Robot or manipulator? Status not defined!


Difficulties understanding



If we take the starting point of the MSTU named after N. E. Bauman, one of the most authoritative scientific institutions involved in the development of robotic systems, including defense, then it turns out that there are at least ten (!) Different understandings of the term “robot”. And that's not counting the classic definition authored by Harry Domin, chief executive officer of Rossum Universal Robots, who has proclaimed that robots are technical devices that reproduce human actions. Moreover, they must have systems for obtaining, converting energy and information.


To be precise, this term belongs to the Czech writer Karel Čapek, who invented the character of Domin for the play “RUR” back in 1920. It is important that initially all robots had to be necessarily smart and anthropomorphic, that is, similar to humans. Webster’s English Dictionary very clearly in this regard characterizes the robot as an automatic device resembling a human form and performing functions usually inherent in a person or machine. And it is not difficult to find a decent job for such a technique - to replace a soldier on the battlefield or, in extreme cases, become a personal guard. A typical example of an ideal combat robot is the protagonist of the following video:


This, of course, is a skilfully shot parody that refers us to the modest achievements of Boston Dynamics, a product that so far can only do this:


Or like this:


In general, human-like (or dog-like) robots that are widespread in the world so far are very far from the classical understanding of the Czech term “robot”. And Boston Dynamics products, as it has now become clear, are not particularly needed by customers - for the most part, equipment remains in the status of a technology demonstrator.

But back to the problem of identifying robots. After Chapek, these devices began to be treated as

“Automatic machines, including a reprogrammable control device and other technical means ensuring the performance of certain actions characteristic of a person in the process of his labor activity”
.
Very broad definition! In this way, you can even rank a washing machine as a robot, not to mention complex industrial manipulators such as KUKA.

So all the same robots or manipulators? In foreign technical literature, everything is mixed: robots are called

“A reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through a variety of programmable movements to perform a wide range of tasks.”

Mentioning nothing of the rudiments of artificial intelligence, autonomy, and self-learning, which are now spoken about from almost every iron. Much more complicated and, it seems, closer to the truth, the following definition of the concept of "robot":

"A programmable autonomous machine capable of moving objects along a trajectory with a large number of points."

At the same time, the number and characteristics of these points should be easily and quickly changed by reprogramming; the duty cycle of the machine should begin and continue depending on external signals without human intervention. This, by the way, is very similar to robotic systems for autopilot cars, which will be discussed below. The engineers themselves and researchers of MSTU. N.E. Bauman stopped (at least for now) on the following cumbersome definition of a robot:

"A universal reprogrammable or self-learning machine, controlled by the operator, or acting automatically, designed to perform instead of a person diverse tasks, usually in a priori unknown conditions."



Have you read? It is clear that MSTU rightly decided not to complicate their work and simply mixed robots and industrial manipulators with their strictly “learned” actions, Lego Mindstorms school kits, and artificial intelligence systems, for example, engaged in court proceedings in the USA.

There is a simpler, but no less paradoxical definition:

“A robot is a mechanism, system or program that perceives, thinks, acts and communicates”
.
Again, with the modern development of the Internet of things, when refrigerators that are no worse than cell phones can think in their own way, a lot of gadgets fit this concept of a robot. Further study of robotic scholasticism leads us to options such as

“A robot is an artifact that functions autonomously.”

Here even a balloon filled with helium fits the description of the robot. Or like this:

“A robot is a machine (more precisely, an“ automaton ”) whose behavior looks reasonable.”

The helplessness of such a formulation is obvious. For each person, the criterion of rationality is different. For one individual, a new-fangled crossover that automatically slows down before a child runs out onto the road is already the pinnacle of reason, especially if this child has been saved. And for the second, the automatic landing of the Buran ship will not create the impression of rationality. It seems that even the classic statement of the American engineer and inventor Joseph Engelberger (1925-2015), who is often called the "father of robotics", gradually loses its meaning:

"I can’t give a definition to a robot, but I will definitely recognize it when I see it."
.
With such a vague term, Engelberg would not recognize modern robots - they become simply indistinguishable from "nerobots."

Who to blame


Actually, due to such confusion regarding robots in the modern world, it seems that they do not know what to do with them in the future. No, of course, with respect to various smart gadgets that simplify our lives, everything is clear: here they seriously and briefly captured our future. But answer yourself honestly: would you buy yourself a plane ticket in which there are no pilots? Imagine an aircraft with several hundred passengers operating most of the route autonomously, and only on take-off / landing, operators from the ground act as pilots. Currently, technology allows this, but does not allow public opinion. As it does not allow to introduce full automation of road transport management. But there are conditions for this. Parts of the A9 Berlin - Munich highway several years ago were experimentally converted for autonomous vehicles of the fourth and even fifth level of automation. That is, on this autobahn a suitably equipped car can move completely automatically - the driver can just sleep or talk peacefully with fellow travelers. And, by the way, outwardly such a robomobile will not differ much from a car in the classical sense. Why aren't we implementing it? The whole problem is the responsibility for the outcome of possible accidents both on the ground and in the air. Recall how much noise the deadly crashes of unmanned Uber and Tesla moving off-line caused. It would seem that thousands die on the roads every hour around the world, but death from artificial intelligence is perceived especially sharply. At the same time, public opinion does not want to hear that even the partial introduction of unmanned vehicles will save thousands of lives. Society cannot get along with the idea that it will be man, not artificial, who will solve the notorious “trolley problem”.

