Military Review

Uranprojekt Third Reich: power reactor and fusion device

41

Heisenberg Reactor in Heigerloch. Now it's a museum


History The Third Reich’s uranium project, as it is usually presented, reminds me personally of a book with torn pages. All of it appears to be a history of continuous failures and failures, a program with obscure goals and a waste of valuable resources. In fact, there is a certain narrative about the German atomic program, which is illogical, in which there are significant inconsistencies, but which is heavily imposed.

However, some of the information that could be found in publications, including relatively recent studies on the history of German military-technical developments, allows us to look at the German uranium project in a completely different way. The Nazis were primarily interested in a compact energy reactor and thermonuclear weapon.

Power reactor


Guenther Nagel’s extensive and German-quality work Wissenschaft für den Krieg, which contains more than a thousand pages, based on rich archival material, provides very interesting information on how physicists of the Third Reich imagined the use of atomic energy. The book deals mainly with the secret work of the research department of the Department of Land Arms, which also worked on nuclear physics.

Since 1937, in this department, Kurt Dibner conducted research in the field of initiation of detonation of explosives using radiation. Even before the first artificial fission of uranium was carried out in January 1939, the Germans tried to apply nuclear physics to military affairs. The Department of Land Forces immediately became interested in the reaction of uranium fission, which launched the German uranium project and first of all set the task for scientists to determine the scope of atomic energy use. This was given by Karl Becker, head of the Department of Land Forces, president of the Imperial Research Council and artillery general. The instruction was carried out by theoretical physicist Siegfried Flygge, who in July 1939 drew up a report on the use of atomic energy, drew attention to the enormous energy potential of a fissile atomic nucleus and even drew up a sketch of a “uranium machine,” that is, a reactor.

The construction of the "uranium machine" formed the basis of the Third Reich uranium project. The Uranium Engine was a prototype of an energy reactor, not a production reactor. Usually, this circumstance is either ignored within the framework of the narrative on the German nuclear program, created mainly by the Americans, or is greatly underestimated. Meanwhile, the issue of energy for Germany was a crucial issue in view of the acute shortage of oil, the need to produce motor fuel from coal, and significant difficulties in the extraction, transportation and use of coal. Therefore, the very first glimpse of the idea of ​​a new energy source inspired them very much. Gunter Nagel writes that it was supposed to use the “uranium machine” as a stationary source of energy in industry and in the army, and to install it on large warships and submarines. The latter, as can be seen from the epic battle of the Atlantic, was of great importance. The boat reactor turned the boat from a diving into a truly submarine, and made it much less vulnerable to anti-submarine forces of the opponents. The nuclear boat did not need to float to charge the batteries, and its radius of action was not limited by the fuel supply. Even one boat with a nuclear reactor would be very valuable.

But the interest of German designers in the nuclear reactor was not limited to this. In the list of machines on which they thought to install the reactor, there were, for example, Tanks. In June 1942, Hitler and the Reich Minister of Arms Albert Speer discussed a project of a "large combat vehicle" weighing about 1000 tons. Apparently, the reactor was intended specifically for this kind of tank.

Also, rocketers became interested in the nuclear reactor. In August 1941, a research center in Peenemünde requested the possibility of using a “uranium machine” as a rocket engine. Dr. Karl Friedrich von Weizsäcker replied that this was possible, but faced with technical difficulties. Jet thrust can be created using the decay products of the atomic nucleus or using some substance heated by the heat of the reactor.

So the demand for a nuclear power reactor was significant enough for research institutes, groups and organizations to launch work in this direction. Already in early 1940, three projects began to build an atomic reactor: Werner Heisenberg at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Leipzig, Kurt Dibner at the Department of Land Forces near Berlin and Paul Hartek at the University of Hamburg. These projects had to divide among themselves the available reserves of uranium dioxide and heavy water.

Judging by the available data, Heisenberg managed to assemble and launch the first demonstration model of the reactor at the end of May 1942. 750 kg of uranium metal powder together with 140 kg of heavy water were placed inside two firmly screwed aluminum hemispheres, that is, inside an aluminum ball that was placed in a container of water. At first, the experiment went well; an excess of neutrons was noted. But on June 23, 1942, the ball began to overheat, the water in the tank began to boil. The attempt to open the ball was unsuccessful, and in the end the ball exploded, scattering uranium powder in the room, which immediately caught fire. The fire was put out with great difficulty. At the end of 1944, Heisenberg built an even larger reactor in Berlin (1,25 tons of uranium and 1,5 tons of heavy water), and in January-February 1945 he built a similar reactor in the basement in Heigerloch. Heisenberg managed to get a decent neutron yield, but he did not achieve a controlled chain reaction.

