The Russian Campaign of Charles XII


In 1706, the international authority of Charles XII was undeniable. The papal nuncio, who reproached Joseph I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, that he at the request of Charles in 1707 gave guarantees of religious freedom to the Protestants of Silesia, heard surprising words:

"You must be very happy that the Swedish king did not offer me to accept Lutheranism, for if he wanted to ... I don’t know what I would do."

It should be said that this emperor, like many other monarchs, was a true "master of his word": he took his promise of religious freedom immediately after receiving news of the defeat of Charles XII near Poltava.

The Russian Campaign of Charles XII
Joseph I of Habsburg, King of Hungary since 1687, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation since 1705

Karl’s self-confidence reached the point where on September 6th he drove alone to Dresden, where he appeared to his mortal enemy Augustus the Strong, forcing him to show him the fortifications. Even the Elector's lover Countess Kozel demanded to arrest the Swedish king, but Augustus did not dare, and Karl safely returned to his retinue.

“I relied on my happy fate,” he explained his behavior a few days later.

On September 13 (24), 1706, the Swedish king forced the Saxon Elector Augustus to sign the Altranstedt Peace Treaty, according to which, in addition to surrendering Krakow and some other fortresses and paying a huge indemnity, he agreed to place Swedish garrisons in Saxon cities, and also renounced the Polish crown.

Lunch after the signing of the peace treaty in Altranstadt on December 7, 1706. Medieval copper engraving

Karl appointed Stanislav Leszczynski as the new king of Poland.

Antoine Peng. Portrait of Stanislav Leshchinsky, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania

During one of the conversations with his henchman, Charles called Peter I “the unjust king” and declared the need to remove him from the throne.

In the army of Karl himself at that time there were 44 thousand people, and 25 thousand of them were dragoons, who, if necessary, could fight on foot. The army was in excellent condition, the regiments were fully equipped, the soldiers had time to rest, and, it seemed, nothing portended trouble.

Soldiers of the army of Charles XII

In September 1707, the Swedish king set out on a campaign called Russian historians. It was expected that the Kurland army of the Swedes, commanded by General Levengaupt, would join him on the way.

David von Krafft. Adam Ludvig Lewenhaupt, count, general

The beginning of the Russian campaign of Charles XII

At a military council in Zhovkva (near Lviv), the Russians made the decision “not to give battles in Poland”, but “to weaken the enemy by fencing food and forage”.

This tactic almost immediately began to bear fruit: the campaign of the Swedish army was difficult, and the autumn slaughter, due to which Karl was forced to linger in war-ravaged Poland, exacerbated the situation. In addition, the Swedes walked to the north of Poland - wooded and marshy Masuria, where they had to cut logs in the forests and pave roads, and local peasants did not want to share their already scarce supplies. Karl had to send foragers around the neighborhood who did not stand on ceremony with the Poles: demanding to indicate food caches, they tortured men and women, and tortured children in front of their parents.

On January 27, 1708, the Swedes reached Neman and Karl, having learned that Peter I was in Grodno, without hesitation, with only 800 cavalrymen, burst onto the bridge, which, contrary to orders, did not destroy the Brigadier Mühlenfeld who went over to the side of the Swedes. On this bridge, Charles XII personally fought with the Russians and killed two officers. Following their plan of the "Scythian war", the Russians retreated: the last Russian units left Grodno through the northern gate at the moment when the first units of the Swedish army entered the city through the south.

The mercenaries of the Russians, captains Saks and Fok, who sided with the Swedes, offered to capture Peter I, who was often unguarded, but Karl himself nearly died when the Russian cavalrymen, having destroyed Swedish posts, broke into the city that night. The king, of course, could not deny himself the pleasure of fighting in the streets of the city, and only the misfire of the musket aimed at him saved him then.

In early February, the army of Charles reached Smorgon and stopped there for a month to rest. In mid-March, the Swedes resumed their movement, and reached the Radoshkovichi, where they remained for three months, ruining all the surrounding villages and towns. By that time, the Swedes had learned to find peasant hiding places: the method turned out to be simple and effective - they simply dug up places with thawed spots.

On June 6, Karl again moved his army east. “Now we are following the road to Moscow, and if we continue, we will of course reach,” he said.

To his “pocket” king Stanislav, he left 8 thousand recruits to protect Poland, whom he appointed to command General Crassau - because the crown hetman of Senyavsky sided with Russia, only having defeated him, Leshchinsky could leave Poland and come to the aid of Charles XII.

Before the breakup, the Swedish king asked Stanislav’s opinion about Prince Jakub Ludwik Sobesski (the son of the Polish king Jan III, a contender for the Polish throne, who was held captive by Augustus the Strong from 1704 to 1706), which, in his opinion, could become “excellent Tsar of Russia. " So Carl XII was very serious.

Henri Gascar. Jakub Ludwik Sobesski

In June 1708, the army of Charles XII crossed the Berezina, and on July 3, under Golovchin, the Swedes for the last time won the battle against the Russians. At the same time, they had some superiority in power: 30 thousand Swedes under the command of Karl himself versus 28 thousand, which were controlled by Sheremetev and Menshikov.

The battle of Golovchin

The Swedish attack on the left flank of the Russians led to the flight of Repnin’s division, which was demoted for it and was forced to reimburse the cost of the abandoned guns (after the battle of Forest Repnin they were restored to their ranks).

The loss of sides in this battle turned out to be approximately equal, which should have alerted Karl, but the Swedish king stubbornly did not notice obvious things, continuing to consider the Russian army as weak as in the memorable battle near Narva.

In this battle, Karl nearly died again, but not from a Russian saber or bullet - he almost drowned in a swamp. But fate kept the king for Poltava shame and "circus performances" in the Ottoman Empire (which are described in the article "Vikings" against the Janissaries. The incredible adventures of Charles XII in the Ottoman Empire).

The next battle between Russian and Swedish troops was the battle near the village of Dobry, which took place on August 29, 1708. Here the vanguard units of General Roos were defeated by a detachment of Prince Golitsyn. The loss ratio for the Swedes was simply depressing: they lost about 3000 people, while the Russians lost only 375. About this battle, Peter I wrote:

"Like I regained service, I did not hear and did not see such fire and decent action from our soldiers ... And the King of Sweden didn’t see such a thing from anyone else in this war."

Finally, on September 10, 1708, the Swedish Ostgotland Cavalry Regiment entered into battle with a detachment of Russian dragoons near the village of Raevka. This battle is notable for the fact that both Charles XII and Peter I took part in it, who said that he could make out the face of the Swedish king.

Chemesov E.P. Portrait of Peter I (engraving with original Nantier), 1717

Charles XII

A horse was killed near Karl, and next to him at the decisive moment there were only 5 drabants, but the fresh cavalry units of the Swedes managed to rescue their king.

Meanwhile, difficulties in supplying the Swedish army only increased. The French charge d'affaires of Poland under Stanislaw Leszczynski de Besanval reported to Versailles, referring to his informant in the army of Charles XII, that the Swedes use saltpeter instead of salt, have no wine even for communing the dying, and the wounded say that they have only three medicines: water , garlic and death.

Swedish soldier of the Great Northern War. Painted tin figurine

The Levengaupt corps at that time was only 5 transitions from the main army, but the famine forced Charles XII to turn his troops south - this decision was another and very big mistake of the king.

On the night of September 15, the first detachment of General Lagerkrona (2000 foot soldiers and 1000 cavalrymen with four guns) moved south to the city of Mglin, but the Swedes got lost and went to Starodub. But even this city the bureaucrat general refused to take, saying that he had no order from the king. And only the cavalry of General Koskul came to Mglin - without guns and without infantry. And on October 1, news came to Karl about the battle, which, indeed, became fatal for the Swedes, and had a huge impact on the course of their military campaign in Russia.

Battle of the Forest

In September 1708, near Lesnoy (a village in the modern Mogilev region), the corps of General Levengaupt was defeated by the Russians.

