Operation Z: The sky is on fire

Operation Z: The sky is on fire

Air battle over the city in a painting by a Chinese artist


Continuation of the story of the feat of Soviet volunteer pilots in the war for the independence of China. See the beginning in the previous article: "Stalin's Falcons in the Sky of China".

Fighters


Our fighter aviation in China, which consisted of the then-modern I-16 and I-15bis aircraft, the hardest part of the war fell. Aircraft from the first hours of arrival at the front airfields entered into an unequal battle with superior enemy forces. Having lost their commander, V. Kurdyumov, the first group entered the battle on November 21, 1937. In a battle with 20 Japanese, 7 of our I-16s over Nanking were shot down without loss by 3 Japanese aircraft (2 I-96 fighters and 1 bomber). The next day, a group of G.M. Prokofieva won her first victory in the battle of our six I-16s against six I-96s. On November 24, 1937, six I-96s, accompanying a group of eight bombers, were damaged by three of the six intercepting I-16s, and the Japanese themselves won two victories.

From the memoirs of Colonel Aviation D.A. Kudymova:

The Japanese hung over the city without a break ... They made five to six flights a day. We took off in groups of five or six aircraft against 50 enemy bombers and 20-30 fighters ... We were saved only by arrogance, resourcefulness and complete confusion in the sky, which was densely packed with enemy aircraft, in a hurry to drop their bombs on the city and clear the way for a new armada of bombers ...

On December 1, 1937, the fighters defending the Nanjing airfield shot down or damaged about 10 bombers and 4 fighters. Two of our I-16s were shot down, their pilots escaped by parachute. On December 2, Soviet fighter pilots shot down 6 bombers without loss over Nanking. On December 3, our volunteers shot down 4 Japanese aircraft.

The Japanese Type 96 carrier-based fighter (Mitsubishi A5M) had an advantage in the horizontal plane and always tried to impose its tactics on combat, but our fighters moved the battle to a vertical plane, where they were in a better position. When attacking, they left the “candle" up - such a maneuver saved many lives.


Japanese deck fighter type 96 (Mitsubishi A5M)

Our aviation veterans told why an attack from above is more dangerous for an aircraft than shelling from below. It turns out that an incendiary bullet, which hit the gas tank from above, ignites gasoline vapors, and when it enters the tank from below, it does not have time to set fire to cold gasoline. Therefore, it was so important for them in battle to be above the enemy’s aircraft.

Aviation Lieutenant-General Hero of the Soviet Union A.S. Blagoveshchensky said that their losses were daily then. For himself, he believed that from this trip he was not destined to return alive, but he was mistaken.

So that you could imagine the conditions of the battle, I’ll say that there was no radio communication between the planes (the radio stations were dismantled at the factory “to reduce the weight of the vehicles”, but I think that it was due to the secrecy of the operation). Management issues were addressed at the link level. The commander’s plane gave all the previously agreed signals, and the arrow depicted on the ground of the airfield indicated the likely direction of the enemy’s appearance. There weren’t enough airplanes, the engines themselves increased the working life up to 120 hours or more instead of the prescribed 100 hours. They flew until thick smoke fell from the nozzles. Technicians did not leave the faulty aircraft until it was repaired. In the field, they restored radiators punched by bullets, straightened bent screws. We spent the night right there, under the wing, forgetting about the snakes, scorpions, and phalanges that lived here from fatigue. Due to the lack of air shooters, the technicians themselves replaced them. They were jokingly called "winged techniques" or "flying backwards." They sometimes shared the bitter fate of their crew. So the Japanese gunner Domnin, who jumped with a parachute from a burning Security Council, was executed by a parachute. The gunner I. I. Alexandrenko was killed in an air battle, the technician A. Kurin was seriously injured in the abdomen.

During the Japanese offensive on Nanjing, an extraordinary incident occurred. Our pilot Zhukotsky could not take off until the technician fixed the engine of his aircraft. Mechanic Nikolsky tried his best. He managed, but the plane was single-seat, and in order to take the mechanic on board, he had to disconnect and discard the battery with the engine running, and squeeze the mechanics instead. So the two of them took off right in front of the advancing Japanese.

But our falcons did manage to “pull the feathers out of the tail” to the illustrious Japanese aces with red arrows painted on the fuselage and other “royal” paraphernalia. During interrogations, captured Japanese pilots behaved defiantly brazenly, not admitting their defeat. Their silk scarves were filled with hieroglyphs with calls for courage and courage, but this did not help them to avoid defeat.

From the memoirs of Colonel Aviation D.A. Kudymova about the battle in the sky over Nanchang in February 1938:

We are quickly getting closer. Blagoveshchensky with his link is aiming at the flagship bomber, my link is closing. Suddenly I notice the top three I-96 diving from the side of the sun. I give a signal to the followers - follow me - and abruptly turn around to attack fighters ...
Frontal attack. We diverge on the opposite courses on the verticals. A battle ensues. The main thing has been done: these will no longer interfere with Blagoveshchensky.

In that battle, Blagoveshchensky was lucky enough to bring down the “invincible”, judging by the lightning on the fuselage, the Japanese colonel. And Kudymov managed to get out of the burning fighter overturned during a hard landing “on the belly” in time. The runaway peasants took him prisoner, but when they saw the "security certificate", they brought him with an "escort" of the wounded man on a stretcher to the hospital. Blagoveshchensky also got it - a bullet struck on the side, but the armored back of a chair saved his life, upon examination of which they found traces of bullets flying in his back.


