Creation of software systems "Collect-B" and ECU

Creation of software systems "Collect-B" and ECU

Interdepartmental team for the development, implementation and operation of the "Collect-B" system and the ECU. They sit (from left to right): p / c Zhukov Evgeny, head of development Ph.D. Nikolaev Andrey, Ved. programmer Sereda Valentina; programmer Elena Karpushenko; cost: Ved. programmer Aleksey Kosov, Major Vladimir Gavrilov, Operations Manager for the Collect-B and ECU systems, Alim Yusupov, Head of Storage Subsystem Development Aksyuta Gennady. Airspace Center Plesetsk, 1998


Creation of software for the systems “Collection-V” and “Management from a single center” (ECU) by the ground-based measuring complex of the Plesetsk cosmodrome of the 90s

Introduction


The purpose of the article is to open the veil of secrecy in software development used to test strategic ballistic missiles. The article briefly shows the continuity of generations of Soviet developers from the so-called scarabs and developers of the 1990s, who worked for defense and space. The text will contain links from both well-known developers of Western software and to “unknown soldiers” ennobled sharakas of a new appearance, differing from Stalin’s full freedom of uninvited prisoners outside working hours, who were detained for months and not fed at work, as in “sharashka” . The article shows the line of reasoning when creating software, and also shows for the first time individual layers that give an idea of ​​the superiority of military software in Russia and Ukraine in the 1990s over consumer software in the West of that time.

So, in 1991, books on enterprise application integration patterns that appeared later, after a quarter of a century [1], were not yet written. It was necessary to rely on the understanding that the most important for integration should be heterogeneous messages transmitted via telegraph and telephone lines protected by cryptographic equipment. The construction, as it is now customary to say, of the protocol stack was carried out on the basis of the reference model of the interaction of open systems as applied to the information concentrator.


In the process of modifying EMBOS, the switching element, due to the simplification of the IVS and the transfer of complexity to the universal element - the information hub, required the complexity of its architecture, which was expected from the very beginning. KI software was loaded with additional levels: applied, representative, session and transport, as shown in the figure.


Information concentrator software levels for integration with measuring systems (IS) with heterogeneous information transmission and processing networks

A description of how each of the 7 levels of the information concentrator is designed will probably not fit in any article, so it’s worth showing the most interesting levels.

So, it can be simplified to say about the physical layer that these are connectors and cables. For example, between the CC of the Plesetsk Cosmodrome and the VEGUTA Vorkuta IS there was a cryptographic communication line, through which in 1993 it was possible for the first time to exchange information between two concentrators. The closed communication line was provided by the Interior equipment as the equipment for terminating the data channel (AKD).


Research Institute of Communications (Marfino):


You can find out how the prisoners worked, creating secret telephony, in Solzhenitsyn’s fascinating novel “In the First Circle”. A film adaptation of the novel is on YouTube [5]. With a shortage of time, I recommend looking at the most characteristic moments of the scientific organization of labor of “sharashka” engineers [6-10].

We had to touch this tragic work of the Soviet prisoners of Sharashka. We were not even allowed to know what kind of equipment it was or how it worked. We could only give our cable to be connected to the equipment without our participation. If it works, then we succeeded, and if it does not work, then it’s not fate - the project will fail.

The task was complicated by many factors. However, in Plesetsk, Mikhail Mokrinsky and Igor Shipsha managed to transfer “quietly” cables, connect two hubs and find a way to transfer data over a closed line using trial and error, and Nikolaev developed a special “monitoring protocol” that forced the closed line equipment at the transport level communications recover from failures and loss of synchronization between two hubs. But not everything went so peacefully and smoothly. In Norilsk, a soldier, as I remember now, Zaitsev, could not stick where the cable should go into the information closure equipment. Then Nikolaev Nikolaev and Anatoly Kravchenko knocked on the secret room, and when the door was ajar, burst into the room, pushing the fighter out, and themselves connected the cable to the secret telephone equipment. Everything worked. It was a success. And the next day I had to write an explanatory note to the FSB. But it turned out that it was not the time to send offenders to jail in Marfino. And thank God!


Secret telephone equipment “Interior” [11]

Subsequently, an adapter was developed that reduced the cost of the hub due to the fact that not everywhere a complete set of adapters was required. This was already a personal initiative of Nikolaev, Mokrinsky and Shipsha.


Session-Level Software Implementation Algorithm


It is impossible to describe everything within the framework of the article, so it makes sense to write something that may surprise the reader.

The three upper levels of the basic reference model of the relationship of open systems (fifth - session, sixth - representative, seventh - applied) are considered to be application-oriented levels.

Taking any book, we will see that the session level is practically not described. The session level in the literature has been described most controversially. On the one hand, it seems that the authors have nothing to say; e.g. V.G. Olifer and N.A. Olifer [13] took this incomplete 8 lines! On the other hand, the description of the session level is clearly scholastic in nature [14]: F. Halsall has no duplex in data transmission, the “token” concept does not allow software to be implemented in a reasonable amount of time due to the lack of real data exchange mechanisms implemented in the OS. Sovetov B.Ya. and Yakovlev S.A. consider that practically these levels are not realized due to their complexity [15].