"The image of the battle at the village of Forest September on 28 day 1708." Colorized engraving by N. Larmessen (based on a drawing by P. D. Martin the Younger). First quarter of the XNUMXth century

This battle Peter I called the “mother” of Poltava “Victoria” (from September 28, 1708 to July 27, 1709 - exactly 9 months) and until the end of his life he celebrated the anniversary of this battle. Its significance for the Russian and Swedish armies was so great that Charles XII refused to believe the news of him.

Levengaupt, who was going to join the main army, was to bring along a convoy with food and ammunition, the amount of which was calculated for three months. Other commanders of the Swedish corps were generals Schlippenbach and Stackelberg, who would be captured during the battle at Poltava (Levengaupt himself would surrender at Perevolnaya). At the disposal of Levengaupt was 16 thousand of the best soldiers in Europe - the "natural" Swedes, and 16 artillery pieces. Peter I was mistaken in believing that they were half as many, perhaps because of this the Russians (of whom there were about 18 thousand people, but 12 thousand took part in the battle) acted so boldly and decisively. Initially, the Swedes attacked the vanguard units, numbering only 4 thousand people. They were repulsed, but the next attack, which involved 12 infantry battalions and 12 cavalry squadrons, which were later joined by the dragoons of Lieutenant General R. Bour, forced Levengaupt to retreat, leaving half the wagon train. The next day, the Swedes were overtaken at Propoisk by a detachment of General German Flough and fled without listening to the orders of the commanders. Levengaupt, having ordered to drown the guns and set fire to the carts, retreated, bringing only 6700 tired and morally depressed soldiers to his king.

Jean-Marc Nattier. "The Battle of the Forest"

The defeat of the Swedes was unprecedented: about 6000 people were killed or wounded, 2673 soldiers and 703 officers were captured. In addition, they managed to extinguish and save most of the wagons with food and equipment: in total 5000 out of 8000 wagons became Russian trophies.

Russian losses amounted to 1100 people killed and 2856 wounded.

Memorial complex in the village of Lesnoy, Belarus

In this battle, Lieutenant General R. Bour was seriously wounded, his right side was paralyzed, but by the summer of 1709 he recovered and took part in the Battle of Poltava.

Lieutenant General from the cavalry Rudolph (Rodion) Bour. The captain of the Swedish army, who on September 30, 1700, after a duel, fled from Narva to the location of the Russian army. His name is mentioned in the poem by A. S. Pushkin "Poltava":
“These are the chicks of Petrov’s nest -
In the changing lot of the earth
In the works of power and war
His comrades, his sons:
And Sheremetev noble,
And Bruce, and Bour, and Repnin. "

V. Savenkov. “The entry of Russian troops into Smolensk after the defeat of the Swedes at Lesnaya”

The captured Swedish generals after Poltava informed Peter about the warning of Levengaupt, who had appeared to Karl after the battle at Lesnaya: "Russia has the best army before everyone."

But, according to them, neither they nor the king then believed him, continuing to believe that the Russian army was no better than the one that they knew from the battle of Narva.

Karl XII declared this obvious defeat to everyone a victory, sending to Stockholm a ballot saying that Levengaupt "successfully repelled the attacks of 40 thousand Muscovites." But the quartermaster general of the Swedish army Axel Gillenkrok (Yullenkruk) wrote that the king in vain "tried to hide his grief that all his plans were destroyed."

The Swedish army was starving, the Seversky land was devastated in front of it, the Menshikov corps was operating in the rear, and Karl was forced to continue moving south, hoping to get food and fodder from hetman Ivan Mazepa.

Getman Mazepa

Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa-Kolensky was not at all happy with the visit of the “ally”. According to the then concepts, he was already a deep old man (born in 1639, he became a hetman even under Princess Sophia), and he had only about a year to live. And old people are usually not inclined to take risks, betting “a tit in their hands” against a “crane in the sky”.

In his youth, Mazepa was in the service of the Polish king Jan II Casimir. In 1818, Byron wrote a poem “Mazeppa” about this period of his life, in which he recounted the legend of Voltaire’s pen about how the young “Cossack”, the page of the Polish king Jan II Casimir, was tied to a horse for shameful communication with his wife Palatine Falbowski, who released into the wild field. But the horse turned out to be "Ukrainian", and therefore brought him to his native steppes.

Louis Boulanger. The painting "Le Supplice de Mazeppa", illustrating George Byron's poem "Mazeppa"

Theodore Chasserio. "Cossack finds Mazepa"

In Ukraine, Mazepa served the hetmans of Doroshenko and Samoilovich, and in 1687 he himself received the hetman's mace. In one of his letters, Mazepa reports that during the 12 years of his hetmanism he made 11 summer and 12 winter campaigns in the interests of Russia. In Ukraine, Mazepa was not very popular precisely because of suspicions that he was “doing everything according to the will of Moscow,” and therefore, not relying too much on the loyalty of his environment and the Cossacks, the hetman was forced to keep as many as three regiments of serdyukov (mercenaries , whose salary was paid from the hetman's treasury).

Serdyuki in the picture of an unknown Polish artist of the late XVII century

He had an excellent relationship with Peter I, who gave him the city of Yanpol. In 1705, Mazepa rejected the proposals of Stanislav Leshchinsky, but later he nevertheless entered into correspondence, promising not to harm Stanislav and the Swedish troops in any way. He refused the Polish "protection" because of "natural antipathy" to the Poles of the entire population of Ukraine.

But in 1706, at a feast, the hoppy Menshikov in the presence of Cossack colonels, pointing to them, started a conversation with Mazepa about the need to eradicate the "internal" sedition. Peter I besieged him, but the impression of Menshikov’s words made the most unfavorable on everyone. In addition, rumors appeared that Alexander Danilych himself wanted to become a hetman - and Mazepa himself didn’t like it very much.

In addition, the hetman and Cossack foremen knew that Peter I was negotiating with Augustus and was ready to pay for the participation of Poland in the war against Karl by Ukrainian lands. Nobody in Ukraine wanted to be ruled by Poles Catholics and become second-class people again, and rich elders quite justifiably feared the redistribution of the lands they had already obtained. And there was a muffled murmur that the Russian tsar "gives the Poles not what he took ... they didn’t take us with a saber."

The Cossacks (people who would not feel like strangers and superfluous in either Port Royal or Tortug) were also worried: they were unhappy that the Moscow authorities were restricting their freedom to “follow zipuns”, and these “knights” work on land, unlike the Cossacks of the Don army, considered below their dignity.

Mazepa was not at all averse to becoming the "independent" ruler of Ukraine, but he led a double game, hoping that everything would be possible without his participation. Poland was already weakened and ravaged by the war, Russia, in case of defeat, would also not be up to it, and Sweden would be far away from King Charles and could bargain about the crown of the vassal king. And in the event of Peter's victory, he, in essence, does not lose anything: loyally will congratulate him on the success and join the winner. Therefore, having learned that Charles XII turned to Ukraine, Mazepa could not hide his fear:

“The devil brings him here! “I’ll turn all my interests around, the Great Russian forces will bring to Ukraine its last ruin and our destruction”.

Now Mazepa faced a difficult choice: he should either remain faithful to Russia and Peter, or finally take the path of direct and obvious treason, with all the ensuing consequences.

The military authority of the Swedish king was still high, and therefore Mazepa chose treason: he sent a letter to Charles XII in which he asked below “to protect himself, the Zaporizhzhya Army and all the people of liberation from the heavy yoke of Moscow”. But he shied away from active actions, pretending to be sick (even taking communion) and taking nothing more.