What is the essence of the problem? Philip Foote, a British philosopher, formulated it back in 1967, much earlier than the appearance of drones:

“A heavy uncontrolled trolley is carried on rails. On its way there are five people tied to the rails by a crazy philosopher. Fortunately, you can switch the arrow - and then the trolley will go in a different, alternate way. Unfortunately, there is one person on the siding, also tied to rails. What are your actions? ”


Robot or manipulator? Status not defined!


Some Cognitive Technologies Research Findings

In solving such problems, one can rely on public opinion, as was done in the Russian Cognitive Technologies, when in 2015 they worked on a project of an autonomous KamAZ. Respondents were offered test tasks “What should an unmanned vehicle do?” With several solutions. As a result, moral recommendations were developed for the algorithms of future unmanned vehicles. But there is one catch: only 80 thousand people from Russia took part in the survey, and this is only about 0,05% of the country's population. This part of society will decide who lives and who dies?

In aggregate, this is precisely why, despite the inevitability of a robotic future, we do not even know approximately what it will be. And largely due to the fact that we can’t imagine what a robot is!
Author:
Photos used:
robogeek.ru, gazeta.ru, robo-hunter.com, bostondynamics.com
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Hakka 10 January 2020 18: 26 New
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    Compare Fedya with Atlas. The first manipulator, the second robot.
    1. zavyalov4leksandr 10 January 2020 20: 09 New
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      +1
      Best comment
    2. Elena Zakharova 10 January 2020 20: 14 New
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      Atlas, this is a typical manipulator, the program of which contains a bit more different algorithm with sensors than other similar manipulators))
  3. dvina71 10 January 2020 18: 34 New
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    The lack of compact and capacious energy sources, the imperfection of algorithms and the failure of electronic systems, which are the ninth duplication .. and these are only problems on the surface that must be solved before automatic systems become autonomous.
  4. Errr 10 January 2020 18: 36 New
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    A robot (from Czech robota (work)), by definition, is not a carrier of intelligence. Its only natural function is the execution of the owner's commands. Therefore, a robot is nothing more than a manipulator. Above all, you should not rack your brains, otherwise it will turn out like in the very clever Soviet animated film "Vovka in the Far Far Away Kingdom":
    What are you and will you have sweets for me? laughing
  5. voyaka uh 10 January 2020 18: 41 New
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    In general, all the definitions given in the article are out of date.
    The difference in the type of software.
    1) Hard written by a team of programmers.
    Source code does not change during run-time.
    2) Self-learning. The core is written by a team of programmers,
    and then the device itself completes its own Source code
    in the course of your own run-time, enriching it with "examples from your own life." smile
    2nd software is called AI.
    ----
    Boston Dynamics’s mechanisms do not have AI,
    but, for example, the Gridasov forum member is a real AI, although not very smart.
    But he is constantly learning. good
    1. Errr 10 January 2020 18: 45 New
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      Quote: voyaka uh
      But he is constantly learning. good
      And few people understand it chronically. laughing
    2. bk316 10 January 2020 18: 49 New
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      completes its own Source code

      Well, which of the types of AI WRITTEN your code and even the original, that is, in human language?
      I just imagined how my smartphone mastered mods for android in C # laughing
      For Gridasova +
      1. voyaka uh 10 January 2020 19: 00 New
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        Why in C #? The mechanisms now usually program in Pyton, he
        in fashion. But all the time there is something new.
        AI type software is spreading much faster than it seems to us.
        And your smartphone, if it is not an ordinary hacker hacking, but an AI, you are unpredictable
        will surprise laughing Because even the person who wrote the kernel will not be able to
        Help you, because his code will be buried under unexpected twists of the AI ​​code.
        Burn such a smartphone and buy a clean, brand new one. fellow
        1. opus 10 January 2020 20: 11 New
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          Quote: voyaka uh
          Mechanisms now usually program in Pyton,

          what nonsense?
          Python is a scripting programming language, an interpreted language (it does not compile, that is, before launch it is an ordinary text file)
          it is a rather slow and “heavy” language.
          who in your mind will "usually" machine program on it?
          You, as always, because of your "competence" confuse data science.
          variations:
          SprutCAM is used to program robots
          RCML (robot control metalanguage), ROS - Robot Operating System, satellites, hydroelectric power stations, nuclear power plants and so on, F-22, 35, and UAVs like Global Hawk, Ripper with Predator: Ada + C ++ options (anyway) The Schiaparelli apparatus that crashed onto Mars was written in Hell
          Who will write in Pyton?
          fool
          1. voyaka uh 10 January 2020 21: 09 New
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            "Who will write in Pyton?" ///
            ---
            Anyone who wants to quickly write a program with simulations.
            For Robotics, this simplest and most convenient language is just due to the lack of compilation. smile
            1. opus 10 January 2020 21: 47 New
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              Quote: voyaka uh
              Anyone who wants to quickly write a program with simulations.

              math modeling on pyton? Are you in your own mind?

