Spent nuclear fuel in a protracted nuclear war


Tube for fuel rod close-up


Environmental disputes around spent nuclear fuel (SNF) have always been a little perplexing to me. Storage of this type of "waste" requires strict technical measures and precautions, you need to handle it carefully. But this is not a reason to oppose the very fact of the presence of spent nuclear fuel and an increase in their reserves.

Finally, why waste? The SNF composition contains many valuable fissile materials. For example, plutonium. According to various estimates, it forms from 7 to 10 kg per ton of SNF, that is, in the spent nuclear fuel annually formed in Russia, about 100 tons contain from 700 to 1000 kg of plutonium. Reactor plutonium (that is, obtained in an energy reactor, and not in a production reactor) is applicable not only as nuclear fuel, but also to create nuclear charges. On this account, experiments were carried out that showed the technical feasibility of using reactor plutonium as the filling of nuclear charges.

A ton of spent nuclear fuel also contains about 960 kg of uranium. The content of uranium-235 in it is small, about 1,1%, but uranium-238 can be passed through the production reactor and get all the same plutonium, only now of good weapons quality.

Finally, SNF, especially just recovered from the reactor, can act as a radiological weapons, and it is noticeably superior in this quality to cobalt-60. The activity of 1 kg of spent fuel reaches 26 thousand curies (in cobalt-60 - 17 thousand curies). A ton of SNF, just recovered from the reactor, gives a radiation level of up to 1000 sievert per hour, that is, a lethal dose of 5 sievert runs up in just 20 seconds. Fine! If the enemy is sprinkled with fine SNF powder, then serious losses can be inflicted on him.

All these qualities of spent nuclear fuel have long been well known, only they have encountered serious technical difficulties associated with the extraction of fuel from the fuel assembly.

Disassemble the death tube


Nuclear fuel itself is a powder of uranium oxide, compressed or sintered into tablets, small cylinders with a hollow channel inside, which are placed inside a fuel element (TVEL), from which fuel assemblies placed in the reactor channels are assembled.

This is precisely TVEL - this is the stumbling block of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Most TVELs look like a very long gun barrel, almost 4 meters long (3837 mm, to be exact). His caliber is almost rifle: the inner diameter of the tube is 7,72 mm. The outer diameter is 9,1 mm and the tube wall thickness is 0,65 mm. The tube is made of either stainless steel or zirconium alloy.


A mock-up of a fuel assembly, on which the design of the unit, fuel elements and the placement of nuclear fuel inside them


Inside the tube, cylinders of uranium oxide are laid, and laid tightly. The tube accommodates from 0,9 to 1,5 kg of uranium. A closed fuel rod is inflated with helium under a pressure of 25 atmospheres. During the campaign, the uranium cylinders heat up and expand, so that in the end they turn out to be tightly stuck in this long tube of a rifle caliber. Anyone who knocked out a bullet stuck in the barrel with a ramrod can well imagine the difficulty of the task. Only here the trunk is almost 4 meters in length, and the uranium "bullets" stuck in it are more than two hundred. The radiation from it is such that it is possible to work with the TVEL just pulled out of the reactor only remotely, using manipulators or some other devices or automatic devices.

How was irradiated fuel recovered from production reactors? There the situation was very simple. TVEL tubes for production reactors were made of aluminum, which is highly soluble in nitric acid, together with uranium and plutonium. The necessary substances were extracted from the nitric acid solution and went into further processing. But energy reactors, designed for a much higher temperature, use refractory and acid-resistant materials of fuel elements. Moreover, cutting such a thin and long stainless steel tube is a very rare task; usually, all the attention of engineers is focused on rolling such a tube. A tube for a fuel rod is a real technological masterpiece. In general, different methods of destroying or cutting the tube were proposed, but this method prevailed: first, the tube is cut in the press (you can cut the entire fuel assembly) into pieces about 4 cm long, and then the stumps are poured into a container where uranium is dissolved with nitric acid. The obtained uranyl nitrate is not so difficult to isolate from the solution.

And this method, with all its simplicity, has a significant drawback. Uranium cylinders in pieces of fuel elements dissolve slowly. The contact area of ​​uranium with acid at the ends of the stump is very small and this slows down the dissolution. Unfavorable reaction conditions.

If we count on spent nuclear fuel as a military material for producing uranium and plutonium, as well as a means of radiological warfare, then we must learn how to cut tubes quickly and dexterously. Chemical methods are not suitable for obtaining a means of radiological warfare: after all, we need to save the whole bunch of radioactive isotopes. There are not so many fission products, 3,5% (or 35 kg per tonne): cesium, strontium, technetium, but it is they that create the high radioactivity of SNF. Therefore, a mechanical method of extracting uranium with all other contents from the tubes is needed.

Upon reflection, I came to the following conclusion. The thickness of the tube is 0,65 mm. Not so much. It can be cut on a lathe. The wall thickness approximately corresponds to the cutting depth of many lathes; if necessary, you can apply special solutions with a large depth of cutting of viscous steels, such as stainless steel, or use a machine with two cutters. An automatic lathe that can grab a workpiece itself, clamp it and grind it is no longer a rarity these days, especially since cutting a tube does not require precision accuracy. It is enough to grind the end of the tube, turning it into shavings.


The photo is more for an example of how the lathe easily copes with turning cylindrical workpieces.

Uranium cylinders, freed from the steel shell, will fall into the receiver under the machine. In other words, it is quite possible to create a fully automatic complex that will chop fuel assemblies into parts (the length most convenient for turning), fold the cuts into the machine’s drive, then the machine cuts the tube, freeing its uranium filling.

If you master the dismantling of the "death tubes", then you can use spent nuclear fuel both as a semi-finished product for the separation of weapons isotopes and production of reactor fuel, and as a radiological weapon.

Black deadly dust


Radiological weapons, in my opinion, are most applicable in a protracted nuclear war, and mainly to damage the military and economic potential of the enemy.

Under a protracted nuclear war, I am raising a war in which nuclear weapons are used at all stages of a prolonged armed conflict. I don’t think that the large-scale conflict that came or even started with the exchange of massive nuclear missile strikes will end on them. Firstly, even after significant damage, there will still be opportunities for warfare (stocks of weapons and ammunition allow enough intense hostilities for another 3-4 months without replenishing production). Secondly, even after the exhaustion of nuclear warheads on combat duty, large nuclear countries will still have in warehouses which, most likely, will not suffer, a very large number of different warheads, nuclear charges, and nuclear explosive devices. They can be used, and their importance for warfare is becoming very great. It is advisable to save them, and use either for a radical change in the course of important operations, or in the most critical situation. This will not be a salvo application, but a long one, that is, a nuclear war becomes protracted. Thirdly, in the military-economic issues of a large-scale war, in which conventional weapons are used along with nuclear weapons, the production of weapons-grade isotopes and new charges, replenishment of nuclear weapons arsenals, will clearly be among the most important and priority tasks. Including, of course, the speedy creation of production reactors, radiochemical and radio metallurgical industries, enterprises for the manufacture of components and the assembly of nuclear munitions.

It is precisely in the context of a large-scale and protracted armed conflict that it is important to prevent the enemy from taking advantage of his economic potential. Such objects can be destroyed, which will require either a decent-sized nuclear weapon, or a large expenditure of conventional bombs or missiles. For example, during the Second World War, in order to guarantee the decommissioning of a large plant, it was necessary to drop 20 to 50 thousand tons of aerial bombs on it in several stages. The first attack halted production and damaged equipment, and subsequent ones interrupted restoration work and exacerbated the damage. Say, the Leuna Werke synthetic fuel plant was attacked six times from May to October 1944 before production fell to 15% of normal productivity.

