Karl XII and his army

Karl XII and his army

Article Cruel lesson. Russian and Swedish armies in the battle of Narva little was told about the state of the Swedish army at the end of the XNUMXth century. This army, which was perfectly organized and capable of solving the most complex tasks, was received by Charles XII from its predecessors, and before the start of the Northern War, he was practically not interested in its state and level of combat training. And in the future, this king did not bring practically anything new either to her organization or to tactics: he used his army as a ready-made tool, and, having completed a number of feats, he finally destroyed it. Not without reason, many researchers are extremely critical of the military talents of Charles XII - some, perhaps, more critical than he deserves. So, Voltaire, for example, recognizing Carl as the most amazing of people, spoke of him:


"A brave, desperately brave soldier, no more."

And Guerrier considered him a worthless strategist, saying that the only plan of Charles XII in all his campaigns "was always the desire to beat the enemy where he meets." And with the Swedish army of those years, it was not very difficult.

Father's gift


As we recall from the above article, the first step in the formation of a regular Swedish army was made by Leo Severus - Gustav II Adolf, who, the first in the world, realized the idea of ​​a recruitment set.


King of Sweden Gustav II Adolf, portrait from the Boymans Museum, Rotterdam

And King Charles XI, the father of our hero (great-grandfather of the Russian emperor Peter III), replaced periodic recruiting sets with the constant duty of peasants to support the royal army (allotment system). It happened in 1680. Then the land in Sweden and Finland was divided into plots (inelts), in which groups of peasant households were called “roteholl”: each of these groups had to send one soldier to the king and incur expenses for its maintenance. A group of peasant households, containing one cavalryman, was called "rusthall." The family of recruits indente allocated a plot of land in compensation. The soldiers of each province were reduced to regiments that bore its name - for example, Upplandian. Weapon and the necessary equipment was issued by the state.


Equipment of the Swedish infantryman, circa 1690. Stockholm Army Museum

In peacetime, the rank and file of the Swedish army were called up for training camps once a year, the rest of the time they worked at their own site or were hired by their neighbors. But in peacetime officers and non-commissioned officers received a salary, which was paid to them by peasants by a group of courtyards assigned to them. They lived in houses specially built for them. Such a house was called "Bostel."

During the war, the Indelts sent a new recruit to the king, who was trained to join the ranks of his regiment. In total, if necessary, up to five recruits could be called up from each indelti: from the third, temporary wartime regiments were formed, which were not called the provinces, but their commander, the fourth served to make up for losses, the fifth were used to form new regiments.

Thus, it was Karl XI who made the Swedish army the most modern and perfect combat vehicle in Europe.


David Klöcker Ehrenstral. Charles XI of Sweden

The effectiveness of the allotment system was so high that it existed until the XNUMXth century.
The Swedish historian Peter Englund in his work Poltava. The story of the death of one army ”writes about the state of affairs in the country and the state of the army, which was at the disposal of Charles XII:

"Never before in his stories the country was no longer combat-ready. The persistent reforms of Charles XI led to the fact that the country had a large, well-trained and armed army, an impressive fleet and a new military financing system that could withstand huge initial costs. ”

We all know Carl XI from childhood, from the book of the writer Salma Lagerlef “Travel of Niels with Wild Geese” and her Soviet film adaptation of the animated film “Enchanted Boy”: this is the same monument that chased Niels through the streets of the night Karlskrona.


The revived monuments to Karl XI and the old man Rosenbom in the Soviet cartoon "Enchanted Boy"

This is a book illustration for the tale of S. Lagerlöf:


And here is what these sculptures actually look like:


Monument to Karl XI in Karlskrona founded by him


Admiralty Church Karlskrona and old man Rosenbom


Old Man Rosenbom (Gubben Rosenbom) - a wooden sculpture of the middle of the XVIII century at the Admiralty Church of Karlskrona. Under the hat of Rosenbaum is a slot for coins, in the hand is a plate that says:

“Passerby, stop, stop!
Come to my weak voice!
Raise my hat,
Put a coin in the crack! ”

And in the Soviet cartoon, the statue of Rosenbaum was placed at the tavern - apparently so as not to embarrass the minds of young viewers and avoid accusations of "religious propaganda."

Charles XI was the first of the Swedish kings to proclaim himself autocratic and, "before no one on earth who is not responsible for his actions." Unlimited power passed to his son and allowed him to wage the Northern War, ignoring the Riksdag and public opinion. And it cost Sweden a lot. A not too populated country lost during the war years from 100 to 150 thousand young and healthy men, which put it on the verge of a demographic catastrophe.

Swedish army in the Northern War: composition and strength


Entering the Northern War, Charles XII had an army of 67 thousand people, with 40% of his soldiers being mercenaries.

What were the structure and composition of his army?

The number of professional Swedish soldiers under Charles XII reached 26 thousand people (18 thousand infantry and 8 thousand cavalry), another 10 thousand were supplied by Finland (7 thousand infantry and 3 thousand cavalry).

In addition to the indent regiments, the Swedish army included the "regiment of the noble banner" (which the aristocrats were supposed to finance) and the estate dragoon regiments, the maintenance of which was the duty of small noblemen and priests (Skonsky and Upplandsky).


