Stalin's falcons in the sky of China

Stalin's falcons in the sky of China

Somewhere at a transshipment airport, a group of Soviet volunteers awaiting departure


In the summer of 1937, when a civil war was raging in Spain, the military "incidents" between Japan and China turned into a full-scale war in East Asia. Japan sought to seize the raw materials of its neighbor and get its own territorial benefits. But China was not ready for this war. The industry was in decline, the population lived in extreme poverty, and there was an internal struggle for power in the country between various military groups. Taking advantage of this, the imperial army of Japan occupied Manchuria, some Chinese provinces and, capturing such large coastal cities as Shanghai and Tianjin, advanced into the interior of China. The situation was becoming more than dramatic. The surrender of China would have turned into a subsequent Japanese attack on the USSR from the east, and Germany from the west. And it is not known what else would have ended if we had then fought on two fronts at once. Through the Comintern, the Chinese Communists received the message that assistance to our country would be provided only if they united with the Kuomintang party in a united front against the Japanese invaders. Having received consent from both parties, on September 26, 1937, JV Stalin began a secret operation with the code name "Z".

Air route Alma-Ata - Lanzhou


There were many volunteer pilots who wanted to fight in Spain, so they were invited to go to help the Chinese people in the war with Japan. Mostly party members were selected from the most experienced aviators, mainly flight commanders. Some have already fought in Spain, had their own combat experience and military awards. Volunteers traveled by train to Alma-Ata, and their planes were delivered there unassembled. All worked hard, tirelessly. Together, pilots, navigators, engineers and technicians collected the planes delivered here in boxes. Then they made a flyby, sighting of weapons, refueled with fuel, oil and on the road. The long-haul flight from Alma-Ata through the Tien Shan, Tibet, the Takla-Makan and Gobi deserts was not successful for all crews. One of the first flew Kurdyumov's group. During the flight and landings at intermediate airfields, several planes crashed, the unit commander V. Kurdyumov himself died during landing in Suzhou. His plane at landing did not calculate the speed, rolled out of the strip, turned over and caught fire. Captain Kurdyumov was thrown out of the cab, but he died without regaining consciousness. There was no radio connection with airplanes and lighthouses. Right, left, back and front - only mountains and sand dunes. No matter where you look, not a single landmark. In the event of a loss of course or in the event of an aircraft malfunction, there was nowhere to make an emergency landing. To jump over the mountains, we went with a climb of 6000-7000 m, where even experienced pilots lost their orientation due to lack of oxygen. In the darkness, having run out of fuel, their planes crashed in the mountains. About 3000 km from Alma-Ata to Lanzhou; there were 11 small transshipment air bases along the flight route. The route ran through the desert and mountainous regions of Northwest China. There was no connection between the points of intermediate landings; there was no weather weather reports. At the two airfields in Suzhou and Lianzhou, where gas was so easily delivered by camels through the desert and mountains, the Japanese forced gang hunuz gangs to raid in order to destroy fuel depots and interrupt our air traffic. By the way, there was no fuel in China, it had to be bought from the Americans and a string of gas carriers served on the rocker arms in 20-liter containers from neighboring Indochina.


On a different route, several air groups left Irkutsk via Ulan Bator and Dalan Dzadagad to Chinese Suzhou. Only in April 1938 it was possible to arrange the delivery of goods along the built-up "road of life", the route Alma-Ata - Urumqi - Hami - Suzhou - Lanzhou. Columns of ZIS-5 trucks stretched day and night through Xinjiang province, transporting boxes of I-16 and I-15bis to the first assembly base in Lanzhou and to the second base in Hami, behind which the Gobi Desert began. Arriving aircraft in Lanzhou repainted and affixed Chinese identification marks.


SB-2M-103 in silver color. Chinese markings on the fuselage, wings and rudder

During the period from 1937 to 1940, 1250 combat aircraft were delivered from the USSR to China, including: I-15 fighters (345); I-16 fighters (216); SB bombers (292); DB-3 (24); TB-3 (6).


Soviet heavy bomber TB-3

At the end of 1937, almost a month after the start of the haul, not one of our fighters managed to reach the Chinese front. All planes stood in the snow at the airfield in Chinese Gucheng, not having the opportunity to take off. As well as a group of SB bombers, under the leadership of F.P. Wormwood, hiding from a sandstorm overtaking them on the way, got stuck at the air base in Suzhou.

As early as the beginning of 1937, the Chinese had about five hundred aircraft, as they say, with a pine forest. Long obsolete models of various designs of American, English, French, German and Italian production. These were mainly Curtiss BF2C Goshawk biplanes and American-made Boeing P-26 Peashooter monoplanes with a maximum flight speed of up to 350 km / h. The training of Chinese pilots, mostly coming from wealthy classes, was clearly insufficient in comparison with well-trained Japanese aces. Our pilots said that their Chinese colleagues prayed before departure that they would not meet with Japanese aces in the air. They, at the opportunity, intentionally spoiled their planes, only so as not to fly to certain death. By the beginning of the fighting for the capital, Nanjing, there were only 14. There were Japanese fighters that were superior in speed and quickly destroyed most of the Chinese aircraft and gained complete air supremacy. Japanese bombers, feeling their impunity, leveled Chinese cities and industrial facilities with the earth. By destroying civilians and demoralizing the Chinese army, they ensured the successful advancement of their army inland. This is where our “Stalinist Falcons” came to China.


Soviet volunteer pilots at the Wuhan airport. November 1937

The military leadership of China faced the choice of purchased equipment. Wife Chiang Kai-shek, Ms. Song Maililiin, as Minister aviation of the Kuomintang government, arranged demonstration flights of aircraft of many countries to select the best models of equipment. But the Soviet "Stalinist falcons" managed to win her heart with their article and masterfully executed aerobatics, leaving behind all competitors. Our pilots believe that this is why the choice of aircraft purchased by China was made in favor of the USSR.