Dibner experimented with both uranium dioxide and metallic uranium, building four reactors in succession from 1942 to the end of 1944 in Gottow (west of Kummersdorf, south of Berlin). The first Gottow-I reactor contained 25 tons of uranium oxide in 6800 cubic meters and 4 tons of paraffin as a moderator. G-II in 1943 was already on metallic uranium (232 kg of uranium and 189 liters of heavy water; uranium formed two spheres, inside which heavy water was placed, and the entire device was placed in a container with light water).

Uranprojekt Third Reich: power reactor and fusion device
Scheme of the experimental dibner reactor

The G-III, built later, was distinguished by its compact core size (250 x 230 cm) and large neutron yield; its modification in early 1944 contained 564 uranium and 600 liters of heavy water. Dibner consistently worked out the design of the reactor, gradually approaching the chain reaction. Finally, he succeeded, however, with a surplus. The G-IV reactor in November 1944 crashed: the boiler burst, the uranium partially melted, and the employees were greatly irradiated.


Only the concrete ruins of the entire Kummersdorf training ground and the Gottow test site

From the known data, it becomes quite obvious that German physicists tried to create a pressurized water reactor in which an active zone of metallic uranium and heavy water would heat the light water surrounding it, and then it could be fed to a steam generator or directly to a turbine.

They immediately tried to create a compact reactor suitable for installation on ships and submarines, which is why they chose metallic uranium and heavy water. They apparently did not build a graphite reactor. And it was not at all due to Walter Bothe's mistake or due to the fact that Germany could not produce high purity graphite. Most likely, the graphite reactor, which would be technically simpler to create, turned out to be too large and heavy to be used as a ship power plant. In my opinion, abandoning the graphite reactor was a deliberate decision.

The attempts to create a compact energy reactor were also most likely associated with uranium enrichment. The first isotope separation device was created in 1938 by Klaus Clusius, but his “dividing tube” was not suitable as an industrial design. In Germany, several isotope separation methods have been developed. At least one of them has reached industrial scale. At the end of 1941, Dr. Hans Martin launched the first centrifuge for the separation of isotopes, and on this basis a plant for the enrichment of uranium began to be built in Kiel. Her story in Nagel’s presentation is rather short. It was bombed, then the equipment was transferred to Freiburg, where an industrial installation was built in an underground shelter. Nagel writes that there was no success and the plant did not work. Most likely, this is not entirely true, and probably a certain amount of enriched uranium was nevertheless obtained.

Enriched uranium as a nuclear fuel allowed German physicists to solve the problems of achieving a chain reaction and designing a compact and powerful light-water reactor. Heavy water was still too expensive for Germany. In 1943-1944, after the destruction of the heavy water plant in Norway, the installation was working at the Leunawerke plant, but receiving a ton of heavy water required the consumption of 100 thousand tons of coal for the production of necessary electricity. The heavy water reactor could therefore be used on a limited scale. However, the Germans apparently failed to develop enriched uranium for samples in the reactor.

Attempts to create a thermonuclear weapon


The question of why the Germans did not create and use nuclear weapons is still hotly debated, but, in my opinion, these debates reinforced the influence of the narrative about the failures of the German uranium project than answered this question.

Judging by the available data, the Nazis were very little interested in the uranium or plutonium nuclear bomb, and in particular, made no attempt to create a production reactor for producing plutonium. But why?

First, the German military doctrine did not leave much room for nuclear weapons. The Germans did not seek to destroy, but to seize territories, cities, military and industrial facilities. Secondly, in the second half of 1941 and in 1942, when nuclear projects entered the stage of active implementation, the Germans believed that they would soon win the war in the USSR and secure their dominance on the continent. At this time, even numerous projects were created that were supposed to be implemented after the end of the war. With such sentiments, they did not need a nuclear bomb, or rather, did not think it was necessary; but a boat or ship reactor was needed for future battles in the ocean. Thirdly, when the war began to incline towards the defeat of Germany, and nuclear weapons became necessary, Germany took a special path.

