Military Review

The Battle of Yorktown: Newborn America

121

Washington plans siege of Yorktown


Protracted war


The war for US independence proceeded within the framework and canons of the XNUMXth century. The British had a generally unfriendly (and large) territory. And a relatively "compact" land, but professional tactically contingent. A large empire of troops was not to attack. The era of huge armies, although it was close, has not yet come.

Tactical skill (discipline, drill, finely tuned army system as a whole) was compensated by strategic incompetence. It was difficult to blame the British for this. Until now, they dealt either with the same compact professional armies of great powers or with feudal territories, which easily succumbed to the tried-and-true “divide and conquer”, or even outright savages.

In America, they are faced with a modern nation that has reached a high level of ideological consolidation. Therefore, no matter how the British did not defeat the American armies, others came in their place. At the same time, the Americans, although inferior to the professional army of the empire, were plus or minus at the same technological and social level. And the whipping boys were not.

As a result of this, the British did not just all the time feel themselves in alien hostile land. They still could not put themselves in order because all the time they could be attacked by the modern troops, organized according to the European model, of the 13 colonies.

But by 1781, this was only half the problem.

French factor


By this time, both Americans and the British were pretty tired of the raging war since 1775. But a few years ago, the French also joined the fighting parties, seeking to avenge Britain for the Seven Years' War. Anyway, to spoil the British - this, in any case, was a holy cause.

If the British had not urgently come up with something clever, the war would sooner or later end in defeat.

At first, this “smart” was an attempt to enlist the support of loyalists from the southern colonies. The British sent serious contingents there - to support the "friends", and with their help put the South under tight control, and then go to the centers of rebellion in the north. But it didn’t work out - the Americans actively acted in the region, and at the same time, although they were beaten several times, they did not allow themselves to be completely defeated. Loyalists did not have to become an influential force - they were actively cut by local patriots, thus leveling this potential problem.

At first, the British tried to gain a foothold in both Carolina. But, having failed for the above reasons, they rolled back to Virginia. Frustrated by the collapse of hope, the British did not particularly know what to do. Then, sitting in occupied New York, General Clinton ordered the commander of the British ground forces in the south, Charles Cornwallis, to organize a naval base in the Chesapeake Bay.

Cornwallis chose Yorktown as such, located on the York River - the place was quite convenient. Let the British could not control the land. But at least they will strengthen their traditional patrimony - the sea. On August 2, English forces began to land in the cities.

True, in the event of the appearance of serious enemy forces on this very sea, the just organized base could become for the 9-strong Cornwallis army no more than a big trap.

Mousetrap


For some time, British naval superiority in American waters was overwhelming. But back in March 1781, a large fleet under the command of Admiral de Grasse left the French Brest. He went to 13 colonies of the West Indies, relatively close to the coast, - for the French there were many tidbits that could be taken away.

As for the American-French land forces, in July Washington and de Rocheambault, who commanded them, tried to seize New York, which was in British hands. To no avail. Then the thoughts of the commanders turned to Cornwallis, who was sitting in the south - if they had broken it, and the British would have been in a serious minority and without clear prospects. This could well end the war.


Sea Battle in the Chesapeake Bay

Fortunately, in mid-August, Washington learned that the de Grasse fleet was returning from the West Indies.

In early September, a battle broke out between the English and French in the Chesapeake fleets. It ended, from a tactical point of view, with nothing - the main striking force of both sides was preserved, although “on points” there was a slight superiority of the French. What was logical - their fleet was tangible, although not critical, anymore.

But in a strategic sense, the French broke the bank - the British commander Thomas Graves was not defeated, but returned to New York. This meant that Cornwallis in Yorktown was now deprived of the opportunity to retreat by sea - it was blocked by French ships.

Siege


The troops of Washington and de Rocambo left Virginia Williamsburg on September 28. The combined forces totaled about 16 thousand people. It is enough to defeat the one who was blocked from the sea and cut off from the supply of Cornwallis.

Wise from the experience of the war with the British, taught by battles with the dashing dragoons of Tarleton, the Americans evenly distributed the artillery on the march. All so that, in the event of a sudden attack, the convoy could immediately enter the battle. Everyone understood that a cornered rat would fight much more desperate.