              Quote: voyaka uh
              For Robotics

              Huiz Robotics?
              -SKOLKOVO ROBOTICS FORUM?
              -Institute of Robotics in Ilinois?
              or Ronavi H1500?
              Quote: voyaka uh
              for once due to lack of compilation.

              fool
              do you have a mind?
              In such situations (a lot of mat / children do not watch)

              important 6
              - performance
              - "light" software (maybe it's volatility)
              Are you going to "convert the source code of a computer program into machine binary code executed by a central processor or virtual machine?

              Compiling the source files is the work that the people accompanying the package usually do for you (maintainers)
              1. voyaka uh 10 January 2020 22: 30 New
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                "Huiz Robotics?" ////
                ----
                good
                robotics is a direction. Programming robots.
                C ++ is often used with Python. When you need to insert express
                a piece. But when you need to test, for example, the compiler only
                interferes. And the movement of the robot is faster to program in Python.
                My son would explain to you in more detail, but he is busy. Makes money.
                And the children need a rest too. drinks
                1. opus 10 January 2020 23: 06 New
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                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  C ++ is often used with Python

                  no need to whistle.
                  Python And dad and mom did not plan, and C ++ already had gray hair.
                  Boost.Python? was implied?
                  Duc Julia is many times better than a python, in this regard (and closer to me)
                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  When you need to insert express
                  a piece.

                  Python is your brake, test. and it’s best written about him here:

                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  But when you need to test, for example, the compiler only
                  interferes

                  writes a noob (excuse me), who did not write a single line of machine code, it feels

                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  My son would explain to you in more detail, but he is busy.

                  Yes, connect it with my 15 year old fool, he also python (I wonder who will win)

                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  Makes money.
                  And the children need a rest too.

                  1. does .... mmm well yes yes
                  2. my rest: chopped into some kind of crap on my kopma, official.
                  15 years old, while the curvature of the spine of a 15-year-old elk weighing 84 kg and growing 187 cm.
                  Only the eldest daughter earns money from my children ....
          2. Vadmir 10 January 2020 22: 53 New
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            Who will write in Pyton?
            They write on what the leading developer knows, and a team of programmers is selected for him. The popularity of Ada or Oberon is due to the fact that the projects are managed by old, experienced professors. They are more comfortable and familiar with old software.
            As far as I read the F-35 software is written in C ++.
            I remember what they taught me at the university, but I have never in practice worked with the languages ​​that I was taught.
            In practice, I worked in C ++, Java is now more and more in PHP. All these languages ​​have already been taught.
            With what I can agree - the speed of programs in interpreted languages ​​is lower, but this is not always critical, this can be compensated by the speed of iron, sometimes the speed of development is more important.
            1. opus 10 January 2020 23: 54 New
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              Quote: Vadmir
              They write on what the lead developer knows

              lead developer, if this is not German Gref, specific orientation, those are not a bank chasing a hashtag - on the drum!
              It is important for him: development cost, efficiency + lack of bugs
              the language of hell is out of competition here, and considering multitasking all the more

              Quote: Vadmir
              As far as I read the F-35 software is written in C ++.

              ALIS? the kernel is written in Ada, CMS-2Y and ... you can subscribe in FORTRAN, yes, yes, yes on it darling, let it go
              Quote: voyaka uh
              your son would explain to you in more detail

              but ... but, unfortunately, he (his son), as always
              Quote: voyaka uh
              busy. Makes money.
              And the children need a rest too

              Integrity 178B OS (Green Hils Software OS)? -> this is a variant of Linux + POSIX API = this is Oracle + C / C ++
              LSI / IKSL-3 / CDS? (not even aware of what, but definitely not a python)
              on board the F-35 relational and object-oriented databases (such as Oracle Database, Informix, DB2, PostgreSQL) are also used to work effectively in Big Data (NoSQL variations, MapReduce, etc.) + hardware graph analysis accelerators (this topic read:
              Parallel Boost Graph Library, Pregel, CuSha,
              GraphCT, NetworkX, PowerGraph, graph-tool,
              GraphBLAS, KDT, igraph, STINGER, Ligra, Gunrock,
              HelP, GPS, Galois, Green-Marl, Gephi, Medusa,
              MapGraph, NetworKit, SNAP, GraphLab, Giraph,
              JUNG, Pajek, GraphPad, PEGASUS, GraphX,
              GraphChi, Totem, Vertexapi2

              Quote: Vadmir
              I remember what they taught me at the university, but I have never in practice worked with the languages ​​that I was taught.

              it happens, as a rule in 90% of graduates of the late USSR. Me too
              Quote: Vadmir
              But this is not always critical, it can be compensated by the speed of iron, sometimes the speed of development is more important.

              it's all nonsense
              1. The machine (mechanism) is limited in memory, non-volatility, in the presence of unnecessary exotic input / output devices, compilation, debugging, etc.
              This is a commercial product, it does not have "time and resources" for this (for python)
              2. A machine (mechanism) - he needs a quick reaction to an exciting effect. Search, download, compile a “ready-made pie” from libraries - there’s simply no time.
              and the “pie” may not work in a SPECIFIC situation.
              3.you somehow confuse the INTEL household processor and W10 with CTPU LEON based on the SPARC processor architecture based on RISC from Sun Microsystems

              well, maybe voyaka uh we have a special, and he has a son who makes money on pythons, though he sleeps, then he will explain isho ento for contraption