The attack of Chinese fighters on Japanese bombers

Fighters defended airfields and settlements from attacks by Japanese aircraft, many times superior in numbers. Fierce fighting took place in the sky over the city of Wuhan - the heart of Central China, which became the command center of the troops after the capture of the capital. Especially difficult for our pilots are three air battles of 1938, in which nearly a hundred Soviet volunteer pilots died. In the first battle of February 15, 12 Japanese aircraft were shot down. On the birthday of their emperor on April 29, the Japanese wanted to take revenge. An entire armada of Japanese aircraft flew bombing strategic objects of Hankou, but Chinese intelligence helped. Command of the Soviet volunteer pilots led by P.V. Rychagov learned about the impending raid and secretly relocated fighters from the Nanchang airfield to Hankou in advance, strengthening the group. More than a hundred aircraft from both sides participated in the battle, but the numerical superiority was for the first time in our favor. The sudden attack factor helped. He led the fighters into battle A.S. Blagoveshchensky, the first to meet the enemy air group. Battled Japanese fighters were unable to defend their bombers. Randomly dropping the bombs, they turned back. Separated and slow-moving, they became easy prey for our fighters. A group of bombers flying next turned around and began to retreat at the afterburner. The Japanese then lost 20 aircraft (8 bombers and 12 fighters), but we also missed two fighters. The holiday was disrupted, and the birthday of the Japanese emperor turned into mourning for the country. In a major battle on May 31, 1938, more than ten of our pilots died, but 7 enemy aircraft were shot down. On this day, near the city of Hankou, Anton Gubenko made his air ram, for which he was awarded the Chinese command with the Golden Order of the Republic of China and a special badge - “eagle in flight” (a sign of the pilot’s valor and heroism). He even managed to land his damaged plane with a bent propeller. When the ammunition ended, in the heat of battle, our falcons repeatedly shot down Japanese planes in a desperate ram.


Aerial ram of volunteer pilot Anton Gubenko

In August 1938, near 160 airplanes from both sides participated in an air battle near Hankou. The Japanese had a three-fold advantage - almost 120 aircraft against 40 Chinese. In that battle, many of our brave volunteer pilots died. Mortally wounded Ivan Gurov managed to land a damaged plane and died right in his cabin. And on August 12, 1938, when we raided Wuhan, 5 of our SB bombers were shot down. Of the 15 crew members, only 6 were saved who used a prolonged parachute jump.

Japanese airfields were now far from the front line, and to increase the flight range, their fighters took extra fuel in hanging tanks, which were dumped on the ground before the battle. Our fighter pilots noted that before the Japanese attack, they observed a silver “rain” from dumped tanks. The Japanese also dropped campaign leaflets stating that the Soviets allegedly sent bad planes and untrained pilots to China. After the losses incurred from our aircraft, Japan decided to provoke a violation of the border at Lake Hassan. The result was unexpected for them. Japanese aviation stopped making massive day raids, and flew only at night and in small groups.

Hero of the Soviet Union distinguished himself twice in the reflection of night raids. Suprun. One night, he personally saved the crews of the approaching aircraft when the generator was disabled and the airfield plunged into darkness. Stepan jumped into the car, drove into the airfield and spotlights illuminated the runway, showing pilots the path to salvation. He will become a Hero of the Soviet Union in 1940, but will die at the very beginning of the war with Germany.

According to the memoirs of the Hero of the Soviet Union, test pilot K.K. Kokkinaki:

Over Chongqing, Japanese bombers appeared, as a rule, on moonlit nights, when large landmarks were clearly visible on the ground. They flew in formation and, entering the coverage area of ​​our fighters, from time to time, at the command of the flagship, fired all planes in the direction of the most likely fighter attacks. The spectacle was spectacular. Like a giant fiery broom sweeping the starry sky.


Soviet volunteer pilots (from left to right): Pavel Rychagov, Nikolai Smirnov, Alexey Blagoveshchensky


Map of the main routes and war zones in China

Saboteurs


The Japanese clearly believed that all methods were good in war, and used their agents to carry out sabotage. Several pilot crews were poisoned by inhaling oxygen from cylinders at high altitude. Some felt unwell, others fell asleep and crashed like the crew of P. Panchenko. As a result of the investigation, it was found that something was added to the composition at a private oxygen filling station. The station was able to take control, and the "oxygen workers" the Chinese chopped off their heads. But there were sabotage at the airfields. The military transport "Douglas" caught fire in the air, taking to the Union of Volunteers, killing 22 people. TB-3 crashed in the mountains with 25 volunteers, and only two of them managed to survive. The ANT-9 passenger plane with stalled engines made an emergency landing in the desert.

Successfully knocked out in battle, the Japanese I-96 fighters with common forces managed to be repaired. G.N. Zakharov and A.S. Blagoveshchensky flew at them, evaluating flight qualities. Blagoveshchensky was later assigned to overtake the captured I-96 in the USSR, but during the flight the engine began to “sneeze”, and the plane nearly crashed. Aleksei Sergeyevich miraculously managed to land the plane in a swamp, and he survived a hard landing, but his face was severely damaged. Georgy Zakharov also failed to overtake his I-96, and during an emergency landing in the mountains, he broke his arm and leg. Everyone was inclined to think that Japanese saboteurs were operating, and a spy radio station was working somewhere in the rear. There were cases when they caught Japanese scouts among the aerodrome personnel. They gave signals to Japanese aviation with pocket lights at night. They were executed by cutting off their heads.


Looking through the lists of Soviet pilots who died in China, I found that almost half of them died not in military operations, but in air crashes. The pilots themselves believe that it was enough to add a little sugar to the fuel so that the engine at a height would smoke and stall. Apparently, this is how the Japanese avenged us for their defeat. In connection with these tragedies, there was a ban on the use of aircraft, and volunteers were sent home by rail, waiting in the tunnel for Japanese air raids, and where on trucks through mountain passes. There were almost a thousand kilometers to our base in Lanzhou, and then they still had a long flight from Lanzhou to Alma-Ata.


Loading bomber TB-3, converted for transportation of passengers

3665 Soviet volunteers came to defend Chinese soil, including about 2500 pilots and technicians. More than 240 Soviet pilots died in China, which is twice as much as our losses in the sky of Spain. The fate of the missing Soviet pilots remained unknown. Mass graves and monuments to our soldiers are found all over China. Some of them later had to be protected by the local population from destruction during the time of their Cultural Revolution. The older generation of Chinese people with great warmth belongs to our heroes, who brought freedom and independence to their people.


Monuments to Soviet volunteer pilots who died in Wuhan, Nanjing, Changchun ...