Erich Schumann, the head of the research department of the Department of Land Forces, put forward the idea that you can try to use light elements, such as lithium, for a thermonuclear reaction, and to ignite it without using a nuclear charge. In October 1943, Schumann launched active research in this direction, and physicists subordinate to him tried to create the conditions for a thermonuclear explosion in a cannon-type device, in which two cumulative charges shot towards the barrel, collided, creating high temperature and pressure. According to Nagel, the results were impressive, but insufficient to start a thermonuclear reaction. An implosive regimen was also discussed to achieve the desired results. Work in this direction was discontinued in early 1945.

It may look like a rather strange solution, but he had a certain logic. Technically, they could enrich uranium to weapons-grade quality in Germany. However, the uranium bomb then required too much uranium - to produce 60 kg of highly enriched uranium for an atomic bomb, it took from 10,6 to 13,1 tons of natural uranium.

Meanwhile, uranium was actively absorbed by experiments with reactors, which were considered priority and more important than nuclear weapons. In addition, apparently, metallic uranium in Germany was used as a substitute for tungsten in the cores of armor-piercing shells. In the published minutes of the meetings of Hitler and the Reich Minister of Arms and Ammunition Albert Speer, there is an indication that in early August 1943 Hitler instructed to immediately increase the processing of uranium for core production. At the same time, studies were conducted on the possibility of replacing tungsten with metallic uranium, which ended in March 1944. In the same protocol there is a mention that in 1942 there were 5600 kg of uranium in Germany, obviously, this refers to metallic uranium or in terms of metal. So whether it was or not, it remained unclear. But if at least partially armor-piercing shells were produced with uranium cores, then such a production also had to consume tons and tons of metallic uranium.

This application is also indicated by the curious fact that the production of uranium was launched by Degussa AG at the beginning of the war, before the deployment of experiments with reactors. Uranium oxide was produced at a plant in Oranienbaum (at the end of the war it was bombed, and now it is a zone of radioactive contamination), and metallic uranium was produced at a plant in Frankfurt. In total, the company produced 14 tons of uranium metal in powder, plates and cubes. If they released significantly more than was used in the experimental reactors, which suggests that metallic uranium also had another military use.

So in the light of these circumstances, Schumann’s desire to achieve non-nuclear ignition of a thermonuclear reaction is quite understandable. Firstly, the available uranium would not be enough for a uranium bomb. Secondly, uranium was also required by reactors for other military needs.

Why did the Germans fail the uranium project? Because, having barely achieved atom fission, they set themselves the extremely ambitious goal of creating a compact energy reactor, suitable as a mobile power plant. In such a short time and under military conditions, this task was hardly technically feasible for them.
Author:
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  1. Monar
    Monar 14 January 2020 05: 36
    +6
    The Germans did not seek to destroy, but to seize territories, cities, military and industrial facilities.
    Lies. And Leningrad and Moscow were going to simply destroy. London bombing is not destruction, but capture?
    1. BISMARCK94
      BISMARCK94 14 January 2020 10: 26
      +5
      the strategy of "blitzkrieg" is meant - rapid advance and capture of enemy targets. Destroy already during the occupation. Didn't the Germans try to enter Moscow and Leningrad? Well, in the situation with London, this is a kind of Douai doctrine
      1. Monar
        Monar 14 January 2020 13: 10
        +1
        And it doesn’t matter what is meant. Germany went east to destroy everyone and everything. And they went to Moscow and Leningrad with the goal of destroying everyone. And take down the cities from the world map.
        So blah blah blah about "grab" the lies. And to assert that this was the reason for not creating yadrenbaton is so far-fetched that it is not even funny.
        1. BISMARCK94
          BISMARCK94 14 January 2020 15: 32
          0
          I wrote the sequence. Here, as in the joke "the main thing is not to confuse"
          Minus not mine
          1. Monar
            Monar 14 January 2020 16: 12
            -2
            Yes, no sequence. The article is simply ugly thought is laid. Type Germany at that time fluffy. Yadrenbaton did not create only because of love.
            My humble opinion. Just slaughtered scientists. For the lack of blue eyes and blond hair.
    2. shinobi
      shinobi 15 January 2020 05: 10
      +2
      The concept of the "living space of the Reich" denied large cities in the occupied territories. The promoted idea was the development of urban settlements of the "rural type" with extensive agricultural land. The use of weapons of mass destruction within the "living space" contradicted everything and was not considered even in theory. had all the warring countries, and without the atomic bomb the Nazis could arrange a total genocide of everything and everyone. But it would be impossible to live in the poisoned territories. Short-lived binary OBs were invented in the 60s.
  2. LeonidL
    LeonidL 14 January 2020 05: 54
    +5
    Some assumptions and guesses ... a very frivolous basis for the article.
    1. parma
      parma 14 January 2020 08: 47
      +3
      Quote: LeonidL
      Some assumptions and guesses ... a very frivolous basis for the article.

