ZIL-157: “Kalashnikov assault rifle” among army trucks


American heritage



The creation of the first post-war army trucks was not without the influence of the American design school. By and large, in the Soviet Union there was nothing special to be guided in this regard. The first developments on all-wheel drive all-terrain vehicles (ZIS-36 and GAZ-33) are dated to the beginning of the 40s, but they, for obvious reasons, did not receive proper development. The direct serial predecessor of ZIL-157 was the ZIS-151, which was developed in 1946 and was largely based on technical solutions from the Lendliz Studebaker US6 and International M-5-6. But it cannot be said that the 151st car was a complete copy of the American: in the fall of 1946, the experimental ZIS-151-1 was built with single-wheel rear wheels (10,5 - 20), which was noticeably ahead of the future production model on the road.


However, the influence of the military experience of operating the Studebaker was outweighed, and the ranks of the Soviet Army preferred the gable wheels of the basic version. One of the arguments in favor of this decision was the supposedly greater survivability of dual wheels on the battlefield. The opinion of Ivan Likhachev, the director of the plant, who for some reason did not like single-wheel wheels, was also important. Yevgeny Kochnev, in this regard, writes in the book “Automobiles of the Soviet Army” that the adoption of the largely unsuccessful “grenade” ZIS-151 for ten years stopped the progress of domestic all-wheel drive equipment for the military.





The predecessor of the ZIL, ZIS-151, was poorly prepared for heavy off-road conditions: overweight, a weak engine and two-wheeled rear wheels interfered

It is interesting that initially the cross-country capability of the ZIS-151 was so low that in state tests in 1949 they also tried to set the gable wheels on the front axle. Naturally, this decision only worsened passability, especially in sand, snow and thick mud. Now sticky mud, clay and snow clogged not only the cross-axle clearance on the rear wheels, but also in the front. In addition, the mismatch of the front and rear ruts seriously increased the resistance to movement on the most harmless off-road. As a result, the ZIS-151 serial car turned out to be overweight, not fast enough (no more than 60 km / h) and uneconomical, for which it received the nickname "Iron".

ZIL-157: “Kalashnikov assault rifle” among army trucks

That could be ZIS-151 with single wheels

Gable wheels not only caused excessive losses in the transmission and chassis, but also forced to carry two spare wheels with them at once. On the roads, drivers often had to remove the inner wheels in order to somehow reduce the resistance to movement. And the main drawback of the machine was the lack of reliability of most components, which factory workers had to struggle with throughout the entire life cycle of the model. This was also one of the reasons for the slowdown in the next-generation “single-handed” truck.

Georgy Zhukov saves the situation


However, the ZIS-151 became the basis for a constant creative search for the engineers of the Moscow Automobile Plant, the developments on which eventually became the most important in the design of ZIL-157 and ZIL-131. Such an example was the series of experimental ZIS-121 machines, on which from 1953 to 1956. practiced more powerful motors, reinforced frames and chassis, the long-awaited single-wheel wheels and locks of all differentials. The most important innovation of experimental trucks was the system of adjusting the internal pressure in tires with external air supply.

ZIS-485A. Late version. Air supply to the wheels - already through the hub

BTR-152B

Initially, the wheel inflation system was developed for the ZIS-485 three-axis army amphibian, the creators of which, in turn, were guided by the American GMC DUKW-353 floating machine. On amphibians, reduced pressure in the wheels was vital when leaving the water bodies on the swampy shore: this seriously increased the area of ​​the tread contact with the ground. A definite drawback was the external air supply, the hoses and pipes of which could be seriously damaged when overcoming an ordinary bush. The second important advantage of the inflation system was the obvious increase in tire resistance, which was crucial when installing it on the BTR-152V. However, no one seriously thought about the benefits of installing such systems on trucks for the army: it seemed that the gigantic waste of material for implementation would never pay off. As often happens, chance helped in this situation. In 1952, a group of engineers went for potatoes to one of the farms near Moscow. It was late fall. In order to avoid product freezing, a huge amphibian ZIS-485 was detached as a kind of “thermos”. The body of this waterfowl was much better protected from wind and snow (and heat from the engine pretty much heated the boat body) than the ZIS-151 blown from all sides, of which there were two copies in the group.












When on the way back the convoy with potatoes fell into a snowdrift, then the ZIS-485 had an opportune time to have a tire pressure regulation system, with which it was ahead of the rest of the machines by several buildings. In addition, when driving on loose snow, the rear single-wheel wheels of the car played an important role, which, I recall, the ZIS-151 did not have. For more accurate experimental data, a chassis from the ZIS-485 was put on a truck and drove into the snow of the frozen Pirogovsky reservoir. The first tests showed an increase in traction capabilities of the experimental ZIS-151 in 1,5-2 times compared with the basic version of the machine. It would seem that the advantages are obvious, and take the tire inflation system and put it on new cars right now. But the future ZIL-157 had to literally wade through the thorns to the conveyor.