Hero of China Cooley-Shen


Volunteer Pilot G.A. Kulishenko, who commanded a group of DB-3 bombers, died during his impudent raid on enemy lines. He had to land his damaged car on the water of the Yangtze River, but the wounded he did not manage to escape. The Chinese called his group "air tigers." His name became very popular in China, an article was published about his exploits in the central newspaper "People's Daily". They composed verses and songs about him, wrote about his exploit in school books. At the grave of Grigory Kulishenko, Chinese volunteers took an oath to mercilessly smash the American aggressors, leaving for Korea.


Monument to the commander of the DB-3 bomber group pilot Kulishenko Grigory Akimovich

Touching words in Russian are carved on the monument to Soviet pilots in Wuhan:

The blood of the fallen Soviet volunteer pilots and the Chinese people merged for the liberation of China from imperialist oppression. The memory of Soviet volunteer pilots always lives on the Chinese people.


In the Beijing Chaoyang Park in 2015, the sculpture "Soviet Falcon" was depicted, depicting a young hero pilot wearing gloves

The feat of Soviet pilots forever remained in the memory of the people of China. Subsequently, the "Stalinist falcons", who were destined to fly to their homeland, taught the combat skill of young pilots, forged a victory in the crucible of a terrible war with fascism. Fourteen Soviet pilots defending the sky of China were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union: F.P. Polynin, V.V. Zverev, A.S. Blagoveshchensky, O.N. Borovikov, A.A. Gubenko, S.S. Gaidarenko, T.T. Khryukin, G.P. Kravchenko, S.V. Slyusarev, S.P. Suprun, M.N. Marchenkov, E.M. Nikolaenko, I.P. Selivanov, I.S. Sukhov. They were already practicing their own tactics of future air battles with the enemy in China. Many of them will lead aviation units during the years of World War II, will become famous military leaders and will be awarded high government awards. Later, they will tell in memoirs about their military path, which began with the Chizha, Swallow and Katyush in the skies of Spain and China.

List of used literature

Yu.V. Miracles. A feat in the sky of China.
F.P. Polynin. Performing international duty.
P.T. Sobin. The air bridge of Alma-Ata - Lanzhou.
A. G. Rytov. In battling China.
M. G. Machin. Chinese routes (From the notebook of a bomber pilot).
D.A. Kudymov. "Kings of heaven" lose their crowns.
A. 3. Dushin. To the aid of the Chinese people.
N. G. Kozlov. In the sky of China.
F.I. Dobysh. Heading east.
J.P. Prokofiev. Protecting the Chinese sky.
A.I. Pushkin. Moscow - Hankow (notes of a bomber pilot).
I.P. Selivanov. Memory of the heart.
S.V. Slyusarev. In air battles over China.
A.K. Korchagin. Transbaikal people in fighting China.
V. D. Zemlyansky. For you, Swin.
K.K. Kokkinaki. Shield and sword.
S. Ya. Fedorov. Unforgettable pages stories.
Author:
Photos used:
migavia.com, facebook.com, aftershock.news, menswork.ru, coollib.com
Articles from this series:
Stalin's falcons in the sky of China
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  1. Vladimir_2U 13 January 2020 05: 40 New
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    In many ways, China’s modern positive attitude towards the modern Russian Federation is maintained thanks to the courage and heroism of Soviet volunteers! Thanks to them for this, and thanks to the author for the article.
  2. polpot 13 January 2020 06: 16 New
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    Eternal memory, there were steel people.
  3. Aviator_ 13 January 2020 08: 35 New
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    A good article, everyone knows about Spain, but not about China. Apparently, the matter is in the political aspect: in the 50s this assistance was not advertised because it was provided to the Kuomintang and not Mao, and since the 60s relations with China have been completely ruined. Everything is natural - in the 30s, Mao Tse-tung was still only a party figure, not a statesman, and the Japanese fought with the Chinese state, and therefore the state received help.
    1. Reptiloid 13 January 2020 11: 53 New
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      Thank you Victor for the continuation of the article so quickly.
      About plane crashes and sugar. Yes, unfortunately it was, A.A. Demin in his book mentioned that the Japanese were preparing such sabotage.
      1. Alex 1970 21 January 2020 15: 12 New
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        As for sugar, I read about “exposing myths” not so long ago, in the magazine “Behind the Wheel”, it turned out that 1kg of sugar has practically no effect on the engine, or does it need a lot, maybe the situation is different with the aircraft engine? And in the article about small amounts of sugar, maybe there were other reasons, only now you can’t even find out over the past years.
        1. Reptiloid 21 January 2020 15: 32 New
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          In the second part of the article, I wrote that Demin should see exactly what he wrote. But ---- until I got home and returned and did not hold the book in my hands request
  4. BAI
    BAI 13 January 2020 09: 10 New
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    The Japanese Type 96 carrier-based fighter (Mitsubishi A5M) had an advantage in the horizontal plane and always tried to impose its tactics on combat, but our fighters moved the battle to a vertical plane, where they were in a better position. When attacking, they left the “candle" up - such a maneuver saved many lives.

    The Germans used the same tactics against us.
    1. Fishery 13 January 2020 15: 07 New
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      Yes, Pokryshkin said the same thing and scolded the Soviet training manuals very much, we must fight for height and falconry, and pilots were taught to fly in tight formation and twist defensive carousels.
      1. Aviator_ 13 January 2020 19: 10 New
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        In battles with Bf-109 on I-16, it was impossible to act in any other way than to turn turns. True, skill was also required - Boris Safonov made most of his victories precisely on the I-16
  5. Olgovich 13 January 2020 11: 12 New
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    Looking through the lists of Soviet pilots who died in China, I found that almost half of them died not in military operations, but in air crashes. The pilots themselves believe that it was enough to add a little sugar to the fuel so that the engine would smoke and stall at an altitude. Apparently, this is how the Japanese avenged us for their defeat. In connection with these tragedies, there was a ban on the use of aircraft, and volunteers were sent to their homeland by rail,
    There were sabotage, but there was this:
    On April 9, 1941, there was a meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, and the leadership of the People’s Commissariat of Defense led by Stalin, dedicated to overcoming accidents and strengthening discipline in aviation.

    The minutes of the meeting stated: “Every day on average dies ... in case of accidents and catastrophes 2-3 aircraft, which amounts to 600-900 aircraft per year ... "

    As the deputy commissar of defense said Pavel Rychagov, the hero of these Chinese events: " you make us fly on coffins! ”

    for which he was arrested, severely beaten, and shot without trial along with his wife, heroine pilot, Major M. Nesterenko.

    their eternal memory.