"Chinese" pilots


The main strike force in the second Sino-Japanese war was the Soviet high-speed SB bombers, back in Spain affectionately called the Katyusha pilots. They were superior to the main enemy - the Japanese ship fighter I-96 (Mitsubishi A5M) in height (it operated up to 3000-3500 m). The ceiling of our SB in that modification was 10000 m. Two M-100 engines of 860 l / s each with a supercharger and a variable-pitch pitch propeller (VIS) provided a maximum speed of 445 km / h and a flight range of up to 1600 km. Front and rear coaxial machine guns ShKAS (1800 rounds per minute for each barrel), and even the lower machine-gun installation "dagger fire" PV-1. Terrible such "Katyusha" still carried almost a ton of bombs of various calibers. Thanks to the efforts of our craftsmen in China, a way was invented to additionally place home-made container boxes with small high-explosive bombs in the SB cargo compartment, which significantly increased the efficiency of the bombing. In parallel with the flight, training was conducted for the flight crew. At the end of 1937, Soviet pilots were able to train more than forty Chinese recruits from the SB.


The crews of the Chinese SB-2 M-100A are preparing for the start

There were several more four-engine heavy bombers TB-3, distinguished by the fact that they were able to overcome the enemy’s air defense and, flying over the Japanese islands, discard campaign leaflets of anti-war content. Slow-moving and outdated, they were also useful for urgent transfers of heavy goods and transportation of personnel. In the fall of 1939, a group of long-range bombers DB-3 from a height of seven kilometers bombed the Japanese airfield in Hankou three times, destroying 136 enemy aircraft, ammunition depots and fuel.

The air workers of the war were our I-16 monoplane fighters, nicknamed the "Swallow", and the I-15bis "Chizhi" fighter and half-planes. As a rule, the faster I-16s were attacked by a group of Japanese bombers, while the I-15bis group fought with enemy fighters. Our "Swallows" (or "Ishachki") had an advantage in armament, having not only two ShKAS machine guns of 7,62 mm, but also two 20 mm small-caliber high-speed ShVAK guns. The Japanese fighters at that time had no guns yet, losing to us in firepower.


Chinese pilots on the I-15 and I-16 pose near their aircraft

At the beginning of 1938, more than a hundred aircraft were located at the air base in the Hankou area, including 31 bomber under the command of Captain F.P. Polynin. And at two aerodromes in the Nanchang area there were still about ninety aircraft - the bombers of M. G. Machin and the fighters of A. S. Blagoveshchensky.


Volunteer pilots in China (from left to right): A. S. Blagoveshchensky, A. G. Rytov, P. V. Rychagov, F. P. Polynin

Pilots from cadets of the Zhukovsky Moscow Flight Academy, who still had no military experience of their own, were sent to China by so-called Voroshilov business trips. All of them immediately had to study in a real battle against more experienced Japanese aces. The numerical superiority was for a long time on the side of the Japanese, but the forces of our air groups managed to significantly reduce them. Bombers acted decisively and delivered unexpected attacks on airfields, transport communications, concentration of troops, ferries and enemy ships.

Bombed the airfields of Nanjing, Shanghai, Taipei, crossings and raids on the Yangtze River.

Especially the first raids of our bombers were a complete surprise for the Japanese. They believed in their own exclusiveness in the air so much that they did not take care of air defense. On December 2, 1937, two nines of SB bombers, under the command of M. G. Manchin, bombed an airfield in Shanghai under the command of “Nines in the Right Bearing”. At the same time, another nine SBs bombed ships on the Shanghai raid. More than 30 enemy aircraft, fuel depots were destroyed, a Japanese cruiser was sunk, and six more ships caught fire. I had to fly without cover, as fighters were needed to protect their airfields. On their own, they repelled the attacks of Japanese fighters. Four shooters were slightly injured. One of our SBs was hit, but was able to reach the Hangzhou airfield and land safely.

Colonel-General of the Air Force F. I. Drobysh describes the bombing of 26 bombers of the Katyusha SB airfield in Nanjing, occupied by the Japanese (January 1938):

They approached the target at an altitude of 5500 m. The navigator ordered the anti-aircraft maneuver and reported: “I see the bombers, arranged in two rows, from the second airfield I-96 take off.” The enemy opened strong anti-aircraft fire, the gaps lie above and to the right. The navigator Vasiliev gives the command "To bomb".
Airplanes with open hatches seemed to stop. 40 seconds in the anti-aircraft fire zone seems like an eternity. The bombs were aimed.

Destroyed on the ground 48 aircraft, take-off runway, fuel and lubricant depots and ammunition depots. The Japanese managed to bring down one of our bomber, killed three Russian young men.


At the Hankou airfield. From left to right: B. B. Kamonin, Chinese pilot, A. A. Lebedev, translator.

Major General Aviation G.M. Prokofiev recalls:

Japanese planes stood as if on parade, ready for take-off: twin-engine bombers in three lines, fighters in two lines. There were more than a hundred! Ahead and left along the course, from all sides, anti-aircraft shell explosions became visible. They fired anti-aircraft guns of all calibers from all ships, including “non-belligerent” countries: English, French, Italian, American. And suddenly I saw how the right engine abruptly “stuck” on the lead’s plane.

In that battle, Captain Polynin’s plane was shot down. The radiator was broken, and the overheated engine soon jammed. SB sharply began to lose altitude, and he had to make an emergency landing in a swampy meadow with one engine running. To fall into the hands of the Japanese meant a painful death. Cases were known when the Japanese first brutally tortured our surviving pilots and then executed them anyway. Standing ready with a gun, he saw the Japanese and Chinese running from different directions to the plane. The Chinese ran first and drove the Japanese away with shots.

In case of recognition by the Chinese population on the chest of each pilot, a "security certificate" was pinned - a piece of thin silk, scribbled with Chinese characters. It follows from the text that the bearer of the “document” is a foreigner who arrived in China to provide military assistance. And that all military and civilians are obliged to take measures to save him. Wormwood was lucky, and the Chinese, who had run into the SB swamp and sat in the swamp, like ants, stuck around the plane. About three hundred peasants were able to first pull out a multi-ton car from the mud, and then drag it dragging it to the river. There they made wooden gangways, the bomber was rolled onto an old barge and sent to the Chinese captain on receipt along the Yangtze River to Hankow itself. For three days the crew was considered dead, but they returned, and the aircraft was soon delivered to the base by water too.