Squadron of the South Ossetian regiment, painted tin figures

Mercenary soldiers were recruited in the Ostsee provinces (Estonia, Livonia, Ingermanland) and in the Germanic possessions of the Kingdom of Sweden - in Pomerania, Holstein, Hesse, Mecklenburg, Saxony.

It was believed that German regiments were worse than Swedish and Finnish, but better than Ostseey.

But artillery and Karl XI, and his much more famous son were underestimated. Both kings believed that with proper combat, the guns simply won’t keep pace with the infantry and, especially, the cavalry, and used them mainly in the siege of fortresses, or for fire against the enemy who had hidden behind the trenches.


Mark Grives. Swedish artillery during the Great Northern War

This underestimation of the role of artillery played a large role in the defeat of the Swedish army near Poltava: in this battle, the Swedes used only 4 guns, and according to various sources, from 32 to 35 were available.

The number of sailors under Charles XII reached 7: 200 Swedes and 6 Finns. Before the start of the Northern War, the military fleet Sweden included 42 battleships and 12 frigates.

The elite of the Swedish army were the guards: the Life Guards on foot regiment (three battalions of 700 people, then four battalions) and the horse regiment regiment (3 squadrons of about 1700 people).

However, the most privileged and famous fighting unit of the Swedes at that time was a detachment of drabants. This unit was created back in 1523 - by decree of King Gustav I, but it was most famous during the reign of Charles XII. The number of drabants never exceeded 200 people, but usually there were only 150 of them. Each ordinary drabant was considered equal in rank to army captain. The king himself was the commander of the drabants, and his deputy, with the rank of lieutenant commander, was Major General Arvid Gorn.


Johan David Swartz. Arvid Bernhard Horn, Lieutenant Commander of the Drabants of King Charles XII. Army Museum, Stockholm

Other officers in the Drabant squad were a lieutenant (colonel), a quartermaster (lieutenant colonel), six corporals (lieutenant colonels) and six vice-corporals (majors).

Protestant officers, famous for their bravery, could grow from 175 to 200 cm tall (at that time they should have seemed like giants). Since Charles XII was very reluctant to give permission for marriage even to army officers, all the drabants were single.


Drabant


Drabantverja - sword of the Swedish drabant, 1701. These swords were made at the weapons factory in Norrköping

Unlike the court guards of other countries, the Swedish drabants were not "toy soldiers", performing only ceremonial and representative functions. In all battles they fought in the most dangerous directions. Drabants became famous in the battles of Gumlebek (1700), Narva (1700), Dune (1701), Klishev (1702), Pulutsk (1703), Puntze (1704), Lvov (1704), Grodno (1708), Golovchino (1708) .

The battle at Krasnokutsk (February 11, 1709) was especially revealing, when, not listening to the orders of the king, the dragoons of the German recruited Taube ran, unable to withstand the blows of the Russian cavalry. Karl, who fought with his drabants, almost fell into encirclement, but, in the end, they overthrew the Russians and persecuted them for a long time. In this desperate pilothouse, 10 drabants were killed fighting alongside the king.

It is not surprising that when Karl was asked not to move away from the main forces so as not to endanger his life, he always answered:

“When at least nine people of my squad are with me, no power will prevent me from getting where I want to.”

Legends were composed about the courage and deeds of the drabants in Sweden. One of them was especially famous - Gintersfelt. It was said that he could lift a cannon on his shoulder and once, having driven into the arches of the city gates, grabbed the iron hook with his thumb and lifted himself along with the horse.

The number of drabants was constantly decreasing, in the battle of Poltava only a hundred fought, but, under their blow, the Pskov regiment moved back. Their attack was led by Lieutenant Karl Gustav Chord. In the battle, 14 drabants were killed and four were injured. Six drabants were captured, where everyone treated them with emphasized respect, persuading them to become instructors and teachers of Russian officers.

In Bendery with the king were 24 drabant. On February 1, 1713, during the tragicomic “battle” of Charles XII with the Janissaries, which went down in history under the name “Kalabalyk,” Drabant Axel Eric Ros saved the life of his king three times (this was described in the article "Vikings" against the Janissaries. The incredible adventures of Charles XII in the Ottoman Empire).


Charlex_xii_at_bender


Historical War Memorial Complex Bendery Fortress. Swedish drabant mannequin

And in 1719, at the time of Karl’s death, only a few drabants survived.


Bengt Nordenberg. Old Carolyn talking about his campaigns in the Great Northern War. Illustration for Esayas Tegner's poem Axel

Apparently, imitating Charles XII, Peter I, before the coronation of Catherine I (in May 1724), created a company of Drabants, the captain of which he appointed himself. Then this company was renamed the "cavalry guard." And later, drabants in the Russian army began to be called messengers and orderlies.

The fighting qualities of the army of Charles XII


The Swedish troops were preparing as shock units, aimed at solving offensive tasks. Since the effectiveness of the muskets of those years was low (the reloading process was long, and the effective range of the shot did not exceed, at best, 100, but often 70 steps), the main emphasis was placed on a massive strike using edged weapons. The armies of other states at that time lined up in lines that fired alternately, standing still. The Swedes went on the offensive with four lines that followed one after another, and the soldiers of the last of them did not have muskets. They did not stop under fire, and continued to walk, until they found themselves fifty meters from the enemy. Here, the first two lines gave a volley (the first - from the knees, the second - standing) and immediately retreated behind the third and fourth. The third line fired from a distance of 20 meters, literally mowing the ranks of the enemy. Then the caroliners rushed into hand-to-hand combat. And then the Swedish cavalry entered the battle, which overturned the frustrated ranks of the enemy and completed the rout.