    Thanks to the author for covering a little-known but heroic story.
    1. Pedrodepackes 13 January 2020 12: 21 New
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      Quote: Olgovich
      On April 9, 1941, there was a meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, and the leadership of the People’s Commissariat of Defense led by Stalin, dedicated to overcoming accidents and strengthening discipline in aviation.

      Well, and for what minus? In the same year, when the Red Army entered the territory of Iran, with minimal opposition from the Iranian Air Force and Air Defense, the loss of flight personnel of the Red Army Air Force was 68 people, while only 4 of our aircraft were shot down behind enemy fire. But there are 15 accidents and 18 accidents on its territory. Out of order 41 aircraft. 85% of all flight accidents occurred in 26 ADDD (the most trained personnel). The causes of the disasters were: low discipline, cowardice and poor flight training of personnel (from the report)

      Of course, it is easier to blame failures for sabotage, especially as the Chinese were involved in the protection and defense of airfields. I do not mean our pilots who died in battle, for example, we are talking about crashed transport aircraft with our volunteers. There is no direct evidence of Japanese sabotage against them.
      1. Olgovich 13 January 2020 12: 27 New
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        Quote: Pedrodepackes
        Well, and for what minus?

        for uncomfortable the truth.
        Quote: Pedrodepackes
        Air Defense The loss of the flight personnel of the Red Army Air Force is 68 people, while only 4 of our aircraft were shot down by enemy fire. But there are 15 accidents and 18 accidents on its territory. Out of order 41 aircraft.

        An interesting little-known fact, thanks.

        While in the Second World War, aircraft losses due to technical conditions are not huge in battle.
        1. Pedrodepackes 13 January 2020 12: 29 New
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          Quote: Olgovich
          While in the Second World War, aircraft losses due to technical conditions are not huge in battle.

          according to some sources, up to 2/3, for which later Shakhurin and Novikov paid.
          1. bukhach 13 January 2020 13: 20 New
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            In terms of technical condition, this is not only accidents and catastrophes, but also in terms of wear. And if I remember correctly, a lot of wood was used in the aircraft industry of the USSR, and taking into account climatic conditions, the survivability of our aircraft was not high, which seemed to increase not combat losses.
            1. Pedrodepackes 13 January 2020 14: 06 New
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              Quote: Buhach
              In technical condition, this is not only accidents and disasters, but also in terms of wear.

              I would agree with you, in part, but here is an example with the introduction of troops into Iran, military losses to non-combat losses are more than 1/10, and this is with worn-out equipment with experienced crews and peaceful conditions (on stationary rather than field airfields).
              1. Dooplet11 14 January 2020 14: 32 New
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                This is because there were no fights. There were fights, the ratio would obviously change.
          2. Pavel57 14 January 2020 23: 54 New
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            Shakhurin had something to remember, but the last straw was the acceptance of the unusable Yak-3 with VK-107.
      2. Reptiloid 13 January 2020 14: 46 New
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        As before, the tech is still --- China is a multinational state that has contradictions. Not everyone understands each other's languages ​​... The guard was Chinese, yes, and there were illiterate peasants, the Japanese tried to implement.
        request this comment should be higher.
        1. Pedrodepackes 13 January 2020 14: 49 New
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          Quote: Reptiloid
          the Japanese tried to implement

          not without this, especially since the Japanese are masters of this, but you cannot write everything off just for them either, because conclusions on your mistakes must be made, otherwise you can’t avoid new ones.
          1. Reptiloid 13 January 2020 14: 52 New
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            Quote: Pedrodepackes
            Quote: Reptiloid
            the Japanese tried to implement

            not without this, especially since the Japanese are masters of this, but you cannot write everything off just for them either, because conclusions on your mistakes must be made, otherwise you can’t avoid new ones.

            I’m not at home right now, when I get there tomorrow or the day after tomorrow ---- I’ll look at Demin more precisely about the conclusions. I recall Alexander Green’s comments about the repressed for negligence, they didn’t remove them, they didn’t close them, they violated the rules --- the planes were lost. And it was not somewhere, but in our country, also illiteracy, did not think, did not guess, but plus negligence,
    2. apro 13 January 2020 12: 30 New
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      Quote: Olgovich
      As the deputy commissar of defense Pavel Rychagov, the hero of these Chinese events, said: “you make us fly on coffins!”

      As I understand it, the People’s Commissar of the Air Force is not responsible for the entrusted materiel. Equipment. Personnel. Organization of the Air Force’s activities? Does Comrade VSTalin answer?
      1. Pedrodepackes 13 January 2020 12: 41 New
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        Quote: apro
        As I understand it, the People’s Commissar of the Air Force is not responsible for entrusted materiel. Equipment. Personnel. Organization of Air Force activity?

        I agree with you about the personnel (although what could he have done during the period from June 1940 to April 1941?), But the equipment was the one that supplied the industry and, although Stalin was told about the “coffins,” it meant a mess at the factory, although the IVS, as the "master", was also here in business. Moreover, the talk was not about personnel, but about technology.
        1. apro 13 January 2020 12: 54 New
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          Quote: Pedrodepackes
          the technique was the one supplied by industry

          And who ordered this equipment, who? Uncle Vasya? And who accepted this equipment from the industry? And who will follow up on the performance of duty instructions? Comrade IVStalin or an authorized person?
          1. Pedrodepackes 13 January 2020 13: 06 New
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            Quote: apro
            And who ordered this equipment? Uncle Vasya?

            Well, firstly, it’s definitely not Levers, he certainly wouldn’t have time. Secondly, the technical performance in terms of performance characteristics, despite the backwardness of the USSR, was quite modern, the question was about the build quality and the difficulty in piloting the same donkeys (if you learn to fly the I-16, you will fly on any plane), MiG- 1 (remember the statement about him by Pokryshkin) or Pe-2, which did not forgive the pilot the slightest mistake when piloting.
      2. Olgovich 13 January 2020 12: 43 New
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        Quote: apro
        As I understand it, the People’s Commissar of the Air Force is not responsible for entrusted materiel. Equipment. Personnel. Organization of Air Force activity?and meets TovIVStalin?