In other words, destruction per se does not guarantee anything. A destroyed plant can be restored, and from a heavily destroyed facility you can remove the remains of equipment suitable for creating a new production in another place. It would be good to develop a method that would not allow the enemy to use, restore, or take apart an important military-economic object for spare parts. It seems that radiological weapons are suitable for this.

It is worth recalling that during the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, in which all attention was usually focused on the 4th power unit, the remaining three power units were also stopped on April 26, 1986. Not surprisingly, they turned out to be contaminated and the radiation level at the 3rd power unit, located next to the detonated one, that day was 5,6 x-rays / hour and a half-fatal dose of 350 x-rays was incurred in 2,6 days or in just seven work shifts. It is clear that working there was dangerous. The decision to restart the reactors was made on May 27, 1986, and after intensive decontamination, the 1st and 2nd power units were launched in October 1986, and the third power unit in December 1987. A 4000 MW nuclear power plant was completely disabled for five months simply because the intact power units were radioactively contaminated.

So, if you sprinkle an enemy military-economic facility: a power station, a military plant, a port, and so on, with spent nuclear fuel powder, with a whole bunch of strongly fading isotopes, then the enemy will lose the opportunity to use it. He will have to spend many months for decontamination, introduce rapid rotation of workers, build radio shelters, incur sanitary losses from re-irradiation of personnel; production will cease altogether or very much decrease.

The delivery and contamination method is also quite simple: the finely ground uranium oxide powder - black deadly dust - is equipped with explosive cartridges, which in turn are equipped with a ballistic missile warhead. 400-500 kg of radioactive powder can freely enter it. Over the target, the cassettes are ejected from the warhead, the cassettes are destroyed by subversive charges, and fine highly radioactive dust covers the target. Depending on the height of the missile warhead’s deployment, it is possible to obtain severe pollution of a relatively small area, or to obtain an extensive and extended radioactive trail with a lower level of radioactive contamination. Although, as they say, Pripyat was evicted, because the radiation level was 0,5 X-ray / hour, that is, a half-fatal dose ran over 28 days and it became dangerous to live permanently in this city.

In my opinion, radiological weapons were in vain called weapons of mass destruction. It can only hit someone in very favorable conditions. Rather, it is a barrier that creates barriers to access to the contaminated area. Fuel from the reactor, which can give an activity of 15-20 thousand X-rays / hour, as indicated in the Chernobyl Notebooks, will create a very effective obstacle to the use of the infected object. Attempts to ignore radiation will result in high irretrievable and sanitary losses. With the help of this obstacle, the enemy can be deprived of the most important economic facilities, key nodes of the transport infrastructure, as well as the most important agricultural land.

Spent nuclear fuel in a protracted nuclear war
Depending on the wind, a pretty decent spot of radioactive contamination can result



Satellite image with the designation of the most important objects: the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the exploding power unit, the city of Pripyat, the railway station of Yanov, the port. Unlike air bombs, radioactive contamination makes it impossible to use the entire infrastructure of a military-significant facility

Such a radiological weapon is much simpler and cheaper than a nuclear charge, since it is much simpler in design. True, due to the very high radioactivity, special automatic equipment will be required to grind the uranium oxide extracted from the fuel elements, to equip it into cassettes and into a missile warhead. The warhead itself should be stored in a special protective container and mounted on the missile with a special automatic device immediately before launch. Otherwise, the calculation will receive a lethal dose of radiation before launch. It is best to base missiles for the delivery of radiological warheads in mines, since it is easier to solve the problem of the safe storage of highly radioactive warheads before launch.
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  1. Same lech 26 December 2019 05: 02 New
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    Firstly, even after significant damage, there will still be opportunities for warfare (stocks of weapons and ammunition allow enough intense hostilities for another 3-4 months without replenishing production).

    Something became bad for me ... what three more four months after the apocalypse, we finish off all life on the planet ... it’s better to shoot yourself right away.
    The author’s ideas are certainly not bad ... but it is not known how to realize them after death.
    1. Same lech 26 December 2019 05: 09 New
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      Dmitry, in your conclusions, you do not take into account the millions of tons of dust raised into the atmosphere after simultaneously blowing up hundreds of nuclear warheads ... it will begin to resemble a thick fog ... as the prevailing system of the formation of rain clouds, snow, etc., etc. behaves in this case ... climate it can change dramatically.
      1. KCA
        KCA 26 December 2019 06: 17 New
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        Yes, volcanic eruptions lift up any suspension more than a hundred simultaneous nuclear explosions, with especially powerful eruptions, when tens of thousands of cubic kilometers are thrown out, climate changes occur, but they are not catastrophic, yes, cooling, crop failure, hunger, etc., but it will not be the most serious consequences of a nuclear war,
        1. Same lech 26 December 2019 06: 20 New
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          Volcanoes are still not in the zone of human activity ... there are no nuclear plants or chemical plants near them.
          And eruptions are sporadic in nature easily experiencing.
          1. Simargl 26 December 2019 10: 40 New
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            Quote: The same Lech
            Volcanoes are still not in the zone of human activity ...
            Eyyafyadlayokyudl - he, of course, far away, but he baked all of Europe.
            The yellow stone is right on another planet.
            Vesuvius - absolutely no one lives nearby ...
            Continue?

            Quote: The same Lech
            And eruptions are sporadic in nature easily experiencing.
            Yes, nature doesn’t give a damn: what doesn’t kill it makes it possible to adapt.
            1. Same lech 26 December 2019 10: 42 New
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              Continue ... smile how can Vesuvius influence human civilization?
              No way ... an event of local scale is nothing more.
              1. Simargl 26 December 2019 11: 51 New
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                Eyyafyadlayyokull - and he can. Yes, he thumped weakly, but somehow influenced.
                Krakatau also influenced.
                Vesuvius can not, but influenced: dead people, lost and opportunities that have arisen ...
                1. Shkworen 28 December 2019 16: 19 New
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                  Well, there’s a nearby volcano Katla nearby. He is dozing, but periodically shows signs of anxiety and there are predictions of his eruption in the 20s. If he wakes up, Eyyafyadlayokyudl will appear as flowers :)
                  1. Simargl 28 December 2019 18: 00 New
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                    Quote: Shkworen
                    Well, there’s a nearby volcano Katla nearby.
                    But Katla is not in the top ten.
                    1. Shkworen 28 December 2019 23: 05 New
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                      In the year 880 e., he had the strength to immerse Europe for 3 years in a long winter :)
        2. mark2 26 December 2019 07: 38 New
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          It is hunger, cold, and radioactive contamination that will be the most serious consequences.
          Big bang from poison. Charge is the main nishtyak. Infection as a bonus.
          Destroys the city center, people will move to the outskirts. And with a nuclear strike, you’ll have to move much further.
          In general, the author, you see, believes that his country, and not the enemy, will implement these fantasies.
          1. knn54 26 December 2019 10: 39 New
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            I would like to hope that the waste is under reliable protection. Otherwise, the container will fall into the wrong hands.
            And then, according to the article. Machine tools are not a problem. Rabsila prisoners, for example.
            Well, drones, boats with "stuffing" in the finals.
            1. wehr 26 December 2019 12: 43 New
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              Yes please. “Wrong hands” will not live long - 6-7 days after contact with the “death tube”.
              Radiological weapons require very good technical equipment.
              1. dauria 26 December 2019 16: 35 New
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                Radiological weapons require very good technical equipment.