Attack of the Swedish cavalry, exposition at the Stockholm Army Museum.
These are the cavalrymen of the first line, who, according to the military regulations, held broadswords or swords with a point to the enemy and on an outstretched arm. The cavalrymen of the second and third ranks held their swords with their blades up

This method of warfare required the soldiers to be well trained, strict discipline and high morale - with all these indicators the Swedes of those years were in full order. Regimental priests convinced the soldiers that their life and death were in the hands of God, and that nothing depended on the enemy, nor on the commanders, nor on themselves. And therefore, one should simply honestly fulfill one's duty, fully entrusting oneself to Divine predestination. Failure to attend church sermons or services was considered a violation of military discipline, and they could be shot for blasphemy.

The soldiers of the Swedish army even had a special prayer:

"Give me and all those who will fight against our enemies together with me straightforwardness, good luck and victory, so that our enemies see that You, Lord, are fighting with us for those who rely on You."

And before the battle, the whole army sang a psalm:

“With the hope of help, we call the Creator,
Created land and sea,
He strengthens our hearts with courage
Otherwise, grief would have awaited us.
We know we’re acting for sure
The foundation of our business is strong.
Who can knock us over? ”



Gustaf Cederstrom. Swedish soldiers before the battle

Charles XII brought the offensive tactics of the Swedes to the point of absurdity. He never made orders in case of a retreat and did not appoint an assembly point for his troops, which they would have to go in case of failure. Retreat signals were prohibited even during maneuvers and exercises. Any retreat was considered a deserter, and before the battle the soldiers received one single command from Karl:

“Come on guys with God!”

"A little prince"


In the Scandinavian sagas we often mention the twin of the main character: Vapenbroder - “brother in arms”, or Fosterbroder - “brother in education”. Charles XII also had his own Vapenbroder - Maximilian Emanuel, Duke of Württemberg-Vinental, who at the age of 14 arrived at his camp near Pultusk in the spring of 1703. Karl immediately set up a test, weary of a long and dear young duke, which consisted of an hour-long detour of the Swedish outposts. Maximilian withstood this exhausting leap, and already on April 30 participated in the Battle of Pultusk. Since then, he has always been close to his idol, the Swedish soldiers gave him the nickname Lillprinsen - "The Little Prince".


Maximilian Emanuel, Duke of Württemberg-Vinental

Maximilian took part in Karl’s campaigns in Lithuania, Polesie, Saxony and Volhynia. He participated in the capture of Thorne and Elbing, one of the first to enter Lviv. And once he saved Charles XII, who almost drowned, crossing the river.

After the conclusion of the Altranstedt Peace in 1706, he visited his homeland for the last time, having spent 5 weeks in Stuttgart, and then went on a tragic campaign with Karl, ending in the battle of Poltava.

On June 18, 1708, the prince was wounded while crossing the Berezina. With an unhealed wound on July 4, he took part in the battle of Golovchin. Managed to get the rank of colonel of the Skonsky Dragoon Regiment. In the Battle of Poltava, he fought on the left flank, with the last hundred remaining cavalrymen he was surrounded, captured, and at first Russian was mistaken for Charles XII.

Peter I was very merciful to Prince Maximilian, and soon released him. But the young duke fell ill on the road and died in Dubno, not reaching Württemberg. He was buried in Krakow, but then his remains were transferred to the church of the Silesian city of Pitchen, which is now part of Poland and is called Bychina.


The Silesian town of Byčina, which was transferred to Poland after World War II. Modern photography

The Vikings of King Charles XII



Axel Sparre Portrait of Charles XII
Portrait of Charles XII, painted by General Axel Sparre, commander of one of the infantry columns in the Battle of Poltava. Karl promised him the governor of Moscow

How did Charles XII feel about the soldiers and officers of his magnificent army?

On the one hand, he was remembered by the caroliners for his generosity. So, in 1703, a wounded captain received 80 ricks dealers, a wounded lieutenant - 40, a wounded soldier - 2 ricks dealers. Rewards to servicemen who were not injured were halved.

The king received funds for the army from two sources. The first was their own people: taxes for all segments of the population were constantly increasing, and government officials under Charles XII did not receive a salary for months — like state employees in Yeltsin Russia. The second source of income was the population of the conquered regions.

In the spring of 1702, Karl instructed General Magnus Stenbock, who was sent to collect indemnity in Volyn, as follows:

“You must ruin all the Poles that you come across so that they remember the visit to the goat for a long time.”

The fact is that the name Stenbock in Swedish means "stone goat."