In 1954, comparative races of serial all-wheel drive vehicles and promising developments for the army were organized. Among them was the experimental ZIS-121V (the future ZIL-157) with a wheel inflation system, which on swampy soil was second only to the ZIS-152V armored personnel carrier, also equipped with pumping. Deputy Defense Minister Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov was present at the tests, following the results of the tests in an ultimatum form, he demanded that the factory workers urgently introduce a novelty in wheeled vehicles for the army. The Stalin plant ultimately became the first in the world to master such a difficult technique in mass production. We managed to get rid of the vulnerable rod of the external air supply in 1957, when the engineers at that time, ZIL, G.I. Pral and V.I. Mashatin, created a scheme for supplying air from the inside through the axle of the hub.

"Cleaver", "Zahar", "Truman" and so on


In March 1956, the ZIS-157 was recommended for mass production, however, with reservations. In the conclusion of the commission, excessive steering sensitivity was indicated, which on rough terrain could lead to injuries. The design requested a power steering, but the engineers limited themselves to a shortened bipod gear. This reduced the transmitted blows, but the high steering force remained. Until the very end of the issue, this problem on the ZIL-157 was not solved: the driver had to literally wrap himself around the steering wheel all the time. Why did the power steering never appear on the car? There is no answer, especially as on the ZIL-130 and ZIL-131 in the steering there was an amplifier. In addition to single-wheel wheels on the rear axles, the ZIL-157 differed from its predecessor in the large tire profile, which had a positive effect on ground clearance: on the ZIL it was 0,31 m, on the ZIS - 0,265 m. Six-cylinder in-line carburetor engines similar in design were installed on ZIL-157 110-strong, on ZIS-151 - 92-strong), which explained the characteristic long wedge-shaped hoods. But only ZIL received the nickname "Cleaver" among the people and the army.








In addition, the only spare tire of the 157th was hidden under the body, which allowed to bring the platform closer to the cab. This, in turn, increased the exit angle to 43 degrees. An echo of the Lendlizovsk legacy in the design of the 157th ZIL can rightfully be considered a complex transmission with as many as five cardan shafts. This, firstly, remained in the new car from the predecessor ZIS-151, and, secondly, according to the military, it seriously increased the survivability of the truck on the battlefield. For example, the scheme allowed in case of damage to the driveshafts going to the middle and front axles to move on one rear axle. It turned out to be expensive, difficult and difficult, but, nevertheless, in production the truck with a constant transmission lasted in various modifications until 1985. In parallel with the “Cleaver”, a more advanced ZIL-131 (about which there is a series of articles on Military Review), and he already had a transmission scheme with a middle passing bridge. Of course, the 131st ZIL was in many ways superior to the 157th car, but Zakhar had one indisputable plus - this was the maximum engine torque that it reached at 1100-1400 rpm. On heavy off-road conditions, such virtually diesel engine parameters allowed the car a lot - experienced drivers claim that the ZIL-157 exceeded the almost standard GAZ-66 in this discipline.











Jiefang CA-30 ("Liberation") - Chinese clone ZIL-157

Having evolved from the actually unsuccessful ZIS-151, the “Cleaver” turned out to be for the Soviet Army, by the totality of its properties, a real “Kalashnikov assault rifle” - equally unpretentious and reliable. At the same time, the machine turned out to be in demand in the markets of developing countries, and in China its licensed copy under the name Jiefang CA-30 was produced from 1958 to 1986.

Over time, the ZIL-157 equipment, rooted in World War II vehicles, became obsolete, and engineers made a lot of efforts to develop the structure. But this is another история.

The ending should ...
Author:
Photos used:
gvtm.ru, diecast-43.livejournal.com, zh.wheelsage.org, carnewschina.com, denisovets.ru
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  1. svp67 6 January 2020 05: 15 New
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    Yeah..
    By and large, in the Soviet Union there was nothing special to be guided in this regard.
    And nevertheless managed
    1. Grandfather 6 January 2020 05: 44 New
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      adored the 157th, he looks like a hard-working peasant, simple, unhurried and trouble-free. as soon as they did not call him in the army ... it was apparently transmitted from the war by zis and students by layout and "truman and zahar and mormon." and hell knows how. but it was always respectful. it was funny to turn on the starter, and my hands ached after a long trip, (then with the Afghan failure 131x (died in the mountains) they began to put the hydraches on the 157- the control became easier. the car is a legend. The 131st is certainly not bad, but it’s as if pumped 130th ... turning on the front axle with the toggle switch is luxurious ... but it was sick of instability, all the time some kind of repair, too resourceful for the “rogue" ... as the mileage increased, a "chip" appeared - it "clapped" in the engine so that the valve covers are "inflated" - had to be straightened and put in place. .but all the same, the engine worked, hardy, if not heated, (to grind the stove, then another occupation ..) two generations, each with its own niche, could not fully replace each other.
      1. AlexVas44 6 January 2020 08: 52 New
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        Quote: Dead Day
        ... began to put "hydrachi" on 157- management easier.

