspense of the US’s response, especially since shortly before that, Donald Trump had publicly announced such an opportunity.

As a result, the human factor worked, and the "machine" one too. There are many versions. The most exotic is that the system was switched from manual to automatic during the morning prayers. At the same time, even deeply religious Muslims consider such statements close to complete absurdity.

But it can be stated unequivocally that the Iranian authorities made a mistake similar to that made by the Ukrainian authorities in 2014. They, knowing about the escalation of the situation in the airspace of their country, did not block it for civilian aircraft. By the way, the XIIR Air Defense Commander, according to him, proposed to do this, but they did not hear him.

And it is not surprising that in this situation, the Russian Foreign Ministry recommended Aeroflot to carry out all its flights to Tehran during daylight hours. For air defense detection systems, there is no difference - day or night, because the radar is performed outside the line of sight. But the fact is that the United States most often does bombing attacks at night. And this increases the nervous load and the likelihood that a civilian aircraft will be confused with an enemy missile.
Ctrl Enter

Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter

40 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Hunter 2 14 January 2020 23: 08 New
    • 17
    • 4
    +13
    Whatever it was - Defense means are needed by any self-respecting country! Unfortunately, tragedies also happen. I think they will understand its reasons.
    Sincerely Sorry for the dead People.
  2. Dart2027 14 January 2020 23: 12 New
    • 4
    • 4
    0
    It is curious that it was Thor who was immediately named, although Iran has enough other air defense systems.
    1. Hunter 2 14 January 2020 23: 18 New
      • 11
      • 1
      +10
      Quote: Dart2027
      It is curious that it was Thor who was immediately named, although Iran has enough other air defense systems.

      The article states that the IRGC was entrusted with the protection of the airspace over the capital's airport ... the catastrophe just happened there, the IRGC is armed with Tor - M1 complexes ... therefore, this system fell into suspicion. hi
      1. Dart2027 14 January 2020 23: 25 New
        • 2
        • 1
        +1
        Quote: Hunter 2
        armed with the IRGC - complexes Tor - M1

        I think that in the area of ​​the capital there is not only the IRGC, but also the army.
        1. Hunter 2 14 January 2020 23: 37 New
          • 11
          • 1
          +10
          I repeat, the disaster occurred in the airspace directly above the airport, when the airliner climbed. The airport is 30 km from Tehran.
          Of course, the military also covers the capital, but this zone is covered by the IRGC.
          1. Range 15 January 2020 02: 52 New
            • 10
            • 6
            +4
            Most likely, the Anglo-Saxons remotely disabled a civil aircraft recognition system on a Boeing, hence the erroneous launch of missiles. The West had too quick a reaction to this catastrophe. It seems that they were waiting for her and were ready for an information attack in order to "blur" the topic of the murder of the Iranian commander and transfer the arrows from the patient to a healthy head.
            1. Chaldon48 15 January 2020 04: 36 New
              • 4
              • 7
              -3
              All malomalski sophisticated equipment purchased abroad must undergo a thorough check for bookmarks.
              1. Tatyana 15 January 2020 04: 49 New
                • 5
                • 5
                0
                Quote: Spectrum
                Most likely, the Anglo-Saxons remotely disabled a civil aircraft recognition system on a Boeing, hence the erroneous launch of missiles. The West had too quick a reaction to this catastrophe. It seems that they were waiting for her and were ready for an information attack in order to "blur" the topic of the murder of the Iranian commander and transfer the arrows from the patient to a healthy head.

                I don’t have confidence in the Americans! Well, at least you crack! Neither the United States nor their henchmen Ukrainians! Namely.
                Indeed, before this, airliners from other countries took off and landed for several hours. And there was nothing with them !!!
                And for some reason, it was shot back on the Ukrainian airliner.
                It seems that something was wrong with the Ukrainian liner itself!
                Quote: Chaldon48
                All the more or less sophisticated equipment purchased abroad must undergo a thorough check for bookmarks.

                And then what - if you wish - you can’t bookmark in an already operating aircraft? Surely, this can be done - if desired! I am sure of it!
                By the way, the airliner belongs to Kolomoisky. But Kolomoisky will not miss her in anything.
              2. Glory1974 15 January 2020 08: 46 New
                • 1
                • 1
                0
                must be thoroughly checked for bookmarks.