And the king wrote to Karl Ronschild:

“If instead of money you will take some things, then you should evaluate them below the cost in order to raise the indemnity. Anyone who delays in delivery or is generally offensive in any way should be punished cruelly and without mercy, and their houses will be burned. If they begin to dissuade that the Poles have already taken everything from them, then they should be forced to pay again, and twice against the others. The places where you meet resistance must be burned, whether the residents will be guilty or not. ”

It should be said that Karl Gustav Rönschild, whom Englund called “a highly competent commander,” but “unfriendly and arrogant,” did not really need such instructions. His brutality, he stood out even against the background of his, not at all kind-hearted "colleagues." It was on his orders that after the battle of Fraustadt all Russian prisoners were killed.


David von Kraft. Field Marshal Karl Gustav Rönschild

On the other hand, leading an extremely strict and ascetic way of life, Charles XII did not pay any attention to the plight of his soldiers suffering from hunger, cold and illness.

“What else did they expect? The service is like that, ”the king apparently thought.

And since he completely shared with his soldiers and officers all the difficulties of camp life, his conscience was clear.

And in November, Karl usually slept in the tent left by his grandfather (even if it was possible to accommodate in some house), often on hay, straw or spruce branches. As a source of heat, hot cores were used, and, even if they did not help, Karl escaped from the cold by horse riding. For weeks he did not take off his boots, did not change his wet suit, and sometimes the king was not recognized in him, referring to one of the retinue officers. The king did not drink wine, his usual food was bread and butter, fried lard and mash, he ate on tin or zinc dishes.

But for some reason the soldiers did not feel any better.

Magnus Stenbock wrote in 1701:

“During the attack on Augdow, the Swedes had to spend 5 days in the open. Last night, 3 people froze; 80 officers and soldiers froze their hands and feet, and the rest were so numb that they were not able to operate a gun. In my entire squad no more than 100 people are fit for service. ”

Colonel Posse complains:

“Despite all kinds of hardships and such a cold that the water freezes in the huts, the king does not want to let us into winter apartments. I think that if he had only 800 people left, then he would have invaded Russia with them, not caring about how they would live. And if someone is killed, then he takes it to heart just as little as if it were a louse, and never regrets such a loss. This is how our king looks at the matter, and now I foresee what end awaits us. "

The Curse of Narva


There is ample evidence that Charles XII did not like victories that came with "little blood." And therefore, he seemed to play "giveaways", throwing his troops into battle in the most unfavorable circumstances, and he risked his life many times. The fact that this leads to unjustified losses did not bother the king at all and did not upset him. After the battle of Narva in November 1700 (it was described in the article Cruel lesson. Russian and Swedish armies in the battle of Narva) he considered the Russians weak and therefore "uninteresting" opponents. Therefore, he concentrated all his efforts on the war with King Augustus.

And his rival, Peter I, did not lose time, and the Russian troops inflicted more and more serious and sensitive blows on the Swedes. However, not only Karl XII, but also all the "military experts" of Europe did not attach due importance to these successes.

Meanwhile, already on December 30, 1701, the Russian army under the command of B. Sheremetev won the first victory in the battle of Erestfer.

In July 1702, the captured Arkhangelsk fishermen Ivan Ryabov and Dmitry Borisov, forced to act as pilots, ran aground two enemy frigates - directly opposite the newly built coastal battery. After a 10-hour shelling, the Swedes left the damaged ships, on which the Russians found 13 cannons, 200 cores, 850 strips of iron, 15 pounds of lead and 5 flags. Borisov was shot by the Swedes, Ryabov jumped into the water, got to the shore and was put in jail for violating the order to go to sea.

Around the same time, the Swedes were defeated at Gummelshof.

On October 11, 1702, Nieburg was stormed (renamed Shlisselburg), and in the spring of 1703 the Nyenschanz fortress located at the confluence of the Okhta and Neva was taken - now Russia controlled the Neva in its entire course. In mid-May 1703, a fortress was laid at the mouth of this river, from which a new city and the new capital of the state, St. Petersburg, grew.

In May of the same year, two Swedish ships were captured at the mouth of the Neva by Russian soldiers in 30 boats, under the command of Peter and Menshikov. It was in honor of this victory in Russia that a medal with the inscription: “Unprecedented - happens” was knocked out.


L. Blinov. "The capture of the bot" Gedan "and the slobs" Astrild "at the mouth of the Neva." Central Naval Museum

In June 1703, 6 Russian regiments, including Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky, repelled the attack of a 4-strong Swedish detachment, which attacked Russian forces from the Vyborg side near the mouth of the Neva - Swedish losses amounted to about two thousand people.

As a result of these actions, at the end of 1703, Russia regained control of Ingria, and in the summer of 1704 the Russian army entered Livonia: Derpt and Narva were taken.

In May 1705, 22 Swedish warships landed on the island of Kotlin, where the Russian naval base Kronstadt was being built. The soldiers of the local garrison under the command of Colonel Tolbukhin threw the Swedes into the sea, and the Russian squadron of Vice Admiral Cornelius Kruys drove off the Swedish fleet.


K.I. Kruys, a native of Stavanger, hired by Peter I in Amsterdam to serve in Russia during the Great Embassy, ​​the first commander of the Baltic Fleet

On July 15, 1705, the Swedish troops under the command of Levengaupt at Gemauerthof defeated the Sheremetev army, but the Swedish general did not dare to pursue the Russians and retreated to Riga.