        Kindly, can you give more details?
        1. Fitter65 6 January 2020 09: 28 New
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          Quote: AlexVas44
          Quote: Dead Day
          ... began to put "hydrachi" on 157- management easier.

          Kindly, can you give more details?

          Somewhere in the year 80-81, 4 timber trucks based on the ZIL-157 arrived at the Ust-Khmelevsky MLC, they were powered by hydraulic boosters, they even said that it was like a rejected export batch for Vietnam.
          1. AlexVas44 6 January 2020 10: 40 New
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            Thank. But I would like specific information. At various forums there is a lot of information that somewhere someone saw, even served in such CAs, and there were supposedly prototypes - ZIL-157L. And the installation of power steering from the ZIL-130 in the fleets, and in the 90s, of course, the needleworkers had. But there was still no production.
            1. svp67 6 January 2020 12: 59 New
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              Quote: AlexVas44
              and there were supposedly prototypes - ZiL-157L

              The latest ZIL-157, modifications KD, were produced at the Ural Automotive Plant, until 1992. Moreover, the release went in parallel with the ZIL-131, and there sometimes these machines "crossed", in particular with regard to GUR
              1. knn54 6 January 2020 13: 31 New
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                I really liked the “Zakhar” by the Mongolian geologists. True, the engine was with a piston Zil-130.
                And in the mountains ZIL-130 out of competition.
                1. uu1
                  uu1 8 January 2020 17: 13 New
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                  Quote: knn54
                  I really liked the "Zahar" by the Mongolian geologists.

                  Still, gas was free. From the USSR he was delivered to Mongolia "on credit". Which Mongolia did not even plan to give away.
                  Now it seems that Mongolian geologists are using normal machines?
              2. Bad_gr 7 January 2020 00: 33 New
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                Quote: svp67
                The latest ZIL-157, modifications KD, were produced at the Ural Automotive Plant, until 1992. Moreover, the release went in parallel with the ZIL-131, and there sometimes these machines "crossed", in particular with regard to GUR

                I have long wondered: 157 let out a lot of years, well, was it really possible to put hydraulics on the steering wheel and the same cab from the 130th (or 131st) Zilka at the factory, in peacetime, was such an unsolvable problem?
              3. AlexVas44 7 January 2020 08: 16 New
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                Quote: svp67
                and there sometimes these cars "crossed", in particular with regard to GUR

                Only pure rumors about crossbreeding. The plant simply does not make sense to "cross", unnecessary chores - either all with power steering, or not. I can assume that already after the 90th, for the sake of better sales, and the backlog was decent, they could also "cross". But so far there is no official information. Alas.
                Even, unfortunately, there is nothing reliable about experimental cars with power steering.
            2. dgonni 6 January 2020 19: 10 New
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              A quick reference niaat to help you. Year of Eda4 1985. Everything is described there. They were with power steering were! But since they began to put at the end of production. Those were very rare.
              1. AlexVas44 7 January 2020 08: 45 New
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                Quote: dgonni
                A quick reference niaat to help you. Year of Eda4 1985. Everything is described there. .

                I would be very grateful for a link to any reliable information.

                Quote: dgonni
                ! But since they began to put at the end of production. Those were very rare.

                The end of production is quite officially -1992. In the end - it means from the year 88th, well, 87th. So in the reference book of the year of commercials of 1985 they could not write about this yet.
                Unfortunately, there is no official document on the release from the power steering.
                1. dgonni 7 January 2020 13: 59 New
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                  Are you banned in Google? You type a quick reference NIAT 1985 and voila, the end of production in terms of the fact that they started producing murmons in the 60s so that the middle of the 80s was the end for him.
        2. Grandfather 6 January 2020 17: 57 New
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          Quote: AlexVas44
          Quote: Dead Day
          ... began to put "hydrachi" on 157- management easier.

          Kindly, can you give more details?

          well, below answered ... hi
          Quote: Dead Day
          ... began to put "hydrachi" on 157- management easier.

          Kindly, can you give more details?