The Battle of Yorktown: Newborn America
Siege of yorktown

But Cornwallis did not throw any fortels, but was engaged in the construction of defensive positions around Yorktown. The answer was simple - the English commander was waiting for reinforcements from New York.

In the meantime, he was preparing to hold on - he drowned small ships, blocking the fairways leading to places of convenient landing. He built redoubts. And he gave orders to drive horses - the supplies were already drawing to a close.

And the Franco-Americans began a proper siege according to all the canons of the XVIII century. They dug parallels of trenches, rolled out cannons, and at night brought glanders closer to the British positions. They started digging the first parallel on October 6 - and on the 9th, the besiegers concentrated their artillery and opened fire on Yorkatoon.

A few days later, the British closed almost all the embrasures - realizing that they still won’t win the artillery duel. But the people of Cornwallis took their toll at night, when the enemy could not really aim, and get into the guns.

On October 11, the Allies advanced glanders far enough to lay a second parallel - about 250 meters remained from it to the enemy. The Americans and the French had not yet had time to advance artillery, but were already forced to occupy the parallel by people. And the British used this moment to the fullest - the gunners were ordered not to spare the ammunition. True, a night later, the Allies pulled the artillery closer, and Cornwallis again proceeded to deep defense.

Three days later, the French and Americans began to attack the British redoubts in the night and captured two of them. The British responded with a daring night raid, during which 6 guns were disabled. But fundamentally this did not change anything.

Last chance and surrender


Things slowly but surely progressed to the fact that Cornwallis still squeeze. And he decided to use the last chance. The plan was simple - at night transfer the army to the other side of the river, where the English-controlled town of Gloucester was located. In the waters of York, nothing threatened him - de Grasse's ships did not enter the river, being gathered in a single fist in case the Graves fleet returned.

In case of success, where the minimum forces of the allies were concentrated, one could try to break through. But Cornwallis was destined for something else - the weather failed. A strong wind rose, a downpour broke out. When they were over, dawn came. It was too late to rush about.


Take British Redoubt

Then Cornwallis, realizing that there would be no reinforcements, sent the parliamentarians to discuss their surrender. And on October 19, the British folded weapon.

The siege of Yorkatoon did not end the war immediately - the British still had significant forces in the colonies. But against the backdrop of the still fresh French and having gained a second wind of the Americans after a high-profile victory, this was not enough. There was only one way out - to send more troops. But parliament was already fed up with an unsuccessful war - the more time passed, the greater the British elite was inclined to leave 13 colonies alone.

Ahead were political disputes, diplomatic trade in Paris, the signing of a peace treaty. The fate of the future United States was not yet clear. They could both become a reality for centuries, and turn out to be a one-day state - Americans had enough internal problems and contradictions. But one thing was clear - the country was more or less formed, and, fused in the fires of the battles for independence, gathered together - at least for a while.

How newborn America will take advantage of its historical chance, now depended only on her alone.
Author:
Photos used:
pinterest.com, livehistoryindia.com, weaponsandwarfare.com
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  1. Kleber
    Kleber 7 January 2020 05: 52
    +4
    But parliament was already fed up with an unsuccessful war - the more time passed, the greater part of the British elite tended to leave 13 colonies alone.


    Then they have not yet reconciled. Back in 1790-1791, the British Parliament asked the Russian Empress Catherine the Great for only 20-30 thousand soldiers (not free of course, of course) just for America. And the first president, George Washington, was aware of this in shock. Nobody doubted then the power of the Russian infantry. Catherine did not give the soldiers.
    1. GKS 2111
      GKS 2111 7 January 2020 06: 10
      +8
      Quote: Kleber
      Catherine did not give the soldiers.

      But others gave. There were a lot of Germans on the side of Great Britain - about 30 thousand people went to fight, for which they received about 8 million pounds. The mercenaries did not help the British, nevertheless they die for their land (colonists) and for money (mercenaries) these are two big differences .. After the war, 17 thousand Hessians returned home, 7 thousand died (and about 6 thousand from illnesses), about 5-6 thousand remained and joined the American nation, seduced by land acquisition into property.
      1. Kleber
        Kleber 7 January 2020 06: 14
        +4
        The entire cadre of the Prussian army fell into the "seven-year" war, and it is sometimes difficult to count those who were sent by the Hessians as soldiers.
        PySy: there was no Germany then.
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 7 January 2020 10: 43
      +4
      Quote: Kleber
      Nobody doubted then the power of the Russian infantry. Catherine did not give the soldiers.