Heading to Formosa


The most famous operation of Soviet pilots was the destruction of the main Japanese air force base in Taipei (in Japanese Taihoku) on the island of Formosa (Taiwan). The air group of high-speed bombers was commanded by Captain Fedor Petrovich Polynin (in China he was known as Fyn Po). On February 23, 1938, on the anniversary of the Red Army, twenty-eight SB-loaded bombs took off toward Taiwan. According to intelligence there the day before were to deliver a large batch of aircraft purchased by Japan from Germany and Italy. Japanese aviation suffered significant losses, and the emperor was forced to increase the production of his I-96 fighters, as well as to purchase aircraft abroad. The risk of the operation was great, the distance was more than a thousand kilometers, and if something happened - there would be nowhere to land, there was water all around, and there was not enough fuel left for the return trip. If captured in Japanese territory, then an international scandal may break out, since officially we are not at war with Japan. We climbed to a height of 5500 meters, so that anti-aircraft gunners could not spot the ground. Everyone began to feel dizzy, because oxygen cylinders had to be left at the base to reduce the weight of the machines. Immediately passed the party, north of the island. They turned around with a decline and on muffled motors entered the Taipei area from Japan, from the sun.


Soviet high-speed bomber SB "Katyusha"

The planes stood in a clear line in two rows, containers were near the hangars, and planes without wings were nearby. There was no camouflage at the base, the Japanese did not notice a raid, and the exact blow of more than three hundred air bombs destroyed over 40 assembled aircraft and everything that was in the containers. And also a three-year supply of fuel, a radio station, a large number of ammunition, numerous flight and technical personnel were destroyed. By coincidence, they were all gathered in one room for the holiday, where our bombs hit. Not a single Japanese fighter took off from a base in Taipei. SB bombers sat down to refuel with gasoline from 20-liter tanks at the tiny mountain jump airfield in Fuzhou and immediately went home. In that flight, they spent more than seven hours, but the result was grandiose. They were greeted as heroes of China, carried out of the aircraft in their arms, and Ms. Song Maililiin presented the Soviet pilots with a large cake with a congratulatory inscription in honor of the Soviet volunteer pilots and the anniversary of the Red Army. China celebrated the victory, and in imperial Japan declared national mourning. The commandant of the Japanese airfield committed a ritual suicide. And our pilots had to modestly keep silent about their success. Then there were lovers to appropriate other people's fame - a group of American and English volunteer pilots, led by Vincent Schmidt. By the way, these pilots practically did not fly out to military operations, but they never refused to reward the Chinese for their help, unlike our military. This myth was dispelled by the Japanese themselves, saying that their pilots bombed their base. Japanese secret intelligence was excellent, and they then announced a protest note to us. The American allies, once flew out on a combat mission, mistakenly dropped bombs on Chinese positions, for which they were subjected to fierce shelling. After this incident, they did not fly out for a long time. During the raids of Japanese aviation, they did not try to take off to repulse the attack or take the planes out of attack, but immediately left by car in the city under the protection of the flag of their embassy, ​​which they did not bomb.

Speaking of foreign volunteers: there were French pilots on Curtiss P-36 Hawk fighters. Machin describes their participation in the defense of the Nanchang airfield from the Japanese attack: “Most of these young and fervent guys died in air battles with Japanese fighters.” The fact is that the engines of their aircraft were inferior to the Japanese in power, and among the French pilots there was no coordinated interaction. Soon their group ceased to exist at all.

And in March 1938, a group of 25 SBs of Captain Polynin, again in the enemy's deep rear, destroyed the railway bridge and, in parallel, built a pontoon crossing over the Yellow River, along which the Japanese army was supposed to cross. So the Japanese offensive on the entire Northern Front was foiled, which we did not allow to join with the Central in a large group.

To be continued ...
Russian falcons in the sky of China
Author:
Photos used:
coollib.com tsushima.su, Aviadejavu.ru, o4erkiovoine.ru, partizzan1941.ucoz.ru, kamozin100.ucoz.net
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  1. GKS 2111 9 January 2020 06: 23 New
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    Thank you very much for the interesting article, we must not forget our heroes. The terrible war was that far, I read a lot about it. The fact that more than 200 Soviet pilots gave their lives for the freedom of China says the cruelty of the battles. Among them are commanders of volunteer detachments Vorobyov, A. Rakhmanov, volunteer pilots F. Gurley, I. Gurov, M. Kizelshtein, D. Kuleshin, V. Pesotsky, N. Terekhov and many others, and fourteen Soviet pilots who defended the sky of China , - F.P. Polynin, V.V. Zverev, A.S. Blagoveshchensky, O.N. Borovikov, A.A. Gubenko, S.S. Gaidarenko, T.T. Khryukin, G.P. Kravchenko, S.V. Slyusarev, S.P. Suprunu, M.N. Marchenkov, E.M. Nikolaenko, I.P. Selivanov, I.S. Sukhov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.

    The eternal glory to the Soviet volunteer pilots who died in the war of the Chinese people against the Japanese invaders is carved on the monument.
    1. Reptiloid 9 January 2020 10: 07 New
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      The article is just wonderful, I look forward to continuing. ++++++
      1. rich 9 January 2020 11: 25 New
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        Thank you, Victor, for a good style and interesting material. Special thanks for the photos and illustrations. We look forward to continuing
      2. vladcub 9 January 2020 20: 37 New
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        I agree with the assessment: the author talks about little-known facts, and therefore interesting.
        In principle, the fact that we helped China is known about this, but at the same time it is not known
  2. Same lech 9 January 2020 06: 28 New
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    Oh, there was a time ... it’s a pity I didn’t have a fate there, it was war with the Japanese.
    You read with enthusiasm the biographies of our pilots of that time ... if it weren’t for their military work, the Japanese could well have arranged for us in the Far East a second Port Arthur.
    Correctly, Stalin did what he met with the weapons of Japanese samurai even at distant frontiers in China ... in our time, this again becomes relevant.
    1. Aviator_ 9 January 2020 08: 21 New
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      Correctly, Stalin did what he met with the weapons of Japanese samurai even at distant frontiers in China ... in our time, this again becomes relevant