              and why was everything written in assembler AS504 / AS207 / AS208, and not on FORTRAN / LISP / ALGOL 69 / LISP, ALGOL 58, FACT / COBOL or Simula 67 at last?
              He (voyaka uh) in NASA is a big "special"
              voyaka uh-ah
              1. voyaka uh 11 January 2020 00: 20 New
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                "well, maybe voyaka uh we have a special, and he has a son,
                who makes money on pythons "///
                ----
                Do not envy laughing not pythons of course
                (although the language is now popular and not directly related to iron),
                he has not written the code for a long time, but for something he is paid $ 150 an hour.
                Therefore, I try not to bother him for nothing.
                It's always interesting to talk with you - such a tangle of emotions, information
                and unexpected illustrations good
                1. opus 11 January 2020 00: 38 New
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                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  Do not envy, not on pythons, of course,

                  why should I envy? Where is the pitosh and where am I? Where is Israel and where is your son?
                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  he has not written the code for a long time, but for something he is paid $ 150 an hour.

                  Yeah, you have some noodles there ... hang.
                  fool
                  I have a daughter fancy manboy, got a life-long contract in the Benelux (and he doesn’t like it, he wants to shed it in Finland), after 2 months of trial (he’s a mathematician, big-headed, I won’t say anything, the Olympics, then this and that), a programmer (including a booze)
                  has 3800 euros net (after personal income tax)
                  Personal income tax rate in the amount of 40,8% established for those entities that have income from 33 791 to 67 072 euros. If the upper limit for this category is exceeded, the total amount of income tax will be 52 percent.

                  \ minus of course the minimum non-taxable 1480 euros * 12 months /
                  3800euro / 27 hours = 140 euros (net truth)
                  you have a very "curly" kid for israel
                  note
                  27 hours this, maybe
                  In the mid-2000s, the Dutch government was the first in the world to introduce a working week of less than 30 hours.
                  3800 euros / 5/7 = 108 euros would he (your son) receive at the rate of the Netherlands, living in Israel.
                  belay
                  According to the Central Bureau of Statistics of Israel, an 8-10-hour working day is the average for officially employed citizens.


                  According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, the average salary in Israel in 2019 was 10 shekels ($ 073) for one calendar month, which is 2% more than in 817. It varies from 8,4 shekels ($ 2019) USA) in the social sphere up to 27 shekels (000 US dollars) in the field of energy and mining.


                  65% of employees receive less than 7 shekels ($ 1). Nevertheless, it is believed that citizens receiving from 970 to 7 shekels (500 9-500 1 US dollars) make up the middle class of the employed population.

                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  It's always interesting to talk with you - such a tangle of emotions, information
                  and unexpected illustrations

                  the stump is clear. because I "hedgehog on a pezhu and not crossed out "censored")

                  and I'm not Oleg Chuvakin, there are no manifestos I am sitting write
                  1. voyaka uh 11 January 2020 00: 47 New
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                    "you have a very" curly "kid for Israel" ////
                    ----
                    I did not exaggerate, but underestimated when he leaves for work
                    to London or Silicon Valley, there he is paid much, much more.
                    But taxes, of course, are serious from such amounts.
                    It's nice that you can google and find info so fast.
                    by country and subject. This is very much appreciated these days.
              2. Vadmir 11 January 2020 00: 56 New
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                It is important for him: development cost, efficiency + lack of bugs
                the language of hell is out of competition here, and considering multitasking all the more
                Are you serious? The cost of developing a monstrous Hell? The development cost is inversely proportional to the number of programmers using this language and development time. Try to find a sufficient number of good programmers who know this language in Russia and ask what salary they will agree to. And compare this with those who work in C ++. Well, in time, the code on Ada is written longer, because the language is complex.
                1. opus 11 January 2020 01: 26 New
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                  Quote: Vadmir
                  The cost of developing a monstrous Hell?

                  Why is there something "monstrous"?
                  I read at night
                  The development cost is inversely proportional to the number of programmers using this language and development time.

                  okay
                  25% software development cost
                  75% test debugging cost
                  (And Ada has no equal here)
                  out of 25%, the costs of licensing and energy and iron are more than 50%
                  Threat. you have messed up with mobile phones

                  and this manager crap to software for military equipment has no relation
                  Quote: Vadmir
                  Try to find a sufficient number of good programmers who know this language in Russia and ask what salary they will agree to.

                  By the end of 1991, almost half of the Soviet republics participated in projects and studies related to the language of Ada, and Russia took part in almost all of them. After the "transformation" of the USSR into the CIS in December 1991. Ada projects in all "independent states" with the exception of Russia were discontinued.
                  SIGAda 80s
                  in the early 90s. The Russian Ministry of Defense (MO) and some state organizations approved a program whose goal was to accept Ada as the main language in the army, civil aviation and some other areas. Now this program is divided into three independent, led by the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Civil Aviation and the Ministry of Science

                  Ada9X, Russian Ada83 Transition Plan

                  The content of the lecture course "Programming Languages" (2018), Moscow State University / Jehani N. The Language of Hell. - M.: Mir, 1988.

                  Implementation of ADT in modular programming languages ​​(Ada, Oberon


                  Automated documentary communication station of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

                  Internet application server HTTP_ORCL (used as an application server for the ACTForex company Internet Currency Trading)

                  Aircraft Be-200: development complex Ada systems company DDC-I on the Intel 80486 platform

                  Quote: Vadmir
                  And compare this with those who work in C ++.