However, on October 23, Colonel Voinarovsky, who had fled from Menshikov, came to him and gave him some rumors (“one German officer spoke to another”) that Alexander Danilych was aware of the betrayal of the hetman and, tomorrow, he (Mazepa) “would be in shackles ". Here the hetman’s nerves could not stand it: he fled to Baturin, and from there - further, beyond the Desna. On October 29, Mazepa met with Charles XII. Only 4 thousand Cossacks followed (out of the promised 20 thousand), the rest were extremely hostile to the Swedes. Which, incidentally, was greatly facilitated by the Swedes themselves, with contempt for both the allied Untermens and the local population, who, as a rule, paid for food as follows: when they stopped in a village or town, they bought food, but when they left - the paid money was taken away, threatening to burn the house and even kill its inhabitants. Ukrainians did not like this behavior of “liberators from the Moscow yoke”.

Menshikov was then informed:

"Cherkasy (that is, Cossacks) gathered themselves together, go around and beat the Swedes eternally, and cut roads in the forests."

Gustav Adlerfeld, chamberlain of Charles XII, left such entries in his diary:

“On December 10, Colonel Funk, with 500 cavalry, was sent to punish and reason the peasants, who were uniting in detachments in various places. Funk killed more than a thousand people in the small town of Terey (Tereyskaya Sloboda) and burned this town, also burned Drygalov (Nedrygailovo). He also incinerated several hostile Cossack villages and ordered to kill everyone who met in order to inspire terror in others. "
“We were constantly in a fight with the inhabitants, which greatly upset the old Mazepa.”

On November 2, Baturin was captured by Menshikov’s troops, and, together with its walls, Karl’s hopes of seizing the warehouses located in this city collapsed. Mazepa, learning about the fall of his capital, said:

“I know now that God did not bless my intention.”

And when Colonel Burlyai surrendered the White Church with the Hetman treasury to D.M. Golitsyn without a fight, Mazepa finally fell into despair, cursing the Swedish king, too, and his decision to join him.

The attitude to Mazepa of the Cossacks who followed him is characterized by the following fact: in November 1708 Peter I received a letter from the Mirgorod colonel D. Apostol, who proposed to deliver the hetman to the king. He never received a response from Peter, but later left Mazepa and received forgiveness.

Unknown artist. Portrait of the Hetman of the Army of Zaporizhzhya Daniel the Apostle (second half of the 1th century). Hetman Daniel Apostle was chosen on October 1727, XNUMX

Colonel Apostle brought Mazepa's letter, which, in turn, turned to Peter with a proposal to extradite King Charles and his generals. These are the allies who met the Swedish king in Ukraine - the best for him were not found.

Mazepa’s proposal was very tempting, and Peter agreed to forgive him, but the hetman continued to play a double game: he also wrote a letter to Stanislav Leshchinsky, in which he urged him to come to Ukraine, calling it the "fatherland" (hereditary possession) of the Polish kings. He no longer thought of his comrades-in-arms, nor of the Cossacks, nor of the common people of Little Russia, the only thing he asked for was the preservation of property and the post of hetman. The Russian dragoons intercepted this letter from Mazepa, and Peter refused further negotiations with him.

Way to Poltava

Now the Russians and Swedes moved south in parallel courses. The Cossacks and Kalmyks who remained loyal to Russia in the steppes of Ukraine felt so confident that by November 16, 1708, Charles XII was left without adjutant generals: five were killed, one was captured. In one of the clashes with the Cossacks, "brother arms"Karla -" The Little Prince "Maximilian (it was described in the article Karl XII and his army).

On November 17, the Swedes occupied the town of Romny, and this unexpectedly caused gossip in the royal troops. The fact is that in the army of Charles XII, the prophecy that came from nowhere, that the king and his army would be invincible until they conquered Rome, had long been spread. The consonance of the names of the “Eternal City” and the insignificant Little Russian fortress made an unpleasant impression on the Swedish soldiers.

Winter that year throughout Europe was unusually severe (the Rhone and the canals of Venice froze), but the frost hit the Russians no less than their opponents: the Swedes themselves report that on the road to Lebedin they counted more than 2 thousand corpses of frozen Russians soldier. At the same time, Peter I, as they said, "saved people less than horses," and Charles XII - "did not save either one or the other." They say that in the city of Gadyach, only 28 Swedes froze overnight on December 4. In total, according to Swedish data, in December, a quarter to a third of soldiers received frostbite in their army. Hungry Caroliners demanded that Karl "bread or death."

In early January 1709, Karl led his army to the small fortress Veprik fortified only with a rampart, the garrison of which totaled about 1100 people.

Shakhovtsov A. “Fight of the Cossacks of the Kharkov regiment with the Swedes Veprikom”

The Swedish king, not expecting artillery approach, threw 4 regiments to storm, losing 1200 soldiers. Field Marshal Ronschild was then injured, from the consequences of which he did not fully recover. Reflecting 3 attacks, the garrison of the fortress left it.

Karl wrote to his sister Ulrike Eleanor:

“Everything is going very well here in the army, although the soldiers have to endure the difficulties always associated with the proximity of the enemy. In addition, winter was very cold; it seemed almost unusual, so many of the enemy’s and we froze or lost our legs, arms and noses ... But, to our pleasure, from time to time some entertainment fell to our lot, since the Swedish troops had small skirmishes with the enemy and inflicted blows to him. "

This "youth" had its price: at the beginning of the campaign, Charles XII had a 35-strong army, which was joined by the remains of the Levengaupt corps. Only 41 thousand people. In April 1709, he brought to Poltava only 30 thousand.

The siege of Poltava and the great battle of this city will be described in the next article.
Our news channels

Subscribe and stay up to date with the latest news and the most important events of the day.

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. +11
    17 January 2020 05: 51
    But the horse turned out to be "Ukrainian", and therefore brought him to his native steppes.
    So, even then, even horses, Ukrainian horses, were "earning money" in the EU ... And you say
    1. +10
      17 January 2020 08: 23
      There are not only horses, apparently there the whole army foreman fluctuated between the EU, Russia and autonomy. I really wanted independence, but no one was in a hurry to give it, and to take the gut is thin. So hesitated like Mr. in the hole. 300 years have passed, but nothing has changed in Ukraine, except that the territories have grown at the expense of Russia.
      1. 0
        18 January 2020 14: 07
        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        so nothing has changed, well, unless the territories have grown at the expense of Russia

        To expect gratitude from ... It is stupid and shortsighted ... Betrayal is literally the basis of the psychology of the "elder" of Independence. History directly "cries" about this ...
  2. +6
    17 January 2020 06: 32
    Poypoisk purely Russian name of the city smile
    1. VLR
      17 January 2020 07: 53
      It is now located in the Mogilev region of Belarus and is called Slavgorod.
      By the way, in Germany it was released in 1941
      commemorative medal of the 3rd company of the Wehrmacht "For the capture of bridges in Propoisk on July 14, 1941".
      1. +5
        17 January 2020 08: 28
        Thank you interestingly, by the way, the city of Slavgorod is in the Altai Territory, on the border with Kazakhstan.
      2. +15
        17 January 2020 10: 18
        It is now located in the Mogilev region of Belarus and is called Slavgorod.

        there was an article on Warhead at one time "Fear and Alcotrip in Propoisk" laughing
        And the general (Levengaupt) gave the order: to abandon the convoy, but save everything that can be saved!
        And there was wine in the wagon train.
        Lots of wine. And vodka.
        A lot of wine and vodka. And beer. After all, the military’s choice in those days was simple - either drink alcohol, or die from some kind of intestinal infection.
        Naturally, the frightened and deadly tired Swedish soldiers first began to save the most valuable. Through consumption. And they tried very hard. After all, an order is an order!
        According to the memoirs of Levengaupt himself, at least a thousand selected Swedish soldiers that night drunk like shoemakers scattered around the forests on the way to Propoisk, where they froze to death or fell into the hands of the Russians.