The lack of a methodology led to the fact that programmers working only within the Internet found a way out of this difficult situation in that all three levels (session, presentation and application) were combined into one application level [16]. Although what kind of Internet is there in the USSR back in 1991 !? The session level of the Collection-V system and the PAS of Vega systems control from the ECU was developed as a separate level, reflecting a specific session of work on the tested product. The method of implementing the session level in the "Collect-B" system is based on the creation of primitives - special envelopes for meaningful trajectory information.

Traditionally, the session level localizes all calls to network software within itself, presenting for other programs a set of primitives that allow the exchange of information without going into details of the network. Attributes of primitives include those attributes that make it possible to identify tests by type of ballistic missile (product number), by serial number of rocket launch during the day, date and time of the test, unique number of the measuring tool. The use of session-level primitives makes it possible to provide complete session information of external trajectory measurements.

For the implementation of the session level, a library of primitives was organized. The following minimal set of primitives was included here: a) establish a session; b) send a data block; c) close the session.

In the “Collection-B” system, these three primitives allow the transfer of information from the periphery to the collection center. All of them are made in the form of a library in the language "C" and in the process of broadcasting are connected to programs for transmitting data to the network. Thus, to complete the transfer, the program first performs the opening of the session by the OPEN primitive. Then each data block is encapsulated in an envelope and sent to the network. At the end of the transfer of information in the collection center, the session is closed by sending the primitive CLOSE.


KI software administrative management technique at the session level


Administrative management uses the capabilities of the UNIX operating system, namely message queues, a virtual channel, and fifo files, which are a feature of UNIX. The "establish a session" primitive provides the organization of fifo-files at two ends of the network and a virtual line between them for sending messages. The launch is made by the operator and controlled by him. To establish a session (for testing a ballistic missile), the operation of the TCP / IP protocols is initially checked by testing with the ping program. Next, the data block transfer primitive is written to the fifo-file in the same way as to any other file. And UNIX networking tools at the other end of the transfer will provide this information in a twin fifo file of the recipient machine. Channel recovery is performed through the operation of disconnecting and re-establishing the channel. The lack of a channel is clarified by end-to-end acknowledgment of test packages involving two channels (to and from there). Termination of the session destroys the connection between the fifo-files located on opposite sides of the network. All procedures are performed by a program intended for administrative management and separated from communication programs of the applied and representative level. The session-level software of the Collect-B system and the software for managing the Vega system complex from the ECU are presented in the diagrams below. A separate virtual terminal is allocated for the administrative management of the session level - a PC display from the ECM workstation. APM APC uses a full set of interprocess exchange mechanisms: queues, fifo-files, signals, shared memory areas, which is especially useful for displaying on the screen in single-page mode.


Software for remote information concentrators of the Collect-V system



Software Center of the Cosmodrome Plesetsk of the system "Collection-V" - session level



Software collection center, software ARM ECU - session level


Methodology for ensuring the urgency of message transfer


The “Collect-B” system transmits trajectory measurement data. In parallel with this, control commands of the "ECU" system are used. Therefore, it became necessary to separate messages by urgency level. In 1993, STL libraries had not yet been created by Stepanov and Meng Lee, so Andrei Nikolaev proposed and implemented, together with Valentina Gordienko, a scheme for using a common path in which mechanisms are created that allow the selection of messages of different urgency and intermediate accumulation of information messages. At the same time, everything worked out should have remained inside the manufacturer and the operating organization. The selection of messages ensured the transmission of messages in accordance with urgency. Urgent data blocks always go ahead of less urgent ones. Consider how this was provided.

The “Collect-B” system and the PAS of the IS “Vega” IS control from the ECU use two classes of urgency in the process of exchanging data blocks. The first class of urgency includes the so-called “urgent data”. They include mainly management teams and receipts for these teams. For them, the maximum allowable transmission delay is determined. Outside the delay tolerance range, the team is considered to be late and no longer relevant, therefore, it must be removed from the network. In addition to urgent data, there is also a second class of messages - perpetual (normal) data. They should not be lost, but should not interfere with the passage of urgent, which should "give way". The use of the ring buffer mechanism at the entrance to the access point to the services of the transport layer allows virtual separation of the transmission path into the normal data path and the control signal path. At the exit from the transport layer, a ring buffer is needed at the point where flows from different sources of information converge, i.e., in the center for collecting external path information, in that computer that raises information blocks from the transport layer to the data session level for the purpose of further routing and / or processing.

The ring buffer forms a message queue, built on the principle of "first come - first leave." To improve understanding of the principle of operation of a circular buffer, we simplify the situation by assuming that the length of the blocks is the same. Then the operation of the buffer is determined by two indexing variables: in - indicates the position where the element is written, out - indicates the position from which it is extracted. It would be ideal if indexing in this array had no restrictions. However, any finite array is also quite suitable: after all, once a read block is no longer used. Therefore, its place can be reused.


The proposed and implemented method of one-way interaction of session objects


A ring buffer is used to temporarily store perpetual data blocks until a “window” appears in the urgent data stream. The depth of the buffer should be such that, if necessary, it will accommodate the "normal" information of one session. Due to the fact that the buffer volume can be significant, it can be placed in a file and stored on a disk drive. This allows you to organize a sequential grouping of urgent and “normal” data flows in a common path, giving priority to urgent data. The algorithm of the data sorting process. In the documentation for the “Collect-B” system and the ECU, the algorithms are described in the form of pseudo-code. Therefore, it also provides an algorithm for working with messages of different urgency on the pseudo-code.