      This is relevant at any time. It’s better to fight on someone else’s territory than on your own.
      1. penguin 24 February 2020 10: 36 New
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        And even better with the wrong hands
        1. Aviator_ 24 February 2020 10: 50 New
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          In principle, it is true, but these "strange hands" often fight for the one who pays the most. They can outbid.
    2. Reptiloid 9 January 2020 09: 22 New
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      Quote: The same Lech
      ...... Correctly, Stalin did what he met with the weapons of Japanese samurai even at distant frontiers in China ... in our time, this again becomes relevant.
      Thus, long before the Second World War, Stalin thought that ours should acquire and accumulate combat experience.
  3. mark1 9 January 2020 07: 18 New
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    Interesting Facts. As before, I was not particularly interested in the actions of our volunteers in China (yes, in general, the whole Sino-Japanese war) Thank you.
    1. vladcub 9 January 2020 18: 41 New
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      In fact, there is little literature on the Sino-Japanese war.
    2. Katran 9 January 2020 21: 51 New
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      Thanks for the flattering ratings of the article! good
      If you are interested in this topic, I can recommend memoirs of participants in those events, here is a list of references:
      Yu.V. Chudodeev. A feat in the sky of China
      F.P. Polynin. Performing International Duty
      P.T. Sobin. Almaty - Aerial bridge - Lanzhou
      A. G. Rytov. In battling China
      M. G. Machin. Chinese routes (From the notebook of a bomber pilot)
      D.A. Kudymov. Kings of Heaven Lose Crowns
      A. 3. Dushin. To help the Chinese people
      N. G. Kozlov. In the sky of China
      F.I. Dobysh. Heading east
      J.P. Prokofiev. Protecting the Chinese sky
      A.I. Pushkin. Moscow - Hankou (Notes by a bomber pilot)
      I.P. Selivanov. Memory of the heart
      S.V. Slyusarev. In aerial battles over China
      A.K. Korchagin. Transbaikal people in fighting China
      V. D. Zemlyansky. For you, swin
      K.K. Kokkinaki. Shield and sword
      S. Ya. Fedorov. Unforgettable pages of history

      Everything can be found on the Internet, very exciting, lively stories of real heroes. I’m trying for you, preparing a follow-up, with respect, Victor K.
      1. Reptiloid 9 January 2020 23: 48 New
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        Thank you, Victor, for writing what you can still find out on the topic. I will try to read those of your articles that I missed due to a misunderstanding.
      2. mark1 10 January 2020 07: 33 New
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        Thanks, Victor. I will definitely try to get acquainted with the materials you have listed and I look forward to continuing with interest.
      3. Karelian 10 January 2020 12: 12 New
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        Panov D. Russians in the snow. The fate of man against a historical snowstorm
      4. The comment was deleted.
  4. Obi-Wan Kenobi 9 January 2020 07: 50 New
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    My grandfather served about a year before the war in China.
    But about the duty station, which air regiment, which aircraft, what they did - not a word, until his death in 1991. Non-disclosure subscription.
    At the same time, he spoke a lot about the Second World War.
    1. Reptiloid 9 January 2020 09: 25 New
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      Quote: Obi Wan Kenobi
      My grandfather served about a year before the war in China.
      But about the duty station, which air regiment, which aircraft, what they did - not a word, until his death in 1991. Non-disclosure subscription.
      At the same time, he spoke a lot about the Second World War.

      Extra Commentary.
      1. Obi-Wan Kenobi 9 January 2020 11: 10 New
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        Sarcasm cast a spell.
        And the most remarkable thing happened somewhere in the mid-80s. Celebrated on May 9th. And grandfather said that before the war he was in Shinjiang. His friends began to laugh. Grandfather silently took 2 pencils (brand new) and with their help showed everyone how the Chinese eat. And he taught those who wish to hold these sticks correctly. The people were out.
        This is now all smart and eat with chopsticks, and 40 years ago they only saw it about it on TV, but they read it in books.
        1. Reptiloid 9 January 2020 13: 16 New
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          What do you! This is not sarcasm. This is the whole point that some sarcasm do not understand or black humor, others are ignored, while others see sarcasm and ridicule where they do not exist. This is a retreat about various comments in different articles.
          It was not sarcasm, but admiration for your grandfather and regret that I had little contact with my grandfather. It happened. He left for the war at the age of 16, the record was that he was 25. After the war he studied, taught in Leningrad, as it was called then, at the Mozhaisk Air Force Academy.
          As I know, I didn’t talk about WWII at all. There were rewards.
          1. Katran 12 January 2020 10: 59 New
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            The signature stamp of this operation was even in the military "office". Only in one award sheet of Polynin is there one mean line in the column "participation in battles": "Twice in China 1933-34 and 1937-38."
            And all ... There was no more information then. Only after 50 years, the bans were apparently lifted.
            But the dead captain of the TB-3 group, Kulishenko, who appeared in China, became a Soviet hero for them!
            1. Reptiloid 12 January 2020 23: 33 New
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              I just read on the net about the book "" 100 Stalin's Falcons. The best of the best. "" The book is thick, something like 600 pages, it says that there are battle patterns, and the description says that after the Second World War it was published in a tiny print run that 58 years was in special custody under the chipboard.
              Only recently had the privacy stamp been removed. There appeared comments about the post-war fate of the Stalin Falcons. The publication of this century is second-hand.
    2. qQQQ 10 January 2020 15: 52 New
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      Quote: Obi Wan Kenobi
      My grandfather served about a year before the war in China.