                Verification passes. But no one can give guarantees. In addition to technical bookmarks, there may be a software bookmark. For a certain signal, the transponder could, for example, begin to transmit its speed multiplied by 2, and its height divided by 2. Such data is already quite similar to a cruise missile, which could trigger a missile launch.
                1. kit88 15 January 2020 15: 59 New
                  • 7
                  • 0
                  +7
                  Air defense to the bulb that there is a civil defendant issues. This is the secondary radar data.
                  1. zlinn 17 January 2020 15: 59 New
                    • 2
                    • 0
                    +2
                    Moreover, the defendant gave absolutely correct information until the moment of the first missile’s defeat.
            2. Muxalet 15 January 2020 10: 37 New
              • 1
              • 0
              +1
              On civilian sides there is no recognition system "friend or foe", "civil-military"
          2. Dart2027 15 January 2020 06: 28 New
            • 0
            • 1
            -1
            Quote: Hunter 2
            I repeat, the accident occurred in the airspace directly above the airport

            I know that very well. But the capital is guarded not only by the IRGC, but not 100 km from the airport, and to say exactly who shot down the plane over the airport like that right away somehow suspiciously quickly.
            Quote: Spectrum
            The West had too quick a reaction to this catastrophe. It seems that they were waiting for her and were ready for an information attack
          3. Glory1974 15 January 2020 08: 48 New
            • 0
            • 0
            0
            The capital is also covered by the military, but this zone is covered by the IRGC.

            The Iranian military said that the airport was being covered by the military, and the calculations of the KSIR air defense missile system came to be strengthened. And where do you get the data from?
    2. The comment was deleted.
  3. New Year day 14 January 2020 23: 16 New
    • 6
    • 5
    +1
    Iran can be called a country with a powerful and effective air defense system in the region.

    we already saw this. After such an assessment, only one thing comes to mind - they knocked down with intent, i.e. not by chance. But the truth may be said by the investigation, or it may not.
    But the fact is that the United States most often does bombing attacks at night.
    Serious excuse for Aeroflot laughing
    although, after the incident no one else will shoot
  4. ANB
    ANB 15 January 2020 00: 10 New
    • 3
    • 2
    +1
    It seems that Iran will qualitatively understand what has happened. For this, they admitted to being shot down in order to reduce the passions and work calmly. It will be a beautiful feint on the part of Iran if it pays compensation in USD. Maybe with blocked accounts.
  5. iouris 15 January 2020 00: 19 New
    • 7
    • 2
    +5
    I wonder why no one asks questions due to the fact that the United States, in particular, Trump, “civilized” did not notify ICAO and airlines about the threats associated with their operations to eliminate Iranian statesmen and possible consequences, in particular, in response Iran’s strikes and retaliatory strikes?
    1. Astra wild 15 January 2020 07: 03 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      Probably self-conceit worked: if the gentleman struck, that’s the way
    2. Octopus 15 January 2020 08: 39 New
      • 2
      • 4
      -2
      Quote: iouris
      notified ICAO and airlines of the threats associated with their operations

      Threats to US airspace?
  6. Pavel57 15 January 2020 00: 36 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    How much will Ukraine require compensation?
    1. Vladimir_2U 15 January 2020 06: 58 New
      • 0
      • 1
      -1
      Quote: Pavel57
      How much will Ukraine require compensation?
      Well, the Persians are not fat Zhovtoblakitniki, as practice has shown they are honest people, so that compensation will be without delay, another question is what.
      But it can be stated unequivocally that the Iranian authorities allowed a mistake similar to that made in 2014 by the Ukrainian authorities. They, knowing about the escalation of the situation in the airspace of their country, did not block it for civilian aircraft
      Yeah, they didn’t block it “erroneously” so much that they specially tailored the route for rockets, and the dispatcher was dug up, it seems.
  7. Finn 15 January 2020 01: 31 New
    • 0
    • 3
    -3
    [quote = Dart2027] It is interesting that it was Tor that was named right away, although Iran has enough other air defense systems. [/
    I think the same. Thor undermines from above, and here from below
  8. Moreno 15 January 2020 01: 36 New
    • 1
    • 4
    -3
    We wait, sir, when the last “Experd” will unsubscribe!
  9. Santa Fe 15 January 2020 04: 43 New
    • 3
    • 9
    -6
    Before assessing Iran’s air defense and the IRGC, it’s necessary to understand what the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps represents.