Pseudo-code of the process of selecting urgent and unlimited network messages: n - the number of elements that are currently in the buffer; N is the size of the buffer; X - message content [/ center]

Conclusion


Work on the systems "Collect-B" and the ECU was completed successfully. Dozens of missile tests were timely provided with information. The flight paths of the missiles were built, this made it possible to quickly report on the results of launches of strategic ballistic missiles, both land and sea based, to report on the paths of launches of rocket-carrying spacecraft.

The ECU system functioned successfully both in terms of ensuring the preparation of the IS “Vega” for testing, and in terms of adaptive control of the ground-based measuring complex.

The developed systems were successfully operated at the Plesetsk cosmodrome, which facilitated the sharpening of a nuclear sword. The measuring systems included in the IVS of the systems "Collection-V" and the ECU at the time of 1998 are shown in the figure:


Measuring points working in the interests of the Plesetsk cosmodrome and integrated into the Sborn-V system and the ECU


The development of the “Collect-B” systems and the ECU made it possible to extend new methods to the creation and implementation of information systems in Ukraine. These include acquisition systems in hydrometeorology, monitoring of seismic sensors, the “Navigation and Temporary Support System of Ukraine”, the integration of heterogeneous Life Network switches, etc.

The Cold War officially ended with the surrender of Gorbachev in Malta and the collapse of the USSR. But there were still “partisans” of the Cold War who, so to speak, held out until the approach of the main forces. At that time everything was hanging by a thread, but we managed.

Sources of
1. Hop G., Wolf B. Enterprise application integration patterns. Design, build and deploy messaging-based solutions. M .: Williams, 2016.
2. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/NII_Svyazi.
3. https://topos.memo.ru/en/node/57. Martha sharashka. Address: Moscow, st. Botanical, d. 25.
4. https://sky-hexe.livejournal.com/383686.html. Marfinsky architectural chaos.
5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxEOZtyHHhg. The film "In the first circle."
6. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FtfZAVZmH3E. In the First Circle, trailer.
7. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWwaCwtsCpI&t=117s. "In the first circle." Dialogue on the timing of development with Abakumov.
8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6CZQhKtww6I&t=64s. "In the first circle." Dialogue with the lead development engineer on the timing with Abakumov.
9. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1RuFU1FHAI0&t=20s. "In the first circle." The problem statement for the development of cryptographic information closure equipment by Abakumov.
10. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pt6UFQihUo. Esoterics of engineering in a sharashka.
11. https://hodor.lol/post/50778/ Once upon a time, "top secret."
12. Patent of Ukraine No. 25664 A, G06f13 / 00. Pristri receipt / Mokrinsky M.O., Nikolaev A.V., Shipsha I.M. - No. 97052331; Claim 21.05.1997/30.10.1998/6; publ. XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX, bull. No. XNUMX.
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  1. iouris 17 January 2020 15: 06 New
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    The purpose of the article is to reveal secrets.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
      1. iouris 18 January 2020 21: 30 New
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        Quote: GB-M
        I hinted there to the peasants to bite the tongues.

        And they have the only criterion - the number of likes.
  2. Doctor 17 January 2020 15: 18 New
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    I wonder what kind of hardware was used in the system? Processors, memory and its volumes, information output systems.
    Have you considered Windows as an OS? Was it included in the management structure of GITSIU KS?
    1. dvina71 17 January 2020 20: 29 New
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      Windows will NEVER be on a military computer. Terribly buggy wasps.
      As part of a possible answer, there’s no way to explain it clearly ..
      I can only state a few requirements of the military .. multiprocessing, hot swapping of any module, very free power tolerances, very tight temperature ..
      1. opus 18 January 2020 12: 56 New
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        Quote: dvina71
        Windows will NEVER be on a military computer.

        "never say never".
        1. 2008 scandal
        Nerpa-M and Tral-M devices in 2008-2010, the Tethys Integrated Systems server was running on the Windows operating system, and not Ubuntu.
        Tetis Integrated Systems is a Russian company that, since 2007, has been designing and equipping engineering and technical security equipment (hereinafter - ITSO) for facilities * from the waters.
        2. The Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation published data on the volume of government procurement in the field of software (software) in 2014. According to these data, in the past year, state companies spent 58 billion rubles to purchase software. Only 20% of this amount went to the purchase of domestic developedto, all other funds were spent on foreign solutions.
        For example, significant funds are spent on the purchase of Microsoft Windows licenses necessary for the functioning of applied information systems

        3. The Ministry of Defense decided to transfer all office computers to the Astra Linux operating system. This is a completely domestic development, its creator is the Moscow company RusBITech. Now Microsoft licensed products are installed on Russian military computers.
        4. The control system of unmanned aerial vehicles of the US Air Force, used (until recently) Windows XP

        On September 15, 2011, a virus entered the computer systems of the MQ-9 Reaper UAV flight control center at the Creech AFB airbase in Nevada. The first to be infected was found by the 24th U.S. Air Force Army in charge of cyber operations, and immediately notified the command of the base

        5.Airbus in the military uses Microsoft Azure Stack (although this is not a window of course) wink
        1. dvina71 18 January 2020 15: 42 New
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          Quote: opus
          translate all office computers

          It's about a military computer .. Not a PC in the MO .. A military man who manages a fire system .. for example .. Or that stands in the S-300, is used in encryption, etc., etc ..
          The second ... you don’t need to give the Americans an example .. I remember their F-35s did not take off after the update .. the cards were wrong .. how do you like the mask ?.
          1. opus 18 January 2020 16: 10 New
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            1. What
            Quote: dvina71 (Gennady)
            about a military computer
            ?
            THESE?

            or
            Portable multifunctional computing device PMVU-1712

            Threat. through special connectors: with PMVU-1712, you can control systems, from drones to systems ZRPK "Shell" and OTRK "Iskander" ....