      Mine was also on a business trip to China, though on a different line, unfortunately, I did not find him alive.
  5. Vitaly Tsymbal 9 January 2020 07: 58 New
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    WHERE WE REMEMBER - WE HAVE A FUTURE! Thanks Victor for keeping the memory! There are other materials about China and Spain. It is necessary to write and publish more materials about their military achievements. We have a rich military history. I would like the author to continue to publish articles on this topic. And what is important in the same format and style of presentation.
    1. Reptiloid 9 January 2020 09: 30 New
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      In 2013, Samsonov’s article “Stalin's Falcons in China” was here. This is my favorite article by Samsonov. And not only mine. Many publications later reprinted the article.
  6. Aviator_ 9 January 2020 08: 24 New
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    Good article. Due to the confrontation of China and the USSR in the years 60-80, this period was not covered at all. Respect to the author.
    1. Reptiloid 9 January 2020 10: 02 New
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      Quote: Aviator_
      ..... Due to the confrontation between the PRC and the USSR in the years 60-80, this period was not covered at all. ..
      In general, many of Stalin's endeavors and his successful programs are now hushed up.
      Khrushchev, having come to power, nullified both the material costs of the USSR and the labor of many people.
      About Stalin's Falcons in China, about the history of the creation of China's aviation, thanks to the support of the USSR, there is a remarkable book by Anatoly Anatolyevich Demin, "Aviation of the Great Neighbor," "Book 1 A large informative publication.
      1. Aviator_ 9 January 2020 13: 45 New
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        Thank. I heard about this book, but my hands did not reach me.
        1. Reptiloid 9 January 2020 15: 19 New
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          In general, there are 3 such books. I suppose that the second and third are more specialized than the first. About 2-2,5 years ago I was online, I ordered on Ozone. The book contains a lot of historical information about that time, about what preceded it, about China’s relations with different countries. About the situation in China. The most important thing is our participation in that conflict.
  7. Vladimir_2U 9 January 2020 08: 28 New
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    The topic is of course very interesting, which is why it is a plus. But the article itself is just raw His plane did not calculate speed when landing and the like bloopers.
    TB-3, distinguished by the fact that they were able to overcome enemy air defenses and, flying over the Japanese islands, discard campaign leaflets of anti-war content Obviously confused DB-3 and TB-3
    1. Vitaly Tsymbal 9 January 2020 09: 58 New
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      The main thing is people. The main thing is not to confuse surnames, and those inaccuracies (the article is not about technology) - this is unacceptable for scientific works ...
    2. Aviator_ 9 January 2020 13: 47 New
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      I read somewhere about this episode, there are also TB-3 mentioned. I think that the state of Japanese air defense of the 30s allowed this to be done on TB.
    3. hohol95 9 January 2020 15: 48 New
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      It is TB-3! DB-3 did not fly over Japan!
    4. Katran 9 January 2020 22: 00 New
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      Thanks for the vigilance!))
      In fact, "blunders", I hope not allowed.
      “His plane did not calculate speed when landing” - the original said that the pilot did not take into account the air discharge when landing at a high-altitude airport, as a result, he could not brake in time at high speed.
      And about the flight over the TB-3 Japanese islands, it was they. Our pilots called them “ships” because of their shape.
  8. Elturisto 9 January 2020 09: 12 New
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    Good article. Thank you. The word mistress only distorted the use, why the hell is it not clear what kind of mistress she could be for Soviet pilots?
  9. BAI
    BAI 9 January 2020 09: 14 New
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    SB-2M-103 in silver color. Chinese markings on the fuselage, wings and rudder

    In the background is Li-2. They began to produce in 1942. It has nothing to do with the described events. It is not known how the SB survived to 1942, but in any case, the photo was taken in the 40s, not 30s.
    1. Dooplet11 9 January 2020 10: 15 New
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      In the background is Li-2. They began to produce in 1942. It has nothing to do with the described events. It is not known how the SB survived to 1942, but in any case, the photo was taken in the 40s, not 30s.
      - Actually, the PS-84 was produced in the USSR since 1939. And his "father" Duglas DS-3 since 1935. And, judging by the selected elements:

      in the photo DS-3, not Li-2, in which everything looked a little different:
    2. Dooplet11 9 January 2020 14: 11 New
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      By the way, according to Aviation and Cosmonautics No. 2 of 1999 (https://litvek.com/books/121037-kniga-zhurnal-aviatsiya-i-kosmonavtika-aviatsiya-i-kosmonavtika-1999-02), SBs received M-103 to China since January 1941. , and the photo with him is really from the 40s. hi
      1. Undecim 9 January 2020 15: 07 New
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        The same photo, but larger. On a transport plane, Chinese logos.
        In general, I am inclined to believe that this is the S-47 and the photo is really from the 40s.
        1. Dooplet11 9 January 2020 15: 35 New
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          I agree. S-47 is also a DS-3. But it’s more correct to date the image “from Sat”. And the SB with the M-103, no doubt, from the supply of the 41st.
          1. Aviator_ 9 January 2020 15: 56 New
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            Everything is true, except that you write the airplane brand incorrectly. This car was called DC-3
            1. Dooplet11 9 January 2020 18: 44 New
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              And the old woman is a bitch. )))
              To blame. Thanks for the clarification!
  10. Mavrikiy 9 January 2020 09: 20 New
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    Then there were lovers to appropriate other people's fame - a group of American and English volunteer pilots, led by Vincent Schmidt.
    To what people are greedy for someone else's good.
    (Prostokvashino)
  11. Undecim 9 January 2020 10: 34 New
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    Quote: Vladimir_2U
    TB-3, distinguished by the fact that they were able to overcome the enemy’s air defense and, flying over the Japanese islands, discard anti-war propaganda leaflets DB-3 and TB-3 are obviously confused

    Neither TB-3 nor DB over China flew and leaflets were not scattered.
    It is not known who launched this fake, but it roams both on Wikipedia, the network, and in numerous print publications.
    The Chinese flew and scattered leaflets over Japan on Martin 19WC aircraft on May 139, this episode is well known and described both in China and in Japan.
    1. Undecim 9 January 2020 10: 36 New
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      On May 20, 1938, a meeting and rewarding of crews took place in Hankow.
      1. Undecim 9 January 2020 10: 38 New
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        On May 21, 1938, the Red Star reported the flight.
    2. Pedrodepackes 10 January 2020 08: 17 New
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      Quote: Undecim
      On May 19, Chinese flew and scattered leaflets over Japan on Martin 139WC aircraft over Japan.