        Judging by his reaction (the judicial destruction of Rychagov with his wife), he answers and pleaded guilty
        1. apro 13 January 2020 12: 51 New
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          Quote: Olgovich
          Judging by his reaction (the judicial destruction of Rychagov with his wife), he answers and pleaded guilty

          As I understand it. The leverage in this situation has suffered less? Then why did he accept the position? Received a salary of maintenance? For what purpose? Or didn’t he know what he was going to do? If Comrade IVStalin was personally to blame, then why was it necessary to maintain a staff of managers? Transmitters? Nobody has yet canceled the responsibility.
        2. Hantengri 13 January 2020 23: 30 New
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          Quote: Olgovich
          (courtless destruction of Rychagov with his wife)

          "Crazy" (c) how to understand this? They burst at night into the bedroom to the spouses Rychagovy bloody GPU and put, poor fellow, 10 clips, in the head, to each, saying: "Will you, bastard, know who you snitch bargained for?" In a different way, after all, in the USSR it could not have been — only a trial, and only FOR ANYTHING! Really, Olgovich? Tea is not God-saving RI, overshadowed by freedom and democracy.
    3. fighter angel 13 January 2020 13: 10 New
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      Mr. anti-adviser suffered ...
      Out of place, and out of topic.
      Don’t feed honey, just remember someone who was “offended” by the Soviet regime.
      And without delving into the essence, pull out of context and add something very, very “anti-Soviet”!
      If only Pavel Rychagov is mentioned, then immediately you need to urgently remember about the "flying coffins" !!!
      Without this, the bullcrusts cannot do anything.
      The day will be lived in vain, right, Olgovich?
      And the fact that this phrase was said on a completely different occasion, and under other circumstances, this "olgovich" no longer cares! The air war in China is worth nothing to this statement.
      You agree to the end then.
      What Leverage with this phrase SIGNED IN OWN INCOMPETENCE AND OFFICIAL Mismatch! The combat readiness and accident rate of the Red Army Air Force is precisely what he HOW ANSWERED THE HEAD OF THE AIR FORCE! And FIRST!
      That after this phrase, Stalin didn’t shoot him right there, no matter how much you would like to, but THERE IS A MIRACLE !!! But Stalin then, after the phrase about "coffins", Rychagova LEARNED TO ACADEMY!
      Which Leader is "bloodthirsty."
      A man is impudently rude in person, does not fulfill his direct duties, and him for this - in the ACADEMY!
      By the way, he began his studies at the Academy, and very soon he simply “scored” on her!
      He did not seek to grow as a specialist, and as an aviation commander.
      And they shot him for the catastrophic losses of our Air Force on June 22, 1941.
      For their unsatisfactory combat readiness.
      Because he was sitting, roughly speaking on the "ass straight" and practically did nothing!
      He had an apartment, a summer residence, a beautiful wife near by, a personal ZiS-101 or Packard, and received very good money.
      But you have to pay for everything!
      If Pavel Rychagov had conscience, he would have written a report back in 1939, asking him to be relieved of his post as a non-recovering person. After the ill-fated flight of the new DB-3 to the Far East, when about 15 new boards with crews were lost ...
      It was more honest, and I would have stayed alive, look.
      And by the way, he was arrested after the start of the war, and not at his workplace, as the Air Force Commander-in-Chief should be, but in a sanatorium, where "their excellency" was pleased to rest, and he did not care that the war was already going on ...
      Pasha’s borzometr is overwhelming!
      He began to confuse the edges, for which he received. According to the laws of the war.
      Pavel Rychagov was a good pilot, a regiment and even a division commander would be nice.
      But he simply did not pull the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force of the Red Army, and he did not show any desire.

      Many thanks to the author of the article! A very interesting topic that you need to know and remember!
      It is gratifying to see the well-groomed graves of our Warriors in the photo! That's really where civilization is, and not in a tolerant "neurope" ...
      Well, that memory is alive!
      Eternal flight to all who did not return ...
      1. Pedrodepackes 13 January 2020 13: 58 New
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        Quote: fighter angel
        Out of place, and out of topic.

        perverted everything that can be perverted.
        Quote: fighter angel
        And the fact that this phrase was said on a completely different occasion

        the phrase was spoken at a meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, and the leadership of the People’s Commissariat of Defense led by Stalin, dedicated to overcoming accidents and strengthening discipline in aviation. And the article says:
        Looking through the lists of Soviet pilots who died in China, I found that almost half of them died not in military operations, but in air crashes.
        il niasilil article, "comrade"?
        If Pavel Rychagov had conscience, he would have written a report back in 1939, asking him to be relieved of his post as a non-recovering person. After the ill-fated flight of the new DB-3 to the Far East, when about 15 new boards with crews were lost ...
        Leverage at that time was in the post of Commander of the Air Force of the 1st Separate Red Banner Army, and since the order for the flight was issued not by the receiver, but by the sender, they made him just a scapegoat, adding this crime to the fact that he also criminally refused to conduct search activities crew rescue. And he was charged with trying to hide a grave catastrophe from the government on January 23, 1941, during the flight of an air regiment from Novosibirsk via Semipalatinsk to Tashkent, during which “because of a gross violation of elementary flight rules, 3 planes crashed, 2 planes crashed.
        Quote: fighter angel
        And they shot him for the catastrophic losses of our Air Force on June 22, 1941.

        but nothing that he had by this time been removed from office for the above misconduct?
        Quote: fighter angel
        And by the way, he was arrested after the start of the war, and not at his workplace, as the Air Force Commander-in-Chief should be, but in a sanatorium, where "their excellency" was pleased to rest, and he did not care that the war was already going on ...