      The clever ruler did not want to "drag chestnuts out of the fire" with Russian blood for others.
      1. ma-monthly
        ma-monthly 9 January 2020 15: 36
        0
        But Pavel and Alexander for all Europe dragged these chestnuts as part of anti-French coalitions.
  2. Rimlianin
    Rimlianin 7 January 2020 06: 32
    +3
    English colonization of America is very reminiscent of the unauthorized settlement of Siberia by fugitive Russian serfs and Cossacks in the 18th century. Only here, Siberia, thank God, did not have its own war for independence.
    1. Kleber
      Kleber 7 January 2020 08: 07
      +4
      Why in the 18th century? Ermak with his comrades rushed back in the 16th century.
      1. Rimlianin
        Rimlianin 7 January 2020 08: 08
        +1
        I'm talking about the settlement of runaway serfs, and not about Ermak.
        1. Kleber
          Kleber 7 January 2020 08: 09
          -3
          And who is Yermak? A runaway serf is there.
          1. Rimlianin
            Rimlianin 7 January 2020 08: 13
            +2
            Ermak went off with the team, and returned. Mass colonization of Siberia began at the beginning of the 18th century; at the end of the 17th century, Cossack fortresses were founded.
            1. Kleber
              Kleber 7 January 2020 08: 20
              +3
              What is the mass colonization of Siberia in the 18th century? Siberia officially joined Russia in the 16th century. The cities of Surgut, Tobolsk, Tyumen, Birch, etc. founded by Russians in the 16th century.
              1. d ^ Amir
                d ^ Amir 7 January 2020 09: 38
                +4
                just about .... in the 18th century Alaska was already mastered ... hi Good day and happy new year !!!
              2. Rimlianin
                Rimlianin 7 January 2020 10: 45
                +2
                Mass colonization of Siberia began in the 18th century. When fugitive serfs from Russia poured here in search of a free life and away from the master and the Russian tsar. And at the very end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, on the instructions of the king, Cossack fortresses were erected, which then became the cities you listed. But these were sparsely populated settlements. After the beginning-mid-18th century, the second stage of the colonization of Siberia - the period after the abolition of serfdom in Russia - 70-90 years. 19th century. This was the most massive resettlement of peasants in Siberia before the October coup. Almost all current Siberians are their descendants. Like me. Siberian at least in the fifth generation.
                1. Sergej1972
                  Sergej1972 7 January 2020 11: 13
                  +2
                  In the Tyumen region, Novosibirsk, Kemerovo, Tomsk, a significant part of the population is the descendants of those who moved to this region already in the Soviet period. And people are still moving to the Tyumen region (if Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug are considered part of it).
                2. tihonmarine
                  tihonmarine 9 January 2020 16: 06
                  0
                  Quote: Rimlianin
                  Almost all current Siberians are their descendants. Like me. Siberian at least in the fifth generation.

                  Like my ancestors, they also appeared in Transbaikalia. But we are not colonizers, we have not colonized anyone, we just lived with the local population.
              3. ma-monthly
                ma-monthly 9 January 2020 15: 40
                0
                yes, yes, "attached". One prison for 600 people per 400 thousand square kilometers. The United States could "annex" the entire Pacific Ocean.
                Real colonization and only SOUTHERN Siberia began in the 19th century, when the state began to operate. COLONIST resettlement and support program. Northern Siberia is still "ours" rather conditionally - on the maps.
        2. Sergej1972
          Sergej1972 7 January 2020 11: 16
          +3
          A large number of peasants in the second half of the 18th century were sent to Siberia by decision of the courts, or by the decision of their landowners for various kinds of offenses. These are not runaway serfs.
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 7 January 2020 10: 45
      +1
      Quote: Rimlianin
      Only here, Siberia, thank God, did not have its own war for independence.