      If so, then it would be better if the bombs were scattered, the effect would be much better. The Japanese population in those years was encouraged by the victories of their troops in China, and these pieces of paper from the sky went, at best, to rubbing the toilet. Leaflets are good after several tons of lighters on the city, make you think about the meaning of life.
  12. Undecim 9 January 2020 11: 49 New
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    Then there were lovers to appropriate other people's fame - a group of American and English volunteer pilots, led by Vincent Schmidt. By the way, these pilots practically did not fly out to military operations, but they never refused to reward the Chinese for their help, unlike our military
    I wonder where the author got this passage from. Apparently, from the same place, where did the information about the TB-3 raid come from.
    Firstly, in the 14th squadron, commanded by Vincent Schmidt, there were never English pilots. In it were Americans, French and Australians.
    The squadron was armed with "anything" - Vultee V-11 and Northrop 2E light bombers, two Martin 139 medium bombers, an armed Bellanca 28-90 racing aircraft and two Dewoitine D-510 fighters. By February 1938, two medium-sized Martin 139 bombers remained from it and in March it was disbanded, so they could not claim to be “someone else's glory”.
    1. hohol95 9 January 2020 16: 02 New
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      May 20, 1938 all six bombers rose from the airfield near Hankow. The crews were already mixed - they included Chinese pilots and gunners. TB-3 flew over the entire island of Kyushu from south to north. The Japanese air defense was silent, not expecting such impudence. But instead of bombs, leaflets flew down. The cargo was dropped on Sasebo. Nagasaki and Fuku-oku, This raid made the Japanese General Staff even more respectfully treat the OKDVA Air Force. capable of flying more than a hundred heavy bombers into the air. At the headquarters of the air units deployed in the Far East, there really were sealed packages with missions for TB-3 formations to strike at air and sea bases, ports, warehouses, railway and highway junctions in Japan. Manchuria and Korea.

      Aviation and time 1997 04
      If you have data that refutes this information - please announce!
      1. Undecim 9 January 2020 17: 11 New
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        Aviation and time 1997 04
        If you have data that refutes this information - please announce!

        You are just like a famous comrade from the movie: "What is your evidence?"
        I will tell you right away - the paragraph from the article by Kotelnikov is not the primary source. Kotelnikov himself does not name the source of information.
        I used several sources
        The first "Illustrated History of the Chinese Air Force" in 1947, when relations with the USSR were normal and a similar episode would have been mandatory. Alas, he is not there, there is only one that is in my comment.
        1. Undecim 9 January 2020 17: 13 New
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          You can see the illustrations in my previous comments, this is the text.
          1. hohol95 9 January 2020 17: 29 New
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            I will answer with the words of another movie hero - "This is not a fact, Monsieur Duke!" Could and "forget" this fact!
            Not on the "western" machines, however, this radiance was accomplished!
            So that 100% FOR or AGAINST no ...
            Moreover, in the book "The Big Sky of Long-Range Aviation. Soviet Long-Range Bombers in the Great Patriotic War. 1941-1945" by Mikhail Zhirokhov there is no such episode.
            1. Undecim 9 January 2020 17: 39 New
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              Yes, yes, they forgot it and didn’t remember it. Instead, for some reason, they came up with about American planes. Nonsense. And the flight was just in American cars. And about this information in all sources, including foreign ones.

              Right all conspired.
          2. Undecim 9 January 2020 17: 35 New
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            In addition, there are a lot of books on Soviet volunteer pilots in China. The latter was released in 2016, called "Soviet Flying Tigers."
            But nowhere is there any mention of using the TB-3 as a bomber. But it describes in detail their purchase of six aircraft for one and a half million dollars, their arrival in China and how in December 1937 at the Tianjin airfield five TB-3 were hit by Japanese aircraft.
            Two TB-3s were destroyed, three damaged. Subsequently, they were repaired and used as transport. So in May 1938, six TB-3s were no longer in China.
            1. hohol95 9 January 2020 17: 44 New
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              And about the purchase of Heinkel 111 is there?
              And about how houses were made from packing crates for ordinary Chinese?
              Perhaps he “repainted” the Soviet bombers for his own significance, some sort of “figure”!
              After all, at first the I-16 and SB in Spain were considered "American" vehicles.
  13. grave 9 January 2020 13: 53 New
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    It seems that they bombed well ... in 27-38. And what happened then in 29-40 even when the navigators of civil aviation. (Vodoptyanova, etc.) One pilot (I do not remember his last name) was even a deputy of the USSR Council) They invited me to fly to Finnish- to bring the Air Force bombers to their goals since the Air Force assault could not even find and reach the targets exactly! Fornication and sat on the emergency! During the bombing of targets in Helsinki, they missed all the targets for about a kilometer. It’s strange somehow .... The railway station was bombed 20 times and couldn’t be reached, so far everything is in the craters, they are visible with the naked eye. But they didn’t get to the station then.
    1. Pacifist with AK 9 January 2020 14: 26 New
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      Dear Kara, read your post. It is possible that this is true, but everything is set out somehow messy, or something ... More like a retelling of rumors (with all due respect). Regarding the navigators of the Red Army Air Force: talked with his neighbor, front-line officer Ivan Ivanovich (now deceased))))). He flew the navigator on the Pe-2, had military awards. Someone touched on this topic, so he said that the regiment had crooked comrades, but not many, units. They preferred not to fly with them, it’s more expensive for themselves. I saw a photo of Ivan Ivanovich from the regiment and the division, with thanksgiving inscriptions (they often took him as the best navigator). Well, and, as I think, they would not have won the war with bad navigators ... Regards.
      1. grave 9 January 2020 16: 38 New
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        I didn’t write about the Second World War. It might have been better bombed, but they called in the Finnish company of navigators from Grazhdanki. After the war, there was a debriefing that lasted many days in the presence of Stalin. The most questions were asked to the flyers. 60 tons of bombs were dropped at Leipyasu station. hit! Golovanov at the reception on the occasion of the parsing went up to Smushkevich, taking it on his chest-Smushkevich is the commander of the Air Force of the Red Army and asked why you call civilian navigators to aim the bombers at the target? He replied: Contact Stalin ... He took it and wrote a letter .. Himself ... And he was summoned .. Just after the Finnish Tymoshenko ordered to change the ranks of the pilots at the end of the school from Lieutenants to sergeants. If you don’t know how to fly, learn how to give the rank. We didn’t intend to bomb Helsinki in the same way. There were no other goals. . Most of the questions at the meetings, where by the way all the ranks were present. From lieutenants to generals. And the analysis was long and hard
        1. Yaik Cossack 9 January 2020 21: 13 New
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          They bombed Helsinki - that’s another story. They never got to the western port and docks, nor to the train station. But in the second raid, they ended up in their own embassy. The staff was no longer there - we left via Sweden. Finns have gotten pretty hot
          1. grave 9 January 2020 22: 56 New
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            Well ... Nearby, the bomb fell ... The Finns could go out at first ... as much as they wanted ... In March 40, they hung mourning flags at the end of the war. The Dog Mannerheim said to him-Give what the Russians ask and take what they give. No, well, no, and no trial ...
    2. bober1982 9 January 2020 15: 18 New
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      Quote: Kapa
      even navigators of civil aviation. (Vodoptyanova, etc.