                I would not have taken the author to the factory as a technologist. I would turn my finger at the temple and say - turn all steel into shavings, spoil a bunch of cutters and a resource of the machine ... If metalworking is going to be done in the school workshop, a thin groove in the tube and horizontal milling can be done perfectly on both sides. Though less chips. laughing
                And the problem is probably not in the pipe, but in how to extract something worthwhile from the pile of crap in this pipe.
                1. wehr 26 December 2019 19: 30 New
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                  On the contrary, extracting useful isotopes is much easier. Uranium oxide is dissolved in nitric acid.

                  And what does the school workshop have to do with it? This is a highly radioactive tube, which is deadly to take in your hands.
                  Many people like to be smart, replacing the discussed situation with a fictitious spheroconic. Only this is not the mind, but just a manifestation of stupidity.
                  1. dauria 26 December 2019 21: 17 New
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                    And what does the school workshop have to do with it?


                    Because you took a lathe .... There is no particular difficulty
                    cut the tube even along with one blow, only make a device for guillotine shears. You can grind everything into dust so that the acid "has enough space (your expression), you can separate the metal from the powder in a magnetic way, by density, you can ... Yes, you can think up a bunch of everything.
                    And you have a “spheroconic” situation. You come up with stupid things in an area you have nothing to do with. A technologist or scientist engaged in such a task does not write an article on Military Review. Therefore, yes - you took your knowledge from the school workshop.
                    1. wehr 26 December 2019 21: 40 New
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                      You demonstrate a kind of stupidity typical of narrow specialists who are not able to cover the entire technical system as a whole. It seems to you that guillotine shears are better. However, the installation turns out to be too large, multi-meter (if you are going to chop the entire fuel rod) with a huge protective box; the guillotine blades will often blunt, and replacing them and tuning becomes a non-trivial problem. After all, we must remember that the radiation level in the installation will be fatal and you will not send the tuner there. This circumstance (which you forgot about) makes you look for simple and technological solutions. Finally, what will you do with the pipes cut in half, how will you get them out of the installation, how to store them, and so on? That is, the best at first glance solution has so many consequences that it makes it inapplicable.
                      After thinking about all this, I chose a lathe as: a) the most compact, b) the least demanding for setup and maintenance, c) well mastered as an automatic machine, d) giving chips that are easier to assemble, easier to remove from the box and easier to store, simple by pressing into briquettes.

                      So, let you not teach me invention.
                      1. Simargl 28 December 2019 18: 54 New
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                        Quote: wehr
                        multi-meter (if you are going to chop the whole fuel rod) with a huge protective box; the guillotine blades will often blunt, and replacing them and tuning becomes a non-trivial problem.
                        The cutter for your method will dull even more often, but you still can’t do without scissors.
                        The scissors themselves should not be large - only the feed will be long ...
                        ... more precisely, we need classic scissors and a shredder.
                      2. Sharky 5 January 2020 14: 00 New
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                        I chose a lathe

                        How do you plan to cool the cutter? Collect coolant? Dry the fuel after peeling off the stainless steel? Isn’t it easier to give the “Fedor” robot a grinder in his hands so that he cuts along the tube on both sides, and then opens the tube along and cuts the workpieces of the required length so that not 4-meter pipe halves are lowered into the acid? This is exaggerated. A grinder is clearly cheaper than a lathe, just like a disk is cheaper than a cutter. And you do not need to cool the disk.
                      3. wehr 6 January 2020 23: 02 New
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                        You can cool with gas, for example, nitrogen.
                        For a nuclear war, nuclear fuel does not need to be dissolved in acid, but used directly, pulverized; to preserve a wonderful bouquet of highly radioactive isotopes. laughing
                    2. VladGTN 16 January 2020 23: 59 New
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                      Then it is better to use a machine for longitudinal turning. He works in peace with a bar.
    2. wehr 26 December 2019 12: 41 New
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      So the exercises on this subject were already carried out. In Germany and Japan, about 60 large cities burned out. The effect described by you did not appear.
      1. Fan-fan 26 December 2019 18: 34 New
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        Dmitry, how long such a warhead can be stored, because there is a natural decay of radioactive substances and radiation decreases over time.
        1. wehr 26 December 2019 19: 32 New
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          3-4 years. But it is preferable to use it faster.
          If you lay down, but did not come in handy, then the filling can be sent for radiochemical processing.
    3. swzero 26 December 2019 13: 13 New
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      And why should millions of tons of dust rise if an air explosion? As far as I understand, modern ammunition prefers to detonate above the ground - the damage from the explosion is maximum, dust at least.
  2. Far B 26 December 2019 05: 42 New
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    Yes, I, too, got sick after the author’s suggestion to sprinkle the enemy with fine SNF powder. He directly imagined how the author does this - like fried eggs with salt. Br
    1. svd-xnumx 26 December 2019 17: 21 New
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      Yes, I, too, got sick after the author’s suggestion to sprinkle the enemy with fine SNF powder.
      Well, after an article about how you can use the bodies of dead enemies, this is a “kindergarten." (War efficiency. Thermal energy of enemy corpses https://topwar.ru/143809-ne-dostoin-vrag-nashey-zemli.html)
      1. Fan-fan 26 December 2019 18: 35 New
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        Guys, in war all means are good, if they are not prohibited by international treaties.
      2. karabass 3 January 2020 17: 53 New
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        What kind of enemies? a month after the start of the nuclear war, the participants will eat compatriots, and most likely not only corpses, they will also have to catch passers-by in the street to eat
    2. Bogatyrev 22 February 2020 00: 41 New
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      And what’s wrong with that - it's the NUCLEAR war. They will sprinkle us if they don’t blink an eye.
  3. The leader of the Redskins 26 December 2019 08: 58 New
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    That is, the author offers us a way to get a "dirty" nuclear bomb? Very cute...
    And he was also pleased with the term "protracted nuclear war" ... Strange, they always explained to me at the WMD that nuclear war, like a katana strike, is one and ... That's all! No more participating countries. There is a nuclear desert through which the winds are driven by radioactive dust under the clouds of eternal night ...
    1. Simargl 26 December 2019 10: 35 New
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      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      one and ... And that’s it! No more participating countries.
      There are countries - there is no economic potential.
    2. Passing 26 December 2019 15: 05 New
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      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      nuclear war, like a katana strike - one and ... And that’s it! No more participating countries. There is a nuclear desert through which the winds are driven by radioactive dust under the clouds of eternal night ...

      A real world nuclear war will hardly affect the vast majority of cities. For some time, central television will disappear and the Internet will completely disappear, there will be an acute shortage of manufactured goods. And that's all. In the villages, the war will not be noticed at all.
      In the worst case, there will be an acute fuel and energy crisis. And this really can be a very big problem, and not those mythical radioactive wastes.
      1. The leader of the Redskins 26 December 2019 15: 58 New
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        Internet will be lost - here you have a disaster !!! laughing
    3. Fan-fan 26 December 2019 18: 39 New
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      They always explained to me at WMD that nuclear war, like a katana strike, is one and ... And that’s it!

      And we in the USSR were taught at the GNP (military basic training) lessons how to survive in a nuclear war and how to continue to fight. Something no one said: "Bach and all, no one."
    4. Bogatyrev 22 February 2020 00: 42 New
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      No, with the current state of arsenals, all defense potential will not even be destroyed. And the war will continue. Part of the charges will be saved for further strikes.
  4. Krasnoyarsk 26 December 2019 11: 14 New
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    Quote: The same Lech
    Something became bad for me ...