            Quote: dvina71
            used in encryption, etc, etc ..
            ?
            These are the computers that I brought
            2.
            Quote: dvina71
            The second ... do not give an example of the Americans.

            I don’t know what is “necessary or not necessary” there, it was said:
            Quote: dvina71
            Windows will NEVER be on a military computer. Terribly buggy wasps.

            neither about Russians, nor about Americans, nor about F-35 not a word
            Quote: dvina71
            I remember their F-35s did not take off after the update .. the cards were wrong .. how do you like the ilonmask.?.

            belay
            1. And what does Mask have to do with it?
            2. "cards did not fit" is nonsense worthy of Peskov / Solovyov.
            what are you broadcasting about? about 30R02? What is there and where "did not fit"?
            Threat.
            Quote: dvina71
            t in S-300, and

            The S-300 service comes with an axis, though it is no longer with Windows, but it is possible with it.
            computing complex "Elbrus-90 micro" as part of the SU and KP zrdn (RPN) S-300PMU2 and S-400
            SunOS Operating System (Solaris)
      2. Doctor 19 January 2020 22: 38 New
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        Terribly buggy wasps.


        Everything is buggy. Now there is another attempt to transfer state structures to "domestic" software, so this is a radical adish. We had a corporate W7 with MS Offise and everything was normal. Two years trying to upgrade to Ubuntu, everyone hangs. First, system administrators themselves do not drag a damn thing, go with directories, trivial things are solved for hours. Further, normal pairing with peripherals has stopped, printers fly out every week. Thirdly, the system itself is constantly looking for updates, computers get clogged up for two months, slow down more, finally get up stupidly. Well, all the delights of retraining staff on a new interface.
        If only someone explained to our genius above that Linux is also not a damn thing, domestic development, adding a shell like Astra does not mean creating your own OS.
        1. ccsr 20 January 2020 13: 10 New
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          Quote: Arzt
          If only someone explained to our genius above,

          The new prime minister will explain everything - he seems to have studied on this profile.
          Quote: Arzt
          Everything is buggy.

          So the cyber war goes against us - here you are and watch it.
          Quote: Arzt
          First, sysadmins themselves do not drag a damn thing,

          Unfortunately, the victims of the Unified State Exam have already taken leading positions, and are fueling our future, and this is sad ...
        2. vka
          vka 20 January 2020 17: 58 New
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          but open source
        3. Tavrik 21 January 2020 18: 59 New
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          To add a shell like Astra does not mean to create your own OS.

          But is it necessary? For what purpose? What Linux does not suit? To simply repeat, what has already been implemented in Astra and Linux takes years. At the output, we get raw software. Or take and copy from Linux. But at the same time, the meaning of the act disappears. OpenSource rules.
          1. Doctor 21 January 2020 22: 06 New
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            But is it necessary? For what purpose? What Linux does not suit? To simply repeat, what has already been implemented in Astra and Linux takes years. At the output, we get raw software. Or take and copy from Linux. But at the same time, the meaning of the act disappears. OpenSource rules.


            Yes. But at the same time they claim that they work allegedly on "domestic" software. The kernel of the OS is not ours. Tomorrow Linux will be paid and goodbye.
            If we do, then start with our own hardware, primarily the processor, on its architecture, the lower levels of software and so on. Plus to develop (probably already create) electronics - plans, memory, disks, monitors, in short all the stuffing.

            AMD cost about $ 4,5 billion, it's like the Crimean bridge. The number of employees is about 10; finding so many tadpoles is quite within our means for our number of universities. The main outbid in the West.
            1. Tavrik 22 January 2020 09: 48 New
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              Theoretically, I agree with you. Only this is from the realm of fiction, because
              1. Very expensive.
              2. A very long time.
              3. An unclear result, most likely a "raw" software and hardware product that is 1-2 generations behind its analogues.
              4. The most important thing: nobody needs it.
      3. Tavrik 21 January 2020 18: 07 New
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        It will not be anymore, because this is a passed stage. Oh, there was an era ....
  3. Amateur 17 January 2020 15: 41 New
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    The article briefly shows the continuity of generations of Soviet developers from the so-called scarabs and developers of the 1990s, who worked for defense and space.