In 1706, the Russian-Saxon army was defeated at the Battle of Fraunstadt (February 13), but won the battle at Kalisz (October 18), and General Mardenfeld, then commander of the Swedish forces, was captured.

In the fall of 1708, the Swedes for the last time tried to drive the Russians out of the Neva estuary, attacking the newly built Petersburg forces of the 13th corps commanded by General Georg Lübecker. Russian troops, under the command of Admiral F.M. Apraksin, repelled this attack. Before leaving, the Swedish cavalrymen killed 6 thousand horses, which they could not put on ships.


Zhukovsky R.K. Portrait of F.M. Apraksin

All these years, the Swedish army was losing the most experienced and trained soldiers and officers. The recruits supplied by the indentals could not serve as a full replacement. The state is poor. All sectors of the population were poor - the nobility, clergy, artisans and peasants. Solvent demand fell, and therefore trade fell into decay. There was already not enough money even for the proper maintenance of warships.

And the Russian army at that time was rapidly progressing and gaining combat experience. Despite the difficulties, the modernization of industry yielded results.

But, while Sweden had its formidable army and experienced commanders, the situation did not seem quite so bad. It seemed that a few more high-profile victories (in which no one doubted) - and a profitable peace would be concluded that would reward the Swedes for all hardships and hardships.

In Europe, everyone was also sure of the victory of Charles XII. When his army went on the last Russian campaign for her, pamphlets appeared in Saxony and Silesia, in which on behalf of the Dnieper River it was said that the Russians were ready to flee at the sight of a hero king. And at the end, the Dnieper even exclaimed: “Let the water level in me from Russian blood rise in me!”

Peter I, although he considered the “miracle of God” the fact that both Karl and all the European ill-wishers of Russia “overlooked” its strengthening, was in a very serious mood, and also allowed the possibility of defeat. On his orders in Moscow, dilapidated fortifications were hastily put in order, his son Aleksey supervised these works (the prince was 17 years old at that time, but he managed).

Everything changed in 1709, when the Swedish army of Karl and the Levengaupt corps were defeated and lost to Sweden, the best Swedish commanders were captured, and the king himself, for unknown reasons, was “stuck” in the Ottoman Empire for several years. Sweden still frantically resisted, giving up almost the last young and healthy men to the army, but it was already on the road leading to the inevitable defeat.

The Russian campaign of Charles XII and the death of his army will be described in the next article.
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  1. GKS 2111 12 January 2020 06: 36 New
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    +13
    "The only plan of Charles XII in all his campaigns "was always the desire to beat the enemy where he meets." And with the Swedish army of those years, it was not very difficult."
    All the more valuable is the victory of Russian weapons at Gangut and Poltava!
    1. Mountain shooter 12 January 2020 20: 31 New
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      Quote: GKS 2111
      All the more valuable are the victories of Russian weapons under Gangut and Poltava

      Victory over a strong opponent is doubly more valuable. Why did Karl wage these wars? It makes no sense? As a result, he lost everything, and even the circumstances of his death are very doubtful.
      1. Kronos 13 January 2020 18: 55 New
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        +1
        The character was so adventurous loved war and adventure
  2. Catfish 12 January 2020 06: 48 New
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    +13
    Good morning everybody! And Happy New Year! drinks

    Valery Gran Merci for a new interesting and extensive article! I ran and ran, now I’ll make coffee and sit down in a more specific way. hi
  3. Korsar4 12 January 2020 07: 28 New
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    +9
    A good link to the Lagerlef book, and the image comes to life. Yet the Word is conquering the World. If the picture has not yet replaced it.
    1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 15: 09 New
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      +2
      Already replaced, even on our generation it is reflected, the subsequent - "visualists", from the word "completely".
      1. Korsar4 12 January 2020 15: 15 New
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        +1
        Interestingly, but does this phenomenon have positive aspects?
        1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 15: 19 New
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          +1
          Probably there is. That's just for us, as representatives of the outgoing era, it is difficult to understand.
          1. Korsar4 12 January 2020 16: 53 New
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            +1
            "The vigilance of this era is rooted in those
            Times incapable of total blindness
            To distinguish falling from cradles from falling cradles "(c).
        2. Trilobite Master 12 January 2020 17: 44 New
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          Quote: Korsar4
          If the picture has not yet replaced it.

          Replaces gradually, but not just an ordinary picture, but a moving, albeit flat. The next stage is the hologram, i.e. three-dimensional picture, accompanied by appropriate sounds, smells, etc. Full immersion.
          Quote: Korsar4
          But does this phenomenon have positive aspects?