    And I will not even discuss this topic, I have personal experience in dealing with radioactive dust.
    While reading the article, before my eyes millions of crying children received a known dose. Will the world really come to this? And if it comes, then in the name of what? We, understandably - retaliation, and they?
    1. swzero 26 December 2019 13: 17 New
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      They have already come to this more than once. Crying children did not bother anyone when they burned cities in Japan and Germany, or when they watered everything with chemistry in Vietnam - the consequences of using the orange agent are still being disbanded.
  5. K-612-O 26 December 2019 12: 56 New
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    Do not take to heart. The article is very superficial and filled with profanity and delirium, only one stainless steel and activity in x-rays of which are worth. The man on the Lighthouse was not even close to imagine how, in modern conditions, the waste is recycled. About what MOX fuel is also not heard.
    1. vadim dok 26 December 2019 13: 39 New
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      Bad article! Do not discuss this nonsense!
  6. Bogatyrev 22 February 2020 00: 30 New
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    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7UZcispcGBs
  • Dude 26 December 2019 05: 32 New
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    Bloodthirsty article! .. wassat ))
    1. Simargl 26 December 2019 10: 34 New
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      Yes, it can be considered a terrorist.
      1. Fan-fan 26 December 2019 18: 45 New
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        Well then, let us fight with them respectfully, honestly and decently, observing all the rules, announcing in advance that we will forgive them everything and regret it and show compassion to the enemy. You would say so to our fathers and grandfathers who fought in the Great Patriotic War.
        1. Simargl 27 December 2019 07: 42 New
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          Quote: Fan-Fan
          Well then, let us fight with them respectfully, honestly and decently, observing all the rules, announcing in advance that we will forgive them everything and regret it and show compassion to the enemy.
          Do not mark the snowstorm!
          It is one thing to fight, deceiving the enemy, another thing is to spoil in such a way that it will not be sweet later on.

          Quote: Fan-Fan
          You would say so to our fathers and grandfathers who fought in the Great Patriotic War.
          Ooty ways! Those. are we in confrontation with France exclusively after Napoleon?
          And with Germany only as enemies after Hitler?
          Again miss!
          After the war, you have to deactivate the territory. So, just in case: so that there is enough space for life. Even ordinary mines and unexploded ordnance are a problem, and you propose to spoil the planet with a difficult problem.
          Are you out of your mind? Or do you sympathize with the terrorists (those who do not care about the consequences, most often)?
  • evgen1221 26 December 2019 05: 35 New
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    Creation of production with the use of auto-lathes for the processing of fuel elements? -I'm sorry, the biological protection of this monster will weigh how much it will cost, how much it will be protected (goal number 2-3 in priority), will the tools and oils in the machines inside be serviced and replaced? Not an ice offer, even at the sight of an amateur. It’s easier to come up with acid to kill IMHO.
  • Nikolaevich I 26 December 2019 06: 18 New
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    Dimochka, it’s you who taught the people some time ago to get explosives with lemonade from urine ... sweets with cervelat from the cupboard, soap with perfume and heating briquettes from corpses! I understand how difficult it is for you now! They just found their "gold mine" in the trash, as modern manufacturers "cross the road" here! “Whatever it is, but it’s difficult at the present time to say any“ innovative ”word in this area! For a long time and“ successfully ”, the Racean manufacturers“ hand in hand ”with the Chinese“ comrades ”drive alcohol from the can, brew beer from urine, make sausage from manure! It’s unlikely that you will be able to teach them “brand new”, but you can get a little material from them for a couple of additional articles “with a sweetheart” ... yes
  • Rust 26 December 2019 06: 19 New
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    Horror. Fantasy. It is interesting to read from the technical side about the TVEL device and processes. But on the whole, such a development of the conflict is not believed. I hope we don’t recognize it in practice.
    1. Simargl 26 December 2019 10: 33 New
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      Quote: Rust
      It is interesting to read from the technical side about the TVEL device and processes.
      ... it would be if not for the assumptions from the amateur ...
      1. Rust 28 December 2019 17: 42 New
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        If yes, if grandmother had the primary sexual characteristics of a man, she would be a grandfather.
        1. Simargl 28 December 2019 17: 58 New
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          Quote: Rust
          If ***, the grandmother had the primary sexual characteristics of a man, she would be a grandfather.
          It would be hermaphrodite grandmother, not grandfather ...
          ... or shemale ...
    2. K-612-O 26 December 2019 12: 58 New
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      Horror is what nonsense is written, really fantastic.
  • Monar 26 December 2019 06: 33 New
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    For example, during the Second World War, in order to guarantee the decommissioning of a large plant, it was necessary to drop 20 to 50 thousand tons of aerial bombs on it in several stages.

    Well, these thousands of tons did not explode at once and in one place. So the parallel is not true.
    Yes, and the infection zone at a large plant (or rather, what remains of it) makes the idea meaningless
    If the enemy is sprinkled with fine SNF powder, then serious losses can be inflicted on him.

    Yet again. Cut the tubes into 1 cm lengths. Dissolve in acid faster. And water the virginium with an educated fluid. am
    Some sort of horror turns out.
    1. garri-lin 26 December 2019 10: 59 New
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      Why chop and dissolve? We put the finished TVEL directly into the casing; we fill the space between the tubes with powder explosives. And done.
      1. Monar 26 December 2019 11: 12 New
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        No. The cimus is not the same. If we follow the logic of the TS, then spray with acid with dissolved uranium and other garbage. With An-2. am
        But seriously, then this is stupid. I’ll keep silent about the effectiveness of my neighbor. But even the delivery method of this "dirt" is not. From the word at all.
        1. garri-lin 26 December 2019 11: 30 New
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          An article from the first to the last word is thick trolling. With the same success, one can discuss drilling a well to the center of the earth with the subsequent laying of a 100 gigaton charge there. Or feeding elite units to babies. This is all anti-human.
          1. Monar 26 December 2019 12: 34 New
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            I agree. But at least I found out that the tablets were taken out of the tubes a problem. I just didn’t think about it.
            1. garri-lin 26 December 2019 13: 14 New
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              If I am not mistaken, uranium is pyrophoric. This adds problems with machining.
              1. wehr 26 December 2019 14: 40 New
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                Wrong.
                Uranium oxide is stable when heated to 1600 degrees.
                1. garri-lin 26 December 2019 17: 01 New
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                  So I made a mistake. So pirrforen is pure metal?
                  1. asv363 26 December 2019 18: 28 New
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                    Pyrophoric pure zirconium in powder form at NU
                  2. wehr 26 December 2019 19: 45 New
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                    Yes. Moreover, pyrophoricity is manifested to the greatest extent in a finely divided state, that is, in powder.
  • Waltasar 26 December 2019 06: 40 New
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    Oh ... What a good article for the new year.
    And if, in essence, a fuel rod can be grinded together with the body, it will be cheaper. And for the analysis of the radioactive ruins of the plants send prisoners of war from the country that this dirtied plant.
    1. Fraracol_2 26 December 2019 08: 41 New
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      It is unlikely that there will be any prisoners of war.
  • pmkemcity 26 December 2019 06: 43 New
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    "In Madagascar ..."
    So, neighing - https://www.popmech.ru/science/233421-radioaktivnoe-mylo-tabletki-voda-i-drugie-strannosti-radiatsionnoy-meditsiny/#part12
  • 2 Level Advisor 26 December 2019 06: 58 New
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    author, you need a working group on the issue of how to make the planet of alien enemies uninhabitable for a couple of thousand years .. I hope that on our planet things will not go beyond such theoretical calculations ..
  • acetophenon 26 December 2019 06: 59 New
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    Bullshit. We must fight with weapons. Which is already over-doXXXX!
    It seems that the author has already met Santa Claus.
    1. ZAV69 26 December 2019 08: 57 New
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      It looks like F. Berezin has miscalculated. And creatively developed the ideas there.
      1. Fan-fan 26 December 2019 18: 52 New
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        It means that you can cripple people with a blast wave, you can poison radioactive fallouts, you can drown (those who dreamed of the Stalin Strait), alive with ash (those who dreamed of blowing up their super volcano) can also be created, but it turns out to be impossible to create a zone unsuitable for housing .
        So it turns out?
        1. wehr 26 December 2019 20: 27 New
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          So. laughing
          All these explosions of supervolcanoes, "Poseidons" and so on - these are just fables for them to demonstrate brutality. Like, yes we, yes we ... Moreover, they themselves perfectly understand that these are just words.
          And then they sensed that it would be possible to wage a war in this style. And, of course, immediately collapsed.
  • asv363 26 December 2019 07: 29 New
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    Moreover, cutting such a thin and long stainless steel tube is a very rare task; usually, all the attention of engineers is focused on rolling such a tube.