    For the author’s information, all this was done in 60 years without any scumbags. And the level of knowledge and qualifications of the author is at the level of Solzhenitsyn.
    I apologize for the long quotes.
    To automate the transfer of measurement results from the Binocular D station to the CEC, a new system was developed and created - a converting averaging storage device. Developer - Design Bureau of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute (chief designer T.N. Sokolov). With the help of the ROM, the range and angle values ​​were taken from the station, averaged, referenced with great accuracy to universal time, and the Hamming code was introduced, which allows one error to be restored during transmission over communication lines. Two sixty-bit codograms: range — time and two angles — time — were issued by the ROM automatically at the pace of the current time to telegraph communication lines at a speed of 45 baud. In parallel, these results were recorded on a magnetic film for possible repetition in the event of a loss of communication.
    In the KVC, where all communication lines with measuring points converged, the newly created equipment was also located: a semi-automatic data input device developed by the Moscow SAM plant (chief designer Aleksandrov). Using PUVD, the measurement information was received from telegraph communication lines and printed on punch cards, which were then manually transferred to the M-20 computer punchers, where they were processed, orbit parameters, target designations and settings on board the satellite were calculated. Due to the introduction of manual operation, the data processing time practically did not increase, since it was determined by the time of measuring the parameters of the visible portion of the orbit, which was about 4-6 minutes.
    The entire communication system of NIPs with the CEC for the transmission of measurement information was developed and created by the CRI of the Ministry of Communications using standard means and telephone and telegraph channels. ... therefore by agreement with him in 1965 As the head of the small exhibition center, with a future perspective, I invited the head of the department of computers and automatic data processing systems, which was part of the scientific department of our institute No. 5, A.V. Militsin, a very capable scientist and engineer. Kazan remained his deputy.

    Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences Yuri Alexandrovich Mozzhorin (1920-1998) ("So It Was," memoirs)
    1. Andrey30 17 January 2020 16: 05 New
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      Firstly, the author of the article is a specialist who has confirmed his qualification as a candidate of technical sciences. Secondly, we are talking about sharashka in which the equipment for cryptographic information protection is developed. Thirdly, your example is not about cryptographically secure communication lines.
      Therefore, any provocations of this kind will henceforth be ignored by the author of the article both in connection with the scrupulousness of the topic, and with the lack of the need for dialogue not with a specialist in this topic.
      1. Mestny 17 January 2020 16: 24 New
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        They have idiosyncrasies here on the names of Solzhenitsyn, Bondarchuk, and so on.
        Not everyone of course. So, for some. But the reaction, as you see, follows immediately.
        No matter how good a specialist you are, they will still pour slop over just mentioning the name of Solzhenitsyn, even in a neutral sense.
        This is what I am for. There are doubts, and more and more - is it worth it to write anything here other than political chants?
      2. Amateur 17 January 2020 16: 42 New
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        with the absence of the need for dialogue not with a specialist in this topic.

        A layman in this topic began to draw such squares in 1974. And you can encode / decode your understanding of the scrupulousness of the topic using the algorithms given in your article
        1. ccsr 17 January 2020 20: 26 New
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          Quote: Amateur
          A layman in this topic began to draw such squares in 1974.

          Exactly - and approximately at that time I saw such small squares at a lecture on computer engineering, but maybe the names were different there, but the essence is the same.
      3. zyablik.olga 18 January 2020 10: 05 New
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        Dear author, in this photo the T-217M Elbrus equipment.

        T-230 "Interior" looks different.
        1. opus 18 January 2020 12: 29 New
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          Quote: zyablik.olga
          T-230 "Interior" looks different.

          but as?

          Threat.
          The content of precious metals in communication equipment T-230-03
          Gold: 372,528 grams.
          Silver: 375,353 grams.
          Platinum: 44,75 grams.
          Palladium: 0 grams.

          I also sometimes skimp on this block with some caution wink
          1. ccsr 18 January 2020 13: 21 New
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            Quote: opus
            I also sometimes skimp on this block with some caution

            Judging by the fact that there is no communication center for one of the armies of the ZGV (8 OA), this diagram was drawn up in 1992. However, maybe I'm wrong ...
            1. opus 18 January 2020 14: 54 New
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              Quote: ccsr
              This scheme was drawn up in 1992.

              Apricot 63. Radio reception center, Lviv
              Astra 2nd Guards Armored Army, Furstenberg
              Rebel 1st Guards Missile Brigade, Weissenfels
              Vyatka
              Peak 20th Guards Army, Eberswalde
              Merry 6th Guards Mochi Rifle Division, Bernau
              Water Carrier 33rd Fighter Regiment, Wittstock
              Gas outlet
              Globe 62nd Message Center, Minsk
              Gorka 383rd Separate Radio Battalion, Dysdorf
              Date
              Duet 19624th Central Information Battalion, Gardelegen - Haldesleben
              Jargon 46th Independent Missile Defense Battalion of the 8th Guards Army, Nora
              Covenant
              Cabman 226th Separate Mixed Air Force Regiment, Serenberg
              Spark 69th MBO staff, Moscow
              Cowkot
              Hummingbird ZGS Ligniza, VR Poland
              Dagger 126th Fighter Division, Zerbst

              1. ccsr 18 January 2020 17: 16 New
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                Quote: opus
                Cabman 226th Separate Mixed Air Force Regiment, Serenberg

                More precisely - "Spherenberg", the name of this airfield was pronounced. I did not see Magdeburgsky's “Jasmine” in the diagram, which is why I realized that it was developed after the start of the withdrawal.
                1. opus 18 January 2020 17: 29 New
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                  Quote: ccsr
                  More precisely - "Spherenberg"

                  it translated google, I'm too lazy


                  Militär Flugplatz Sperenberg

                  Quote: ccsr
                  but I didn’t see the Jasmine of Magdeburg

                  no
                  The communication center Jasmine (Magdeburg), RF PP 16736, it is, see:
          2. zyablik.olga 18 January 2020 14: 16 New
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            Quote: opus
            but as?