                  C ++ is of course "easy" to understand.

                  Quote: Vadmir
                  Well, in time, the code on Ada is written longer, because the language is complex.

                  but 75% of testing costs are not necessary
          3. mamonthful 11 January 2020 01: 23 New
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            he confuses arudino with industry developments ...
          4. UserGun 11 January 2020 16: 56 New
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            Quote: opus
            Who will write in Pyton?


            Only students in their wet morning dreams))) In fact, apart from languages ​​and algorithms, such a seemingly small thing as an RTOS and just a real one is needed, and not a sharing from students. And for a minimal robot, they need even more than one, because not only one program controls the robot, but set of programs and devicesadequately responsive to the task.
        2. Quote: voyaka uh
          Python

          That's right - Python.
          Quote: voyaka uh
          he
          in fashion

          He was in fashion 10 years ago. And this “fashion” had obvious reasons - a low entry threshold and the prevalence following from this, which, in turn, implies a large number of libraries for all occasions.
          Most of the serious projects launched on it, after a certain stage of growth, corresponded to other languages, without regard to financial costs.
          Python chip - quickly studied and used in practice: for a startup, for help in scientific work, for a rough outline of a solution, etc.
          For the serious work of serious teams - still choose other languages. There are objective reasons for this.

          Are you a humanist? Usually, humanities tend to argue on topics that are not a thorn
          1. bk0010 11 January 2020 13: 35 New
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            Python chip in breaking cool libraries for him.
        3. bk316 13 January 2020 14: 31 New
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          Because even the person who wrote the kernel will not be able to
          Help you, because his code will be buried under unexpected twists of the AI ​​code.

          Warrior You are disappointing me. Why write about what you do not understand at all?

          Well, let it be not C # but python. Although I have not seen ANY Android MODULE on python. laughing
          The question is not THIS question:
          Well, which of the types of AI WRITTEN your code and even the original, that is, in human language?
    3. Avior 10 January 2020 19: 07 New
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      Yes, if you guess who he is
      But the program managed to earn stars on shoulder straps, which means that not all guessed
      1. zavyalov4leksandr 10 January 2020 20: 06 New
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        Pass the Turing test? Real AI !!
    4. zavyalov4leksandr 10 January 2020 20: 06 New
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      Thanks, laughed about Gridasov))
    5. Vadmir 10 January 2020 22: 33 New
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      2nd software is called AI.
      But without an autonomous housing and executive mechanisms in the form of manipulator arms and / or any other. AI remains a computer program. I know that such programs in the West are often called robots, but in Russia, for example, an abbreviation for this word has taken root - the bot is right, because the robot is something else.
      The robot must be autonomous, self-governing according to the program laid down, able to move around and perform certain work. Moreover, AI is desirable for him but not required.
      Humanity is not necessary for a robot either.
      Maybe I'm wrong, but the robot is what we see in computer games and read in science fiction. In iron, there are only prototypes. We have not yet entered the era of robots, but we are standing on its threshold.
      I understand that the desire of many developers and journalists to call, say, Uranus-9 a robot, but it is not such because it is controlled by a person on the radio, all decisions are made by the person.
      1. voyaka uh 10 January 2020 22: 50 New
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        "AI remains a computer program" ////
        ----
        When AI is connected to hardware, it turns into a very, very
        unpleasant robot. It is not clear what will happen.
        While there are separately developed AI-type software (self-learning),
        and separately robots "manipulators" with traditional software.
        Combining them is technically possible. But they are not yet decided to connect them.
        The best example of robotic arms is Boston Dynamics. They have a wide
        the future, and the Japanese did not buy them for nothing. And they don’t put pressure on them, allowing them to "have fun."
        The implementation will be avalanche-like, trillions of dollars.
        The best example of AI is a program that defeated all go champions.
        Go is a game of mathematicians, intellectual, intuitive. Enumeration of options is not possible.
        1. Avior 10 January 2020 23: 01 New
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          Nevertheless, an example of a combinatorial game, like chess, a little less complicated checkers or a simple combinatorial tic-tac-toe game.
          This means that the question is not in intuition, but in the mathematical theory of games, even if the winning strategy is formulated in fuzzy terms.
          1. zavyalov4leksandr 10 January 2020 23: 32 New
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            Intuition, in its essence, is also a product of the algorithm of mental actions. Only in contrast to the ordinary thinking that occurs in the mind, does intuitive thinking go unconsciously, so it seems to us that Naz suddenly visits enlightenment. So there’s basically no difference
            1. dauria 11 January 2020 15: 22 New
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              therefore, it seems to us that the naz suddenly visits enlightenment.


              That is why this is the territory of doctors and biologists. Programmers are needed only as nurses and security guards in the hospital. You can’t do without them, but their business is the tenth. By the way, the famous MPEG compression format is the result of the work of psychophysicists, which allowed throwing 90% of music and video “in the trash” and not transferring it as “not very necessary”.