    Dear Dmitry Verkhoturov! For your information, long and thin TVEL tubes are made not of stainless steel (which will have a large capture cross section for thermal fission neutrons), but 99% of zirconium (E110, E110M alloys).
    Maybe before writing another article, it’s worth studying the materiel, given that the error I indicated is far from the only one?
    1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 08: 13 New
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      The author indicated three materials for the TVEL tubes, including zirconium alloy.
      What exactly interested you in the article? lol
      1. asv363 26 December 2019 13: 02 New
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        Dmitry, out of 450 industrial nuclear reactors (the number can be checked on the IAEA PRIS b / d - https://pris.iaea.org/pris/) I know only 4 cases where non-zirconium fuel elements are used. We have three and one in the PRC. It follows that in 99% of cases, either an alloy of 99% zirconium + 1% niobium is used, or instead of niobium there will be 1% tin.
        1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 14: 00 New
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          Well, since the author describes the unfamiliar process of hacking TVELs, he writes about what is familiar - machining by cutting stainless steel. Picks up by analogy. wink
          I must say that the only time I met the idea of ​​making a "dirty bomb" out of spent nuclear fuel was a couple of Ukrainian forums, a couple of years of the so-called, absolutely insane in content. am
          1. asv363 26 December 2019 14: 33 New
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            At our small forum of nuclear physicists in 2014, many participants tried to talk about such topics, but communication was stopped either by a ban (lifelong) or a warning about it if the discussion continues. Russian forum.
            1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 15: 03 New
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              Quote: asv363
              either a ban (for life) or a warning about it,

              Well, for a professional physics forum, this is more than reasonable.
              And here we just indulge wink
              In any case, the issue of storage of spent nuclear fuel is an important topic. The Russian Federation takes out its spent nuclear fuel for storage on national territory. States, as far as I know, no. But I could be wrong.
              1. asv363 26 December 2019 15: 21 New
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                Depends on the country. The USA does not return anything to its territory, we pick it up (this is a paid option) and we are glad to return it after processing. equivalent for disposal in the country of purchase. Moreover, the entire weapons range of isotopes (uranium-235, neptunium-237, plutonium-239) is not subject to return, only vitrified radioactive waste.
                1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 15: 42 New
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                  Quote: asv363
                  only vitrified radioactive waste.

                  Can RW in vitrified form be raw material for radiological weapons?
                  1. asv363 26 December 2019 16: 30 New
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                    In theory, yes. For example, the same strontium-90 and cesium-137 are returned, like other radioactive waste.
                    1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 17: 12 New
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                      It is not happy sad
        2. asv363 26 December 2019 14: 10 New
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          Supplement, perhaps.

          E110 (99% Zr + 1% Nb) is a domestic alloy produced at ChMZ http://www.chmz.net/product/zr/slitki/
          Fuel with fuel elements made of this alloy is used not in Russia, but also in Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus, Armenia, Bulgaria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Finland, Iran, India, and China.

          Western Zirkalloy-4 (99% Zr + 1% Sn) - in other countries with AE.
    2. K-612-O 26 December 2019 14: 27 New
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      At least one knowledgeable person hi
    3. wehr 26 December 2019 14: 46 New
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      This does not affect the conclusions. Zirconium is close to steel in mechanical properties.
      I understand that you want to insert your word at least in something.
      1. Mordvin 3 26 December 2019 15: 07 New
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        Quote: wehr
        Zirconium is close to steel in mechanical properties.

        Why do you need it? Do pressure bracelets do?
        1. wehr 26 December 2019 19: 48 New
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          This was a response to the comments of what TVELs are made of. Indeed, mainly from zirconium.
  • Amateur 26 December 2019 07: 42 New
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    nuclear fuel in protracted nuclear war

    Upon reflection, I came to the following conclusion. The thickness of the tube is 0,65 mm. Not so much. It can be cut on a lathe.

    An author who is able to imagine a "protracted nuclear war" will not be able to "ponder" in any way due to the absence of this one. Mental device. fool
  • u4iy 26 December 2019 07: 46 New
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    What did the author smoke?
  • Mityay65 26 December 2019 08: 02 New
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    The author reveals the possible content of the nuclear program of a country with low technological potential, for example, Ukraine. And it justifies the need to remove the fuel rod.
    By the way, Ukraine was going to store spent nuclear fuel itself, in a special storage facility in the Chernobyl zone.
    1. Fraracol_2 26 December 2019 08: 39 New
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      Will you determine the technological potential? And who to seize?
      1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 14: 03 New
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        Of course not. We will hire a herd of trolls for this. fool
  • Vladimir_2U 26 December 2019 08: 10 New
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    Total war she is. And yes, why the heck is a world in which there is no place for Russia.
  • andrewkor 26 December 2019 08: 11 New
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    This is how one should hate humanity in order to offer such a “byak”! Hiram Maxim nervously smokes aside!
    1. Fan-fan 26 December 2019 18: 58 New
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      The pacifists all of a sudden became. Or do you think they will humanely kill us?
  • rocket757 26 December 2019 08: 17 New
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    Is this a description of the weapon of the silent apocalypse? Not funny!
  • Fraracol_2 26 December 2019 08: 38 New
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    What else could be a complex technological reprocessing in a nuclear war? Of particular interest is the concept of "protracted (? !!!!)". I'm afraid these pipes survivors (?) Will have to break with stone axes. And what is much more likely, they won’t get to anything, and they are likely to make their contribution to the general radioactive infection of the planet.
    “At that moment, the war began and ended” - “451 degrees Fahrenheit” by Ray Bradbury.
  • BAI
    BAI 26 December 2019 09: 12 New
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    1.
    On this account, experiments were carried out that showed the technical feasibility of using reactor plutonium as the filling of nuclear charges.

    In addition, these experiments showed that making a nuclear charge “from scratch” is cheaper than using spent fuel.
    2.
    If the enemy is sprinkled with fine SNF powder, then serious losses can be inflicted on him.

    And who will need the territory not suitable for living and use?
    3.
    Therefore, a mechanical method of extracting uranium with all other contents from the tubes is needed.
    Upon reflection, I came to the following conclusion.

