If the last argument of the kings is special forces, then the nuclear missile weapon - This is the last argument of the presidents of the superpowers. Nuclear missile weapons were born in agony. The delivery of nuclear munitions to enemy territory required the creation of strategic missiles, and the development of military spacecraft required the creation of launch vehicles.
The creation of rocketry required numerous tests, the so-called flight experiments. During the tests, the primary task is to determine the flight path of the rocket. For this purpose, a large number of measuring systems of various classes were created throughout the territory of the former USSR.
The tests were so intense that the bottleneck was the delivery to the cosmodrome of the cosmodrome of trajectory measurement data about the tests performed in order to process and generate a report on the flight path of the rocket.
Behind this checkpoint is the headquarters and computing center of the cosmodrome
Information was recorded on hard media on magnetic tapes and punched tapes, and then delivered by plane to the cosmodrome. Aircraft could no longer ensure prompt delivery on time from all measuring points.
Plesetsk cosmodrome air park, it was involved in the delivery of trajectory information
Defeat in the Cold War
In Soviet times, a huge reserve was created in the field of armaments. Today we see the modernized Tu-160, Tu-22M3 bombers, the T-90 tank, etc. The appearance of new types of weapons is well-forgotten old Soviet developments that lie in the secret departments of the design bureau. Soviet engineers produced miracles of technology, which are still languishing with enormous reserves in the bins of the Motherland or what is left of the Motherland. But not everywhere, everything was just as gracious.
Problems arose with the "nerves of the army" - with communications and computer technology. Soviet party leaders in the era of stagnation sharply opposed cybernetics, especially with regard to the management of industries, as Academician Glushkov suggested in the late 60s. The Communist Party was afraid to lose its influence on society. “Partners” from abroad helped her in this. So, academician Arbatov, having arrived from a business trip to the United States, said that computers are just a fashion that will soon pass in the West .
In this situation, an erroneous step was taken, which led to the fact that instead of developing its line of computers, for example, BESM-6, the Soviet Union began copying foreign computer samples. These are the well-known IBM-360 and PDP-11, which were the computers of the “single series” EC, as well as the SM-3, SM-1420, etc. All this resulted in the fact that the USSR missed a turn in the development of technology, namely in the appearance of personal computers, which resulted in the overproduction of these very EU and SM computers. There is no need to go far for concrete examples. The whole floor of the 7th building of NIIRI was forced by this computer technology, which a year later had to be dismantled due to its uselessness.
The 7th building of NIIRI in which the "Collection" and "ECU" systems were developed
In the main building in different places also stood these monster copies. At the northern training ground in Severodvinsk, a four-story building was built for such equipment, which they were going to use to collect trajectory information about the flight of strategic missiles during test launches from submarines.
At the Plesetsk cosmodrome, computers of the SM-1700 type were introduced - VAX-11/730 clones.
Head of Department 53 Kozlov Valentin Alekseevich at the workplace in NIIRI (2003)
Until 1991, realizing that it was necessary to separate its part from the entire “Collection” system, the leading engineer Kozlov developed the database architecture, which was a subsystem for storing trajectory information. The storage subsystem was developed in the ideology of a file server, which should be a separate computer, the file system of which stores measurement information files. To access the files, a directory was provided that selected the trajectory information files for interested persons by searching by the date of testing and by product number. It was also possible to obtain reference information about the product, manufacturer, start date, by performing various selections from the reference tables. The file server already in 1991 used Oracle DBMS, kindly provided by the USSR technical intelligence. The operating system is UNIX.
Thus, at that time, the development of the database architecture shared the responsibility between the development of the storage subsystem and the information collection system itself.
For the new year, 1991, the NIIRI management decides to form a department on the basis of the best specialists in the CAD and ACS department. The head of the department is V. Kozlov, the only performer who completed his part at the very beginning of work on the “Collect-B” system.
The head of the department was engaged in the selection of personnel for creating the software of the “Collect-B” system, which was unprecedented at that time and for performing input control of the hardware for this system, as well as, as the future will show, by organizing complicated financial schemes providing financing for the development of the system after the collapse of the USSR . On the one hand, this scheme was the result of Kozlov’s initiative, the only one possible at that time, and on the other hand, he was not indifferent to him personally.
The sword of Damocles hung the question of how to nevertheless avoid another failure? And the failures at that time went one after another.