          Somewhere in the year 80-81, 4 timber trucks based on the ZIL-157 arrived at the Ust-Khmelevsky MLC, they were powered by hydraulic boosters, they even said that it was like a rejected export batch for Vietnam.
          that's right
        3. e-sam 6 January 2020 20: 55 New
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          ZIL-157: “Kalashnikov assault rifle” among army trucks

          Those. is the same UG?
          AKM was decommissioned from the SA back in the 70-80s due to professional unsuitability for the army (it was quite suitable for gangs of various kinds of bandits in the forests).
          AK-74 is also unsuitable for the army, but could not do anything better in the USSR.
          What is ZIL-157 proud of then?
      2. Shooter22 6 January 2020 12: 44 New
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        And I was lucky in my life to drive on a unique device. A screw rotor based on Zil-157 - D-470 came to the neighboring part from storage. His engine was structurally absent in front, and behind (behind the cab) was a six-cylinder in-line U2D6 diesel engine with a volume of 19.5 liters and 175 hp. He twisted and auger and wheel drive, and on all axles (four-wheel drive). So the screw turned out to be broken and it was removed, and the chassis was used as a command vehicle. This is not an apparatus, but a fairy tale! Pret, like a racing car. Patency on a diesel engine is a song!
        1. AlexVas44 6 January 2020 15: 21 New
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          Quote: Shooter22
          the auger was broken and removed, and the chassis was used as a command vehicle. This is not an apparatus, but a fairy tale!

          I did it once, in the spring I took off my auger, I thought to ride it like a car. Fig! The car is completely uncontrollable - the front axle has risen and the contact of the steered wheels with the road surface, as they say, is not.
          1. Shooter22 6 January 2020 23: 53 New
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            Well, I don’t know, I don’t know. In the company, platoons drove her, all the normul was. Yes, and I rode on it more than once and not on the asphalt. And you yourself are probably the world champion in powerlifting, once you were able to remove the auger from him alone. belay )))
            1. AlexVas44 7 January 2020 07: 57 New
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              Quote: Shooter22
              And you yourself, you’re probably the world champion in powerlifting, once you were able to remove the auger from him alone

              No, not a champion. In principle, and one person. it can be removed - put on linings, disconnect the cardan, hoses and knock out the fingers of the suspension arms - no need to strain. . I was the head of the car service, there were no problems with the withdrawal. And you can drive on this, but it's just no fun.
              1. Shooter22 8 January 2020 17: 05 New
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                Everything is fine. Thanks for the qualified answer. I write only about what I personally saw or had experience. So no offense. drinks
    2. iouris 6 January 2020 12: 27 New
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      Quote: svp67
      nevertheless managed

      It depends on what problem was solved, and which was not even set for decades. We never learned how to make competitive engines and control systems. Apparently, they lagged forever.
  2. Thrifty 6 January 2020 05: 45 New
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    With this machine, I associate the memories of business trips to a sponsored state farm, to harvest potatoes and apples! good In Soviet times, I traveled there, and it was with such a truck that we were taken across the fields!
  3. Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 January 2020 05: 57 New
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    157 - off-road soviet truck fetish! Thank!!!
  4. malyvalv 6 January 2020 06: 34 New
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    On heavy off-road conditions, such virtually diesel engine parameters allowed the car a lot - experienced drivers claim that the ZIL-157 exceeded the almost standard GAZ-66 in this discipline.

    It depends on what is considered heavy off-road. On heavy winter roads, the GAZ-66 is very bad. Virtually no rides. The winter king was the Urals with a KAMAZ diesel. That was followed by the Urals with a gas engine and ZIL-157. ZIL-131 and GAZ-66 went on a winter road only as a last resort.
    1. svp67 6 January 2020 06: 44 New
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      Quote: malyvalv
      The winter king was the Urals with a KAMAZ diesel.

      Do you mean the alteration of the Urals-375? And what about the KrAZ-255B "lapotnikov"?
      1. Free wind 6 January 2020 08: 11 New
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        The Laptehnik does not fit into the gauge in width, so he cuts his rut ​​and it affects the maneuverability disastrously, as he wraps half a ton on each wheel through the mud and refuses to go at all.
    2. sergey32 6 January 2020 19: 32 New
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      In the early 90s, my father-in-law bought 375 Urals from storage. Immediately changed the engine to the Mazov six. A low-speed diesel engine was pulled off-road in the taiga like no other car. True on the highway more than 70 can not be cracked. Sorry later sold to the leshoz.
      1. Serg koma 8 January 2020 18: 36 New
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        Quote: sergey32
        Immediately changed the engine to the Mazov six.

        good here is the answer to
        Quote: malyvalv
        Winter king was Ural

        But not with KAMAZAV ICE !!! They took automatic transmission from KAMAZ, it is really more reliable, and ICE only MAZ. First, 236, and then 238 began to be “shoved in”, 238 even before UralAZ began to be put good
        1. Serg koma 8 January 2020 19: 04 New
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          YaMZ 238 in the Urals. Photos from the Internet. Location - Belkachi Pay attention to the front shock absorber good And this is not a factory URAL with YaMZ 238
          [img]hthttp://photo.foto-planeta.com/view/6/7/3/9/belkachi-673997.jpgtp://[/img]
    3. Serg koma 8 January 2020 18: 29 New
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      Quote: malyvalv
      The winter king was the Urals with a KAMAZ diesel.