    This is generally a cool week. In the nuclear industry, everything has long been studied up and down. Gigantic funds have been invested, a lot of talented (not afraid of the word - brilliant) scientists are working. And here the author is drawn, who with the words "Du.raki you all" in 5 minutes solves the problem. Shine! There are no words.
    1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 09: 30 New
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      Quote: BAI
      making a nuclear charge from scratch is cheaper than using spent fuel.

      Cheaper, for sure. The recipe is offered to states without plutonium accumulated, but with a fuel rod stock in SNF storage facilities.
      Quote: BAI
      who will need a territory not suitable for living

      This is a deterrent weapon. The atomic bomb for the poor.
      Quote: BAI
      In the nuclear industry, everything has long been studied up and down.

      This recipe is for neophytes.
      1. Simargl 26 December 2019 10: 32 New
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        Quote: Mityai65
        The recipe is offered to states without plutonium accumulated, but with a fuel rod stock in SNF storage facilities.
        And can you give a list of at least one such country?

        Quote: Mityai65
        The atomic bomb for the poor.
        This is the "dirty bomb" of terrorists. They need to catch up with fear, and not develop territory.

        Quote: Mityai65
        This recipe is for neophytes.
        For terrorists. However, they know him.
        1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 11: 29 New
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          Quote: Simargl
          And can you give a list of at least one such country?

          Sure. Why not?
          Quote: Simargl
          This is the "dirty bomb" of terrorists.

          A condition for creating a dirty bomb from spent fuel elements is access to the SNF storage facility. For terrorists, this is impossible.
          Quote: Simargl
          For terrorists. However, they know him.

          To terrorists since the 80s, in the thin. literature is credited with creating a "dirty bomb" from HEU, not LEU, as suggested by the author. The creation of such a bomb from a fuel rod is only within the power of the state, and specifically the insane wassat
          1. Simargl 26 December 2019 12: 06 New
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            Quote: Mityai65
            Of course you can.
            Well, bring it.

            Quote: Mityai65
            A condition for creating a dirty bomb from spent fuel elements is access to the SNF storage facility.
            Do you have a fad on TVEL? How many lost warheads are there?
            Radioactive elements only in fuel elements and warheads?

            Quote: Mityai65
            The creation of such a bomb from a fuel rod is only within the power of the state, and specifically the insane
            Those. to the terrorists? Forbidden in Russia (and it would be necessary everywhere) the organization calls itself a "state". Their resources would be enough to "gut" the train with waste.
            1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 12: 42 New
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              Quote: Simargl
              Well, bring it.

              Let you.
              Quote: Simargl
              Do you have a fad on TVEL?

              Have you read the article at all? What is it about?
              Quote: Simargl
              Those. to the terrorists? Forbidden in Russia (and it would be necessary everywhere) the organization calls itself a "state".

              I lose the thread so meaningless. conversation. All the best.
              1. wehr 26 December 2019 14: 48 New
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                Japan, for example, has a decent stockpile of spent nuclear fuel.
                1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 14: 54 New
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                  Quote: wehr
                  Japan, for example

                  I can hardly imagine the only state that fell under the atomic bombing as the manufacturer of the lowest-tech version of the atomic weapon lol
                  As I understand it, you hinted at Ukraine, all the more there such options were discussed in the public sphere.
                  1. wehr 26 December 2019 15: 05 New
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                    You have some kind of strange prejudice about Japan and about the bomb from reactor plutonium.
                    Meanwhile, there are some indications, such as that they lost 45 kg of plutonium, and they could not explain where.

                    No, I didn’t hint at anyone. This can be done by any country with reactors, a SNF storage facility, ballistic missiles and some equipment.
                    1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 15: 13 New
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                      Quote: wehr
                      about Japan and about the reactor plutonium bomb

                      I am deeply convinced that the mystery of the plutonium bomb (real, not "dirty") is not a secret for Japan, and if desired, it will possess it. But why would she need a radiological weapon?
                      Unclear... what
                      1. wehr 26 December 2019 19: 51 New
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                        Most likely, they conducted experiments on the extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, conversion to metal form and the development of processing technology. It's just that the IAEA cannot show it, so I had to compose about the loss.
                2. Operator 26 December 2019 14: 54 New
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                  In Japan, in the Fukushima area, several thousand tons of spent nuclear fuel are located in open storage facilities - one “Dagger” with a megaton-class neutron warhead (with an east and / or north wind) and the Japanese islands can be visited only after 2 thousand years bully
                3. Simargl 26 December 2019 20: 39 New
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                  Quote: Simargl
                  Quote: Mityai65
                  Recipe offered to States without accumulated plutonium, but with a stock of fuel elements in SNF storage facilities.
                  And can you give a list of at least one such country?


                  Quote: wehr
                  Japan, for example, has a decent stockpile of spent nuclear fuel.
                  Plutonium where to do?

                  Quote: wehr
                  Meanwhile, there are some indications, such as that they lost 45 kg of plutonium, and they could not explain where.
                  All the same, all US bases are not enough.
                  1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 20: 49 New
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                    Quote: Simargl
                    All the same, all US bases are not enough.

                    Disappointed? Don't be so upset! The fate of a nuclear terrorist is not at all enviable.
                    And Americans are people too, let them live ... love
                    1. Simargl 27 December 2019 07: 46 New
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                      Quote: Mityai65
                      Disappointed?
                      No.

                      Quote: Mityai65
                      And Americans are people too, let them live ...
                      I was not talking about ordinary Americans, but about military units in the form of military bases. Do not turn the meaning inside out!
  • Vikxnumx 26 December 2019 09: 33 New
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    Author!
    Have you seen the lathe in the picture?
    And imagine the difference in the processing of structural steel, stainless steel, titanium, copper and other things?
    Yes, this tube is faster and more reliable to cut along ... with two cuts ... into two half-tubes.
    laughing
    1. Jurkovs 26 December 2019 11: 22 New
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      Put in liquid nitrogen, and then slightly press down, the shell itself will fall apart.
    2. wehr 26 December 2019 14: 50 New
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      There are at least two more options: as you have - cutting into halves, and still cutting in a spiral with a split gauge set at an angle. But here another problem arises - the removal of parts of the tube. It must be removed by some kind of machine or device.
      Dealing with chips is much easier, especially since the chipbreaker is very simple in design.
      1. Simargl 26 December 2019 20: 41 New
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        Quote: wehr
        But here another problem arises - the removal of parts of the tube.
        Stupidly crush with rollers, treat the residues with acid.
  • awdrgy 26 December 2019 10: 21 New
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    As a person who knows firsthand the problems of the "Chernobyl zone" Endocrine and other problems of the children who are born there I will say this - all these spent nuclear fuel transportation methods of processing the idea of ​​the "crazy" use of radioactive dust are not worth the tears of a sick child And do not care that they say that everything is great safe it’s for the good of the state, etc. And if it’s easier to talk about the enemy, it’s true that you’ll go to the Yellowstone volcano and the end of the United States. It’s clear that nuclear energy exists, that it’s necessary, but it’s a necessary measure. force windmills It is clear that most likely this is also only a partial solution to the problem. However, it is obvious that we must leave the hazardous industries, especially if we don’t bring waste to our country
    1. opus 26 December 2019 11: 58 New
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      Quote: awdrgy
      With our territory, you can force whole "France" with solar panels and windmills

      will not help.
      1.
      According to the operational data of SO UES JSC, the electricity consumption in the Unified Energy System of Russia in 2017 amounted to 1039,7 billion kWh , which is 1,3% more than consumption in 2016. Electricity consumption throughout Russia in 2017 amounted to 1059,5 billion kWh, which is 0,5% more than in 2016.