      You mean, apparently, the famous polar pilot Vodopyanov, he volunteered to bomb the Finnish, he commanded the long-range bombers division, which raided Berlin in 1941, not too successfully, there were big losses, including due to the loss of orientation by the crews.
      Quote: Kapa
      to bring the Air Force bombers to their goals since the Air Force assault could not even find and reach the targets exactly

      This, of course, was not, in 1938 there was the first graduation of observer pilots (navigators), and there was no need for this.
      Quote: Kapa
      Fornication and sat on a forced!

      Yes, fornication, flights were very difficult.
      1. Aviator_ 9 January 2020 16: 04 New
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        in 1938 there was the first graduation of observer pilots (navigators),

        Orenburg Navigation College worked from 1921 to 1961
        1. bober1982 9 January 2020 16: 18 New
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          Quote: Aviator_
          Orenburg Navigation College worked from 1921 to 1961

          For the first time I hear about this.
          1. Aviator_ 9 January 2020 17: 01 New
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            And here is the picture, it began to work under Lenin, it ended under Khrushchev Kukuruznom.
            1. bober1982 9 January 2020 17: 04 New
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              Quote: Aviator_
              began to work under Lenin

              Now I know.
              1. Aviator_ 9 January 2020 17: 14 New
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                My father managed to work there from 1954 to 1960 (he is the seventh in the upper right row in an oval frame) and I, accordingly, play in the navigational cabin of this IL-28, where he put me during classes with cadets. From the kindergarten he took and attached to a large toy. Kindergarten was nearby. In general, in the best of times, there were 2 flight schools and one navigational school in Orenburg, after 1961 there was one flight school, and then it made 2 graduations at the Civil Air Fleet, then, under Brezhnev, it was restored, and under the EBN in 1993 it was completely liquidated.
      2. grave 9 January 2020 16: 48 New
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        It was, and they were not called voluntarily, they were pulled out to help military navigators. And yes, this is the same Polar Hero. And not only him. In general, the bombers showed themselves to the Finnish ugly. Shaposhnikov canceled the rank of Lieutenants at the end of the aviation school, parsing this company.
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egkKAZm5_x0
        Here, so as not to bother to get acquainted - There are also aerial photographs of places of bombing where they smeared anything. Irincheev, like Kiselev, are historians specializing in the Finnish war and spent years studying it. Read about Golovanov’s claim to Smushkevich on the question "Why are civilian pilots being pulled over to help you? "
        1. bober1982 9 January 2020 16: 59 New
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          Quote: Kapa
          Shaposhnikov abolished the rank of Lieutenants at the end of the aviation school

          The People's Commissar of Defense Tymoshenko canceled, the famous secret order N0362 from 22.12.1940/XNUMX/XNUMX., And transferred to the barracks position, and changed into a tarpaulin.
          That was the leadership of the Air Force, Semyon Konstantinovich was remembered for a long time.
          1. grave 9 January 2020 17: 08 New
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            That's why Duck translated, because there were a lot of claims to the flyers. By the way, the fighters didn’t show themselves so badly. Artillery and bombers are much worse
            1. bober1982 9 January 2020 17: 11 New
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              Quote: Kapa
              there were many claims to the flyers

              Frankly speaking, the Red Riders have been creating problems at all times in aviation. How many dope they have.
    3. Aviator_ 9 January 2020 15: 59 New
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      GA navigators had the best qualifications, because they did not fly when the regiment deigned to begin training at the training ground, but along long-distance tracks and a schedule with minimal weather.
      1. grave 9 January 2020 16: 50 New
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        Yes, there’s nothing like a warrior in Finnish — I won’t fly — the weather is bad or I won’t find it. The newspaper True, they downloaded the civilian and fly. Everyone needs to read the newspaper and fly in any weather
        1. Aviator_ 9 January 2020 17: 04 New
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          Naturally, a newspaper is a matter of political importance.
    4. Serg koma 10 January 2020 20: 46 New
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      Quote: Kapa
      During the bombing of targets in Helsinki missed all targets for about a kilometer. Strange ....

      Helsinki Tuesday November 30, 1939. At 14.30 in the sky, the noise of the engines of Russian bombers was heard. For three crushing raids on stunned and defenseless civilians a large number of incendiary bombs were dropped. Buildings collapsed, fires erupted throughout the city. Daytime raid occurred during the hours when there were a lot of cars and pedestrians on the streets. According to various estimates, 200 people died from explosions and under the rubble of buildings. Russian propaganda later tried to convince that the attack was directed at the railway station, harbor and airport, but due to errors in navigational calculations, it turned out to be not entirely accurate.
      Are you sure that you missed "for all purposes" ???


      Now the other side:
      Six SB bombers of the 71st air brigade from the Siverskaya airfield flew out at 8:05 to bombard the Helsinki railway station. However, one link turned back due to difficult weather conditions, and the second made its way to the target and struck at 10:20 from a height of just 400 m. According to the Finns, along with the railway infrastructure, the passengers of the station suffered as well. True, the Finns did not show evidence of this, there were not even photographs of the victims.