        In the sense that ours later recruited a whole bunch of drunken "real Swedes" fellow drinks

        Very nice picture from this article, swedish army. There are details about which movie makers completely forget! wink Namely - the distinctive weapons of officers and non-commissioned officers. The commander had an esponton (in the army of Peter the officers were stomped), the sergeant had a halberd. The commander should dispose of, and not fire from a rifle, but with such weapons he can always be seen in the heat of battle. soldier
        Valery - I bow to the article, Panah Kohanka! hi drinks
        1. +6
          17 January 2020 11: 15
          Nikolay, hi. hi But can you explain to me why the Swedish uniform has a "zhovto-blakite" color? laughing
          1. +2
            17 January 2020 11: 46
            But can you explain to me why the Swedish uniform has a "zhovto-blakite" color?

            Konstantin, hello! drinks I can not! Victor Nikolaevich - he certainly can. hi
            1. +4
              17 January 2020 11: 46
              Well, he knows better at the place. laughing drinks
              1. +6
                17 January 2020 12: 37
                I can say this - few people can look for information like this ... good drinks for which I will always be grateful to him. hi
                1. +5
                  17 January 2020 15: 22
                  And this is 200 percent true! good
              2. +2
                17 January 2020 15: 21
                Well, he knows better at the place.
                Do you think I'm from Sweden?
                1. +5
                  17 January 2020 15: 24
                  No, I thought you were from Ukraine. Wrong?
                  1. +6
                    17 January 2020 15: 38
                    I am from Ukraine, but the question is about the colors of the Swedish uniforms.
                    Blue (Azure) and gold (Or) are ancient heraldic colors used at least since the XNUMXth century, when heraldry was born as such.
                    Why the flag of Sweden is made up of these colors is not known.
                    1. +2
                      17 January 2020 20: 25
                      Why the flag of Sweden is made up of these colors is not known.
                      There are legends. However, as elsewhere.
                      1. +5
                        17 January 2020 20: 27
                        I did not cite a version, since there is no officially accepted one on this issue. Agree that it is difficult to establish today why in the XNUMXth century King Magnus III chose blue and gold colors for his coat of arms.
                      2. +3
                        17 January 2020 20: 31
                        Absolutely right! In both cases. In this regard, I did not.
                    2. +5
                      18 January 2020 06: 19
                      ... found the answer to your question about the colors of the Swedish flag. So: they first appeared in the 16th century. The main version of their appearance is this: King Eric 9 during a prayer saw a golden cross above him in a bright blue sky. Since then it has gone. this info from the Swedish site * All about Sweden *.

                      Good morning, Vic Nikolaich. hi This message was sent to me in PM by one of our friends. In a personal because I did not want to argue with anyone and run into insults.
                      But I decided to post it here. smile
                      1. +3
                        18 January 2020 09: 17
                        This is one of the legends that is not supported by any evidence. There is practically no information about Erik the Holy either.
                  2. +4
                    17 January 2020 20: 20
                    Konstantin, millimeter by millimeter, you lose a wonderful comrade and interlocutor.
                    1. +3
                      18 January 2020 06: 22
                      Anton, by golly I didn’t understand what I got here a puncture. And in my thoughts there was no one to hurt or offend. request
          2. +3
            17 January 2020 12: 45
            Quote: Sea Cat
            But can you explain to me why the Swedish uniform has a "zhovto-blakite" color?

            Ukraine is the most ancient country in the world.

            Someone considered it an honor to use its symbols. Yes
            1. +5
              17 January 2020 15: 33
              And even ancient Ancient Greece, who would doubt it. good
            2. +1
              19 January 2020 00: 49
              Probably, the Sumerians also had a yellow flag.
          3. +5
            17 January 2020 12: 52
            The colors of the Swedish state flag.
            1. +4
              17 January 2020 15: 27
              Ukraine and Sweden with the same colors of state flags. smile So Mazepa did not have to change anything. The true Swedes are the Zaporozhye Cossacks ... or vice versa. laughing
              1. +2
                17 January 2020 17: 13
                I don’t think it’s worthwhile to draw analogies, all the more so tying them to one historical subject. Too different peoples and the history of the emergence of state symbols. The relative identity of the flags of Cuba and Catalonia is much more interesting.
        2. +1
          17 January 2020 17: 57
          in the cinema in that 18th century they show the tactics of finding out on the field there they don’t even need to aim for these shelves, just shoot in the direction you don’t miss and the core will fly to the middle ... what is the advantage of such tactics? later it was considered not normal to go to full growth in closed ranks ... just like the French and the British fought for America. by the way, I saw two interesting dudes at the shooting range, they brought this gun, it was huge and hefty loaded from the barrel, like a woman, everyone waited in the smoke until they dissipated - at 50m I could shoot no further))
          1. +1
            17 January 2020 22: 41
            Quote: Sadam
            in the cinema in that 18th century they show the tactics of finding out on the field there they don’t even need to aim for these shelves, just shoot in the direction you don’t miss and the core will fly to the middle ... what is the advantage of such tactics?

            Quote: Sadam
            by the way, I saw two interesting dudes at the shooting range who brought this gun, it was huge and hefty, loaded from the barrel, like a woman, everything in smoke waited until it dispersed - at 50m I shot further, you can not aim))

            You answered yourself.
          2. 0
            17 January 2020 23: 36
            Quote: Sadam
            what is the plus of such tactics

            before the invention and implementation of the loose system - a similar system was adopted almost everywhere.
            What can I say - Ancient Rome as Europe so invented and used slightly modifying.
            Any system is good for something special. There are phalanges, maniples, etc.
            As soon as the rate of firearms reached the required minimum, a loose system immediately appeared. Otherwise, losses as in Alma (loose versus closed)
            Well, or in the REV - where the Japanese decided something that they are the smartest in the columns. Against shrapnel and machine guns ...
            1. +1
              18 January 2020 00: 01
              Yes . and let these uncles tell us what standards in the army at that time for loading with the Britons and the French 20 seconds versus 30 seconds or something nearby - 10 seconds the differences and the continent were squeezed out. in general, it’s shocking to see how they stop the volley from the breast.
        3. +1
          17 January 2020 22: 39
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          In the sense that ours later recruited a whole bunch of drunken "real Swedes"

          Almost a massacre on Drunk, but vice versa. laughing
    2. +4
      17 January 2020 08: 24
      Pessimist22 (Igor)
      Poypoisk purely Russian name of the city smile
      Do not judge all Russians by yourself! We have a small amount of fucking, at least in the South.
      1. +8
        17 January 2020 14: 47
        Only in the south? In Ugra, too, drunkards do not live long !!! I put on a little dress code, I turned it around the collar and .... only in the spring they will find a darling !!!
        1. +9
          17 January 2020 15: 31
          Judging by our neighboring villages, the whole witty drunk died out ten years ago, at least, or even earlier. Only true fighters for faith remained. On and stand! drinks
          1. +7
            17 January 2020 15: 48
            Let Konstantin agree with you!
            Regards, Vlad!
  3. +7
    17 January 2020 06: 39
    Thanks to the author
    Please note that there are not many traitors in world history who out of their pocket paid for their own betrayal (they usually pay the traitor, or promise to pay). Mazepa in this not so numerous row, along with Gorbachev.
  4. -1
    17 January 2020 07: 51
    It is a pity that people write to us about "African swine fever" more often than about "atypical beaver rhinitis" or "hare sclerosis". Where are the true heroes of that war - the Sheremetyevs, the Menshikovs, the Russian soldier, at the end? It is, of course, more interesting to write about "lytsars" than about Vanya the Lapotnik. A very closed war. Apparently, from the point of view of subsequent "Germans" - the heroes were "not correct".
    1. +9
      17 January 2020 11: 30
      Quote: pmkemcity
      Apparently, from the point of view of subsequent "Germans" - the heroes were "not correct".