      2. The solar constant - the amount of power passing through a plane perpendicular to the sun's rays - in the Earth’s orbit is 1'367 W / m², and on the planet’s surface is 1'000 W / m² at noon at the equator
      -Annual insolation for Moscow, if we throw the solar battery (SB) horizontally to earth 1'020 kWh / m² at 100% battery efficiency
      -if we begin to follow the sun, tossing the battery back and forth, then 1'514 kWh / m². For comparison, in Sochi the same indicators will be as follows: 1'365 / 2'129
      - Battery efficiency, which today is optimistic about 18-20%, and in everyday life is closer to 16% without taking into account photo degradation over time
      The average annual output of 1 square meter of battery installed at a fixed optimal angle in Moscow: 1'173 kW * h / m² / 8'760 h = 0.134 kW = 134 Watt / m². With an optimistic and real efficiency of 18%, our result is 0,18 x 134 = 24 watt / m²
      KIUM !!!
      KIUM: 30% for Australia to 13% for northern Europe = that's right
      -Cost: SAT of a Chinese manufacturer, tested over the years gigawatt indian installations reached an indicator $ 1,8 per watt (turnkey, with direct synchronization with the 220/33 / 10kV system built by him at 200 MW

      3. If 1 + 2, then
      The total area of ​​the required solar battery =
      1 039 700 000 000/1 173 / 0,18 =4,924221 billion m ^ 2= 4 924 220 881 m ^ 2 =4 924, 2 million km ^ 2
      wufff. my forehead was sweating, I hope I didn’t get lost in a brainstorming session / here on the site. if there’s a human, he’ll correct, if, he’s studied at school on 5 in algebra /

      4. So almost 5 million km ^ 000
      For reference area ALL of Russia = 17 km² = 100 million km²
      We cover 1/3 of the whole Motherland with solar panels, we can’t get used to boars!
      it will cost
      5 m² * 000 Watts / m² * 000 $ = $ 24 =120 billion $ / I take $ 1, and not 1,8- super wholesale, construction of the century /
      2018 Russian budget revenues (all) - 19,455 trillion rubles =277,92 billion $
      (do not forget about the expense: hospitals, municipalities, schools, roads, bureaucrats, grandmothers, etc.) 16,7 billion rubles. = 238,57 billion $

      Yes figs with him with money, for about 30 years we’ll probably master, that's not the point

      5. How and where will we store this “breakthrough” of electricity at night, in rain and fog?
      The efficiency of modern lead-acid batteries reaches 80%, while for new lithium batteries it reaches 90%, the heat collector for heating water has an efficiency of not more than 20%
      The options are:
      -we use lead-acid batteries or lithium, then we need to spend isho to survive only night, 8 hours long $ 0,8 for lead-acid batteries or $ 2,4 for lithium see item 4, roughly speaking, more 120 billion $
      and the trouble of lithium will be 4 tons: you’ll go crazy
      - we use thermal collectors: you’ll go crazy
      6. The most important thing! belay
      almost 5 million km ^ 000 solar panels!
      We have (and in particular, but not in 2019) snow, rain, wind-dust, fuligans steal copper and everything that licks badly.
      -HOW MUCH do Uzbek Tajik wipers need to clean (wash, wipe) 5 million km ^ 000 panels? / for reference, the area of ​​ALL cities of Russia = 2 million hectares = 8,38 km ^ 83, and Moscow only 800 km²
      5 / 000, 83 = 800 times 60 times it will take janitors, Uzbekovtajiks to clean them, which is now working day and night throughout our country.
      THERE ARE NO
      Quote: awdrgy
      It is clear that most likely this is also only a partial solution to the problem.

      I hope you now understand What is your idea- delusional?
      1. Liam 26 December 2019 12: 19 New
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        Quote: opus
        120 billion $

        The cost of building 1 nuclear power plant (only construction, without operation and without the eternal issue of waste disposal) -25 billion dollars
        1. opus 26 December 2019 12: 47 New
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          Quote: Liam
          -25 billion dollars

          1. How much space will 1 NPP take, how long will it last?
          / Sat degradation in time /
          2. Balakovo NPP is the largest electricity producer in Russia. It generates more than 30 billion kWh per year. electricity (more than any other nuclear, thermal and hydroelectric power plants in the country
          Quote: opus
          Electricity consumption in the Unified Energy System of Russia in 2017 amounted to 1039,7 billion kWh

          1039,7 / 30 = only 35 nuclear power plants against 1/3 of the country (and 1/3 is not enough: snow, rain and not everywhere the latitude of Moscow = 3/4 of the country should be covered with SB)
          As of October 2019, 10 power units are in operation at 36 operating nuclear power plants in Russia
          As of September 2019, 96 nuclear reactors are operating in the U.S.

          3.
          Quote: opus
          it will cost
          5 m² * 000 Watt / m² * $ 000 = $ 24 = $ 1 billion / I take $ 120, and not 000 - super wholesale, construction of the century /

          it's only sat !!!!
          And the earth beneath them?
          A supply / withdrawal of communications, service roads
          What about the ep line?
          What about transformers / drives?
          etc.
          These $ 120 billion will turn 100% into $ 800 billion
          SES is a myth, at a given moment in time, and even more so at our latitudes.
          Or we need to cover the Krasnodar Territory and Crimea, and at the same time all of southern Ukraine and Kazakhstan with these Security Councils ..
          and go broke
          1. Liam 26 December 2019 18: 08 New
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            Read serious studies on this subject.
            https://www.irena.org/publications/2019/May/Renewable-power-generation-costs-in-2018
        2. asv363 26 December 2019 16: 59 New
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          The cost of building one power unit now is about 7 billion US dollars.
      2. awdrgy 26 December 2019 12: 46 New
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        So you don’t torment “Claudia” but read what is written. I wrote about a partial solution to the problem. Which? -Not indicated Now, in fact, the House in the Moscow Region-40 pieces of solar panels 0 5 sq m each allow me to watch TV in every room (3) use with a puncher grinder and a screwdriver turn on the light in each room and all this at the same time and with any cloudiness (I probably didn’t try except heavy snow, it wasn’t necessary) Of course not at night, however there are windmills for this while I have 2 small ones (not enough) I need to add steam and test (And yes, the wind is not always) Naturally, the heating problem (for obvious reasons, power), but even here there is a “bolt with a left-hand thread” underfloor heating. The main problem is that we do not have a law on “reversing” electricity to and from the network surplus (for example, in Europe you can) so you have to keep the “load” Regarding cleaning, I’ve never cleaned it for 8 years, can I do it?) As you can see, a partial solution to the problem is obvious This is a fact for me because I I tried it myself With respect, the calculations you have are serious Honestly, I could not
        1. opus 26 December 2019 13: 33 New
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          Quote: awdrgy
          but read what is written. I wrote about partial

          read it. Razi "partial"?
          Quote: awdrgy
          With our territory you can whole "france" make solar panels and windmills

          about "partial", it’s only then
          Quote: awdrgy
          Now, in fact, the House in the Moscow Region-40 pieces of solar panels 0 5 sq m

          My German’s house in NRW, 7 kW (square meters I don’t know: the sunny side of the roof) + the city’s power grid.
          He leaves for work - er, flows into the city, receives EUR, comes, high consumption: it is powered from the network, the same way at night.
          The sun there is more than in Moscow, I have not heard from him that he is sitting on a car hitch completely + consumes gas, of course.
          They have subsidies and discounts on this.
          We have shish with oil
          Quote: awdrgy
          While I have 2 of them small (not enough), I need to add a couple more and test (And yes, the wind is not always)

          I just can’t imagine how much it cost you ... You probably earn a lot
          a toad strangles me to pay $ 12000 for a BIP (on a lithium ion) for a house from Ilon Mask, everything is the old fashioned gas generator, in which case.
          Quote: awdrgy
          As you can see, a partial solution to the problem is evident.