Under the windows in the NIIRI courtyard there were original computers designed to simulate the missile launch control system commissioned by the USSR Ministry of Defense for the im. Krylova. Cabinets with equipment were in the rain, not in demand by the military. All NIIRI was littered with computer technology, the only value of which was the content of a huge number of precious metals. An attempt to create a collection system on the basis of the SM-1420 computer (a Soviet copy of the American PDP-11) and a basket with adapters failed. Nothing worked. Everything went to the trash. The situation reminded Krylov’s famous Quartet fable. There was no comprehensive view of the future system. Most of the leaders of the institute were radio engineers, but in no way were programmers; they had no idea about the software architecture. The same experts who were involved in the development of software for the Vega system were overworked with the task of transferring software from computing tools based on EU-1045 to IBM PC / AT computers.
Until 1991, USSR technical intelligence received extensive information about testing missile technology in the United States. For example, intelligence has been obtained on testing the Trident sea-launched missiles with the help of a radio intelligence ship. The intelligence also obtained information about which communication lines are used at the Vandenberg training ground [2, 3], and what data rates are available.
At the end of the 1980s, the transmission speed of a potential adversary at the training ground was 1200-2400 bps. The USSR considered that it was necessary to automate our ground-based testing complex as well. Initially, it was decided to integrate measurement systems in the interests of the Plesetsk cosmodrome.
It is known that George W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev met on December 2-3, 1989, and Gorbachev signed the surrender in the Cold War on behalf of the USSR:
"I assured the President of the United States that I would never start a war against the United States."
The fate of the USSR was a foregone conclusion
The Cold War is over 
Gorbachev signed documents revealing the accuracy characteristics of all available strategic ballistic missiles and pledged to report every morning on the location of the Russian missile trains, the BZHRK.
BZHRK on the stage
Inside the train in the dining room for personnel
Preparing to launch a rocket
The rocket is ready to launch
However, not everyone agreed to “raise their hands”, first of all, Yuri Semenovich Solomonov , who led the work on the new mobile Topol-M ballistic missile system. The creation, testing, and deployment of the Topol-M strategic missiles on combat alert was tantamount to saving Russian civilization.
The chief designer of Topol-M, Yuri Semenovich Solomonov (photo: ru.wikipedia.org)
"Topol-M" test launch from the mine at the Plesetsk cosmodrome
"Topol-M" on the march forces a water obstacle
"Topol-M" on the march
As tests have shown, "Topol-M", in addition to stealth movement, has exceptional accuracy in hitting the target.
Creation of a “new and unprecedented”
The main objective of the developed system for collecting trajectory information “Collection B” is to put on the table the president of Russia a meaningful report on the tests carried out within a day from the moment the rocket was launched.
The second stage of the “Collect-B” system was called “Management system from a single center”, the abbreviation for ECU. The ECU provided for work with maneuvering missiles that have different trajectories from the traditional ones, and this required adaptive re-targeting of the antennas of ground-based measuring systems in real time, and the direction finder of the Vega system to be transferred to a pre-calculated anticipated meeting point with the missile. To solve the problem of the operational conduct of flight experiments, it was necessary to connect to a single ground-based measuring complex all measurement systems, including Vegu-NO, Kamu-A, Kamu-N, Bismutin, Velor, etc. .
The “Collect-B” system was supposed to become (and has become) the basis for controlling measuring systems for re-targeting their narrowly directed antennas to adaptively respond to a sharp change in the flight path of the tested product. The ground-based measuring complex was supposed to represent a single organism, a single distributed measuring and information system designed to test maneuvering missiles. As a cover operation, a version was put forward that solid-fuel rockets in the active section of the trajectory, depending on the state of solid fuel that responds to different storage conditions, may differ in burning area due to microcracks. To compensate for the different burning intensities and variability of the traction force for different Topol-M rockets, the control system formed individual trajectories in the active section. There was a need to transfer a rocket like a relay stick from one IC to another, performing a forecast of the transmission point, forming a message about the re-targeting and transmitting it via cryptographically closed communication lines.
However, all this inevitably ran into the problem of the complexity of the connection of the unconnected.
The complexity of this task consisted of several parameters:
1) all ICs were created independently of each other and had different interfaces, codes, measuring frames and different lengths of packages, different types of synchronization;
2) all IPs are distributed over a vast territory from the western to eastern borders of Russia;
3) at that time, the choice of operating systems was not great and was provided by foreign intelligence of the USSR;
4) the tasks of collecting and distributing trajectory information were not automatic, at no polygon and there was no methodology for performing such work;
5) there was no team with experience in solving such problems;
6) the communication lines were unreliable, data transfer was required over cryptographically closed communication lines.