      You probably saw few winter roads, or other equipment, if you attribute such epithets to cars that you probably have not exploited.
  5. Catfish 6 January 2020 06: 56 New
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    I met Zilk during an emergency in CA. We had a new part and in the “bare” place, we set up the shield barracks ourselves. On the Zil, garbage was taken out and sand gravel was brought, and loading it is still that work. In general, they appointed me the car’s senior, and I still thankfully recall Sasha Salikhov, my friend and driver from the regimental author, who was not afraid to put me behind the wheel of his seventy-seventh. Oh, and the race was between hills over rough terrain, if this is taken into account that I got behind the wheel for the first time in my life. When they stopped, the guys fell out of the back and almost killed both of us, on Sasha: "You gave someone the steering wheel, infection!" Oh, there were times. smile
    PS True, on the cross "Ural" is still ZILka wings. soldier
    1. Mordvin 3 6 January 2020 07: 39 New
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      Quote: Sea Cat
      True, the cross-country “Ural” is still ZILka wings.

      In the swamp will not cover. Drowning. repeat
      1. Catfish 6 January 2020 07: 53 New
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        Hello Volodya. hi In the swamp of which he likes to drown. The tank in the slush sits on its belly, slaps the geese, and not from the spot. request
        1. Mordvin 3 6 January 2020 08: 01 New
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          Quote: Sea Cat
          Hello Volodya.

          I’m healthy. I just want to say that any takchi has its merits. What engine did you have in the Urals, diesel or gasoline, ZiLovsky? winked That is the whole point. And on the way they are approximately equal, but ZIL easier.
          1. Catfish 6 January 2020 08: 22 New
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            I had a diesel engine in the “half-four”, but as the Urals, I saw with my own eyes, through a sagging field, I loaded two loaded zilks.
            1. Mordvin 3 6 January 2020 08: 39 New
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              Quote: Sea Cat
              as the "Urals" through a sagging field dragged two loaded zilka with my own eyes.

              Loaded, please note. And you can load in different ways. As ZIL came with a loose frame, then the driver admitted that he was loaded with 15 tons. fool If there was this Ural with a gas engine, from Zil 375, which worked on 93rd gas, I would not have dragged it, I’m sure. Maybe he had a YaMZ there. And he will be stronger.
              1. Catfish 6 January 2020 09: 01 New
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                Well, the Urals itself was loaded, the sand was transported, but the bodies of all, of course, were not to the top. But what engine on it was not in the know, but it was in 1967.
                1. Mordvin 3 6 January 2020 09: 15 New
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                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  But what engine on it was not in the know, but it was in 1967.

                  375th gasoline, most likely. 180 horses against a possible 90 that went from ZiS 151 to ZiLu 157. recourse In general, the question is complicated, what was the reason there. drinks
              2. Potter 6 January 2020 09: 58 New
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                URAL-375 in the factory series was only with a gasoline engine. Since 1977, instead of the 375th, URAL-4320 with a KAMAZ 740th series diesel engine was produced. After the fire at KAMAZ in 1993, they put YaMZ-236, now - YaMZ-536.
              3. Siberian54 7 January 2020 17: 50 New
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                That gasoline, that diesel on a low gear handout would do the job the same, only gasoline has off-road “space” consumption of up to a liter per kilometer.
            2. Free wind 13 January 2020 13: 29 New
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              What kind of prodigy is this fifty-four? The tank was such a diesel engine stood on it from birth.
              1. Catfish 13 January 2020 14: 13 New
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                And what did I write about the truck or what? Anyway, I answered the question that I was asked. And - yes, this is a T-54 tank, and I served on this machine.
  6. Free wind 6 January 2020 08: 01 New
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    The car is certainly nice, but the problems at Truman above the roof. What's good, the engine is less reliable, it started well, but it warmed up ........ why just didn’t come up with this problem, judge for yourself, look at its face, there is a radiator like a Lada. The gearbox is very reliable, razdatka ....... full kirdyk, fell off, mounted on 4 bolts on the m12, a bunch of cardans, vibration already clang teeth. The industrial gearbox on the middle axle fell off, the wheels on the front axle fell off, gasoline eats like a pig slop, well, in the cockpit, it’s not comfortable to say the least, closely, the high drivers broke their heads against the arches, in the winter it’s cold and the steering wheel strove to knock out thumbs, therefore, the driver never held the steering wheel in full grip.
    1. Mordvin 3 6 January 2020 08: 18 New
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      Quote: Free Wind
      tall drivers smashed their heads against arches

      That's the difficulty, what would overcome them. Can you put the conditioner there too? wink And gasoline in the Union is not a problem.

      Quote: Free Wind
      look at his face, there is a radiator like a Lada.