          Yeah. If we consider it positive that everyone is "putting" everything. smile
          Technology kills fantasy. There is no need to try to imagine, for example, the Nazgul, since he already exists and most of the children saw him in the cinema before they heard the name. The same, for example, can be said of dragons, and of any fabulous or fantastic phenomena. Create independent images, fantasize, there is no need, respectively, fantasy atrophies. The next generation of “dreamers” is becoming smaller, and their fantasies are becoming more primitive and simpler - this, by the way, is already noticeable now, for example, by the number of remakes in cinema or films based on old comics. Ideas, fresh ideas, are sorely lacking.
          What could be good about this? Should this phenomenon, according to the dialectic, have a certain positive side? smile
          In fact, we are dealing with the effect when, thanks to modern technologies, the own, individual consciousness of most people is replaced by a certain information product created by a minority. Despite all the shortcomings of this phenomenon, it also has something purely positive, for example, that a lot of people are becoming more manageable, it’s easier to tune in to the necessary activity, thereby making it possible to implement larger-scale projects, qualitatively new, requiring the organized participation of many and of many people. If each member of society is a "creator", i.e. an independent person with his own opinion on each issue, such a society cannot be brought to a common denominator - conflicts, disputes, in short, “once a swan, cancer and pike ...” are inevitable, the main consequence of this situation is the inability to implement global projects of a planetary scale.
          1. bubalik 12 January 2020 17: 54 New
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            +6
            hi
            some information product created by a minority

            the consequence of this situation is the inability to implement global projects of a planetary scale

            A. Azimov "Profession"
            1. Phil77 14 January 2020 19: 49 New
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              0
              Quote: bubalik
              A. Azimov

              Who is this? Business? In the law? / Inn on Pyatnitskaya / laughing
          2. Korsar4 12 January 2020 18: 06 New
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            +3
            Now the term has appeared: "Clip thinking." I think the terminology from this series.

            Global systems are evolving. And they require a standard set of functions.

            If you look closely, but think twice - a terrible picture. Hope for innate optimism.
            1. bubalik 12 January 2020 18: 23 New
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              The term appeared: “Clip thinking”

              ,,, and all this was before, especially during training
              , visual aids designed to effectively assimilate content through visualization.
              ,,,, posters in production, especially in safety, in the army, in schools for traffic rules.
              1. Korsar4 12 January 2020 18: 38 New
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                The share of pictures, nevertheless, is growing.

                A good, successful picture is very valuable in training.

                But I agree, it’s dangerous when pictures displace words and formulations.
                1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 19: 57 New
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                  It is not dangerous, it is normal. The evolutionary process. We are witnessing the beginning of the process of changing the mind carrier. Naturally, we, as representatives of the previous media, take this “with hostility”.
                  Too taftologichesko happened, alas ...
                  1. Korsar4 12 January 2020 20: 15 New
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                    +1
                    And in which pond does this same “carrier” sit?
                    1. 3x3zsave 13 January 2020 06: 07 New
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                      +1
                      Sergey, these are not my "cockroaches". There is a fairly harmonious theory, voiced by futurist R. Kurzweil. I am inclined to trust her, if you want to discuss the issue - welcome to the PM!
          3. lucul 13 January 2020 19: 54 New
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            Create independent images, fantasize, there is no need, respectively, fantasy atrophies. The next generation of “dreamers” is becoming smaller, and their fantasies are becoming more primitive and simpler - this, by the way, is already noticeable now, for example, by the number of remakes in the cinema

            Nothing of the sort - if everything had been propagated against the communists before, now it is propagated in the name of tolerance and homosexuality. Everything that refutes them - is cut very cruelly - censorship there has greatly increased.
            That's all and careful - so as not to fall under the distribution .....
  4. Olgovich 12 January 2020 08: 26 New
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    Crazy King ...

    He brought Sweden to ruin with his adventures .....
    1. Deniska999 12 January 2020 09: 59 New
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      And who wasn’t crazy? What historically significant person do not take, everyone had their own oddities.
      1. Olgovich 12 January 2020 11: 27 New
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        Quote: Deniska999
        What is historically significant face do not take it, everyone had their own oddities.

        A non-historical person?

        All human beings.

        But the consequences of each are painfully different.
    2. CTABEP 12 January 2020 11: 40 New
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      What once again confirms - a brave warrior and a good commander is far from always a good ruler.
  5. kalibr 12 January 2020 09: 05 New
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    Very good stuff, Valery!
  6. parusnik 12 January 2020 10: 43 New
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    This underestimation of the role of artillery played a large role in the defeat of the Swedish army near Poltava: in this battle, the Swedes used only 4 guns, and according to various sources, from 32 to 35 were available.
    ... I read from someone that the Swedes used only 4 guns, because the others lacked gunpowder ... and ammunition ...
    1. VLR
      VLR 12 January 2020 10: 55 New
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      No, the fact of the matter is that for one battle there were enough charges for the guns. Karl’s absolutely strange decision, which can only be explained by poor health due to fever caused by wound infection.
      1. parusnik 12 January 2020 15: 48 New
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        He planned to win the battle, saving on ammunition, a strange decision, which does not mean great military capabilities ...
        1. lucul 13 January 2020 19: 57 New
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          He planned to win the battle, saving on ammunition, a strange decision, which does not mean great military capabilities ...

          You do not understand the essence - in Karl’s mriy - all Swedes are alpha males (one cult of drabants is worth what), and they will easily disperse cowardly gamma males - what for do they have guns too? ......
  7. Sergey79 12 January 2020 10: 53 New
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    Thanks to the author.
  8. Operator 12 January 2020 13: 52 New
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    "a tragic campaign ended in a battle at Poltava": an inglorious campaign that ended with the total defeat of Poltava - that’s more correct.

    Question to the author - but where is the analysis of the previous defeats of thousands of Swedish landings on the island of Kotlin and at the mouth of the Neva, when the Swedish moral-volitional qualities and the Swedish recruitment system advertised in the article were merged into the toilet by Russian counterparts? bully
  9. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 14: 31 New
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    Thanks for the article, Valery!