      I agree, the author first said that everyone is mistaken about the reasons for the failure in the development of nuclear weapons (there was not enough uranium for the "American" scheme, and the chain reaction did not work in another way), and then he himself repeats the previously refuted reasons ...
      Regarding the development of reactors, it was of interest to everyone ... A new source of energy allowed the much needed coal and oil to be used for other purposes of the total war, but it was impossible to curb it at the technological level of the 30-40s ....
      1. LeonidL
        LeonidL 15 January 2020 00: 38
        +2
        True, you can't build much on dogatka. In addition, practically all departments in Germany dealt with the uranium problem in parallel. The most powerful team was assembled by Goering under the wing of the Luftwaffe. even Goebbels and he was twitching on the uranium. Such fragmentation did not allow even getting close to solving the problem. They tried to enrich uranium in several ways - but because of the bombs, for example, the centrifuge was never brought to mind. So there was no real fissile material per bomb and could not be. The ALSOS mission swept across Germany and picked up everyone and everything, but at the time of the invasion they feared not an atomic explosion, but a "dirty bomb" and radiation contamination of the area. Well, along the way, it is not clear how the Germans generally thought of controlling the reaction in the construction described by the author of the article? And without control - only thermal explosions, even in the presence of the required amount of fissile material. Greetings from Chernobyl.
        1. gridasov
          gridasov April 1 2020 19: 22
          0
          A fundamentally new approach is needed to create power plants on radioactive materials. The solution is simple, but fundamental. And so it is not known how many more years or centuries will pass to understand this.
  3. Amateur
    Amateur 14 January 2020 05: 55
    +11
    Technically, they could enrich uranium to weapons-grade quality in Germany. However, the uranium bomb then required too much uranium - to produce 60 kg of highly enriched uranium for an atomic bomb, 10,6 to 13,1 tons of natural uranium were required. ... In the same protocol there is a mention that in 1942 there were 5600 kg of uranium in Germany, obviously, this refers to metallic uranium or in terms of metal. ... In total, the company produced 14 tons of uranium metal in powder, plates and cubes.

    Note to the author
    In May 1940 Belgium was occupied and 1200t fell into Nazi hands. uranium
    concentrate stored at the Olena enrichment plant. It was almost half
    wines of the world uranium reserve. The other half was in Katanga in September
    1940 was secretly transported to New York. It was this ore that served as raw material for
    first atomic bombs.

    Well, everything else, including
    compact energy reactor and thermonuclear weapons.
    from the realm of alternative reality.
    1. Maki Avellevich
      Maki Avellevich 14 January 2020 07: 00
      +4
      Quote: Amateur
      Note to the author
      In May 1940 Belgium was occupied and 1200t fell into Nazi hands. uranium
      concentrate stored at the Olena enrichment plant. It was almost half
      wines of the world uranium reserve.

      like Belgian uranium in the Congo lay and was picked up by the Americans.
      1. Amateur
        Amateur 14 January 2020 07: 55
        +7
        Didn’t you read the paragraph to the end? It also says that the second half of the uranium from Congo was transported to the US
  4. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 14 January 2020 08: 16
    +2
    A compact reactor is, of course, good. But it is completely unclear how the controlled process should be carried out in this scheme, especially, after the first failure, when the core exploded - in the graphite rod circuit, the regulation is carried out by immersing the core in the core, but here how? Nonsense.
    1. bk316
      bk316 14 January 2020 17: 44
      +2
      but here how?