      So the war in America, there was a war between the Anglo-Saxons and the Anglo-Saxons.
      1. Rimlianin
        Rimlianin 7 January 2020 10: 58
        0
        I did not understand what the remark was. The same Russians who lived in Russia colonized Siberia. I had in mind the war of the Russian colonists with the Russian Tsar. As well as the war of the English colonists of America with the English queen.
        1. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 7 January 2020 11: 58
          0
          Quote: Rimlianin
          I had in mind the war of the Russian colonists with the Russian Tsar. As well as the war of the English colonists of America with the English queen.

          Yes, I also had in mind what kind of colonization and struggle for what independence in Siberia?
          If in America there were from 100 to 140 million Indians, then by the end of colonization, 1 million remained. There was no colonization in Siberia, it was annexation to the Russian Empire without the wild destruction of the natives who became citizens of the Russian Empire and are still citizens of Russia, our people.
          1. Rimlianin
            Rimlianin 7 January 2020 12: 46
            +3
            Colonization of the USA is also not entirely colonization. Because the states for the Queen of England did not become an ordinary colony. And where does the struggle for independence and the destruction of the Indians. By the way, no one destroyed the Indians, there was no genocide. This is all a propaganda cliche. They themselves became extinct from alcohol and disease.
            1. tihonmarine
              tihonmarine 7 January 2020 12: 51
              0
              Quote: Rimlianin
              They themselves became extinct from alcohol and disease.

              I do not mind, moonshine is a holy cause, 140 lemons of the Indians died out of it, but the Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians started drinking them before and are still drinking and living. This is our Russian gene pool!
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 7 January 2020 16: 27
                +3
                I do not mind, moonshine is a holy cause, 140 lemons of the Indians died out of it


                "So in fact the Chukchi, they are like children ..." (c),
                Head of Chukotka. smile
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 7 January 2020 18: 46
                  +2
                  This is the question of "peaceful" annex Siberia and the Russian North!
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 7 January 2020 18: 53
                    +1
                    Not only, Anton. hi In the seventies I knew people who bought alcohol and went to these "children" for furs, it was a very profitable trade.
                    Merry Christmas! drinks
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 7 January 2020 18: 58
                      +1
                      Yes, I still know! The guys are complaining: "The" Indians "are completely mortified! They demand a satellite phone!"
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 19: 12
                        0
                        Wow, they already understand everything about the satellite! drinks
              2. RUSS
                RUSS 8 January 2020 16: 47
                -4
                Quote: tihonmarine
                Quote: Rimlianin
                They themselves became extinct from alcohol and disease.

                I do not mind, moonshine is a holy cause, 140 lemons of the Indians died out of it, but the Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians started drinking them before and are still drinking and living. This is our Russian gene pool!

                The Indians drank very quickly, but most of the Indian population really died from the diseases of white people.
          2. Kronos
            Kronos 7 January 2020 18: 09
            +3
            Well, it’s not like it was, for example, an article about the dashing Cossack chieftain robbing local people, so the uprisings
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 7 January 2020 19: 13
              0
              The chieftain would have paid with alcohol and there would have been no uprisings, he himself was to blame - greed destroyed. laughing
          3. RUSS
            RUSS 8 January 2020 16: 51
            +1
            Quote: tihonmarine
            There was no colonization in Siberia, it was annexation to the Russian Empire without the wild destruction of the natives,

            Well, of course! I am aware that the Chukchi were reconciled only after the Civil War, how many punitive campaigns were on the Chukchi, the campaign of Chudinoy, the campaign of Pavludsky. And the conquest of Central Asia, which is also peaceful?
          4. ma-monthly
            ma-monthly 9 January 2020 15: 46
            0
            and what is not a billion?
            25 million according to the BIGGEST estimates. And the researchers are talking about smaller numbers:
            "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the US vary significantly, ranging from William M. Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 work The Native Population of the Americas in 1492, to 18 million in Henry F. Dobyns' Their Number Become Thinned (1983) "

            90% of them died from new diseases. Just as tens of millions of people in Eurasia and Africa died from unknown diseases brought from America.
  3. Freeman
    Freeman 7 January 2020 09: 59
    +4
    For clarity.
    Film: Now or Never: The 1781 Yorktown Campaign