              Now, when the doctors understand how the eye transplanted from the donor finds a common language with the brain, then it comes to the engineers. But the surgeon did not care about the "interface" and the colors of the "wires". laughing
          2. voyaka uh 11 January 2020 00: 33 New
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            Go has no specific openings, no middlegame, no endgame.
            There is nothing to load into the computer’s memory, except for the rules of the game, unlike chess.
            AI was not set on a super-computer, but on the simplest, slightly amplified home one.
            And he (AI + comp) steadily defeated leading gurus, with all our "pride" -
            neurons, convolutions, hemispheres, lobes - the brain.
            This example is just an illustration of the difference between conventional software and AI type software.
            And it shows (indirectly) the danger of connecting such software with a mechanical robot.
  6. lucul 10 January 2020 18: 41 New
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    This, of course, is a skilfully shot parody that refers us to the modest achievements of Boston Dynamics, a product that so far can only do this:

    Yes, Boston has almost all the commercials - a parody, commercials ......
  7. Amateur 10 January 2020 18: 46 New
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    Besides K. Chapek, but A. Azimov was much more professionally described in "I-Robot", which formulated 3 laws of robotics, which absolutely must be applied if humanity really begins to manufacture robots.
    For the first time in the history of "Yu. S. Robots and Mekanikl Men Corporation »one of her robots was at liberty. It was not only that the law strictly forbade robots to be on Earth outside the corporation's factories that have a special license. The law could always be circumvented. Most precisely, the situation was determined by one mathematician from the research department. He said:
    “This robot is designed to work with the Desinto on the Moon.” His positron brain is designed for lunar and lunar conditions only. On Earth, it will be exposed to millions of sensory stimuli, for which it is completely unprepared. It is impossible to predict how he will react to this. Absolutely impossible!
  8. opus 10 January 2020 18: 48 New
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    Quote: Yevgeny Fedorov
    which sends us to modest the achievements of Boston Dynamics, a product that still knows how to make the only way:

    good
    touched
    Are there other “not modest” achievements for review, and something else that can do more than “just like that”?
    I assure it

    Rabbits are not only valuable fur

    even in the 3D V-REP robosimulator it will not be a trivial task
    Asti Robot Motion Control Script
    1. zavyalov4leksandr 10 January 2020 20: 08 New
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      I think the author, when he wrote about the "modest" achievements of the Boston Dynamics company, was ironic)
      1. opus 10 January 2020 20: 13 New
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        Quote: zavyalov4leksandr
        ironic)

        Yeah ... usually, when and., then use this ""
        1. zavyalov4leksandr 10 January 2020 20: 29 New
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          Well, maybe he didn’t attach any importance to this.

          But the robots at the “Bostons” are really very cool. At least as technology demonstrators.
          1. opus 10 January 2020 20: 45 New
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            Quote: zavyalov4leksandr
            But the robots at the Boston

            Yes. this you we are not Skolkovo and Fedi
      2. Andrey.AN 10 January 2020 20: 33 New
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        Boston Dynamics simply advertises other people's gyroscopes.
        1. zavyalov4leksandr 10 January 2020 20: 52 New
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          yes yes yes of course
      3. Andrey.AN 10 January 2020 20: 47 New
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        Although the toys certainly do great.
  9. 75 Sergey 10 January 2020 20: 06 New
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    A robot is a system that performs the task assigned to it within the framework of certain restrictions, in other words - a slave.
  10. knn54 10 January 2020 20: 09 New
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    The manipulator is a huge electromechanical arm, programmed for a specific task: styling, packing. Welding.
    Robot (confused with android) - the system is autonomous and universal. Only (if necessary) you need to rewrite the program.
    Should even collect ... other robots.
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. businessv 10 January 2020 20: 24 New
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    In aggregate, this is precisely why, despite the inevitability of a robotic future, we do not even know approximately what it will be. And largely due to the fact that we can’t imagine what a robot is!
    Here, it would seem, robotics, digitalization, everything is wonderful, but Evgeny Fedorov took it, and outlined the problem! Even a problem! Until you think about everything written, everything is simple, but as soon as you start to delve into, there really are more questions than answers! Thanks for the article to the author! Sensibly, with examples and a fun video in the beginning! Wow! good
  13. I am 10 January 2020 21: 16 New
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    In general, everything is clear and so: the Robot can not cause harm to a person or, through its inaction, allow a person to be harmed. The robot must obey all orders given by a person, except in cases where these orders are contrary to the First Law. The robot must take care of its safety to the extent that it does not contradict the First or Second Laws.
    1. Lad
      Lad 10 January 2020 22: 04 New
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      Yeah. If only the robot could still understand this text.
      1. I am 10 January 2020 23: 27 New
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        this text is entered in the robot ROM as system settings in the form of program code. and actually that’s all. If these principles are correctly programmed, then there will be no problems. one problem ..... who needs it then ......
        1. zavyalov4leksandr 11 January 2020 00: 00 New
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          this text is entered in the ROM of the robot as system settings in the form of program code
          - That's just so that the robot can decrypt this code and act on it, you will need to explain concepts such as:
          - harm;
          - "I" (in the sense of personality, "self" of the robot);
          - safety
          etc.

          Even people with much more flexible thinking cannot precisely determine these concepts among themselves, and it is much more difficult to explain them to a robot. A machine does not have an innate understanding of itself as a person, and a lot is built on this.
        2. bk316 13 January 2020 14: 49 New
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          this text is entered in the robot ROM as system settings in the form of program code.