        On June 21, 1941, Levers with his wife were in Sochi, and the very next day, they hastily took tickets for the evening train to Moscow, in Moscow, at the Kursk station in the office of the military commandant, he was arrested.
        Quote: fighter angel
        A man is impudently rude in person, does not fulfill his direct duties, and him for this - in the ACADEMY!

        so why scream with a caps? He was sent to the academy on the same day as he was removed from his post, but what did you want? Go to the wall?
        Quote: fighter angel
        By the way, he began his studies at the Academy, and very soon he simply “scored” on her!

        because the session ended and he went on vacation, and then the war and the arrest, famously "scored", right?
        Quote: fighter angel
        But he simply did not pull the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force of the Red Army, and he did not show any desire.

        about not pulled, maybe I don’t know, but "did not show" ...?
        Cheeky, with black hair, and a gymnast tailored to the waist, he in the Air Force Main Directorate made the impression of a front-line pilot who arrived more on a business trip than a general in the rank of general. Yes, Leverage was young, but youth is energy. He got down to business cool. The main task facing him was the introduction of a new generation of aircraft.
        He often traveled to units that were the first to start developing the MiG-3, Yak-1, LaGG-3, Pe-2, and Il-2 aircraft. He prompted, advised, in a hurry. In that harsh, dangerous environment (the repression did not stop) its direct, explosive nature was sharply manifested. At large meetings, he always said what he thought. If he was convinced of the idea, he defended it to the end.
        So, Rychagov sharply raised the question of improving the flight skills of pilots. Once a group of soldiers was summoned to Stalin. He wanted to know first hand how the development of new aircraft is going. Leverage, who took the word, at first spoke calmly. But then, when it came to raid hours, he burst out: “30 hours is enough to let the pilot crash. And he still needs to be able to fight. 120 hours is required at least!”
        Stalin, when he began to summarize the results of the meeting, remarked: "120 hours of flight ... Boyish reasoning. We are not going to throw fuel into the wind ...". But, apparently, Rychagov’s efforts were not in vain: soon an order was issued to increase flight hours for combat pilots.
        from the memoirs of his contemporaries. Again you lied ... You would have less slogans and emotions, but more facts. And they shot Rychagov without trial, because there was essentially nothing to show him, and they pricked him for espionage.
        1. fighter angel 13 January 2020 15: 18 New
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          "... He often traveled to the units that were the first to start developing the MiG-3, Yak-1, LaGG-3, Pe-2, Il-2 planes. He prompted, advised, rushed. In that harsh, dangerous environment (repression was not ceased) its direct, explosive nature was sharply manifested ... "

          Here is the first reason that the Rychagov level is a regiment, a maximum commander!
          He didn’t just often go to the units, but VERY FREQUENTLY! He could spend several days in one regiment. The question is, what the hell? What could be done there? To go for komeskami, wipe snot lieutenants? The Red Army Air Force Commander-in-Chief has no other business ???
          The facts, to make it clearer to you, are as follows: Mobilization plans were not carried out in parts of the Western and Kiev Special Air Forces, airfields were not repaired, they were not rebuilt for new aircraft, systematic measures were not taken to mask aerodromes, dispersal of air units was not worked out, action plans in case of sudden attacks were also not practiced and were absent in all air units. This is written in his book by Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov.
          Farther.
          At least sometimes he met with aircraft designers, was in KB? Discussed LTX and TTX promising combat vehicles? Participated in the development of tasks, requirements for new models of aircraft? No.
          Maybe he was a frequent guest at the Air Force Research Institute, where new machines were tested? Did he meet, talked with testers, engineers? Again no ...
          Maybe he went to the aircraft factories, looked, studied, delved into how the new aircraft equipment is being built? No again.
          The man was clearly out of place. He engaged in trips in parts instead of performing his direct duties. He may have knocked out gasoline, but air combat and aerobatics were excluded from the flight school program under his "high command"; To reduce the accident rate ...
          Like this !
          One "Pravdorub" foolishly vyaknul language- and all the Air Force of the Red Army, get-sign! Left without "air combat" and aerobatics.
          1. Pedrodepackes 13 January 2020 16: 39 New
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            Quote: fighter angel
            Here is the first reason that the Rychagov level is a regiment, a maximum commander!

            But I don’t argue, I’m still young, and for a divisional commander, what life experience does a 29-year-old have? Why shoot him? His mistake? This is the mistake of the one who appointed him, so let the one who appointed and shoot him.
            Quote: fighter angel
            The question is, what the hell? What could be done there? To go for komeskami, wipe snot lieutenants? The Red Army Air Force Commander-in-Chief has no other business ???

            you are trying to tear an episode out of the context of current events, mastering new technology on the eve of the upcoming war was a state task, and for anyone else than the commander in chief to keep abreast. He did as he knew how, but he knew how to fly well, and not to push slogans.
            Quote: fighter angel
            Engaged in trips in parts instead of performing his direct duties.

            what, for example?
            Quote: fighter angel
            from the program of flight schools under his "high command", aerial combat and aerobatics were excluded! To reduce the accident rate ...

            oh? But are there links to documents?
            Quote: fighter angel
            In the Western and Kiev Special Air Force units, mobilization plans were not fulfilled, airfields were not repaired, they were not rebuilt for new aircraft, systematic measures were not taken to mask aerodromes, the dispersal of air units was not worked out, action plans in case of a surprise attack were also not worked out and were absent in all air units.

            and the period that describes Zhukov specified?
            Quote: fighter angel
            At least sometimes he met with aircraft designers, was in KB?
            Quote: fighter angel
            Maybe he went to the aircraft factories, looked, studied, delved into how the new aircraft equipment is being built?

            Maybe he didn’t visit the OKB (although he was watching over the aviation industry, what to do there), but at the thematic meetings in the Kremlin regularly and, by the way, you have irrefutable evidence that you haven’t been ..., haven’t met .. .. did not ask ...?
            Quote: fighter angel
            One "Pravdorub" foolishly vyaknul language- and all the Air Force of the Red Army, get-sign! Left without "air combat" and aerobatics.
            and this
            Quote: fighter angel
            "truth-teller"
            , if you mean Rychagov, it was not Stalin who accidentally grunted accidentally for limiting his training time for school pilots: “120 hours of flight ... Boyish reasoning. We are not going to throw fuel into the wind ...”? Actually, my position is not to whitewash Rychagov as a people's commissar, but that he was not shot for anything. Failed, dismiss, punish the one who put and recommended. After all, he did not cope out of malice, tried to the best of his strength and knowledge. And what did the shooting give? We lost a great pilot, a good regiment commander, and we didn’t have enough of them during the war.
            1. bk316 13 January 2020 18: 25 New
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              Why shoot him? His mistake? This is the mistake of the person who appointed him,

              We lost a great pilot, a good regiment commander, and we didn’t have enough of them during the war.