    In May of the same year, two Swedish ships were captured at the mouth of the Neva by Russian soldiers in 30 boats, under the command of Peter and Menshikov.
    Here's what to know! Just the other day, I drove past the Yekaterinhof park, which has a memorial sign in honor of this victory. Could help with authentic illustration. request
  10. Senior seaman 12 January 2020 14: 47 New
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    I have a question about Swedish tactics. The Swedish amnip bayonets appeared almost later than everyone else in Europe. How did they attack?
    1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 15: 00 New
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      Probably, after the volley of the first and second line, the command followed: "To baguettes!"
      My respect, Ivan! hi
    2. VLR
      VLR 12 January 2020 15: 11 New
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      This will be in the next article. But, looking ahead a bit:
      50 cm long bayonets appeared in Swedish guards in 1696, and in soldiers of the rest of the army in 1700.
      1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 15: 14 New
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        Bayonets or baguettes?
        1. VLR
          VLR 12 January 2020 16: 01 New
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          It is the bayonets. Baguettes were adopted in France in 1647 (and appeared in Russia only in 1694), but they were inserted into the barrel of a musket. But the bayonets, which were mounted on the barrel and did not interfere with firing, appeared in France in 1689, in Denmark - in 1690, in Sweden - already wrote when, in Russia - in 1702.
          1. Pane Kohanku 13 January 2020 10: 08 New
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            Valery, thanks for the article. I would like to complement the fortification.
            On his orders in Moscow, dilapidated fortifications were hastily put in order, his son Aleksey supervised these works (the Tsarevich was 17 years old at that time, but he managed).

            A lot of effort was directed at strengthening Pskov, as, in fact, one of the closest cities to the Swedish possessions. The fortifications of the beginning of the XNUMXth century no longer represented formidable power. Therefore, a number of towers were demolished, instead of them, bastions, still preserved, were poured. The Pokrovsky tower (the widest tower of the Okolny city) was covered with soil from the inside! And the bastion near it is called the Petrovskaya Gorka. If someone goes to Pskov, I recommend this place for walks along the promenade - a continuous romantik-s !. drinks
            It seems that Novgorod was also put in order, but there the bastions in front of the Kremlin were poured back under Ivan the Terrible - almost for the first time in Russia. hi
            1. VLR
              VLR 13 January 2020 10: 17 New
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              Yes, of course, Smolensk also strengthened. But the work in Moscow is particularly revealing, you can understand how seriously worried about the campaign of the army of Karl Peter 1
              1. Pane Kohanku 13 January 2020 10: 22 New
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                But the work in Moscow is particularly revealing, you can understand how seriously worried about the campaign of the army of Karl Peter 1

                Well yes. The rapid transition from confidence in victory to fear was such a painful blow. In a hundred years, this will happen in the minds of Tsar Alexander - after Austerlitz ... hi
        2. Pane Kohanku 13 January 2020 18: 13 New
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          Bayonets or baguettes?

          Giffard Printing House, French textbook, 1696. I don’t understand whether he mounts the bayonet or the baguette on the trunk - my French has a double interpretation .. request . But on the wicked musket. But the grenadier in the same textbook, despite the fact that he already has a flintlock gun, goes into battle without a bayonet, but with a sword! soldier
  11. Ryaruav 12 January 2020 16: 09 New
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    Peter 1 is one of the best Russian statesmen
    1. karabass 13 January 2020 19: 24 New
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      Doubtful! After talking with him, foreigners considered him crazy, and his behavior also leads to cheating jacks! Even Petersburg! In his right mind, the emperor would not build a capital in a swamp
      Where it was easier and more efficient to capture Riga, to cut out the population - here is the capital for you, if Moscow was so much opposed to it
  12. Tests 12 January 2020 16: 14 New
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    3x3zsave (Anton), dear, and please send a photo of the memorial sign to Mr. Medinsky and the administration of St. Petersburg. Maybe those who funded the memorial plaque to the Swedish baron Mannerheim, guilty of the siege of Leningrad, wake up the remnants of conscience and they will put the memorial in order. In July 2019, he was in St. Petersburg for the release of his youngest daughter in Makarovka. He was upset when he saw that both the upper and lower left corners were broken off at the sign ...
    It seems that our officials are guided by this logic: "The Chinese are not often in Yekaterinhof, why restore monuments there ..."
    1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 18: 15 New
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      I, however, terribly apologize, but what administration of St. Petersburg do you mean? Over the past year and a half, the administration here has changed a lot.
  13. Tests 12 January 2020 19: 29 New
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    3x3zsave (anton), dear, the falcon Zhirinovsky in the Committee on Culture of St. Petersburg did they bring down? I wildly apologize to the Far North, because of the auroras, news, it happens, arrives late ....
    1. 3x3zsave 12 January 2020 20: 53 New
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      The culture committee in the "cultural capital" has the same influence as the "Salvation Society on the Waters."
      I apologize, but you from which Far North? I was born and raised in the Murmansk region ....
  14. ukoft 12 January 2020 19: 35 New
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    Autocracy has both pros and cons. It turns out that firewood chopped a young grunt according to your article. At the same time, according to the sources, the northern direction was not the main one for Peter. He actually wanted to move more south. And he was far from being the main player in the anti-Swedish alliance. And he did not make big plans. But what happened is what happened. The spiral of history turned there
  15. Silhouette 12 January 2020 20: 12 New
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    The number of sailors under Charles XII reached 7: 200 Swedes and 6 Finns. Before the start of the Northern War, the Swedish Navy included 600 battleships and 600 frigates.