      Exactly as heavy water is also a moderator as well as graphite.
      Only judging by the description, the movement was going to betray the fuel and not the moderator.
      Uranium-heavy water reactors have long been implemented, although the schemes are completely different. Vika to help you laughing
    2. opus
      opus 15 January 2020 21: 08
      +1
      Quote: Aviator_
      in a graphite-rod circuit, the adjustment is done by immersing the rods in the core, but here? Nonsense.

      G-IV and B-VIII reactors:
      In the event of a dangerous heat release, the scientists planned to throw a piece of cadmium into the chimney of the reactor, which could slow down the reaction. If this does not save, the only option was to open the lid and remove the cubes of uranium. This procedure may take up to 10 minutes.

      there (the Germans) had too low a power level and the maximum achieved "choice"

      neutrons:
      Reactor B-VIII: for every 100 neutrons entering the reactor, 670 neutrons emitted.

      Author:

      not quite right
      Dibner (Kurt Diebner - son of confectioner good , a talented nuclear physicist) proved that uranium cubes superior to the plates that Heisenberg used, and that aluminum protective vessels are completely unsuitable.

      A symmetric grid of 108 uranium cubes (metal weight: 232 kg) was frozen in 189 liters of heavy water as a moderator. The neutron yield was significantly higher than in previous Heisenberg experiments in Leipzig.

      Quote: bk316
      Uranium-heavy water reactors have long been implemented, although the schemes are completely different

      44 commercial seem to work?
      KWU circuit
      and candu
  5. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 14 January 2020 08: 22
    +2
    Very detailed and interesting! Clearly not even a professional. Thank you for the article.
  6. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 14 January 2020 08: 47
    +5
    Why did the Germans fail the uranium project?
    Perhaps because they did not know the word narrative! laughing
  7. Doctor
    Doctor 14 January 2020 09: 30
    +8
    Speer. Memories.

    At the suggestion of nuclear scientists, already in the fall of 1942 we refused to work on the atomic bomb. After - the answer to my repeated question about the dates was that it could appear no earlier than in three to four years. By this time, the war should have ended long ago. Instead, I agreed to the development of an energy uranium boiler to propel the machines, to which the Navy showed interest for installation in submarines.
  8. Doctor
    Doctor 14 January 2020 09: 41
    +5
    Depleted uranium core shells are also their invention.

    Speer:

    In the summer of 1943, a critical situation emerged due to the embargo on our imports of tungsten from Portugal - the production of the most important types of products. Then I ordered the use of uranium rods for this class of weapons. The transfer of the industry of uranium reserves with a total volume of about 1200 tons shows that the idea of ​​creating an atomic bomb in the summer of 1943 was already discarded by me and my staff.
  9. BAI
    BAI 14 January 2020 09: 42
    +4
    The author should have immediately voiced an indisputable fact: the reason for the failure of the German nuclear project was Stirlitz’s machinations.
  10. 123456789
    123456789 14 January 2020 11: 19
    +2