    Threat. You can turn on subtitles and translate them into Russian.
  4. bubalik
    bubalik 7 January 2020 13: 54
    +2
    ,,, it could all have ended in 1776 if someone had not been fond of chess.
    In the fall of 1776, fortune smiled at the British. The Americans were driven out of New York, and British General Howe drove the colonists further south. If the British crossed Delaware, the fall of Philadelphia, the capital of the rebellious state confederation, would be inevitable. Members of Congress have already begun to flee from there.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 7 January 2020 17: 05
      +4
      Sergey, hello and my congratulations on Christmas! smile
      I'm here, in fact, about the weapons, which to a large extent helped the colonists to win this war. I'm talking about the "Pennsylvania Fitting", which later for some reason began to be called "Kentucky". Trapper hunters knocked out British officers and even artillery servants from a great distance. This barrel was invented and produced by immigrants from Germany, and it was used exclusively by hunters.

      1. bubalik
        bubalik 7 January 2020 17: 18
        +4
        Unfortunately, Konstantin, in terms of weapons (especially so old) I can’t make you talk request Since not in the subject crying
        С Рождеством yes
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 7 January 2020 18: 52
        +2
        Something similar flashed in x / f "Patriot", moreover, with optics!
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 7 January 2020 18: 56
          +2
          I haven’t seen this film, so I can’t say anything. And in reality, the trappers beat the furry beast in the eye so as not to spoil the skin, so that without optics, the brains of the red tunic of the queen were normally kicked out. good
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 7 January 2020 18: 59
            +2
            Something similar flashed in the film "Patriot",

            I haven’t seen this x / f,

            ,,, is this a weapon?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 7 January 2020 19: 10
              +1
              There is nothing with optics here, the trunk of the second fitting sticks out behind the back. request
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 7 January 2020 19: 10
              +1
              Nah, not that. What is behind Gibson’s shoulder.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 7 January 2020 21: 18
                +1
                Gibson has two rifles on two straps on his shoulder, two barrels sticking out over his shoulder, and two butt stocks under his ass, a third vintar in his hand. I do not observe any optics. request
          2. bubalik
            bubalik 7 January 2020 19: 06
            +4
            And in reality, trappers beat the furry beast in the eye so as not to spoil the skin
            ,,, yeah, that caliber at that time, was blowing my head with my eyes tongue laughing
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 7 January 2020 19: 08
              +2
              The whole question is in the shell, the bullet could not necessarily correspond to the caliber of the weapon, and the beast was different. smile
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 7 January 2020 19: 11
              +3
              Lynx-sized beast!
            3. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 7 January 2020 19: 14
              +3
              Moreover, a sledgehammer!
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 7 January 2020 20: 12
                +3
                Do not trust the abilities of Natty Bampo and the like?
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 7 January 2020 20: 24
                  +3
                  I don’t trust, Sergey, I don’t trust! Since then, when I read enthusiastically read Fenimore Cooper, a lot of water has flowed ...
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 7 January 2020 20: 28
                    +3
                    I heard that a squirrel peeps from behind a trunk. And then they get into her eye.

                    But personally did not come across.
                    1. bubalik
                      bubalik 7 January 2020 20: 30
                      +3
                      ,,, curious?
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 20: 31
                        +3
                        Yeah. And now in the cities they with their curiosity have become those beggars.
                      2. bubalik
                        bubalik 7 January 2020 20: 36
                        +3

                        ,,, and knock on the telly laughing
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 20: 39
                        +3
                        In this picture, Dr. Aibolit was not without. And then the squirrels made up the team on the ship at Barmaley.
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 7 January 2020 21: 06
                        +2
                        How delicate it would be ... Other "squirrels" usually knock on the TV "on the other side" laughing
                      5. bubalik
                        bubalik 7 January 2020 21: 07
                        +2
                        ,,, especially after such long holidays laughing
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 7 January 2020 21: 11
                        +1
                        After a weekend like this, even the Estonian turtles seem like the prototype of the Vanguard; laughing
                      7. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 7 January 2020 20: 54
                        +3
                        Channel Five News
                        "Two hours ago, a flock of squirrels drove the homeless diaspora out of the underpass near the Kupchino metro station !!! Our correspondents are following the development of events!"
                      8. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 20: 57
                        +3
                        It is unlikely. But it can bite.

                        One of my students said: "It does not differ from a rat. Only the tail is fluffy."
                      9. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 7 January 2020 21: 14
                        +1
                        By the way, rats are not carriers of rabies virus, and proteins are quite!
                      10. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 21: 18
                        0
                        Right. And as small birds as offends.