The missile flight trajectory measuring systems have different communication parameters. Each manufacturer supplied its IC with such communication parameters and such measurement frames that were unique, based on one well-known principle. This approach was far from ideal and, of course, did not allow just plugging the cable into the connector to transmit data, because at the other end of the cable no one was ready to provide similar default parameters.
Communication parameters of widespread measuring systems and tools
Since the informational and reference part in the form of the developed architecture of the database file server was already allocated in the entire “Collecting” system, it was necessary to take up the development of everything else in the “Collecting” system, all the remaining should have received information from all IPs absolutely independently and in parallel , regardless of the data transmission medium, at the same time do not lose information, provide real-time mode, provide encryption of the transmitted data, provide control of communication lines and automatically restore on failure of loss of synchronization as a result, failures, and so on. d. In short, it should be remarkable, in spite of that. Therefore, the general scientific task was divided into several particular tasks. First of all, it was necessary to fix in its entire kaleidoscope of mosaic information its constant part, from which it would be possible to build the software architecture and develop the software of the “Collection” system itself.
As such a permanent part, which in scientific circles has already become known throughout the USSR, there was the concept of an information and computer network. In 1990, the reference book Protocols of Information and Computing Networks (IVS) was edited by the corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences I.A. Misina and Doctor of Technical Sciences F.P. Kuleshov . Consideration of the “Collection” system as an IVS provided an opportunity to find the place of an IS in the functional-logical and physical structure of an IVS. Obviously, the concept of IVS was not at that time extended to the ground-based measuring complex of the cosmodrome. All IPs were autonomous. Software development of the IVS system of the Collection system also required fixing in the kaleidoscope of mosaic knowledge about software development that part, starting from which it is possible to consistently create the software of the Collection system. The reference model for the interaction of open systems (EMVOS) was chosen as the basis. After choosing EMVOS as a guide to action, the task was to distribute and supplement the methods and algorithms for constructing all software levels of each element of the IVS space center.
Struggle with complexity
The first attempts to develop a system for collecting trajectory information from measuring systems for tracking strategic ballistic missiles and spacecraft launchers in the Soviet Union, based on techniques similar to PDP-11 and VAX, failed. At NIIRI, they tried to use SM 1420 and their own designed baskets with boards with adapters for telephone and telegraph interfaces, which were not operational due to the inconsistency of the hardware development culture with the tasks set before 1991. At the Plesetsk cosmodrome, a center for collecting trajectory information, things carried a touch of tragedy. After the installation of the SM-1700 Cosmodrome at the Cosmodrome and two hours of military work on this computer, a harsh sentence was issued: “It does not fit!”
The development team of the “Collection” system, in sports language, found itself in a difficult knockout. Thus ended the first battle to create a single ground-based measuring complex in the USSR.
The leadership of NIIRI was forced to go for numerous personnel changes. The head of the department was appointed database architect - Kozlov Valentin Alekseevich. The previous development manager was transferred to leading electronic engineers. Kozlov took up the selection of personnel from volunteers of the CAD and ACS department. And although all those involved and uninvolved whispered in the corners that they would not succeed, the new composition was determined to take revenge for the last defeat. Nikolaev Vadimovich Nikolaev was appointed the head of software development, Yury Borisovich Voloshin was the 1st category deputy programmer, and Aksyuta Gennady Valerievich was appointed as the head of the software development for the file database server.
Nikolaev, Andrei and Voloshin, Yuri were exactly 30 years old, both studied at the KhAI at the rocket science department in the group focused on creating the X-55 rocket , were professionally prepared for calculating the missile trajectories, managed to serve two years as lieutenants in the USSR Air Force, Nikolaev achieved the title of the best squadron of the USSR Air Force in 1985, Voloshin served in the regiment of the former Normandy-Neman and visited North Korea with a military delegation. Both were engaged in martial arts, national time management and psychological training [8-18]. Nikolaev personally developed the CAD software package and for the first time in stories NIIRI passed it to the industry foundation of algorithms and programs. In addition, Nikolaev and Voloshin developed the CAD software package for microelectronic equipment and donated it to the algorithms and programs fund, which made it possible for the first time in Kharkov to produce microtransistor photo masks. Those. to frighten them with difficult work and responsibility was impossible.
Nikolaev Andrey Vadimovich
Voloshin Yuri Borisovich
The team was formed in early 1991. However, the general atmosphere of the collapse of the USSR was in the air. Young people got to the computers on which they installed games. Spending many hours at work playing games was the “norm” at the time. Nikolaev, responsible for the sector of collecting trajectory information and delivering it to the file database server, firmly put an end to games by publicly erasing them from "personal computers of collective use." Kozlov’s reaction was immediate: “You’ll disperse the whole team, which I could hardly assemble!” The answer was impudent, but correct: “The team is not an interest club in which they play games during working hours.” From that moment on, everyone who wanted to work worked, who wanted to play, left the department. The team got rid of the conditional “fifth column”. From this moment, the real work began, without fools.