              Reasonedly.
              1. Pedrodepackes 13 January 2020 18: 26 New
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                Quote: bk316
                Reasonedly.

                I try, without slogans and emotions. Thank!
      2. Fishery 13 January 2020 15: 10 New
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        Pokryshkin also cursed and for the lack of radio, bulletproof glass, praised the moment and then did not get off the aerial cobra
        1. fighter angel 14 January 2020 15: 30 New
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          I’ll mind you, for the truth.
          Alexander Ivanovich Pokryshkin began the war, flying on the MiG-3. But in addition to this machine during the summer-autumn-winter of 1941, he also made sorties on the Ishachka I-16. The time was difficult, the materiel was not chosen, they flew on what was left and could fly.
          In 1942, all future aces of the 16th GvIAD, namely Pokryshkin, Glinka, Rechkalov, retrained for the Yak-1.
          They flew, fought and shot down the chances for the Yakovlevs all 42nd year and the beginning of 1943.
          Only in the winter and spring of 1943 did they begin to relearn for the “Cobras”, on which they entered the battle of the Kuban.
          And only from the spring of the 43rd to the Victory spring of the 45th, as you deigned to say, Pokryshkin "did not get off the aerial cobra." And then, not a fact, there is evidence that since the beginning of 1945, he began to change to La-7, and made some of his sorties on Lavochkin.
          If you want the statistics of his victories, then from 59 of his official victories, from 20 to 25 victories he won on domestic combat vehicles - MiG-3, I-16, and Yak-1, possibly on La-7.
          And this is about 35-40% of his final official combat score.
          So, as if someone didn’t want to, “not a single Cobra!”
          1. Fishery 14 January 2020 15: 45 New
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            Lavochkin didn’t impress him, liked him for a moment, Ishechek was hopeless, they offered him and a stormtrooper, refused, flew in an instant to attack, statistics are not everything, I write about his preferences as a person who directly flew planes to battle, and not a pilot factory tester and theorist
            1. fighter angel 14 January 2020 16: 48 New
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              "Lavochkin did not impress him"

              Really? Arguing!

              "donkey well from hopelessness,"
              But it’s nothing that this “hopelessness”, as you put it here, together with the I-153 Chaika, caused the Luftwaffe such losses that the aircraft industry of the Third Reich could not make up for. This was the first such plan, the case of this Reich. And yet, this "hopelessness", successfully "fell" in the 43rd FV-190 over the Baltic.

              "he and silovik were offered, refused, ..."
              What Alexander Ivanovich, it turns out, was moody! "This, I don’t want, then I won’t!"
              He flew only on what he wanted to fly.
              No one dared to order him at all ...
              "Serve only" cobra "!!!

              "statistics are not everything .."

              Well, here it’s immediately clear, dear man, where you will be from ...

              "Statistics is not everything, or rather, not only everything."

              Do you often listen to the speeches of your "mayor"?
              The effect on you is already starting ...
              Be careful, otherwise you will listen to your "genius of literature" ...
              1. Fishery 14 January 2020 17: 27 New
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                re-read Pokryshkin’s memoirs, he directly calls it a gull of an outdated type, he refused the attack aircraft, since fighter pilots were initially forced to attack on fighter planes, then they drove them the silt they needed to be retrained, the rest or sober up from the propaganda industry or end the conversation.
              2. Fishery 14 January 2020 17: 28 New
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                Frankly, it bothered us all. I-16 is a good fighter. But his age has passed. It is already out of date. And especially I-15 - "The Seagull" ... That night I, like my comrades, could not sleep for a long time. Thoughts drove a dream. I wanted to think it over, weigh it. I understood that terrible events were brewing.
              3. Fishery 14 January 2020 17: 37 New
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                Our. Drove to replenish the materiel regiment. I heard that they want to transfer you to them, ”Chuvashkin said with sadness in his voice.

                “Yes? .. What, have you already decided to make an assault from our fighter regiment?”

                - I do not know! But you, comrade commander, do not leave the “instant”!

                - You can be calm. "IL", of course, an excellent fighting vehicle. Only I by vocation fighter and attack aircraft will not.

                The next day, in the interval between sorties under the guidance of factory distilleries, classes began to study the IL-2, and then flights.

                Regiment pilots were already familiar with this type of aircraft. Once, the deputy commander, Colonel Serenko, flew to our unit on the "silt". He made several sorties for the attack and praised the plane very much. Frequent flights to attack the enemy on the “instants” that do not have a reservation led to the failure of military equipment, to losses from anti-aircraft fire. This caused concern among pilots and technicians. The armored engine and cabin, powerful armament attracted some pilots, and they decided to switch to IL-2. Soon, the entire Figichev link flew out independently. They liked the plane. Seeing my clearly negative attitude to retraining, Ivanov still suggested that I make two flights in a circle.

                - Of course, you can make flights, but the attack aircraft will not work out of me.

                “Don't give up on silt,” Ivanov insisted. “Not a plane, but a flying tank.” Armor, guns, Eres, bombs. Such an airplane is not afraid of any Erlikons.

                Flying in a circle, sat down. Then it took off again. Even in the first flight, I found south of our airdrome in the sea, not far from the coast, a large floating dock towed by a guard. Small sea hunter marched along their tacks. Now, in the second flight, I decided to tuck them. The dock was completely laden with steam locomotives. Apparently, at night they left Odessa and were in a hurry to go into the Dnieper estuary and further, to Nikolaev. It was surprising: how such a target was not found by German bombers?

                Turning over the floating dock, I went to land.

                - Well, how's the plane? For the attack, the car is indispensable, - praised the "silt" Ivanov. - I agree to change for a "moment"?

                - No, comrade commander! The plane is good, but not in my character. Give him the wheels, and he still thinks before he turns around. At the “instant” - another thing! No, I won’t exchange it for silt.

                - Here you fly to attack with the "silts" and see how they will smash the Germans.