          Nda. The introduction of computer science in the school curriculum did not add to the population's understanding of what a computer is. As it was, the magic box remained .... Only now, the magic box has magical details with the magic names "ROM", "system settings" laughing
          In general, of course, for the idea to write program code that algorithms the concept of "harm", you are entitled to a plus.
  14. rocket757 10 January 2020 22: 34 New
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    Technologies are developing, so some kind of decision regarding definitions will have to be found. It’s like with a single measure. Of course, national measures / definitions may exist, there may be facts, but they will create something in common. This is what they always do.
    And the laws of robotics will try to create unified ....
    The question is when and who will do it?
    1. zavyalov4leksandr 10 January 2020 23: 26 New
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      Laws themselves will appear as a consequence of the development of technology. How did the laws on nuclear weapons or the use of the Internet.
      1. rocket757 11 January 2020 08: 02 New
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        Why is it YOURSELF? Something fundamental appears as a result of the agreements of MANY countries, and then ratification by national governments takes place.
        For example, the IEC standards (international electrical company) adopted the standards IEC1, IEC2, IEC3 ... before the USSR adopted and began to do everything according to these standards, there was a lot of confusion in electrics and electronics. I remember everything perfectly, because it related to my field of activity.
        Something like this.
  15. Narak-zempo 10 January 2020 22: 42 New
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    But answer yourself honestly: would you buy yourself a plane ticket in which there are no pilots?

    Well, the AI ​​that controls the aircraft may not be able to taxi out of some emergency situations, but, on the other hand, it will not create some. For example, she will not forget to turn on the heating of the full pressure receivers and for this reason she will not stick the plane into the ground, as happened with the An-148 in 2018.
  16. mamonthful 11 January 2020 01: 15 New
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    Mentioning nothing of the rudiments of artificial intelligence, autonomy, and self-learning,

    BLIMEY!
    It turns out that the program code (and the carrier device) should have the signs of AI (neural networks, etc.), should it be ... should it be indicated? What a pity that you can’t write to the robot’s memory WHAT IS PLEASANT, that would be fantastic!
  17. Nikolaevich I 11 January 2020 05: 50 New
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    Well, Author! Well, "podzumil"! Threw a dinosaur bone (!) ... as you want, so bite! And if it was otherwise ... mixed up to a heap both horses and people ... they say, compare yourself now (!) ... from photographs! Firstly (!) .... well, I don’t like the word robot! "A hundred years at lunch" it was invented! It’s better to use the word “droid '', which is becoming, by the way, very popular ... Moreover, it is“ consonant ”with the word“ dron '' ... That’s the abgemacht ... in the air, drones, on earth droids! By the way, the name "robot" still makes sense to leave! But to determine the "class" of autonomous (!) Devices ... all sorts of remotely controlled devices (albeit with a certain degree of autonomy in certain cases ...) are manipulators!
  18. Nikolaevich I 11 January 2020 06: 14 New
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    PS The author in the article expresses "thoughts-idiots"! For instance,A robot is a mechanism, system or program that perceives, thinks, acts and communicates. ”
    .
    Again, with the modern development of the Internet of things, when refrigerators that are no worse than cell phones can think in their own way, a lot of gadgets fit this concept of a robot.
    Yo mine! The author of the "tough" algorithm, compiled according to a long-known principle ... that is, a kind of "poke" method, calls it "mental activity"! Oh, it’s not in vain that I mentioned that the author "horses, people ... mixed up in a heap!" If you put "cheese sticks" with a pronounced smell of cheese in the refrigerator, cheese is indicated in the "cooler" menu, then the "smart" refrigerator will calm down! And only a person will ask for real cheese, and even a certain variety ... Or, made in the "Young Technician" mug, a "robot" selects objects of various shapes according to the "spear" method to insert into the corresponding hole and, endowed with a memory function, has mental abilities, according to the author?
  19. dauria 11 January 2020 14: 46 New
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    Nda. They twisted and in the article and in the comments, as much as a head spin.
    There you have it, "Man is a creature on two legs without feathers."
    Do you know what the splinter is? Why can't you correctly and accurately call a piece of iron, an object? Yes, because the language (any - Russian, Chinese) was created for low speed acoustic channel. And forced to cut a bunch "superfluous" information. "Blue ball" - a dozen bytes, and in the head of each there was a picture in megabytes. Own. Processing images at the unconscious level takes place with pictures in the brain, processing of the result at the same low level - and lo and behold! !! - the conscious "rolled under the sofa" (another ten bytes) This is thinking.
    No one will be able to give an exact definition to anyone. To accurately formulate Ohm's law with all reservations and limitations, you need to write a book. With reference to a bunch of books in other areas, including Dahl’s dictionary.