      Where? belay
      1. your1970 6 January 2020 18: 57 New
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        Quote: mordvin xnumx
        That's the difficulty, what would overcome them.
        -for a start, they had not to be created ...
        1. Mordvin 3 6 January 2020 19: 07 New
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          Quote: your1970
          for starters, they had not to be created ...

          What power steering did you want in the 50s? Where would the GUR pump stick to that engine?
          1. your1970 6 January 2020 19: 51 New
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            Quote: mordvin xnumx
            Quote: your1970
            for starters, they had not to be created ...

            What power steering did you want in the 50s? Where would the GUR pump stick to that engine?
            and in the 70s? !!!! in the 80s? !!!!!
            the soldier is not sorry, of course, but civilian drivers have done something wrong?
            1. Narak-zempo 8 January 2020 16: 47 New
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              Quote: your1970
              and civilian drivers are guilty of what

              "Behind the rear as at the front!" - Have you forgotten, perhaps, the slogan?
      2. Alf
        Alf 6 January 2020 19: 02 New
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        Quote: mordvin xnumx
        That's the difficulty, what would overcome them. Can you put the conditioner there too?

        “A soldier is obliged to endure all the hardships and deprivations of military service” .. Familiar, have they forgotten? laughing
        1. Mordvin 3 6 January 2020 19: 46 New
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          The people want something incomprehensible from the working-military auto of the 50s. recourse Give them free rein, they would also require a leather interior and heated seats. wink It is strange that the windshield washer has not yet been remembered. laughing
          1. Alf
            Alf 6 January 2020 19: 48 New
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            Quote: mordvin xnumx
            The people want something incomprehensible from the working-military auto of the 50s. recourse Give them free rein, they would also require a leather interior and heated seats. wink It is strange that the windshield washer has not yet been remembered. laughing

            Still climate control ..
            1. Alf
              Alf 6 January 2020 19: 53 New
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              Quote: Alf
              Quote: mordvin xnumx
              The people want something incomprehensible from the working-military auto of the 50s. recourse Give them free rein, they would also require a leather interior and heated seats. wink It is strange that the windshield washer has not yet been remembered. laughing

              Still climate control ..

              From the instructions for ZIL-157.
              "The climate control in the cabin is regulated by raising and lowering the glass of the cabin door" laughing
            2. O. Bender 7 January 2020 18: 03 New
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              The front windshield and the entire climate control, the side door windows hardly opened, then you’ll close the horseradish,
              1. Alf
                Alf 7 January 2020 18: 14 New
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                Quote: O. Bender
                The front windshield and the entire climate control, the side door windows hardly opened, then you’ll close the horseradish,

                So I'm kidding.
          2. Ruslan67 6 January 2020 19: 53 New
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            Quote: mordvin xnumx
            Give them free rein, they would also require a leather interior and heated seats.

            The power steering was enough for the drivers to start preferring it to 131 mu We had such a bit sad
    2. Tima62 6 January 2020 23: 26 New
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      Quote: Free Wind
      Prom gearbox on the middle bridge

      Sorry - promo.
    3. tolancop 9 January 2020 17: 13 New
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      He served in Siberia. In the cabin of the 157th in the winter it was really cold. Drivers of transport vehicles took off the oil cooler and drove it into the cab, powered by the cooling system. More or less. However, the incomparably more comfortable cabin of the 130th also did not suffer from heat. But for 130 there was a different approach: an additional duct for supplying warm air from the main radiator.
      1. Free wind 10 January 2020 12: 40 New
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        Well, as it were, in principle, correct.
  7. The leader of the Redskins 6 January 2020 08: 18 New
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    I read with pleasure about ZIL 131, an article about 157m was also pleased. Thanks to the author. The case with potatoes is especially entertaining)))
  8. Rusfaner 6 January 2020 08: 40 New
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    In my youth I brought a “zahara” to the middle Urals, shook the muscles in my arms. On a forest road, in a rut, flooded with water there are thick roots. On these roots, “zakhar” tried to knock out my teeth more than once with my own hands wink . But cross-country is something! "131st" - well, very distant. Shishiga - yes, but payload ...
    In good hands - the eternal breadwinner!
  9. Rusfaner 6 January 2020 08: 44 New
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    Quote: malyvalv
    The winter king was the Urals with a KAMAZ diesel.

    "That's right!" (with)
  10. vnord 6 January 2020 10: 58 New
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    The student had a chance to work on it a very good car ... Only you need to hold the steering wheel correctly ...
    I drove where the Urals sat down ..
  11. GenNick 6 January 2020 11: 35 New
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    Quote: mordvin xnumx
    Quote: Free Wind
    tall drivers smashed their heads against arches

    That's the difficulty, what would overcome them. Can you put the conditioner there too? wink And gasoline in the Union is not a problem.