            Anton, although this equipment has been decommissioned, but here I am not your assistant. I can only say that in the photo with "Elbrus" blocks with key inserts-switches are covered with covers.
            1. opus 18 January 2020 15: 04 New
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              Quote: zyablik.olga
              Anton, although this equipment has been decommissioned, but here I am not your assistant.

              here they are RVVDKU (Department of encryption and data transmission systems »-> Polygon T-230-1A, T-240D)

              the "left" - 230
              "right" -240
              30925406 - system 230925 (T-230-03 equipment, 9 - army unit, 25 - system number in the army SS) operates at a group speed of 4.8 kbit / s in 6 distribution;

              231741151 - system 231741 (T-230-1A equipment, 7 - front link, 41 - system number in the front SS) operates at a speed of 1,2 kbit / s in 51 distribution;

              SAS Gerät T-230-03 INTERIEUR, T-230-1A MAXOBIK
        2. ccsr 18 January 2020 17: 25 New
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          Quote: zyablik.olga
          Dear author, in this photo the T-217M Elbrus equipment.

          This and other Zasov apparture was in service with the Warsaw Pact countries, and the Germans returned it to us together with secret documentation after 1989. I think that there is no need to explain, but after that it did not make sense to consider this product secret.
    2. ccsr 17 January 2020 20: 24 New
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      Quote: Amateur
      For the author’s information, all this was done in 60 years without any scumbags.

      I was also struck by the year mentioned by the author - 1998. I will not go into details, but in the second half of the seventies, the EC1030 and EC1060 inter-machine exchanges took place on standard ADFs and Christmas trees at a speed of 9600 bps via analog communication channels. What is the novelty of the developments in this team? I honestly did not quite understand, but something tells me that the author was solving some secondary problem that was not reached by serious organizations due to the fact that they weren’t given such a task. However, I admit that I did not understand everything correctly.
      1. Andrey30 20 January 2020 12: 06 New
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        I honestly did not quite understand
        - I believe with pleasure.
        in the second half of the seventies, our EC1030 and EC1060 inter-machine exchanges took place on standard ADFs and Fir-trees at a speed of 9600 bps via analog communication channels.
        - this is not an exchange, it is a system in which antenna fields distributed throughout the territory of the former USSR are redirected in real time to obtain external trajectory information including maneuvering missiles. At the same time, the network is cryptographically protected.
        This task is similar to the task that the civilians decided and did not solve: read articles about the OGAS.


        The simplest and most straightforward of these is: Why did the Soviet Internet project fail http://back-in-ussr.com/2018/12/pochemu-provalilsya-proekt-sovetskiy-internet.html
        Regarding the exchange of data, as you write, then we are not talking about the exchange of two machines. Yes, and the exchange rate was up to 19200 bps. Where did you get your data? As for the date of 1998, then here you are wrong. This photo was taken in 1998, and the project started in 1991, since 1995 in operation. The first data exchange between Vega Vorkuta and VTs Mirny was carried out in 1993 over closed communication lines.
        So: OGAS failed, even in the absence of real-time mode and closed communication lines. But the "Collection-B" and the control system from a single center put into operation.
        1. ccsr 20 January 2020 13: 06 New
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          Quote: Andrey30
          Where did you get your data?

          Our full-time 5Ts19 worked at that speed then. And that was twenty years before the events you described.
          Quote: Andrey30
          The first data exchange between Vega Vorkuta and VTs Mirny was carried out in 1993 over closed communication lines.

          It seems so to you, because in some radio communication systems long before the events you described, a geographically dispersed reception of digital information was carried out when receiving low power signals, and using computer technology, information was analyzed and processed to obtain reliable information in one-way communication sessions.
          Quote: Andrey30
          The first data exchange between Vega Vorkuta and VTs Mirny was carried out in 1993 over closed communication lines.

          Some garbage - the same thing we did much earlier between Moscow, Moscow Region and Ulan-Ude, for example.
          Quote: Andrey30
          At the same time, the network is cryptographically protected.

          Well, we have "Christmas trees", so what?
          I think that you are too highly specialized specialist and can not imagine the whole picture that was at that time in our armed forces
          1. Andrey30 20 January 2020 13: 14 New
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            I think that you are too highly specialized specialist and can not imagine the whole picture that was at that time in our armed forces
            “You seem to be absolutizing your view of the truth.” For you, what is OGAS, what is file transfer, what is the system of work in the RMB, what is the adaptive antenna field is all the same. I'm right?
            1. ccsr 20 January 2020 13: 26 New
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              Quote: Andrey30
              For you, what is OGAS, what is file transfer, what is the system of work in the RMB, what is the adaptive antenna field is all the same. I'm right?

              Do you want to prove that the theory of signal transmission has different principles depending on who uses it in the development of technology?
              Quote: Andrey30
              You seem to be absolutizing your view of the truth.