                        Sladkov liked the children's story: "You're just some kind of pig that climbed a tree."
                      11. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 7 January 2020 20: 44
                        +2
                        Tricky ass!
                    2. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 7 January 2020 20: 44
                      +3
                      Seryozha, count up, such a mother squirrel, a little peeps out from behind the trunk of a sequoia ... And then a battery of "twelve pounds" into the "melon", hit it !!! Squirrel - from hooves and "paws to side". You can skin the carcass and cut the tusks laughing
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 20: 48
                        +3
                        I admit that the Indians in the sequoia groves could not hunt.

                        I did not happen to be in Yellowstone. It is in Europe redwoods 45-50 meters tall. And that is impressive.

                        And if 115 meters high, and the diameter is appropriate.
                      2. bubalik
                        bubalik 7 January 2020 20: 51
                        +5
                        sequoia peeping from behind the trunk


                        ,, what trees, such and squirrels lol
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 20: 52
                        +3
                        One of these trees was harvested by a lumberjack team for three weeks.
                  2. Catfish
                    Catfish 7 January 2020 21: 21
                    +4
                    I didn't read Cooper at all, confined himself to Mine Reed. And after watching "Royal Pirates" in early childhood, he sat down tightly on the "pirate" theme.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 7 January 2020 21: 27
                      +3
                      Some are lucky! And in early childhood I watched "The Legend of the Dinosaur" laughing
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 21: 37
                        +2
                        I watched "Legend" already in adulthood and the film further strengthened my dislike of samurai. These dinosaurs had to be included in the "Red Book", and they jammed them with depth charges. And they, the Mikada are bad, both mocked the prisoners during the second war, and with the poor animals, bastards.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 7 January 2020 22: 01
                        +3
                        Mocked ... woke Godzilla laughing
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 22: 05
                        +2
                        And why be surprised if they once climbed into Pearl Harbor. I suspect that the word analytics did not yet exist in their vocabulary at the time. So with Godzilla it all came out naturally. laughing
                      4. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 21: 52
                        +2
                        And my second film watched in the cinema was "The Adventures of Odyssey".
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 7 January 2020 21: 54
                        +2
                        By the way, I also vaguely remember that!
                      6. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 21: 57
                        +2
                        And then there was superimposed on the book of Tudorovskaya "The Trojan War and Its Heroes".
                      7. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 7 January 2020 22: 05
                        +3
                        And for me on the studied in the fifth grade superimposed "Spartacus", "Daki", "Battle for Rome".
                      8. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 22: 08
                        +1
                        "Spartacus" - in the form of a book. "Vikings" - in the form of a film. And another curious book by Svirkin was "Expedition to the ancestors". And Dumas to the heap.
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 7 January 2020 21: 18
                +1
                And in the face !!!
          3. Undecim
            Undecim 7 January 2020 20: 57
            +5
            But in reality, trappers beat a furry beast in the eye
            How many years has lived a legend launched by someone about "beating a furry animal in the eye", and not getting old, now the Internet has given it a new impetus.
            But the question is checked simply - it is enough to find a squirrel in the forest at an altitude of 20 meters or even more among the branches, then try to examine this very eye.
            In reality, a squirrel is beaten either with shot No. 5,6 from a 28-32 caliber shotgun, or they use .22LR, aiming it in the head (according to statistics, something will get into the eye).
            In the USSR, the Izh-56 "Belka" combined rifle was produced for hunters-traders, the upper barrel under .22LR, the lower one - shotgun 28 or 32 caliber.
            The legend about "shooting in the eye" looks especially curious against the background of the main weapon of trappers, an example of which is the "Pennsylvania rifle" or the Hawken rifle.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 7 January 2020 21: 03
              +3
              With good vision at a height of 20 meters - it is visible.

              And a dog, usually a husky, to help. The squirrel is distracted by it.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 7 January 2020 21: 10
                +3
                Shotgun hunting without a husky makes no sense at all. But this does not increase the size of the squirrel eye and does not force the squirrel to sit down with the eye to the hunter.
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 7 January 2020 21: 14
                  +2
                  Since childhood, Lesnaya Gazeta has been among her favorite books. The fishermen, as far as I understand, tried to hit the head so as not to spoil the skin.