      At 13:20, a group of eight DB-3s took off from the Klopitsa airfield to destroy the discovered ships, under the command of the commander of the 3rd squadron of the 1st mine torpedo regiment, Captain Tokarev. Appearing in the target area, the bombers were unable to find the ships, which by that time had time to change their place of deployment. Tokarev led his group to a reserve target - the port of Helsinki. Over the Finnish capital, the eight DB-3 appeared at five in the afternoon, when dense clouds hung over the city. On approaching the city, the system of Soviet bombers disintegrated, and the pilots of the aircraft individually went to the target, carrying out bombing from a height of 1500 meters into the breaks of the clouds. Part of the bombs fell on the territory of the port, causing a fire in the oil storage facility, port and storage facilities, which was extinguished only two days later. Smoke from this fire was visible even from the other side of the Gulf of Finland - from Estonia. However, part of the Soviet bombs fell in the densely populated quarter (between the bus station and the technical university), which was located near the seaport, as well as in the area of ​​the Zoological Museum and not far from the Finnish Parliament. According to Soviet data, 10,5 tons of bombs were dropped on the Finnish capital, resulting in the death of 91 and 236 injuries, several buildings were destroyed.

      The funnels that have survived to this day (which you mention) are most likely from the 1944 bombing.
      1. Yaik Cossack 10 January 2020 22: 36 New
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        In the photo - the burning building of the former Alexander University on the Senate Square in Helsinki. Not at all the station.
        1. Yaik Cossack 10 January 2020 22: 41 New
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          A hit map (tablets) is in the Finnish Air Defense Museum. Neither the port nor the train station were damaged. It is noticeable that they tried to bomb the ports, but all the bombs were randomly scattered. Technical University - by the way next to the West Port. It was accidentally hit.
          1. Yaik Cossack 10 January 2020 22: 49 New
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            I’ll find a photo at my place - I’ll post it here
      2. grave 10 January 2020 23: 25 New
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        No, they didn’t hit the intended targets. During the bombing, the railway node is 39-40 years old. They didn’t hit either.
  14. Billy bin 9 January 2020 14: 13 New
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    That's what the movie is about!
    1. Yaik Cossack 10 January 2020 22: 48 New
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      About embarrassment of Stalin's falcons in Finland? Not a single railway (and in this country it was along them that the main military traffic was carried out) did not cease to function. They tried to bomb the railway in Sweden - they failed. The Finns calmly drove everything from there.

      Mannerheim’s headquarters was in the small town of Mikkeli (St. Michel), in fact a large village. Ours zealously bombed it, destroyed about half, but the station worked. The headquarters was in the largest house of the town - a stone school (although the Finns made a bunker in the rock nearby). It has never been hit!
  15. hohol95 9 January 2020 15: 51 New
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    Soviet-Japanese War 1937-1945
    This book contains the memoirs of veterans of the Soviet-Japanese wars of 1937-1945. - those who beat `` samurai '' on Khalkhin Gol, in China and in Manchuria, who in August of the 45th passed with battles `` through the Gobi and Khingan '', defeated the Kwantung army and again raised the Russian flag over South Sakhalin , Kuril Islands and Port Arthur. '' In the summer of 1945, reaching Port Arthur, we bowed to the ashes of Russian soldiers who died there at the beginning of the century and said: we returned, we paid for you. '' '' In Stalin's order, Victory Day over Japan - September 3 - was announced festive. Then they tried to delete this date from the people's memory. But our Victory, our pride and glory, our great past cannot be taken away from us ... '' Previously, the book was published under the title “I Fought with Samurai”
  16. vladcub 9 January 2020 20: 18 New
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    About the help of Russia, and then the Soviet Union, one can read: "In the battles for the Celestial Russian Union in China" by Okorokov, and his: "Undeclared war of the Soviet Union," Cherepanov, "Notes of a military adviser in China," the author personally met with Sun Yatsen, says how was the formation of the PLA.
  17. Yaik Cossack 9 January 2020 21: 08 New
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    And you can ask the author - what was the name of the Japanese cruiser, which, as he writes, was drowned by Soviet pilots?
    1. Katran 9 January 2020 22: 16 New
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      Sorry, unfortunately the name of the cruiser in those memoirs is not ...
      F.I. Dobysh. "Heading East" (about the author F. I. Dobysh (1906–1981) - Colonel General of Aviation. From November 1937 to June 1938 he took part in battles in the sky of China as commander of a bomber squadron).
      1. Yaik Cossack 10 January 2020 01: 00 New
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        Or maybe it was not a cruiser?
        I'll tell you a secret - Shanghai has no raid. He visited more than once))) There the river flows, though deep. But not wide. Something like the Neva, maybe even already. And from it only then you can get into the sea.
        And there was an international settlement. Some emigrants from Russia - more than 40 thousand. Foreign administration, Soviet consulate general. It is today in the same house almost on the waterfront. There were a lot of Soviet scouts, and the Chinese also had their own agents. All incoming warships - in full view, can not be hidden.
        And here's some trouble. All Japanese cruisers are famous. It happened and died, but not in Shanghai.
        Therefore, there is no name in the heroic memoirs))) lie fawn. Now, if the truth was drowned, then they would definitely be called.
        1. Katran 10 January 2020 22: 07 New
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          Even in my memoirs, I came across a message about the destroyed Japanese “aircraft carrier”, but in other sources it appeared already as a peaceful vessel converted into an aircraft carrier. And what was actually bombed - who knows ... Maybe it was generally a ferry carrying aircraft for repair.
          I take this information very carefully. But I’m sure that our pilots on the river bombed a lot of ships carrying military cargoes! They temporarily limited supplies to the Central Front, which may have played a decisive role in the development of hostilities.
  18. irontom 9 January 2020 21: 54 New
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    The article is a bit messy.
    Thanks anyway for the topic raised. I was familiar with our later “Chinese” in the 50s, was an IL-10 pilot in a mess with Taiwan, was officially listed as a Li-2 pilot according to documents, only after the 91st he managed to draw up the documents of a combatant.
  19. smart fellow 19 February 2020 20: 56 New
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    The Americans then write that they shot down the Japanese in batches in response to the Chinese claims to American fighters. It turns out that the American pilots ascribed to themselves other people's victories. Apparently this is a pathology in the USA - they cannot but lie. So still lie and shake with test tubes and various accessories.