      After all, the "subsequent Germans" are vile - they did not forget to tell about Menshikov, Sheremetyev, Repnin, Golitsyn, Volkonsky, and the names of the true heroes were vilely hidden from us. It's time to reveal the truth. These are the names, not all, really, but already something.
      Heinrich von der Goltz
      Gebhard Karlovich Floog
      Ludwig Nicholas von Allart
      James Daniel Bruce
      Samuel Renzel
      Otto Rudolph von and zu Schauenburg
      Karl Ewald von Renne
      Christian Felix Baur
      Johann Gainskin
      Ivan Ilyich Skoropadsky
      Is justice restored? Shame on the enemy?
      1. 0
        17 January 2020 11: 43
        Do not juggle. You perfectly understood what I wanted to say, including referring to the "Germans" as representatives of post-Petrine historical science.
        And developing the topic you raised, I note that on one "background" there were many-new, -other and, undoubtedly, -ko.
        1. +8
          17 January 2020 12: 19
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Do not distort.

          Not in the least.
          I just got tired of this stupid mantra about "Germans" who rewrote our history. These "Germans" must be grateful for what they have done for Russian science (and, first of all, for historical science), including for the fact that they have trained and educated such an iconic figure in this very Russian science as M .AT. Lomonosov. Who were his teachers? Georg Wolfgang Kraft, Christian von Wolf, Johann Friedrich Henckel, a Russian teacher (V.E.Adodurov) he had only in literature.
          The notorious Miller, Bayer and Schlozer objectively and impartially they studied the corpus of sources available to them on the history of Russia, systematized it for the first time and generalized the information obtained in their works, giving impetus to the development of historical science in Russia, for which I also thank you very much. In some ways they could be mistaken, but there is no bias in their writings. Of all the historians of that time, the exclusively mentioned was Lomonosov, who, in fact, was not a historian either.
          Quote: pmkemcity
          on one "background" there were many-new, -other and, undoubtedly, -ko.

          Approximately in the same ratio as in my commentary, if we take the highest command link, where more than half were still foreigners. Soldiers and junior officers - there, of course, the ratio is different.
          1. -2
            17 January 2020 12: 31
            There is no reason to disagree with you. But, nevertheless, in the program "In the world of animals", I would like to see a fire fox or some kind of warbler, instead of a platypus eaten by cats. There is no history of Russia. Even less history of China. There is no such subcontinent as India at all. There is only the history of the West as the kidnapper of the "holy grail" from Israel.
            1. +7
              17 January 2020 13: 12
              Quote: pmkemcity
              I'd like to see a fire fox

              And this is more a matter of personal taste. From my point of view, knowledge is always useful, especially since in this case the Swedes are direct participants in our native history. How can we appreciate the importance and honor of victory over Karl if we only know about him that he was defeated by Peter?
              So from my side to the author "respect and respect".
              1. 0
                17 January 2020 13: 27
                So you picked up the words of tolerance - respect and respect! And that and that! A low bow to the Swedes, our teachers. But, even lower bow to those students who have surpassed their teachers.
          2. +7
            17 January 2020 12: 50
            Ivan Ilyich Skoropadsky. Is justice restored? Shame on the enemy?

            Mikhail, if we take Skoropadsky (as a non-German!), I would also add Tatar and Caucasian surnames. Representatives of the local nobility also fought with dignity. The father of General Grigory Yusupov was a Tatar murza. The Spanish ambassador wrote about the general: Prince Yusupov, a general from infantry, of Tatar origin, whose sibling was at that time still a Mohammedan; a good man, well-served and well-known; he was covered in wounds; He loved foreigners, was very attached to his sovereign, - in a word, was one of those people who go along the straight road...
            And under Narva, Tsarevich Imeretinsky fell into Swedish captivity, But, again, this is our general! soldier
            Samuel Renzel

            Hero of Fraustadt. After the battle, Renschild ordered to slaughter our prisoners; and Renzel brought the remains of our corps to Russia. More than a worthy military man in our history!

            this, for an hour ... did not Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov love him? wink didn’t like that he was ready to strangle? drinks
            1. +3
              17 January 2020 13: 28
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              Hero of Fraustadt.

              Yes, he proved himself there. He took command in such a situation that others would prefer to shoot themselves, stand in battle, break through the encirclement, and lead the soldiers to their own. And near Poltava was not lost. Unconditional decoration of the Russian military pantheon.
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              Didn't Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov love him?

              I don’t know about that. Lomonosov died when Schloetzer was 30 years old, so it is unlikely. Lomonosov and Miller did not seem to get along.
  5. BAI
    17 January 2020 09: 09
    about 6000 people were killed or wounded, 2673 soldiers and 703 officers were captured.

    Even if we assume that there are only soldiers among those killed, then you get one officer for 10 soldiers. And if you look
    2673 soldiers and 703 officers captured
    , then it turns out 1 officer for 4 soldiers. Not too many officers?
    1. +7
      17 January 2020 11: 33
      Quote: BAI
      Not too many officers?

      They tried to take the officers alive. The soldier is not very.
      1. VLR
        17 January 2020 11: 42
        Yes, here in Narva, for example, in 1704, after the assault, there was such bitterness that Peter had to stop his soldiers with a sword in their hands. And in the battle of Poltava, only officers were guaranteed to be taken prisoner, and the soldier - to whom as luck would have it.
        1. +7
          17 January 2020 11: 45
          And in the battle of Poltava, only officers were guaranteed to be taken prisoner, and the soldier - to whom as luck would have it.

          Prior to this, Renschild stained himself a war crime - he interrupted our prisoners at Fraustadt. By and large, he had to be pulled up after he was captured near Poltava ... angry
          1. +7
            17 January 2020 13: 49
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            had to pull up

            I would have done that, honestly. But then they looked at it differently. For Peter, as well as for his entire entourage, this Renschild was more his own than the Russian soldiers destroyed by him. And they don’t hang their own. In fact, in the social hierarchy of that time, Renschild occupied a place only one step lower than members of reigning families.
            1. +2
              20 January 2020 10: 16
              In fact, in the social hierarchy of that time, Renschild occupied a place only one step lower than members of the reigning families.

              The Doctor and I once argued, and came to a consensus that "to know" (or "top business") is a non-national and non-confessional concept. Whatever happens, they will agree among themselves ... well, almost always! hi
              I would have done that, honestly.

              Yeah .... and I would too .. angry
              1. +1
                20 January 2020 11: 41
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                Yeah .... and I would too ..

                Therefore, such an opportunity is unlikely to ever be given to us ...
        2. BAI
          17 January 2020 19: 54
          Even if the soldiers were not taken prisoner. I considered such an option:
          it turns out one officer for 10 soldiers.

          There are still a lot of officers.
        3. 0
          17 January 2020 23: 45
          Quote: VlR
          in 1704, after the assault, such bitterness was that Peter had to stop his soldiers with a sword in their hands

          Well, the siege was serious. Horn stubbornly resisted. Brick bastions could not resist modern weapons (at that time) ... all the same, they were many years old.
          Yes, and starving .. But this is the Swedes. Resistant and disciplined.
          And the assailants lost a lot. (In general, in the Baltic states during the assault on the fortresses of the Swedes, there were many who died, and grief for the defeated was provided in the form of violence)
          Nothing. As far as I remember, Peter appointed Menshikov as commandant and ordered him to establish order. He quickly pointed (probably also violence)
          Of course, the attackers went into a phase of intoxication and violence (robbery and rape). Well, and the killings.
          Under Poltava, they were already accustomed to capturing the Swedes. The stage of tough confrontation with an unclear end is long over. And from prisoners to adjutants they were already taken prisoner.
  6. +7
    17 January 2020 10: 15
    Thanks to Valery for an interesting article. hi
    I read it and could not get rid of the impression that the history of this war was a history of continuous betrayals on either side. Take at least the same Bour - slammed someone in a duel and ran to the enemy, whom he later served faithfully. And the rest were no better, somehow they had something simple with it at that time. request
    1. +5
      17 January 2020 10: 47
      People had a slightly different mindset: classical nationalism and total wars were still far away. Professional soldiers exchanged 5-6 armies for service and nothing particularly strange or shameful was seen in this. Even in the Seven Years' War quite often there were similar cases, although more by coincidence: remember the same Blucher: he began his military career, fighting in the ranks of the Swedish army against the Prussians ..
      1. +7
        17 January 2020 10: 56
        In general, I have the feeling that there was no "thinking" there either, everything went on the level of primitive instincts: to devour, survive and have sex. True, even now people have not changed much, but still they do not rush so sharply in the eyes. hi
        1. +4
          17 January 2020 11: 20
          I disagree, there were quite clear guidelines: an oath to the suzerain, not to the country, general corporate solidarity of the "sword" nobles, a certain code of honor and rules + war by relatively small armies of professionals. This, of course, concerned the officer corps. They could completely let go on the "word of honor". Although in practice there were, of course, the most diverse cases.
        2. +6
          17 January 2020 11: 26
          There was no "thinking" there, everything went on the level of primitive instincts: to devour, survive and have.