                  But then, they were even more skillful arrows, I admit.
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 7 January 2020 21: 20
                    +2
                    I still have this book of Bianchi on the shelf. He was a talented person.
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 7 January 2020 21: 24
                      +2
                      And in my children's room. And this was a gift to my mother from my grandfather for 10 years.
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 7 January 2020 21: 14
              +2
              Vic hi , I wrote that the bullet does not have to be gauge, and the 22LR cartridge did not exist at that time. But on one point you are right: I had to put the squirrel in the eye in quotation marks, but ... then a beautiful topic would disappear and the people would have nothing to have fun. smile
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 7 January 2020 21: 21
                +4
                The theme of the Christmas evening is "Squirrels and Sequoias".
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 7 January 2020 21: 23
                  +3
                  Yeah! Sergey, what is poured into your glass under your hand? I have a seagull with vodka. drinks
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 7 January 2020 21: 29
                    +2
                    Sausage fell out of the game. You tell beautifully. I'll go pour some tea. And even tomorrow is a working day.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 7 January 2020 21: 32
                      +3
                      It’s easier for me to sit at home, but sometimes you fool from idleness, especially in winter. drinks
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 21: 45
                        +3
                        Is there a stove?
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 21: 58
                        +3
                        Sergei, you offend, in nature. An imported appliance the size of a wall hangs in the kitchen and drives hot water along the radiator, on such a "stove" as on a bed you will not frolic! And you won't be able to drink "in black", the mentality of this unit is not the same, all the inscriptions are in British. request wink
                        So we get out of the situation as best we can, but we can - after all, we are "Russian people!" (c) and precisely with two "ry" to growl. laughing
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 22: 01
                        +3
                        And you won’t look at burning firewood.

                        But usually I find the opportunity either to get out of the stove, or to the fire. Even if not as often as we would like.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 22: 09
                        +3
                        Burning firewood - easily! We periodically convene people for barbecue. And there is a fire until dawn, who has enough training and strength. Only this winter is somehow rotten. Damn it, let it fill up with snow, I have a winch on a quadric, but the feeling of winter is familiar from childhood. So no ...
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 22: 11
                        +3
                        And another mystery is whether frosts will come. And how the plants will survive this winter, that they started to grow.
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 22: 14
                        +3
                        Our winter crops are already full of lush greenery. I am far from being an agronomist, but local old-timers are predicting a less-than-attractive future, in the sense of this year's harvest.
                      7. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 22: 17
                        +3
                        The older generation used to say: "Nettles will go and it will become easier."
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 22: 33
                        +3
                        Well, I don’t know, but nettles, well, her in FIG. We can’t get it, so under two meters rushing.
                      9. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 22: 36
                        +3
                        This means we have not reached the edge. But both sorrel cabbage soup and cabbage soup from young nettles are a memory from childhood.
                      10. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 22: 40
                        +3
                        Why childhood? My wife is still cooking this yummy. smile
                      11. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 22: 42
                        +3
                        The way has the ability to change. And the young dream also in your diet?
                      12. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 22: 44
                        +3
                        Sergei, and you ist das "young sleepy", I still de not so rooted in village life. request
                      13. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 22: 51
                        +3
                        In the forest - a plant on rich soil. There is a weed in the garden. She was also fed by Seraphim of Sarov: "There is such a herb - a dream."

                        And I came across a salad with lust.
                      14. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 22: 53
                        +3
                        No, well, all weed, not from the garden, add to soups, but somehow no one called it a weed.
                      15. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 22: 57
                        +2
                        https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A4%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%BB:Illustration_Aegopodium_podagraria0_clean.jpg


                        I wanted to insert a picture. But the tablet does not really listen. So at least the first link.
                      16. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 22: 58
                        +3
                        Thank you, but I won’t climb, laziness, I’ll leave it for my wife. smile
                      17. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 January 2020 23: 01
                        +3
                        And rightly so.