    German nuclear project
  11. bubalik
    bubalik 14 January 2020 12: 05
    +3
    ,, so carried U-234, which surrendered to the Americans on May 14, 1945, in addition to mercury, optical glass, lead, zinc, brass, technical documentation Me 262 and Lieutenant General Ulrich Kessler of the Luftwaffe; Colonel Sandraat and Naixling, civilian rocket and jet specialists; and Japanese engineers Hideo Tomonaga and Genzo Shoji from the Imperial Japanese Navy
    560 kg of uranium oxide or not? request
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. ser56
    ser56 14 January 2020 12: 47
    -1
    Thanks for the little-known facts! drinks
  14. Undecim
    Undecim 14 January 2020 13: 22
    +7
    The history of the Third Reich uranium project, as it is usually presented, personally reminds me of a book with torn pages.
    In fact, there is a certain narrative about the German atomic program, which is illogical, in which there are significant inconsistencies, but which is heavily imposed.
    The author clearly read the wrong books, or did not read those at all. German Uranprojekt disassembled not only in detail, it is disassembled to atoms.
    However, some of the information that could be found in publications, including relatively recent studies on the history of German military-technical developments, allows us to look at the German uranium project in a completely different way. The Nazis were primarily interested in a compact energy reactor and thermonuclear weapons.
    An intrigue invented by the author on the go.
    Günter Nagel's extensive and good-quality German work "Wissenschaft für den Krieg", more than a thousand pages based on rich archival material, provides very interesting information about how physicists of the Third Reich envisioned the use of atomic energy.
    This book of seven hundred pages is called "Science for War" and it is not about atomic energy at all. This is a book about the activities of the Office of Armaments of the Ground Forces, in which the author of Uranprojekt is devoted to only two chapters.
    And Nagel has a completely different book about the German uranium project - "Das geheime deutsche Uranprojekt 1939-1945 - Beute der Alliierten" - "Secret German uranium project 1939-1945 - Allied mining".
    But this book is not about “The Nazis were primarily interested in a compact power reactor and thermonuclear weapons.".
    The Department of Land Armaments immediately became interested in the uranium fission reaction, which launched the German uranium project and, first of all, set the task for scientists to determine the areas of application of atomic energy. This was given by Karl Becker, head of the Department of Land Armaments, President of the Imperial Research Council and General of Artillery. The instruction was fulfilled by theoretical physicist Siegfried Flyugge, who in July 1939 made a report on the use of atomic energy, drew attention to the enormous energy potential of the fissionable atomic nucleus and even drew up a sketch of a "uranium machine", that is, a reactor.
    The author does not own the question at all.
    The idea of ​​using the "uranium machine" was put forward in his article in April 1939 by the physicist Wilhelm Hanle. It was she who served as the impetus for the creation of a group of scientists under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Education and Public Education of the Third Reich, known under the unofficial name of the "uranium club" - Uranverein, which included Walter Bot, Robert Döpel, Hans Geiger, Wolfgang Gentner, Wilhelm Hanle, Gerhard Hoffmann, Georg Juice; Peter Debye.
    Officially, the group was called Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Kernphysik - a working group on nuclear physics.
    It was this group that began to develop potential options for the use of nuclear reactions, including for military purposes.
    At the same time, proposals on the military use of nuclear reactions came to the Imperial Ministry of Arms from physicists Hartek and Grotto.
    As a result, in September 1939, already under the leadership of the military, all work was consolidated into the German nuclear program or Uranprojekt.
    By 1942, it became completely clear that creating nuclear weapons in the next four to five years would not work, so research in this direction was significantly reduced and scientists focused on three programs - production of uranium and heavy water, separation of uranium isotopes and the development of a nuclear reactor. It is no accident that the author in the article almost all events begin in 1942.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 14 January 2020 18: 53
      +6
      Erich Schumann, the head of the research department of the Department of Land Forces, put forward the idea that you can try to use light elements, such as lithium, for a thermonuclear reaction, and to ignite it without using a nuclear charge. In October 1943, Schumann launched active research in this direction, and physicists subordinate to him tried to create the conditions for a thermonuclear explosion in a cannon-type device, in which two cumulative charges shot towards the barrel, collided, creating high temperature and pressure. According to Nagel, the results were impressive, but insufficient to start a thermonuclear reaction. An implosive regimen was also discussed to achieve the desired results. Work in this direction was discontinued in early 1945.
      In this paragraph it is clearly seen that the author does not understand the essence of the question at all.
      The proposal of Erich Schumann and Walter Trinks to a thermonuclear bomb, that is, a fusion reaction, had nothing to do.
      The point was to start the fission reaction without reaching a critical mass.
      As you know, to start a self-sustaining fission chain reaction, it is necessary that the neutron multiplication factor be greater than unity or equal to unity. This requires a certain minimum mass of fissile material.
      Schumann and Trinks developed the concept of a nuclear charge. To initiate it, they proposed to establish two cumulative charges facing each other. The explosion products in the form of lithium-6 were mixed at a speed of up to 10 kilometers per second. At such pressures and temperatures, lithium-6 in the presence of deuterium intensively emits neutrons, that is, the same critical mass effect is achieved as in a conventional nuclear warhead, but a critical mass is not required.