              It seemed to you. The truth so far I see is that you are not aware of what it was like, for example, the Ural ship - I provided a link to it in response to the previous article. Read about its characteristics, maybe you can get something interesting ...
              1. Andrey30 20 January 2020 13: 47 New
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                I think that you are too highly specialized specialist and can not imagine the whole picture that was at that time in our armed forces

                Have you questioned my personal involvement and role? I do not exclude that you simply did not pay attention to the signature under the photo:
                Head of Development Ph.D. Nikolaev Andrey

                For clarity, here is the document:



                Colonel Klevchikov in the photo on the far left.





                Colonel Arisov.

                Colonel Trofimov



                The photographs of Arisov and Trofimov are taken from here.

                (http://books.totalarch.com/plesetsk_cosmodrome)
                1. ccsr 20 January 2020 14: 08 New
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                  Quote: Andrey30
                  For clarity, here is the document:

                  I believe you, and have no doubt about what you write. But our armed forces ended in more than one Plesetsk, and some tasks were set at a higher level by serious scientific organizations, up to the institutes of the Academy of Sciences, not to mention branch and defense institutes. And there, too, many bright goals worked for defense. Why they did not solve this problem before you, since it is so important, it is not clear, apparently, it is necessary to ask the gas customers from the Strategic Missile Forces. I think that the reason was the collapse of the armed forces of the nineties - I know this well.
                  1. Andrey30 20 January 2020 14: 55 New
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                    The truth so far I see is that you are not aware of what it was like, for example, the Ural ship - I provided a link to it in response to the previous article.

                    The article is divided into 3 parts with different names, united among themselves only by a common scenario:
                    1) the control object
                    2) the history of the creation of system software and hardware,
                    3) showing some fragments of software (layers) and comments for a wider audience, indicating some artists.

                    The first part: "Measuring systems of spaceports" of January 15, 2020;
                    The second part: "The collection system of external path information" Collection-V "" January 16, 2020
                    The third part: "Creating software systems" Collect-B "and ECU" January 17, 2020
                    The first part is about ground cosmodrome command and measurement complex. It was he who was the object of automatic control. Specifically, the control is not according to the cyclogram, not predetermined, but situational in the RMB. Without this, the direction finder of the Vega system will not be able to take a maneuvering missile for escort. Why? Because to ensure the unprecedented accuracy of Vega, an extremely narrow direction finder pattern was used.

                    Exchange only in point-to-point mode was not the purpose of data transfer. The system was built.

                    The ship "Ural" with its equipment was not included in the list of control objects terrestrial measuring complex.
          2. Andrey30 27 January 2020 10: 54 New
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            The first data exchange between Vega Vorkuta and VTs Mirny was carried out in 1993 over closed communication lines.

            Data exchange between Vega Vorkuta and the Mirny Exhibition Center was carried out in accordance with a modified reference model for the interaction of open systems as shown in the figure in the same article, “Modified Reference Model for the Interaction of Open Systems”.

            The following figure, “Information concentrator software levels for integration with measurement systems (IS) with heterogeneous data transmission and processing networks,” shows an arrow with a signature sockets.

            The following figure shows specifically that the protocol is used at the transport level. TCP, and at the network level, the protocol is used IP. In fact it Internet, which functioned on cryptographically closed communication lines.

            At the application level, for example, there were programs that resemble Skype or telegrams.

            In addition, in the future, the Norilsk IE was integrated into the Sborn-V and ECU systems, the communication with which was carried out over the air via a communication satellite. At the same time, the radio channel was used at the physical level of the same modified EMVOS, as viewed from the information hub of the Collect-B system.

            Simply put: just as you write your posts here in the comments, this Collect-B system worked the same way and the data was transferred between Vega Vorkuta and the Cosmodrome.
  4. Gust 17 January 2020 15: 50 New
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    What are the secrets? For twenty years, everything has changed for a long time and more than once. Moreover, this is a hodgepodge from open sources, but made by one of the participants and therefore more reliable and competent.
  5. smaug78 17 January 2020 15: 59 New
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    Quote: iouris
    The purpose of the article is to reveal secrets.

    Secrets of what?
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. ccsr 18 January 2020 13: 16 New
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        Quote: GB-M
        Well, they like to boast of secret knowledge here ....

        Do not tell me, everything that concerns the Soviet period has long been known to the West, if only because the Warsaw Pact is almost all in NATO, and our Soviet officers remained to serve in the same Ukraine and the Baltic states. Therefore, it is impossible to seriously hide something from that period - Kalugin in the West, and even Berezovsky, a member of the Security Council or Illarionov, Putin’s adviser, not to mention Kasyanov, they wrote about all our secrets that no military pensioner could even know .
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. ccsr 18 January 2020 17: 06 New
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            Quote: GB-M
            Not all of them turned out to be traitors and kept them when the family was starving ... Thank them to the engineers who remained loyal to the Fatherland! They need to erect a monument, they believed in the revival of Russia!

            Naturally, not all - the vast majority are honest people, and they are hardly going to trade secrets.
            Quote: GB-M
            And yet, not everyone managed to sell to the West and China.

            Not everything, but much:
            Yesterday, the Lefortovo court of Moscow issued a guilty verdict to Academician Igor Reshetin. According to the verdict of the court, he will spend eleven and a half years in a maximum security colony.
            The judge, announcing the verdict, noted that the former general director of TsNIIMASH-Export, a full member of two Russian academies - cosmonautics and social sciences - handed over secret documents to China.
            ..... Therefore, the lead economist of the institute, Sergey Vizir, deputy chairman of the expert commission Mikhail Ivanov, and deputy safety director of the institute, Alexander Rozhkin, also received sentences. These three persons involved in the criminal case were sentenced to imprisonment for a term of five to 11 years.