          You are too harsh. Indeed, then the question was of the biological survival of the individual. Let me remind you that only 50 years before this ended the Thirty Years and Eighty Years War. Plus, the hungry years, when residents of almost every country practiced leaving children in the forest because of the inability to feed. In Russia, it was not easier. Tax, righteousness, sovereign duties. There was one paradigm - I want to live.
          1. +7
            17 January 2020 11: 52
            No harshness, Denis. hi
            The question of biological survival has always been, and now is, more relevant. For:
            ... and now people have not really changed ...
            1. +4
              17 January 2020 11: 54
              Now, in my opinion, no. Well, I hope so, at least. Now the higher steps of the Maslow pyramid are still more relevant. Practicality has become less cynical, etc.
              1. +3
                17 January 2020 15: 21
                Practicality has become less cynical

                Oh, no matter how ...
                1. +4
                  17 January 2020 15: 40
                  Well, maybe I'm wrong. Just visiting Nairobi and Iquitos I thought: "But three or four hundred years ago this was in Moscow." I would like to think that social evolution does play a role.
              2. +3
                17 January 2020 23: 20
                Quote: Engineer
                Practicality has become less cynical, etc.

                More artificial, due to more virtual (less related to physical survival) rules of the game, but in no way, no less cynical.
        3. +7
          17 January 2020 11: 42
          Quote: Sea Cat
          there was no "thinking"

          There was thinking, but it was, so to speak, "corporate", when nationality is not important, but professional skill is important. The captain did not care who owned his ship, the general - what language the soldiers spoke, the merchant - who minted the coin, etc. And they swore allegiance, in the end, not to the country, but to the monarch.
          1. +4
            17 January 2020 16: 20
            The most striking example of self-identification and national awareness is to the Cossacks and peasants!
            “Look at Basurman, but is baptized in our own way?” (C)
            "Well miserable cross yourself?" (C)
            Moreover, by “Cossacks” it is necessary to understand free and “hunting” people who, due to the nature of their activity or place of residence, have constantly faced the problem of identifying “their own, alien”.
            Is it "drinking vodka" at the household level?
            Or soldier’s - “brothers Slavs”!
            Russia during the time of Peter was painfully worried about the consequences of Nikon's reform. Just the break of self-consciousness, when “how do you believe” began to fade into the background, before “what language you speak”! It was with the early Peter that the idiom “brothers Slavs” began to emerge, which has been the leitmotif with us for three centuries !!!
            1. +7
              17 January 2020 17: 55
              which has been the leitmotif with us for three centuries !!!
              Aha, and a heavy burden fell on the shoulders of the Russian people! For when the "brothers" sucks, they immediately remember about the "great Slavic brotherhood", when everything is fine, they disown us (up to anathema)!
              And we have been running around with the stupid idea of ​​a God-bearing people for 300 years. One more "compliment" was added a hundred years ago - we became "internationalists".
              1. +5
                17 January 2020 18: 22
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                And for 300 years now we have been rushing around with the stupid idea of ​​a God-bearing people.

                Chew, Anton!
                How can we forget that since the time of the boreal world we are such? Who first captured the fire? Who invented the wheel? Who picked up the first stick? In whose veins does Aryan blood flow most densely? Who, finally, are the direct descendants of the White Gods?
                And you are here about 300 years ... wassat laughing
                But seriously, the Russians are the most numerous people among the Slavs. It would be strange that, having realized this fact, the Russians would not try to claim the leading role in the Slavic world, having appropriated the title of the "elder brother" of the Slavic peoples. The Poles could have been in our place, but it didn't work out. And they cannot forgive us for this, and they probably cannot. smile
                And to be internationalists is our urgent need. Otherwise, a multinational state cannot survive. In the same way, how not to survive all Estonia, Israel, Poland and other small mono-ethnic states without the cultivation of terry nationalism.
                1. +4
                  17 January 2020 18: 49
                  You know, Mikhail, but I somehow did not notice "terry nationalism" in Israel, except for the "neophytes", from "our former", and even then, not always.
                  Who first captured the fire? Who invented the wheel? Who picked up the first stick? In whose veins does Aryan blood flow most densely? Who, finally, are the direct descendants of the White Gods?
                  1. Russian Neanderthals
                  2. Russian ancient Egyptians
                  3. Russian Australopithecus
                  4. In Russian Indians
                  5. Russian Incas
                  1. +6
                    17 January 2020 19: 25
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    did not notice "terry nationalism" in Israel

                    I don’t know, I haven’t been to Israel ... But our Israeli colleagues here on the site no, no, and they demonstrate this very nationalism from time to time ... However, if they do not protect themselves from the outside world, then in the form in which they exist now, you cannot save yourself. They can be understood. In part. smile
                    Yes, even if you do not take Israel (although I still insist smile ), a number of small mono-national states cultivating a purely nationalist policy can be continued for a long time. Nationalism is a kind of protest against globalization. People think that they preserve their "self", there, the purity of blood, folk customs ... In fact, they preserve only capital and exclusively for those who have it. Roughly speaking, it all boils down to slogans like "buy kvass, not Coca-Cola", "eat pancakes, not hamburgers."
                    1. +6
                      17 January 2020 19: 49
                      . But our Israeli colleagues here on the site no, no, and they demonstrate this very nationalism periodically ...
                      "Oh, I beg you, Misha! Forget about these shlimazlov! Well, they are not Jews, then they are jids!"laughing
                      1. +5
                        17 January 2020 20: 23
                        That's because of you, the Jews and us, the Jews do not like ...

                        I don’t remember who said, but I like ... smile
                      2. +4
                        17 January 2020 20: 42
                        Michael, I apologize terribly, but this is a standard xenophobic trap. To my great regret, right now it worked for you.
                        Even 90 years ago, Bessarabian Jews were offended when they were called Jews: "What kind of Jews are we? We are jids !!!"
                      3. +4
                        17 January 2020 20: 46
                        And I just googled to find out whom I quoted smile
                        Iosif Raskin, "Encyclopedia of the Hooligan Orthodox".
                        In every nation there are scum who disgrace their people with all their behavior. How often the Jews themselves contribute to the manifestation of anti-Semitism by their behavior! Once upon a time in my youth, I came up with this phrase:
                        - Because of you Jews, we Jews do not like us!