      That is, no synthesis reactions that fundamentally distinguish a thermonuclear bomb from a nuclear one, where fission reactions take place, are out of the question and the author of the article simply misinforms the reader.
      By the way, all the participants in the nuclear program of the Third Reich after the war worked either in the USA or in the USSR.
      In particular, Professor G. Herz, Professor M. Volmer, Professor P. Döpel, Professor H. Pose, Professor M. von Ardenne, Professor P. Thyssen, M. Steenbeck, N. Riel and many others worked in the USSR.
      Naturally, they all left detailed reports with the relevant authorities. By the way, the reports of scientists who came to the USA are already declassified and available for study. As for the USSR, the data is still classified.
      In addition, many of the physicists participating in the German nuclear program wrote detailed memoirs in which no one denies the question of creating nuclear weapons.
      That is, in principle, the stages of the nuclear program of the Third Reich have long been well studied.
      But still there are those who want to concoct a sensation from the question.
      1. Jager
        Jager 13 March 2020 20: 06
        0
        Well, write an article about it, as it was in fact, and we will read with pleasure! soldier
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 13 March 2020 20: 27
          0
          I don’t write articles for the site anymore, in any case so far there is no desire.
  15. Operator
    Operator 14 January 2020 15: 18
    +2
    Uranprojekt - there is no money for nuclear weapons, so train while on cats (models of a nuclear reactor) laughing
  16. Fishery
    Fishery 14 January 2020 16: 14
    -3
    would not infringe on the Jews, perhaps a nuclear bomb would be)
    1. 32363
      32363 14 January 2020 20: 32
      +1
      Quote: Tonya
      would not infringe on the Jews, perhaps a nuclear bomb would be)

      due to the fact that they were nipped and flourished by pre-war Germany.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 15 January 2020 01: 56
        +5
        Pre-war Germany flourished thanks to Hitler’s refusal to pay reparations and government programs such as the construction of autobahns and defense industry plants. When there was not enough money for this, they annexed Austria. Then they took Poland. Etc.
  17. Tarasios
    Tarasios 14 January 2020 19: 29
    0
    Quote: Monar
    And it doesn’t matter what is meant. Germany went east to destroy everyone and everything. And they went to Moscow and Leningrad with the goal of destroying everyone. And take down the cities from the world map.
    So blah blah blah about "grab" the lies. And to assert that this was the reason for not creating yadrenbaton is so far-fetched that it is not even funny.

    well, you know - to tear down a city, even as huge as Moscow, and turn a large area into a dead and dangerous desert - these are two big differences. By the way - Paris, for example, practically did not resist - that's why the whole remained. Another thing is Moscow, Leningrad, etc.
    1. Jager
      Jager 13 March 2020 20: 05
      0
      The Germans had a completely different relationship with the French.
  18. shinobi
    shinobi 15 January 2020 05: 58
    0
    History does not suffer a subjunctive mood. Did the Nazis have the opportunity to create nuclear weapons? Had. But they could not or did not want to, the question is different and does not relate to history at all.
    1. wehr
      15 January 2020 10: 51
      +1
      Just the analysis of the question of whether they could not or did not want to, is the main question of history.
      1. shinobi
        shinobi 17 January 2020 12: 16
        0
        History and Science History, essence are different things. History, this is a set of bare facts about past events. Science History, this is an interpretation of these facts for the sake of political conjuncture. Kamrad, what story are you talking about?
        1. wehr
          17 January 2020 12: 26
          0
          Politicized interpretations are definitely not a science.
          It is very difficult to establish the facts of history: to separate the reliable from the unreliable, to establish the completeness and correct order of the facts, to find out the interconnections between them, including those that are not obvious.
          If this is not done, then any interpretation will be nonsense.
  19. gas113
    gas113 30 March 2020 19: 03
    0
    The entire German uranium project is described in the book "Virus Wing" by D. Irving. It seemed to me that the whole failure of the project was due to the lack of attention to it and the absence of a real Project Administrator in Germany at that time. The uranium shortage could be solved by collecting all the uranium under the control of one person. With heavy water, too, could be solved. Rejecting graphite as a moderator was a serious mistake, but not fatal. The bureaucracy has done its job and the result is clear to everyone
    1. gas113
      gas113 30 March 2020 19: 09
      0
      At one time I read Viral Wing excitedly, he was cooler than a detective. Just at that time they showed on TV an expedition to the ferry "Hydro" sabotage on which is also described in the book. Already goosebumps went when I read and saw the same on TV. There are coincidences!