            Don’t you remind about Skripal or Litvinenko?
            Quote: GB-M
            Yours were happy there early ..

            What are these “yours” - can you communicate in more detail?
            Quote: GB-M
            So dig trenches, there will be another debriefing with all the "brothers" .. etc.

            Now I’ll take a shovel and go to Red Square to fulfill your mandate. Burn on ...
  6. sergo1914 17 January 2020 16: 49 New
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    The contribution of Putin Vladimir Vladimirovich has not been completely disclosed. The mess.
    PS Who dares to mess with Putin?
  7. Tests 17 January 2020 18: 48 New
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    Dear author! As a resident of Severodvinsk, I was a bit, and no more, flattering that the municipality of Severodvinsk was the largest municipality in Russia in terms of area. But smart heads cut the New Moscow Square to Moscow and Moscow became the largest municipal formation in the Russian Federation and by area. But Severodvinsk has never been to Karelia, where, according to your map, it was in the mid-80s ... And the sign "Mr. Naryan-Mar" is on those areas of the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic where in the 80s 20 centuries, brothers from the NRB, according to an intergovernmental agreement between the NRB and the USSR, the forest fell. From Naryan-Mar to the sea along Pechora, less than 100 km ... "Mirny" you went somewhere south, closer to Yaroslavl. But the "city of Norilsk", relative to the Taz Bay, "went" to the north. These little things spoiled the impression of your work ... Subject to "V.O." new, waiting to continue. I was not able to visit Mirny, I visited Severodvinsk's Vega-KO many times, and I visited DVP 5 and DVP 2 many times. Many of Vega’s acquaintances built, served on it, visited it with children from military-patriotic clubs, when it was transferred to the municipality by the Russian Ministry of Defense. Regards, Tests.
  8. Alexander Sosnitsky 17 January 2020 19: 36 New
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    I was there and worked in a case against a red sharashka, a little to the left, I still did not know about Solzhenitsyn. When, due to the simplicity of my soul, I went to the toilet, my attendant almost went crazy - I lost, I found through the peasants. There the colonels are sitting at the entrance. NII-5 is called. I put a subsystem for the placement of printed circuit boards. I went with a bang. The design laboratory began to fall asleep and leave home in time for the husbands. And in the beginning, they took for an American spy, I had to show my articles who I wrote off from whom. In the United States, this happened a year and a half later. He gave the program for free, he came and lived in Moscow for his money. They gave a certificate on a third of the sheet that 38% I have better, which is good. And he could sit down. Easily. One colonel drags me, let's go. and the second in the aisle holds the second hand - now I’ll land. And I am between them.
  9. Ros 56 17 January 2020 19: 57 New
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    Well, why did they all put it out if the majority does not enter these cells? Or Mr. Nikolaev wanted glory, so we are incompetent in the assignment of titles and distribution of nishtyaks. request hi fellow
    1. Alexander Sosnitsky 17 January 2020 20: 02 New
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      And you do not need to enter. You just need to know how it was done that you are still alive and well. Through I can’t and do not want deprivation to fulfill my duty. There were no oligarchs then, and they did not go to Turkey, but these people belonged to the homeland and they stood to the end. As at 41m they buried and froze in the snow. The memory of these people. 40 years have passed. What they did was snot, spaghetti, not iPhones and iPads. But it worked. And you live. I saw them like that.
      1. Ros 56 17 January 2020 20: 23 New
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        I’m not talking about the honor and praise to people who are implementing the defense potential of the country, no matter what industry they work in, I’m talking about all these schemes, tables and their interaction, anyway I personally don’t understand anything about it like many others. It was possible to describe this process more concisely, briefly and lively.
        1. Alexander Sosnitsky 17 January 2020 20: 43 New
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          They do not understand otherwise. Will have to put up. Now half of the people work with computers, you can smell if you do not understand. You just have to look at their hungry faces.
    2. opus 18 January 2020 12: 23 New
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      Quote: Ros 56
      Well, why did they all put it out if the majority does not enter these cells?

      Why did you then spend your time?
      1. Read like:
      "Results of the week"
      or
      "What does the second restructuring of Putin mean?"

      / there are no cells there /
      2. "not entering" ... mmm. You did not skip school for an hour?
      An algorithm is a strictly defined sequence of actions leading to the solution of a task (concepts 1-4 classes)
      Типы:
      • linear algorithms;

      • branching algorithms;

      • repetition algorithms.
      1. Ros 56 18 January 2020 12: 25 New
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        You have nothing to do, go for a walk.
  10. cdrt 18 January 2020 04: 40 New
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    Oh, young Alim Akhmetovich is standing :-))))
  11. vka
    vka 20 January 2020 17: 54 New
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    Quote: Arzt
    Have you considered Windows as an OS? Was it included in the management structure of GITSIU KS?

    don't make people laugh
  12. Tavrik 21 January 2020 18: 09 New
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    Quote: Andrey30
    Firstly, the author of the article is a specialist who has confirmed his qualification as a candidate of technical sciences.

    Name and number of specialty? In what field?