    Corruption
    This is the goal, and actions, and the meaning of the existence of this structure from the point of view of the senior leadership of the IRGC - those who "steers" the organization’s finances

    The leadership of the IRGC has the right to import and export anything, and in general to create anything, without control from any state bodies of Iran. Under his authority, any contracts, supplies, gas pipelines, nuclear power plants and in general everything. The IRGC Guide - Local Kings

    Rosgvardeyts Zolotov can only dream of such powers and the scale of activity. If Rosguard was a direct analogue of the IRGC, it would control not only beet contracts, but all the state corporations

    Among the most high-profile scandals of the 21st century related to the IRGC is the assault on the opening day of the International Airport. Imam Khomeini. IRGC units seized the airport and declared its property, in order to take care of the people of Iran, it will be better and safer for everyone

    After all, if the airport can not be controlled by the forces of the IRGC, then how to smuggle
    Previously, an obsolete airdrome was used for this in Karaj, near Tehran, also owned by the IRGC

    According to conservative estimates of the Iranian Mejlis (parliament), the volume of illegal business of the IRGC is 12 billion dollars a year.

    On the other hand - could it be otherwise? Why do structures like the IRGC exist at all? At the head are smart and pragmatic people who know what they want in life. They know the interests of whom they represent, they know what powers they have been granted, and how to turn their lives into paradise.

    And then they wonder how the Boeing was shot down.
    Because the mess, and the tasks of the wars of Allah at all levels of the leadership of the IRGC are not in opposing the enemies of Islam, not strengthening the country's defense, but scattering money in their pockets,
    multiplied by the general personnel’s denseness - for the preparation of which, after resolving all business tasks, a huge corporation has neither the strength, nor the means, nor the time
    1. vavilon 21 January 2020 15: 30 New
      • 0
      • 0
      0
      You’re driving the board, my friend, nobody pokes money there as we have
      , the money goes there for definitely set goals in the struggle for the idea.
  10. Tank jacket 15 January 2020 05: 03 New
    • 4
    • 2
    +2
    Iranian air defense did not bring down a Boeing. His Anglo-Saxons remotely disabled.
    1. Astra wild 15 January 2020 07: 25 New
      • 2
      • 3
      -1
      In that case, why does Iran plead guilty and arrest the perpetrators? After all, they have
      There are sensible experts who can calculate this possibility. The author writes: "Since the beginning of 2010, Iran has developed its own fairly successful air defense systems," so they have specialists in this field?
      There was probably a traitor who temporarily disconnected. The site has a colleague Old 26, he successfully analyzes the situation. It excludes the possibility of remote destruction
      1. Tank jacket 15 January 2020 10: 33 New
        • 3
        • 0
        +3
        The plane did not fly to Tehran, but flew out of Tehran, did not fall, but gained altitude ... Iranian air defense It was more logical to bring down a plane that was flying to Tehran, which flew and descended. There were such planes on this day.
  11. arhitroll 15 January 2020 06: 18 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    I hope that payments to people will be such that next time (anywhere) they will close the passage of civil courts in the pre-war period. Bourgeois in another way does not ward off profits ...
  12. Astra wild 15 January 2020 07: 03 New
    • 0
    • 2
    -2
    Quote: Pavel57
    How much will Ukraine require compensation?

    The bigger, the better
  13. midshipman 15 January 2020 07: 06 New
    • 5
    • 0
    +5
    He devoted almost all his life to the creation and development of air defense.
    I can note that in the air defense of Iran there is no link-use of secondary radar. When requesting these secondary radars, the transponder on all aircraft automatically issues data: aircraft number, its coordinates, including altitude, fuel remaining. These data are transmitted to the CP for decision making. Ukraine’s air defense also works, for this reason they destroyed the Netherlands’s battlefield in 2014 and our Armed Forces following from Israel.
    US aircraft often fly over the Baltic Sea with transponders disabled, so the country's aerospace forces are forced to send fighters to intercept them (rather than shoot down). But there was a case in the early 80s when three of our MiG-31s ​​“landed” one US aircraft (in Kamchatka).
    1. Pavel57 15 January 2020 08: 51 New
      • 2
      • 0
      +2
      But there was a case in the early 80s when three of our MiG-31s ​​“landed” one US aircraft (in Kamchatka).

      They landed vehicles with American paratroopers and quickly released them - there were fewer bayonets at the airport than on the American side.
      1. Pete mitchell 17 January 2020 20: 18 New
        • 3
        • 1
        +2
        Quote: midshipman
        there is no link-use of secondary radar in Iran’s air defense

        hi it turns out that even the civilian sector works on primary radar? And from whom does she come from the warrior?
        Maybe you know who built the civilian air traffic control system for them? Because modern systems provide processing of the primary location and pairing with information about flight plans and give the operator a finished picture with all the necessary information. This is not cheap, but surely not fatal money for Iran; the cost of a processor alone is several million.
        I think the Iranians have problems in the field management / control, and obviously with data transfer from the level of decision-making to performers, which we actually witnessed.
        Of course the general situation played a role, half of the moral responsibility on the striped
  14. Old26 15 January 2020 15: 59 New
    • 2
    • 0
    +2
    Over time, Iranian specialists learned to independently repair and modernize the British Hawk air defense systems that they inherited from the Shah’s regime.