                      4. +3
                        17 January 2020 21: 03
                        Ha! Somehow, in a distant foreign country, he stood over the mortal body of a compatriot who was moving away from a knockout, while keeping the other from mechanical influences. At the same time, the latter did not leave educational work: "That's why, weirdo, we, Russians, are not loved everywhere!"
                      5. +2
                        17 January 2020 21: 09
                        Damn, Anton! I was always sure that we Russians are loved everywhere!
                        The world will not be the same for me now ... sad
                        The world is pain ... I only now realized that in my whole life I had beaten only the Russians' faces ... In any case, they all spoke Russian. I'm Russophobe, right? Was the operator right? belay
                      6. +3
                        17 January 2020 21: 15
                        Although no, I remembered ... There was one case with Caucasians ... Phew ... relieved ...
                      7. +3
                        17 January 2020 21: 34
                        I also had it. They parted, thanks to Jesus of Nazareth, they also revere him.
                      8. +3
                        17 January 2020 21: 20
                        Michael! I’ll tell you a terrible secret: they don’t like Russians anywhere !!! If Andrei (Operator) begins to pump his Russian rights somewhere in Biryulyovo, he will rake in full, first from the local Central Asian diaspora, and then at the police station from their co-religionists in uniform.
                      9. +5
                        18 January 2020 07: 52
                        Anton !!! We say very insulting words. In Biryulyovo, you can * swing your Russian rights as much as you like *. As such * the Central Asian community * behaves quietly. In my house * guests * are not observed at all. Yes, and in the police in based on the Slavic contingent. So I'm sorry, but with this, everything is fine with us. hi
                      10. +3
                        18 January 2020 08: 05
                        Sergei! I apologize! I can replace Biryulyovo with Kupchino. hi
                      11. +4
                        18 January 2020 08: 15
                        No, that’s not the point. It’s just before the closure of * vegetable vegetables * in West Biryulyovo, but there were problems with this contingent. After the well-known event, when the people got up and made a noise, they closed it. Now it’s quiet there, well, as of course there are enough of them, but they behave decently. We, in Vostochny, didn’t have such problems. Yes, thank God, things don’t come from compact living. hi
                      12. +2
                        18 January 2020 18: 56
                        Anton, buddy! It's all the little things! But let me congratulate you, as a resident of the City on the Neva, on a memorable date! On 18 January 1943 the blockade of Leningrad was interrupted !!!! Glory to our heroic grandfathers!
                      13. +2
                        18 January 2020 19: 31
                        Thank you, Sergey !!! I ran around and forgot something request But they reminded me already.
                      14. +3
                        18 January 2020 19: 38
                        It's amazing that there is no article on the VO about this! Not all the same you need a heading * Calendar of memorable dates *. hi
                      15. +2
                        18 January 2020 19: 40
                        Probably yes. But with this question to Smirnov.
                      16. +4
                        18 January 2020 19: 56
                        Well, the words of a wonderful song!
                        "Let's drink to those who commanded companies, who died in the snow.
                        Who made their way to Leningrad swamps
                        breaking the enemy's throat! "
                      17. +2
                        18 January 2020 20: 49
                        "One hundred twenty-five blockade grams,
                        With fire and blood in half "(C)
                2. +3
                  17 January 2020 19: 36
                  And being internationalists is our urgent need
                  Within their own state - probably, yes, with restrictions. And the support of all sorts of black-assed monkeys is, excuse me, past me. I had enough "spots of solidarity" in my pioneer childhood. Collection of which, by the way, alternated with "zinc" from Afgan.
            2. +7
              17 January 2020 17: 58
              The problem of identifying "friend or foe" in human society deserves, probably, a multivolume study, starting from the Stone Age and ending with modern society. Here and estates with castes, and property stratification, and professional guilds, and confessional differences, and family ties and ethnic, and in some cases, even racial affiliation. We also do not forget about personal likes and dislikes based on some subconscious reasons.
              Much also depends on the environment. If in some African jungle, among exclusively blacks, a Canadian sailor and a Belarusian primary school teacher (both Caucasians) meet, they, with a high degree of probability, will immediately recognize their own in each other. If the same meeting happens on the street, say, in a cafe in Buenos Aires, the chances that they will distinguish each other from the rest are much less. In Minsk or Montreal, if they notice each other, they will immediately enter the category of "alien".
              Who the Russian nobleman, aristocrat, merchant, priest or peasant considered his time in the era under consideration is also an interesting question, especially if we take representatives of the same estates in, for example, Poland, Spain and, say, England for comparison. Here put them all in one room and see how they break into groups. For some reason, it seems to me that both then and now the breakdown into groups will not occur on ethnic grounds. smile
              1. +6
                17 January 2020 18: 22
                Bravo, Michael! Just bravo !!!
              2. +2
                17 January 2020 19: 22
                Who the Russian nobleman, aristocrat, merchant, priest or peasant considered his time in the era under consideration is also an interesting question, especially if we take representatives of the same estates in, for example, Poland, Spain and, say, England for comparison. Here put them all in one room and see how they break into groups. For some reason, it seems to me that both then and now the breakdown into groups will not occur on ethnic grounds.

                I am 100% sure that they will break up precisely on a national basis. Although formally this will be covered not only by a national factor. Russians will remember the tsar and Orthodoxy, etc.
                In general, England, Germany, Spain-Castile since the New Age, and even earlier it is a terrible xenophobia and a conviction of its superiority and messianism. Smaller (by population) countries, this also applies - Poland, Portugal. Will the Spanish hidalgo be closer to the English gentry than the Spanish peasant? Not a thousand times. He can despise the Spanish peasant, but he hates the English indiscriminately.
                1. +4
                  17 January 2020 19: 37
                  Quote: Engineer
                  I am 100% sure that they will break up precisely on a national basis.

                  I envy such confidence. I have it manifested extremely rarely. smile
                  Perhaps you are right in terms of don and sir, they would not be friends. But if Herr and Monsieur, as well as a gentleman from Russia join them, it is quite possible that the sir (or someone else, it doesn’t matter) will be killed by common forces, and then they will be friends among themselves, but not with their peasants.
                  1. +2
                    17 January 2020 19: 42
                    The gentleman from Russia in the pre-Petrine era will compete with the Polish pan for obstinacy, if he loses, then on a thin one, on points). The post-Petrine era was more complicated - there were also humanistic tendencies uniting the estates within the framework of one nation of the current and the attacks of Anglomania, Franomania, etc.
                    1. +3
                      17 January 2020 20: 36
                      I now talk more about the general principle.
                      The specific nationality of the characters or the era from which they are taken are not so important. Take the same characters from the XIV century., XVI, or XXI - with small nuances due to the specific political situation and personal characteristics of each, the result, in my opinion, should be generally the same. They miss interests, not nationality.
                      Although, modeling a specific situation can also be interesting. But it is rather a work for a playwright. smile
    2. +1
      17 January 2020 22: 24
      And now it is, dear Sea Cat ... At all times, the front line is a “passage yard”. Going back and forth is in the order of things. ,, Nakosyachil ,, here- moved there. And in general ... There are no motives! In the 60s, traitors were tried in the USSR, who, along with the Nazis, served German cars - the so-called murderers. There was such a ,, child ,, (during the Second World War, at the time of the betrayal he was 16 years old) who went to work, for the glory of the Third Reich, because ... ,, he liked the uniform ,,. Hard work was for ,, poor fellow ,,. Zherty from a fright ... maral a car body. They cleaned it all ... in a beautiful shape. And how many so-called ,, Heavy, “worked in the Wehrmacht by sleds, sappers, drivers ,, Such ,, milagi, gostarbeiters ,, ... There were pilots of the Soviet Army who, seduced by the Western way of life, flew to the West in the victorious 45th.
      After the end of the war in Afghanistan, not all prisoners who had been captured by the “spirits” at one time wanted to return to the Union ... And there were a lot of bloodsuckers on them and ,, changed their shoes, they, ideologically, already thoroughly. Fought, shoulder to shoulder, with the Mujahideen against the SA yesterday's pioneers. It was not necessary to educate Brezhnev’s ,, Small Earth ,,, ,, Renaissance ,,, ,, Integer ,, ... VOID does not work NEVER! Neither in the XVIII century, nor in the XX, nor in the XXI. In Chechnya, on the side of the “Dudaevites,” Ukrainians fought. Orthodox Slavs?. From the territory of Russia in 2014, Russian citizens of military age voluntarily went not only to New Russia, but also to Kiev. If he, little man, without a King in his head, what will you explain to him, what will you prove to him? A person does not have a clear idea of ​​the Main thing - he will hang out like a famous subject in an ice hole. Especially if we are talking about Little Russia, Ukraine. The most powerful influence of the West! Then - Sweden, Turkey, Poland, now - the USA, Great Britain, Germany, Poland ... Russia itself must be strong, CONCEPTUAL, devoted to its Tradition. Not to globalist (,, satanic ,,, ,, alien ,,,, masonic ,,,, sorosyatinsky, etc.) ,, toys ,, play, but to be good, solid, solid, Third Rome, ,. ,, ... And the people will stretch ,,. And traitors and transporters will become a rarity
  7. -1
    17 January 2020 10: 30
    Karl’s self-confidence reached the point where on September 6th he drove alone to Dresden, where he appeared to his mortal enemy Augustus the Strong, forcing him to show him the fortifications. Even the elector's mistress, the countess demanded the arrest of the Swedish king, but Augustus did not dare, and Karl safely returned to the retinue awaiting him.