                        As in Shirley-Myrley it sounded: "You must keep meat snacks in the house as well."
                      18. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 23: 04
                        +3
                        This kin did not see, but with regard to meat snacks - I agree.
              2. Undecim
                Undecim 7 January 2020 21: 27
                +4
                It is possible to infect a muzzle loading rifle with a non-caliber projectile, of course, it is just impossible to center the bullet in the barrel, there were no plastic containers then, so there will be no accuracy, not even in the head, you won’t get into the squirrel.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 7 January 2020 21: 30
                  +2
                  I read that they did this, and I don't know how and how they processed the skin for the "pallet".
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 7 January 2020 21: 47
                    +1
                    Usually the "Pennsylvania rifle" had a caliber of .32, but the barrel steels were not today's, so there was a heat and the barrel was periodically reamed, sometimes up to .50. To load a bullet with a caliber of at least 6-7 mm into such a barrel and get somewhere at the same time - from the field of chance.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 7 January 2020 22: 00
                      +1
                      Vic, I don’t argue. Unfortunately, I don’t remember who and where I read it, but not in the worst. literary, that's for sure, otherwise I would not stutter.
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim 7 January 2020 22: 03
                        +1
                        I don’t argue either, I justify my point of view based on my own experience.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 22: 11
                        0
                        Vic, do you have a Pennsylvania fitting? Just kidding, don't be angry, I myself have never fired a flint cap myself. "Closely" I was not interested in this weapon.
                      3. Undecim
                        Undecim 7 January 2020 22: 25
                        +1
                        There is no Pennsylvania one, but they had to shoot from a capsule, although the caliber was larger, about 18 mm, a round 12-caliber bullet was suitable. My colleague and comrade's father was a gunsmith, and everything went through his hands. I "worked part-time" in his workshop.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 22: 32
                        +1
                        Lucky for you, I didn't have such friends. If it was possible to shoot from rarities, it was only at the All-Russian Forensic Science Research Institute, but even there were not cartridges for any barrel. Here was the opportunity to shoot from a hunting model "Parabellum" chambered for Borchardt 7,65 mm, but they had only seven pieces in stock for the most extreme case. Broken off, although we ourselves really wanted to. Alas.
                      5. Undecim
                        Undecim 7 January 2020 23: 26
                        0
                        Here was the opportunity to shoot from a hunting model "Parabellum" chambered for Borchardt 7,65 mm.,
                        Perhaps I am mistaken, but the thought suggests itself that you either took the Borchard K-93 pistol for "Parabellum", or the 7,65 × 21 mm Parabellum cartridge was taken for the 7,65 × 25 mm Borchardt. Or the wrong name was applied to the 7,65 × 21 mm cartridge.
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 January 2020 23: 56
                        +2
                        Exactly, I was blabbering, that’s what leads to the belief that you will always be corrected as necessary.
                        But all the same, the Parabellum cartridge 7,65x21 is a shortened Borchardt 7,65x25, exactly like on the 9x19 The pair uses the same sleeve from Borchardt, only she was "cut off". All these cartridges fit freely into the nine-millimeter figure-eight.
                        Here is this machine from my department, two interchangeable barrels for both cartridges and a 4-fold Zeiss.

                      7. Undecim
                        Undecim 8 January 2020 00: 59
                        +1
                        Rare equipment.
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 8 January 2020 01: 12
                        +1
                        Rare and apparently expensive. Blue blued, wooden details - walnut, stainless steel shop, brown leather case. But with the scope installed, it was inconvenient to jerk the shutter, you pull it up with one finger, and then as usual. I, in this version, with a forend and a stock, saw only the image in graphics, in pre-revolutionary catalogs, but without any optics. Yes, there were no markings on the pistol other than the number four on each part, but this number is just "assembly" marking.
              3. bubalik
                bubalik 7 January 2020 21: 28
                +4

                ,, the main thing is not to mix up who you hunt wassat
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 7 January 2020 21: 40
                  +2
                  So you need to drink not during the hunt (tea is not fishing), but after it! drinks
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 7 January 2020 18: 53
    +3
    Thanks Timur! Wonderful article!
  6. 5-9
    5-9 9 January 2020 10: 49
    0
    Independence for the future USA was conquered by France and Spain in a direct military conflict. Plus problems in India. Britain had a choice - to lose 13 colonies or India. The interests of the OIC prevailed. There were no less loyalist colonists than there were patriotic colonists. The phrase "What? And these won us over Washington" was said long before Keitel ...