    Quote: Free Wind
    look at his face, there is a radiator like a Lada.

    Where? belay

    And the inner handle, to close the door. Such an iron. When you turn left with your elbow around it, a bale-bale and then the elbow swells and your arm neither bend / bend ....
  12. avia12005 6 January 2020 13: 16 New
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    If now our Ministry of Industry and Trade, led by the sociologist Manturoy, was instructed to create Zil-157 again at least five years later, they would have consumed five billion, but would have received nothing at the exit.
    1. your1970 6 January 2020 19: 00 New
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      Quote: avia12005
      If now our Ministry of Industry and Trade, led by the sociologist Manturoy, was instructed to create Zil-157 again at least five years later, they would have consumed five billion, but would have received nothing at the exit.
      - if at current hands would charge something Create in the USSR, the country would get rich ...
      When "Everything around the people, everything around is a draw !!" - do not care everyone was that drivers knock fingers .....
      1. Mordvin 3 6 January 2020 20: 21 New
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        Quote: your1970
        do not care everyone was that drivers knock fingers .....

        I have never seen such drivers. Maybe they were, only it’s more likely, but not drivers. sad
        1. your1970 6 January 2020 21: 01 New
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          and I saw more than once and not two - inexperienced driver soldiers
      2. avia12005 7 January 2020 07: 46 New
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        For 15 years of service in Zabvo I have never seen broken fingers; I myself drove the Zil-157 with its very small build, and it’s not empty, the R-140 radio station, with a gross weight of more than 9 tons. Hard - yes. But not deadly. And at what current layouts? With complete irresponsibility and inability to create something worthwhile? Well, for optimism.
        1. your1970 8 January 2020 16: 17 New
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          Thirty years to let out the car and hammer on design flaws is "ability to create" something worthwhile?
          But in my opinion this is a nonsense at the state level ....
          The heating tap for 2101 was produced for 40 years ..... and tech ....
          And everyone was on the drum

          ZY. Actually here from the literary words only "heating faucet", everything else is mat .....
          1. avia12005 9 January 2020 07: 22 New
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            The larger the series, the cheaper one unit of output. In a planned economy, this is a critical indicator. Zil-157 could be repaired on almost any collective farm, and there you could find spare parts for it if something could not be repaired by yourself. Take a winter ride around Siberia, and it will become clear why they loved this car. And in war it is one good thing to have such an apparatus.
            1. your1970 9 January 2020 17: 28 New
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              1)
              Quote: avia12005
              The larger the series, the cheaper one unit of output. In a planned economy, this is a critical indicator.
              -who did not give bring to mind and do a big series?
              2)
              Quote: avia12005
              Take a winter ride around Siberia, and it will become clear why they loved this car. .
              -and then abruptly ceased to love - although there were still cars in storage in the army, and spare parts. About the middle of 2000 ...
              3)
              Quote: avia12005
              And in war it is one good thing to have such an apparatus.

              I’ll come a little from afar about the “good.” My grandfather was a heavy-nose gunner, was called up in May 41 and met the war near the border. They retreated, part of the howitzers were dragged by horses, part of the tractor. Out of surroundings with one howitzer (without shells, they also managed to repel the attacks !!) and with the banner - but much thinned ...
              Guess from one time- who dragged that one saved howitzer?
              That's right - soldiers and horses ....
              Fuel to the tractors ran out almost immediately, in a few days ....
              And you are "Good in the war !!" - on a car that eats like gasoline.

              Pest the one who planned it for the war - neither in Europe, nor in the European part of the USSR, there was and was no taiga. And there was available - by that time, a well-developed road network in Europe and fairly flat terrain
              In addition - in any case, we would attack or attack us- the fuel and lubricant depots and Crackings would be destroyed in any case immediately. This is even at the beginning of the Second World War, the thing was obvious.
              And they would throw your "good !!" - for the tanks are empty and there is nothing to refuel them ..

              Moreover - pay attention: any technique (more or less decent !!!) instantly spreads around the world and wanders sooooo long. Examples of the abyss: M1911A1, R-08, Land Rover, Mi-8 and Niva, Volkswagen Beetle, FN FAL and Kalashnikov (I generally am silent about Mauser and Mosin), Cessna-172 and AN-2 ...