    And another interesting conclusion is that one does not have to strive to cut back on the thinking of machines by the human low-speed channel - words. They can communicate with each other in megabytes per second.
  20. grumbler 11 January 2020 17: 35 New
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    About unmanned vehicles. imho, the decision in an unmanned environment will not be made by a separate machine, but the entire set of machines located within the radius of the "incident impact", "decision" and ACS- "supervisor"based on the requirements:
    1) Minimization of the total losses in the predicted incident.
    2) The reality of the inevitable ranking of the values ​​of human lives depending on socio-cultural conventions (examples: the desire to save children, save the lives of statesmen, etc. VIP).
    3) It must be borne in mind that we can "resolve" the situation locally, but we will create more problems during the development of the scenario. Therefore, the "supervisor" must predict the development of the situation for catastrophic consequences (for example: a car falling in the path of a speeding train or an accident in a tank of a dangerous substance, etc.). And it may turn out that the car can be forced into the wall or turned into a "barrier", although, with the "egoistic" algorithm, it could well save the life of its passenger. I think the convenience and the very low general accident rate of automated traffic will easily hurt us to come to terms with this logic.
  21. Lunic 12 January 2020 01: 20 New
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    A rare article on VO where comments are much more interesting and informative of the article itself.
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  23. iuocsfyu 12 January 2020 02: 42 New
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    Work can be different, physical and intellectual, even just energy consumption. Robot - from the word work. A robot does work for a person. Any work, in every sense. A manipulator manipulates objects for a person - a robot. If the manipulator is controlled by a person - a robot controlled by a person. A smartphone at the touch of a button does the job with a huge amount of visible and hidden information - a robot controlled by both humans and AI. Even a modern smart refrigerator or TV is robots. The programmable microwave is a robot.

    IMHO, Robot is an abstract concept of a device performing any work per person. Everything else is from the crafty, or outdated view.

    And further. In my opinion, it’s time to already learn to distinguish between concepts Artificial intelligence (Artificial Intelligence) and Artificial Mind (Artificial Mind). Even in the West, these concepts have not yet learned to distinguish.
  24. Smirnov Mikhail 18 January 2020 01: 30 New
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    What is the definition of animal? That's exactly the same can be said about the robot. Because any animal (including humans) is a variation of robotics. Just not on the chip, but on the brain. An animal is a creature capable of making decisions, which is called behavior. Therefore, a robot is a “piece of iron” with behavior. Do we see signs of behavior in modern cars? No. But somehow you still need to call cars, that's why they call robots. Accordingly, the author starts from the wrong end. Finding definitions is stupid because the names can be different. And Wishlist, too. You need to start from the fact. What about the facts now? That there are cars, the essence of which is the following - it is a remote-controlled motor. All decisions for the car are made by the operator, where to move and what to do there. Can this be called a robot? And who forbids? Therefore, they call it, there is nothing else right now.

    Further, about the autonomy and self-study of each iron. Where did the firewood come from? The topic is very good for investors who carry money in batches. Therefore they say. As soon as the money stops flowing at least by the stream, conversations will stop. But not at all, they just come up with something more abstruse if only the investor hawala, because everyone wants to eat. If you don’t feed the investor with promises, you will die hungry.

    Next, we compare all definitions with the behavior of the animal (we leave the person aside). After all, all Wishlist come down to exactly this - to have a robot that is "like an animal" (ideally, "like a man"). That is, an animal is a programmable autonomous machine capable of moving objects along a trajectory with a large number of points. Not funny? Either a universal reprogrammable or self-learning machine, controlled by an operator, or acting automatically, designed to perform instead of a person diverse tasks, as a rule, in a priori unknown conditions. Engineers and researchers MSTU. Bauman know a lot about the development of budget funds. Because even tapeworms do not have an operator, this is an absolutely autonomous robot. And it is not intended to perform tasks in place of man, but for reproduction (including in man), that is, copying himself. In previously known conditions, in unknowns, the robot will fail (die).

    What is all this talking about? In addition, the engineers and researchers are well attached. The fact that an engineer has not a single foot in psychology. By the way, in programming too. Programmers can’t do it in technology and psychology. And psychologists are in engineering and programming. But they would appreciate the humor that a tapeworm can be reprogrammed, because to consider an animal as a technical device with some kind of code and algorithm is unthinkable for them.

    Who should blame? In the animal kingdom, everything falls into nature, because it is not human encoded. And now the wolf (any other animals, even a tapeworm) faces the “trolley problem”. He rushes through the forest, and something is in his way. But he can collapse, there is the same thing, only smaller in quantity. Is funny Of course, because such behavior you will not see even in tapeworms. Just real robots that are on the squirrel have no such “problems”. In other words, machine “A”, even before contact, will slow down, beware, at least a dog, at least a person - and this will be the behavior of a real robot. Or chasing a dog / person / another car until it is crushed, and this will also be the behavior of a real predator robot. It all depends on the tasks for which we are coding the robot, for the sake of what result. Well, the answers are brutal, it’s better to crush a man, but to save a passenger, and it’s better to kill an innocent second driver than to crush a dog. Dogs are more expensive than compatriots.

    And finally, if the author does not know what his future will be in just 20-30 years. And it will be terrible. Because he will be surrounded by robots with behavior indistinguishable from the behavior of an animal, and with tasks to kill. It will be a world of total tyranny, because everything wrong will be a stimulus for the robot, as in animals. What exactly is considered wrong, and what should be the reaction to the stimulus will not be determined by the author. A gloomy future ..
  25. remal 15 March 2020 23: 03 New
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    I looked through the diagonal. Some collection of casuistry. What difference does it make? This is the tenth question. The main performance. Atlas - new technologies and their demonstration. The application of these technologies is the closest in general somewhere between an excavator and a garbage truck. Tesla is the foremost autopilot. Promavtomatika is already an indispensable part of the industry. The idea of ​​what will happen does not depend on the terms exactly.
  26. Super 16 March 2020 13: 39 New
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    To the robot Fedor, these crafts are far away.