    Since when has the Hawk complex become British ???

    Quote: Dart2027
    It is curious that it was Thor who was immediately named, although Iran has enough other air defense systems.

    This is to the commander of the Aerospace Corps of the IRGC Brigadier General Amir-Ali Hajizadeh. He, in an interview where he took responsibility, stated that the aircraft was hit by a short-range complex. And of the four varieties of such complexes, in all respects only “Tor” is suitable

    Quote: Hunter 2
    The article states that the IRGC was entrusted with the protection of airspace over the capital's airport ...

    Security was carried there not only by the IRGC. Tehran is the center of the 1st Air Defense District. It’s just there (in the Tehran region), besides everything, there is also the IRGC research missile center. But it is AKC KSIR that covers him

    Quote: Hunter 2
    I repeat, the disaster occurred in the airspace directly above the airport, when the airliner climbed. The airport is 30 km from Tehran.
    Of course, the military also covers the capital, but this zone is covered by the IRGC.

    The disaster did not happen over the airport. The liner crashed about 15 km from the departure airport (Imam Khomeini International Airport). More precisely, that the disaster occurred over the outskirts of the city of Parand

    Quote: Spectrum
    Most likely, the Anglo-Saxons remotely disabled a civil aircraft recognition system on a Boeing, hence the erroneous launch of missiles.

    How could this happen. From what distance. To Iraq, where these Anglo-Saxons are based, about 500 km. No one else's recognition system was turned off, and the Ukrainian suddenly disconnected. But the transpoder worked until the moment the rocket hit. How do you explain this? Well besides the fact that the Anglo-Saxons are to blame

    Quote: Tatiana
    Indeed, before this, airliners from other countries took off and landed for several hours. And there was nothing with them !!!

    Not just in progressе a few hours. And at the same time, in the region of Tehran, there was a Qatari airliner, which the dispatch service "conducted" over these areas, coordinating its flight with air defense. But the Ukrainian liner was not lucky. Apparently there was no coordination with air defense

    Quote: glory1974
    Verification passes. But no one can give guarantees. In addition to technical bookmarks, there may be a software bookmark. For a certain signal, the transponder could, for example, begin to transmit its speed multiplied by 2, and its height divided by 2. Such data is already quite similar to a cruise missile, which could trigger a missile launch.

    Even divided by two heights will be 7 times more than that of a cruise missile ...

    Quote: iouris
    I wonder why no one asks questions due to the fact that the United States, in particular, Trump, “civilized” did not notify ICAO and airlines about the threats associated with their operations to eliminate Iranian statesmen and possible consequences, in particular, in response Iran’s strikes and retaliatory strikes?

    And what are the threats to other airlines? An air-to-ground Half-Air missile .AGM-114R9X with a flight range of 10 km hit an Iranian general with a drone. What, do planes shoot down such missiles?

    Quote: Astra wild
    There was probably a traitor who temporarily disconnected. The site has a colleague Old 26, he successfully analyzes the situation. It excludes the possibility of remote destruction

    I do not exclude any possible. But let's argue from a technical point of view, and not from the position of personal emotions.

    1. Is there a theoretical possibility to influence the transpoder?
    Probably there is such an opportunity. But immediately there are a few questions
    1.1 If it happened (I emphasize what exactly IF) the effect on the transpoder of a particular liner, how it happened. Of course, the “bookmark” is a very convenient option, and most importantly it removes the blame from the same Iranians who can say, “but how did we know that there was a“ bookmark “. But the question arises, how was this“ bookmark ”activated. that it was a certain radio signal from the Anglo-Saxons, frankly speaking, I don’t really believe it. The distances there are such that only to the border with Iraq, where a plane with a suitable radio transmitter could fly. It’s 400-450 km. Besides, hardly such the plane "walked" along the border. This would attract increased attention from the Iranian air defense. Whether it was or not, the Iranians are silent. And silence says a lot. If there was such a plane, the Persians would have talked about it in full vote
    1.2 The second option for logical construction - the use of a drone. But there are also very big doubts. Such a drone that was able to cover distances of 1,5-2 thousand kilometers would have a sufficiently large size and should have been in the airspace of Iran for at least 2-3 hours (taking into account the fact that the Ukrainian board departed with an hour delay). The Persians are also silent about this. Yes, the transmitter power would probably be needed less, but how to ensure targeting specifically against the Ukrainian aircraft? Make the interference narrowly focused, so it is unlikely that the UAV operator could guarantee to hit the airliner taking off in the dark. With widespread interference there was no guarantee that someone else would not be hit. But there were hardly any means of identifying the liner on board the UAV.
    1.3 The third option in the logical construction - the impact on the transpoder was made from the ground, from the territory of Iran. But then the following two questions arise: or is it the deliberate action of some people who are interested in rocking the situation so that if the current regime is not overthrown, then put such a structure as the IRGC as an “object of persecution” (internal conspiracy), or foreign spies act on the territory Iran as in his backyard.
    You can probably consider some other options for influencing the transpoder, if not one but. Namely:

    1.4 Resources such as Flytradar24 are based on information from transpoders (although of course not directly). And the transpoders showed the direction of flight, barometric and real altitude. That is, with a very high probability the transpoder worked until missiles hit the plane.

    2 Was there an interference effect on radar and communications, which led to tragic consequences with the aircraft?
    Almost unequivocally, one can say no. if such an impact of the electronic warfare of the airport and the aircraft in that area would be “deaf” and “blind.” But this did not happen. The transit sides performed the flight quite normally. She worked with the dispatcher tower and the sides, because at that time there was a Qatari Airlines board over Tehran (most likely of course in the Tehran region), which had communications with the dispatchers and whose flight they coordinated with the command of the 1st Air Defense District (Tehran region).
    Why the connection between the launcher and the KP of the Torov battery or a higher structure has disappeared - let the competent authorities of Iran understand.

    In fact, there are only two options
    THE FIRST. Targeted destruction of the liner precisely Ukrainian airlines. Why - HZ
    SECOND. Mess in the army (IRGC). For confusing a cruise missile with a liner is very difficult. The mess also speaks of the fact that panic messages descended on the launchers that cruise missiles were launched across Iran. Where are these cruise missiles ???

    Although there are some questions that are not answered. This is a question about the wreckage, their location and the absence of certain wreckage (in particular, armchairs) in the photographs from the scene of the incident, about the intact head fairings of the 9M330 rocket of the Tor complex and some others.
    THE DARK HISTORY and it looks like with FAR FROM THE CONSEQUENCES

    Quote: Tank jacket
    The plane did not fly to Tehran, but flew out of Tehran, did not fall, but gained altitude ... Iranian air defense It was more logical to bring down a plane that was flying to Tehran, which flew and descended. There were such planes on this day.

    Yes, at about that moment when the Ukrainian airliner exploded there was a Qatari side, which was safely “carried out” and the control room coordinated everything with the military
    1. Dart2027 15 January 2020 19: 48 New
      • 0
      • 0
      0
      Quote: Old26
      He said in an interview where he took responsibility that the aircraft was hit by a short-range complex

      As far as I remember, Thor spoke before his statement.
  15. Old26 15 January 2020 20: 34 New
    • 3
    • 0
    +3
    Quote: Dart2027
    Quote: Old26
    He said in an interview where he took responsibility that the aircraft was hit by a short-range complex

    As far as I remember, Thor spoke before his statement.

    Can not say anything. I read it from him. And in Iran there are 4 types of short-range air defense systems. British “Rapier” and “Tigercat” - they are not suitable for range, Chinese FM-80 (French “Krotal” as a girl - the detection range is less than voiced there), and our “Tor”
    1. Dart2027 15 January 2020 21: 39 New
      • 0
      • 0
      0
      Quote: Old26
      Can not say anything. I read it from him.

      Yes, he made a statement in which it was said, but they started talking about Thor immediately after the incident, even before Iran pleaded guilty.
  16. skobars 15 January 2020 21: 30 New
    • 1
    • 0
    +1
    Still, it’s not clear how it is possible to confuse the mark of a cruise missile with an airliner on IVF.
  17. Old26 15 January 2020 22: 55 New
    • 5
    • 0
    +5
    Quote: Dart2027
    Yes, he made a statement in which it was said, but they started talking about Thor immediately after the incident, even before Iran pleaded guilty.

    Quite possibly, I honestly did not track who said what. A statement about the “Torah” could be made by someone who keeps abreast of the pulse, knowing where which complexes are based and their affiliation (army air defense or IRGC). Moreover, they don’t have so many “Tori”, EMNIP 29 installations

    Quote: skobars
    Still, it’s not clear how it is possible to confuse the mark of a cruise missile with an airliner on IVF.

    This is just the main misunderstanding in the excuse "and he mixed up"
  18. RoTTor 20 January 2020 23: 03 New
    • 0
    • 0
    0
    Two passenger citizens of Ukraine checked in, checked their baggage and ... did not board the plane.
    Maybe in their baggage, which was not taken off the flight - the answer to the crash?