              Have you ever heard that someone snapped "Cleaver" like pies ??? Yeah, schaz ...
              And this despite the fact that they were stamped by 797 934 units (against 965 thousand GAZ-66)

              Oh, about the fact that Cessna 172 - the same age "Zahara", and is being issued (almost already by car circulations) and is in demand so far — I don’t even want to remember
              1. avia12005 10 January 2020 09: 21 New
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                I won’t even comment.
                1. your1970 10 January 2020 09: 37 New
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                  And rightly so, because praising a car that was incomplete in all respects and had to get off the scene in 10 years at most is nonsense ....
                  And instead of bringing it to mind, they continued to blurt out in the same form for 40 years ..... lepota ...
                  Put her a diesel engine, power steering and cabin, at least a little humanize, it would be a miracle, not a car (maybe !!!).
                  1. avia12005 10 January 2020 09: 38 New
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                    Have you ever had a business with automotive military equipment? And which?
              2. The comment was deleted.
  13. BAI
    BAI 6 January 2020 17: 27 New
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    in fact, the diesel engine parameters allowed the car a lot - experienced drivers claim that the ZIL-157 exceeded the almost standard GAZ-66 in this discipline.

    He himself was a witness - in the floodplain swamps of Dubna 157-surpassed "Belarus". The tractor got stuck, ZILok pulled it out and continued to work instead of the tactor. The tractor was no longer allowed there.
  14. bbss 6 January 2020 18: 27 New
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    Photo ceremonial calculation of TZM S-75 air defense system simply moved. In autumn, it will be 50 years since they were called up for military service.
  15. Alf
    Alf 6 January 2020 19: 10 New
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    The first developments on all-wheel drive all-terrain vehicles (ZIS-36 and GAZ-33)

    There was also a ZIS-32, 197 pieces were produced.
  16. faterdom 6 January 2020 22: 18 New
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    Quote: AlexVas44
    experienced drivers claim that the ZIL-157 exceeded the almost standard GAZ-66 in this discipline.

    There was a transitional model, I don’t remember which letter. I saw in the operation book of the 157th, it was common to these models.
    experienced drivers claim that the ZIL-157 exceeded the almost standard GAZ-66 in this discipline.

    This is true. Especially in the swaying semi-liquid mud in deep ruts - he sailed like a boat, scooping and catching on six wheels for anything. In such places, the 66th could easily lie to one side, and the 131st skidded a lot and willingly, remaining in place. The Ural-375th was also very indifferent to the lateral slopes - while the upper wheels could spin, and the lower ones could stand, such a “lock”.
    So only the Ural-4320 can be considered the next normal military machine after seven. But his brother “Kamaz” is unlikely. The expensive cabless gentle cabin, which can not be felled Christmas trees, or ram small obstacles - this is a perversion and pornography.
    1. Alf
      Alf 6 January 2020 22: 42 New
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      Quote: faterdom
      bonnet gentle cabin,

      And the missing "half a meter of life" in the event of a collision with a mine.
  17. Old26 7 January 2020 17: 01 New
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    Quote: Thrifty
    With this machine, I associate the memories of business trips to a sponsored state farm, to harvest potatoes and apples! good In Soviet times, I traveled there, and it was with such a truck that we were taken across the fields!

    My first meeting with this machine (and maybe also with the ZIS-151) occurred in 1960. They flew from vacation from Tashkent to Moscow on IL-18. About an hour after takeoff, the first engine (the leftmost) failed. The crew decided to land on three engines in Baku (having pulled through the Caspian). They sat down. people then began to change tickets. We needed to Stavropol and the nearest airfield was in Mineralnye Vody. We flew there on the IL-12 EMNIP. Also with adventures and the last half hour in general on one engine. They sat in the Minvody. And then it was a dirt airfield. In short, to pick up passengers to the plane and drove a couple of ZIS (ZIL). And only they were able to get out of the mess ...
  18. O. Bender 7 January 2020 17: 56 New
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    An urgent one took place on such an apparatus, where 131 Bems were seated, they used to call them sober, he was voracious but he was dragging be healthy. They removed devices from 1963, they switched speeds with three fingers, they drove 3 pieces to collective farms personally. Kirovograd, Ajamka, high 11812. Oh, youth! And yet yes, his exhaust was delicious,
  19. panzerfaust 7 January 2020 22: 56 New
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    Gable wheels not only caused excessive losses in the transmission and chassis, but also forced to carry two spare wheels with them at once. On the roads, drivers often had to remove the inner wheels in order to somehow reduce the resistance to movement.

    Around the same time when our “cleaver” was being created, our Czechoslovak “comrades” put on the conveyor “PRAGA V3S”. The machine has served for more than 40 years, with gable wheels. And only at the beginning of the XNUMXs in the Czech Republic was it finally replaced by the new Tatra. And in the army of Slovakia is still available. That's what it means to do soundly and wisely. Only machines with a fluorographic unit were exported to the USSR.
  20. tolancop 9 January 2020 17: 17 New
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    Quote: your1970
    ..... And in my opinion it is a nonsense at the state level ....
    The heating tap for 2101 was produced for 40 years ..... and tech ....
    And everyone was on the drum ......

    I do not agree. Not everyone had a drum. He set himself on 2101 a ceramic crane from cooperators ...
    And I have a full-time crane on 2107, IMHO, about 3 years (warranty period) quite lasted without leaks.