The general situation at that time was such that the engineers of the 80s were humiliated, they performed the roles of collective farmers, loaders and laborers at a construction site, and they also streamed the street in front of the institute. And now the appearance of a new important work, which no one could do before, extraordinarily motivated the new team.
Unfortunately, there was no working equipment in 1991, so Nikolaev developed a software hardware emulator for debugging developed programs.
So, it was necessary to rethink the topic “What are we doing?” The problem in the development of the “Collection” system was its complexity. Information was presented in the form of a beautiful mosaic in a children's toy - a kaleidoscope. This complexity had to be tamed. At that time, I already read about the method of dealing with complexity in Hubbard's book “Problems of Work”  (although the Communist Party of the USSR did not encourage it). In this book, it was proposed to fix one thing and attach to it all the other parts of the subject area that create this mosaic.
From the history of technology, the competition between two helicopter companies, Kamov and Mil, to create a heavy transport helicopter was well known. Miles and Kamov went different ways. Kamov created a complex helicopter, and Miles translated all the complexity into the complexity of one element - the rotor blades. Practice has shown that it is easier to develop a complex element than a complex machine as a whole. Therefore, the development of the Ka-22 was closed, and the Mi-6 was put on stream and flooded the sky of the Motherland [20-22].
The competition of Ka-22 and Mi 6 ended in the victory of a helicopter of a simple Mi-6 circuit
The first task of creating the IVS of the “Collection” system was simplification. The traditional physical structure of the IVS is shown in the figure:
The traditional physical structure of the computer network. GVM - the main computer of the MSOD - backbone data exchange network. ATCM - a set of access means for subscribers of the BSOD - a basic data exchange network. KSDM-I - a set of individual means of access for subscribers. T - terminal. KSDM-G is a group of access tools for group subscribers. AK is a subscriber complex. UK - switching node. CT - terminal hub. OUK - terminal switching node
In the development of the “Collection” system, it was required to carry out such a transformation that the entire complexity of the logical and physical structures of the IVS was translated by:
1) replacement of all elements of the IVS into one universal element - an information concentrator;
2) replacement of the terminal on which the IVS is focused on the IS; that is, in other words, an alphanumeric terminal such as the EU 7927 to the measuring system;
3) main computers on workstations (workstations).
Replacing the alphanumeric terminal type EC 7927 with a measuring system
Now the picture has been simplified:
The modified physical structure of the information computer network (IVS) of the unified ground-based measuring complex (ENIK). IS - measuring system; KI - information concentrator; AWP - automated workstation of a specialist [/ center]
Now it was possible to concretize the architecture of the software and hardware of the "Collect" system. The traditional hardware architecture scheme used in computer technology at that time consisted of a central processor, a data transfer multiplexer (communication processor), and terminals.
The specification of the prototype CI led to the following scheme:
To ensure the parallelism of the information flows circulating in the IVS of the “Collection” system, the UNIX operating system was selected. Therefore, the architecture of KI software can be described by the following scheme:
Now let's take a closer look at the matching processor or the NI-526 product.
The structural diagram of this dual-processor computing complex is presented in the diagram:
Block diagram of the matching processor or product NI-526
The interface device consists of n computer interface blocks at the interface C2 (1), two computers (2), n input / output units (3), RAM, common to two computers (4), two processors (5), two resident RAM available only to its processor (6), two resident ROMs, available only to its processor (7). The interface device is connected via cables with its computer interface units at interface C2 (1) to the serial port expansion device with an RS-232 interface (for PCs it is known as a COM port).
As a PC running the UNIX operating system, IBM 386SX was chosen.
So, the external appearance of the information concentrator (NI-525) was determined, which allowed the updated team to determine the external appearance of the universal element of the “Collection” system - the information concentrator:
Front view information concentrator NI-525 (PC and NI-526 matching processor)
Front view information concentrator NI-525 (PC and NI-526 matching processor)
The coordination processor NI-526 is a component of the KI (front view)
The coordination processor NI-526 is an integral part of the KI (rear view)
Nikolaev Nikolaev on the Vega radio engineering measuring system in Norilsk. On the left is the information hub - NI-525. Left and right NI-500 equipment - Vega systems
Next, it was necessary to modify the reference model for the interaction of open systems (EMVOS) for a single ground-based measuring complex and develop software.
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