                - Designers are developing new fighters. Maybe I’ll live to see better than the “instant,” I fought back from Ivanov’s proposal.

                “I understand you, a staunch fighter.” It is good when a person firmly walks along the chosen path, rather than rushing about.
                1. fighter angel 15 January 2020 09: 51 New
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                  Tonya, someone you sooo strongly remind me of. Their style, manner of communication and the nature of commenting. But specifically I can’t understand who, or “tessera”, or “Kiryushu- kirill dou”, or “cyer” ... I took all the bans, so if you are “one of those” - do not repeat other people's mistakes. But I am so ... I can, of course, be mistaken, but just in case, I warn you.

                  All that they wrote, I know.
                  "Know yourself in battle" is practically my handbook.
                  You shouldn’t bother yourself like that.

                  Well, what do you and I have about Lavochkin and Pokryshkin?
                  Will you argue?
                  1. Fishery 15 January 2020 16: 58 New
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                    and you’re educated, I look)) you threaten with a ban))) learn some rules of politeness,
                    1. fighter angel 16 January 2020 09: 37 New
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                      And you stupid, I look. Russian language is said, not a threat, but a warning. And teach your wife to cook cabbage soup better ...

                      According to Pokryshkin and Lavochkin there will be an argument, or will it remain so - "a bunch in a puddle" ???
                    2. fighter angel 17 January 2020 10: 53 New
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                      Fishery
                      Apparently I can’t wait for the argument from you.
                      Therefore, listen to the correct answer to the question about Pokryshkin’s attitude towards La fighters.
                      We give the floor to Alexander Ivanovich himself.
                      Here is what he writes about Lavochkin:
                      “The LA-5 planes were excellent. The aviator has a special flair with which he perceives the car, its powerful strength, humility, all its harmonious perfection. I looked at the cannons of the guns, at the instruments and was happy. If the LA-7, with which they promise to arm the whole "regiment, even better than this, then what then do we pilots have to wish for?"
                      "La Fighters were EXCELLENT!" - these are the words of Pokryshkin himself!
                      and you say, "I was not impressed ..." You are here.
                      1. Icelord April 20 2020 22: 20 New
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                        I’m just delighted with the ignoramus, go to rallies for Dzhugashvili? And then this is the surest indicator IQ
                      2. fighter angel April 21 2020 10: 44 New
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                        Do you go to meetings of oral hamsters? So this is the surest indicator of the complete absence of IQ.
                        If you can’t competently argue in a dispute, and don’t know the subject of the dispute, then don’t torture your ass. Do not write any crap here off topic.
                        I warn you right away: another similar empty "bunch" on your part is a complaint to moderator on my part. And then we'll see ...
    4. Olgovich 14 January 2020 08: 02 New
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      Quote: fighter angel
      And they shot him for the catastrophic losses of our Air Force on June 22, 1941.

      liar
      Quote: fighter angel
      For their unsatisfactory combat readiness.

      liar
      Quote: fighter angel
      Because he was sitting, roughly speaking on the "ass straight" and practically did nothing!

      liar
      Quote: fighter angel
      He began to confuse the edges, for which he received. According to the laws of the war.

      liar, bring the verdict of the court, not your FALSE and slander.
      1. fighter angel 14 January 2020 08: 09 New
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        Olgovich.
        I have no vile habit of throwing beads in front of a pig.
        Here is my answer to you.
        1. Olgovich 14 January 2020 08: 15 New
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          Quote: fighter angel
          Olgovich.
          I do not have the vile habit of throwing beads before you know who.
          Here is my answer to you.

          Liar and slanderer, unable to prove his dirty fabrications about the pilot
        2. Alexander Suvorov 14 January 2020 08: 55 New
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          fighter angel (Alex)
          I have no vile habit of throwing beads in front of a pig.
          Here is my answer to you.
          Brvo colleague! good hi Regarding this individual, I absolutely agree with you.
          By the way, I fully support your conclusions regarding the commander-in-chief of the Air Force of the Red Army and its "activities".
  • Alf
    Alf 13 January 2020 17: 24 New
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    On November 24, 1937, six I-96s, accompanying a group of eight bombers, were damaged by three of the six intercepting I-16s, and the Japanese themselves won two victories.

    This is how, your mother, I'm sorry, to understand?
    Who then fought on the I-96? Aliens?
  • WapentakeLokki 13 January 2020 21: 31 New
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    Yeah, that's right ... and then (namely, the year before last), China, together with mtrasniki, shoots the Super Blockbuster Da hong zha (Air Strake) where, here, a miracle, instead of Soviet instructors, the bald Bruce Villeres .. and teaches them and leads the battle ... (and even mugs the cadets - and they suffer..white gaspad .. however) .. And this after 78 years .. and after another 20 years ... so the Soviets together with the Japanese bomb the cities of China and only the gallant Air Force save the poor Chinese ... so that’s for you ONCE ... and TWO there .. not far off ... after all .. nothing personal is only a business ..
    1. Icelord April 20 2020 22: 18 New
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      The Americans were there and more Russian
  • Nikolai 14 January 2020 16: 43 New
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    Victor, great article, thanks!
    1. Katran 14 January 2020 18: 44 New
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      If many people liked the article - that's great! drinks
      For the sake of your recognition, we are working, talking about the most interesting moments and people. hi
      1. fighter angel 16 January 2020 09: 44 New
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        Victor, thank you, a wonderful and useful article.
        Good work!
        The only thing that could be added is to tell directly about the combat scores and the performance of our fighter pilots in China, in other words, how many of our "failed" ... But this is most likely the topic of a separate article.
        Thank you again!
  • Corsair71 (Anatoly) 16 January 2020 22: 19 New
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    The section of the site history brought me to an interesting impression. You read, you learn a lot of new things and you get the feeling that this, described, was happening somewhere in a parallel world. Here is my ignorance of history for this explanation. Thanks to the author for an interesting topic.
  • vieking 17 January 2020 23: 55 New
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    as for sugar in fuel: it has long been disproved, sugar dissolves only in WATER, it behaves like a simple dirt in petroleum products. probably wrote that used to hide the poor technical condition of the aircraft.