    «I relied on my happy fate ” - so he explained his behavior in a few days

    Jinxed ..... Yes
  8. +4
    17 January 2020 10: 40
    The Elector's mistress Countess Koz-l.
    Countess Kozel would have sounded better, or Kozelsk. In a pinch, Goat.
    Although, the big question is who was the goat there.
    1. +4
      17 January 2020 15: 01
      Considering the number of Augustus the Strong's mistresses, then ooo-her-what a "little goat"!
    2. 0
      18 January 2020 00: 00
      Quote: sivuch
      The Elector's mistress Countess Koz-l.
      Countess Kozel would have sounded better, or Kozelska

      Countess Anna Constance von Kozel, nee von Brockdorf, married von Hoym
      When Anna herself divorced her husband, the emperor granted her the title of Countess Kozelskaya (1706).
      Kozel (German: Kosel) is a commune in Germany, in the land of Schleswig-Holstein.
      This very beautiful woman was an attorney in the affairs of her king.

      I add that she certainly could demand. But the king did not always do as the favorite wanted. She herself went to Karl before the siege of Narva (second time). With a letter. Well, about separate negotiations.
      A good combination of knowledge of languages ​​(French international) and beauty. True, Karl Th then after Atalia Desmont lost interest in beautiful virgins .. He sent his entire testosterone to military affairs ..
      Countess Kozelska graduated (in Polish) very poorly .. Accused of treason.
  9. +6
    17 January 2020 10: 53
    At the same time, Peter I, as they said, “took care of people less than horses,” and Charles XII - “did not take care of either one”

    In the army of Genghis Khan, Karl would not rise above the centurion laughing
    “There is no commander braver than Yesutai,” said Genghis Khan. “Not a single commander has such qualities as he does.” He does not get tired of long trips. He never feels either hunger or thirst. But he thinks that his warriors are also distinguished by the same qualities. Therefore, he is not suitable as a great military leader.
  10. +7
    17 January 2020 11: 23
    Did I understand correctly that the Russian army of equal (and sometimes smaller) numbers in front of Poltava repeatedly kicked the asses of the super-duper Scandinavians, led by Karla himself?
    1. 0
      18 January 2020 00: 04
      Quote: Operator
      that the Russian army of equal (and sometimes smaller) numbers in front of Poltava repeatedly kicked the asses of the super-duper Scandinavians, led by Karla himself?

      well, starving, without food and gunpowder, tired and exhausted at the head of a self-confident king, who thought he would win anytime, anywhere ..
      Especially after the Forest when the Swedish corps did not suffer as the main army. But there are nuances (no one knew the size of the enemy).
      The siege of Poltava showed that the Swedes are toothless. Their position is akin to Narva of the 1700 model for the Russians.
  11. +2
    17 January 2020 11: 23
    September 13 (24), 1706 the Swedish king forced the Saxon Elector Augustus to sign the Altranstedt Peace Treaty
    Karl appointed Stanislav Leszczynski as the new king of Poland.
    Carl XII appointed Stanislav Leshchinsky king two years before the world of Altranstedt in 1704.
    1. VLR
      17 January 2020 11: 30
      But before Altranstedt, Augustus was, after all, the legitimate king. Stanislav, despite the will of Charles XII, was up to this time, rather, a contender.
      1. +4
        17 January 2020 12: 25
        October 4, 1705 Stanislav Leshchinsky was officially crowned king of Poland in the cathedral church of St. John the Baptist in Warsaw by the Archbishop of Lviv.
        Therefore, in 1706, on the part of Augustus, it was not about abdication, but about recognition of Leshchinsky as king.
  12. -1
    17 January 2020 13: 36
    On account of the Battle of Lesnaya, there is still no clarity: Levengaupt who led? "Real choice" Swedes or any "rabble" in the form of local Poles, Balts and others recruited in the surrounding regions?
  13. +2
    17 January 2020 17: 23
    Thank you Valery! Nice story!
  14. +2
    17 January 2020 21: 04
    Karl 12 was a "good COLONEL" but a "bad COLONEL". Karl 12 "... steadfastly endured all the hardships and hardships ...", but "did not see the field" - he did not realize the strategic situation.
  15. +1
    18 January 2020 08: 16
    How would you know what the Swedish king did in Europe? Who ruled the country in his absence? How did such a large army cross to Europe?
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  16. Ham
    18 January 2020 08: 36
    Karl was poorly educated and did not really understand geography ... that’s why he had little idea where and why he was going and leading his army ...
    well, also Mazepa's "friend" ... if you want to get into trouble - contact the Sumerians
    1. VLR
      18 January 2020 12: 26
      There was also an interesting story. Mazepa at the meeting flatteringly congratulated Karl on the fact that he was on the border of Asia. Karl “caught fire” and decided to “enter Swedish history” by adding “conquering” even a small piece of Asia to his track record. And even about Peter and the war
      I almost forgot with him. They barely convinced him that Asia was still far away. And then they reprimanded Mazepa to be more careful in expressions.
  17. Ham
    18 January 2020 12: 03
    recently re-read the book "The Diplomacy of Peter the Great" ...
    nothing changes in Europe - as there were two-faced lycimers and remained!
    King of Poland and Elector of Saxony August - this was still the beast that violated the treaties three minutes after their conclusion ... even Mazepa against the Europeans was white and fluffy
  18. +3
    18 January 2020 13: 19
    Quote: Σελήνη
    starving, without food and gunpowder, tired and exhausted

    And the Russians are just like picking themselves up, with a huge supply of ham, buns and preserves, barrels of gunpowder, transported exclusively by horse-drawn transport and without fail visiting spa salons laughing
  19. 0
    20 January 2020 12: 24
    Thank you Valery for an interesting series of articles, a question for you: as far as I remember, vaguely, quite large contingents of the traditional noble cavalry took part in the battle at Lesnaya and played a rather important role in the battle: was this or am I confusing something?
  20. 0
    April 5 2020 20: 15
    The genius of Charles the 12th as a military leader is greatly exaggerated. Including due to skillful disinformation, the beginning of which was laid by him or his headquarters. Karl himself considered the battle of Golovchin his best victory. Allegedly, having lost 200 killed and 1000 wounded, the Swedes killed 6 thousand Russians. On this topic, I wrote a research article "The Swedes' Campaign in Poltava: the Battle of Golovchina", where it is clearly proved that the Swedes have irrevocably lost more than 1,5 thousand soldiers. There is also a similar research article about the Battle of Dobry, where it is proved that Peter correctly estimated the losses of the Swedes in it. There is an article entitled "The March to Poltava: How Many Swedish Soldiers Have Lost Their Heads in Russia", where the strength of the Swedish army and its losses during the "Russian campaign" are conclusively estimated. The Swedes, both then and now, significantly underestimate the number of both.

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar people (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned), Kirill Budanov (included to the Rosfinmonitoring list of terrorists and extremists)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev Lev; Ponomarev Ilya; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; Mikhail Kasyanov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"