    Numbers do not beat something. Not so many people can serve 42 battleships and 12 frigates.
  16. faterdom 12 January 2020 21: 27 New
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    In general, a king such as Charles XII is Sweden’s misfortune, having given her many brilliant victories, he eventually threw her into second-rate European countries, depriving him of claims for leadership.
    But if once again there was Karl XI with his Rosenboms? He would have grabbed all the central and eastern European lands, then the British Isles, and then he could have split the Bourbons with the Habsburgs ...
    And the real king - in Russia, trampled ...
    1. Kronos 13 January 2020 18: 59 New
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      No, I couldn’t have corny people; there wouldn’t be enough people; the population of Sweden was not big and the size of the army could not compete with the Habsburgs or Russia
  17. Tests 12 January 2020 21: 57 New
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    3x3zsave (anton), my dear man, you and I are almost neighbors! Arkhangelsk region, the city of Severodvinsk - my small homeland. In Severodvinsk, and now I live ...
    The loot committee of the culture of St. Petersburg is sawing in such a way that SEVMASH and Zvyozdochka, together with the Arctic, nervously smoke aside. And you lowered them to the level of public organization ...
    1. 3x3zsave 13 January 2020 06: 01 New
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      I also practically from the White Sea coast. My hometown, Polar Dawns, is 30 km from Kandalaksha.
  18. Sertorius 13 January 2020 05: 28 New
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    Thank you, V.A. for a good article. Particularly interesting was the first part on the basics of the formation of the army of Sweden.
  19. sivuch 13 January 2020 10: 37 New
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    Thanks, interesting. What can be added - after all, the Swedish army was by no means the best European. The author himself does not claim this, so I don’t argue with him, I just read articles where overly zealous patriots capture the Swedes to show who we defeated. Rather, the Swedish army was a strong middle peasant, which was already a lot. Let’s say up to a third of the Swedish infantry was still wielding peaks, as in the Thirty Years. The author correctly noted the artillery weakness.
    About Karl’s strategy - to seek meetings with the enemy, this is true, but there was a continuation - to go directly to the enemy capital, take it and then everything will be fine. But that’s the whole strategy
    1. Kronos 13 January 2020 19: 00 New
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      Yes, as an army, she was where the place is at 5 in the world
  20. faterdom 13 January 2020 20: 09 New
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    Quote: Kronos
    No, I couldn’t have corny people; there wouldn’t be enough people; the population of Sweden was not big and the size of the army could not compete with the Habsburgs or Russia

    He would have put the Germans with the Czechs and Poles under arms - and would not have disappeared.
    Sweden itself is also some kind of surprise - the result of the actions of one stupid and cruel Danish king, as a result of whose actions Denmark permanently rolled into the second category of the state, but Sweden arose.
  21. cat Rusich 13 January 2020 22: 05 New
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    Charles 12 Tactics and Strategy - Blitzkrieg. Napoleon also has a blitzkrieg. Bet on ONE winning battle. As a commander, Karl 12 - no ... As long as the army was big and strong he won ... and another Karl would ... win ... But I’ll try to win with a weak army ...
  22. Singularist 21 January 2020 19: 34 New
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    From time to time I read the portal, mostly news, but then I came across this article. After it, I read all the rest binge. Many thanks to the author!
  23. Yuri Radevich 28 February 2020 23: 56 New
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    Hm. Those. army, where soldiers gather once a year for training camps, the rest of the time they plow and sow, and, as I understand it, it’s very rare for the entire regiment, long distances, that is, trained in the field, is ultramodern and the best? So the regiments of soldiers before Peter were formed on the same principle, but they did not praise something, sometimes they did not even consider them regular. And the archers were not far away, and they lived in settlements, and not just one house in the village.
    Maybe these attacks are from poor preparation? Under Lesnaya there was no bayonet and the Swedes were shot.
  24. Alexander Kozinsky 27 March 2020 12: 50 New
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    The genius of Charles the 12th as a commander is greatly exaggerated. Including due to skillful misinformation, the beginning of which was laid by himself or his headquarters. The battle of Golovchin, Karl himself considered his best victory. Allegedly, having lost 200 killed and 1000 wounded, the Swedes killed 6 thousand Russians. On this subject, I wrote a research article, “The Swedes' Campaign in Poltava: the Battle of Golovchin,” which clearly proves that the Swedes only irretrievably lost more than 1,5 thousand soldiers. There is also a similar research article about the Battle of Good, where it is proved that Peter correctly assessed the losses of the Swedes in it. There is an article “Campaign to Poltava: how many Swedish soldiers laid their heads in Russia”, where the size of the Swedish army and its losses during the “Russian campaign” are conclusively estimated. The Swedes both then and now significantly underestimate the size of both.