          You see, you can decide something for yourself, in Moscow. I am in St. Petersburg, where 369 days a year fog and rain / snow, and the rest of the time the sun shines, I will not decide.
          I would be better off windmills, but this is necessary globally, as for example now building being built in the Cherdaklinsky district


          many work, but the redhead will get the money, 100%
          Quote: awdrgy
          Your calculations are serious. Honestly, I couldn’t

          you simply don’t have the eldest daughter, who is currently writing a doctorate and chasing out at all kinds of symposia / conferences: as she was sitting on my father’s neck from the 7th grade: “what do you think? Do you have any information? what can you offer” and sits ( on my neck).

          Easier for you
          wink
          1. awdrgy 26 December 2019 13: 58 New
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            Of course, if the “Nemchik” needs to lay out the whole house with panels and clean them, then we have a 10 by 10 section next to the house and a two-by-two booth with equipment (Of course, the private sector and this is a separate conversation about moving people from cities) Where the sun is quite a bit and there is no wind (and at night) gas is understandable. However, the savings are obvious and the question is more logistic. I’ll say for the sum I bought it all, there were problems with the “accs” right away and I bought the excess at first and got into the “discount” (these quickly “died”) it turned out that there is little need for high-quality current (these are already the 2th year) I changed the equipment to a more efficient one, then I installed it incorrectly at first (I can also say it hit the finances) In general, if you estimate fast (because at the beginning the panels were "worse" but more expensive) in the region of 6-200 tyr but I will say it again gradually over 250 years And yes, work (I did everything myself by trial and error, having of course the Internet and basic knowledge on the subject)
            1. opus 26 December 2019 14: 04 New
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              Quote: awdrgy
              And yes, work (I did everything myself by trial and error, having of course the Internet and basic knowledge on the issue)

              I respect that very much.
              good
              I’ll go and I’ll take care of adding a door to the furniture in the bathroom, otherwise I entrusted it to the younger one, so he revealed the whole MDF panel: the loops
              / as always, my wife will throw a kaku-thread on New Year's Eve, then a closet in the hallway, then plug in a dishwasher / linen / just like now: I need to replace the furniture in the bathroom with a sink .. damn it for me for 12 years and still stood- would be about 15 years old, like a new one, flies haven’t e .... "take out the tree", in short
              1. awdrgy 26 December 2019 14: 13 New
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                Thanks for the reasoned communication is always nice and says a lot about the person
            2. Simargl 26 December 2019 21: 24 New
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              Quote: awdrgy
              in the region of 200-250 tyr
              It would be necessary to count: how much will the circle go out? Those. the cost of energy in a full cycle - from the cost of installation to operation (repair) and disposal.
              1. awdrgy 26 December 2019 21: 45 New
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                Without a reverse, it’s not profitable or let's say a difficult question because you have to heat from the network in cold weather (because gas has not been drawn) and this is 20 tyr a month Well, now the winter is warm, it means 2 months + the floor hasn’t done yet, but others have already done so really (and you can even improve it cheaper in the sense that you have to heat it even in the fall without sex) In short, without a reverse, consider it a hobby or hopelessness (for example, there is no gas) Do not forget about consumables - "Akki" although you can take high-quality but more than 8 years it in principle, the panels themselves will not last 50 years of the guarantee, but I look at them clearly more will stand. In general, I think I can give more to the network per year than I take it from there during the nights and the heating season. If the reverse were allowed, it would be possible to buy more panels Generally Inete who in the subject for a long time discussing this
      3. Simargl 26 December 2019 21: 14 New
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        Quote: opus
        I hope not lost in a brainstorm
        Zelo is strongly confused.
        Given:
        - consumption of 1000 billion kWh * = 1000 Wh * h = 000¹⁵ Wh * h
        - solar constant in Moscow - 930 W / m²
        - sundial per year - up to 2000
        - solar cell efficiency - 0,2
        => "crop area" - not less than (10¹⁵) / (930 * 2000 * 0,2) = 2688172043 m² = 2688 km² (approximately 52x52 km square, but with technological passages - 100x100 km, for example)
        The cost is the same:
        ((10¹⁵)/(2000*0,2))*1,8=4,5×10¹² $ = 4,5 trillion Baku, without power lines.
        1. opus 26 December 2019 21: 38 New
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          Quote: Simargl
          Zelo is strongly confused.

          I always have c-digits
          Quote: Simargl
          the "crops" area - not less than (10¹⁵) / (930 * 2000 * 0,2) = 2688172043 m² = 2688 km²

          I will not check, there is already a confusion.
          For Moscow, the calculation is laid out, it has long been known
          279'757'506 m² (for 2016, Moscow consumed 59 million kWh (only the city; from the Mosenergo Report, 068))
          (I blunted something, it was easier)
          280 km² = Moscow (at 56 billion * kW * h)
          X km² = Russia (1040 billion kWh)
          X = (1040/56) * 280 =5 km² = 200 m²
          provided that the Sun shines everywhere, like Maaskwe.
          Quote: Simargl
          => "crops" area - at least (10¹⁵) / (930 * 2000 * 0,2) = 2688172043 m² = 2688 km²
          -ERROR
          I'm right (for the number 5 for sure, you think 1000 was wrong) laughing
          Quote: opus
          it will cost
          5 000 000 * 24 Watt / m² * $ 1 = $ 120 = $ 000 billion / I take $ 000, and not 120 - super wholesale, construction of the century /
          1. Simargl 26 December 2019 21: 50 New
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            Quote: opus
            X = (1040/56) * 280 = 5 km² = 200 m²
            What's this?
            What kind of numbers? I described mine, but the math is simple.
            1. opus 27 December 2019 00: 03 New
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              Quote: Simargl
              I described mine, but the math is simple.

              Well, I also described mine
              1. Simargl 27 December 2019 05: 46 New
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                Quote: opus
                Well, I also described mine
                No.

                Quote: opus
                For Moscow, the calculation is laid out, it has long been known
                279'757'506 m² (for 2016, Moscow consumed 59 million kWh (only the city; from the Mosenergo Report, 068))
                Is that what?
                Quote: opus
                280 km² = Moscow (at 56 billion * kW * h)
                X km² = Russia (1040 billion kWh)
                X = (1040/56) * 280 = 5 km² = 200 m²
                What is counted here? Dimension - area. Which one? You divide consumption into consumption - it turns out the ratio (how many times the country consumes more than Moscow) - what is it for?

                Quote: opus
                -ERROR
                Where? Dimension is correct: (W * h) / ((W / m²) * h) = m²
                The meaning of the formula is that the energy consumed is divided by the number of hours of insolation, by power, radiation per m² and SB efficiency. We get the necessary area, without taking into account the weather, the efficiency of the drives and the uneven load.
                1. opus 27 December 2019 13: 20 New
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                  Quote: Simargl
                  Is that what?

                  These are calculations and data for Moscow: finding and checking them is easy
                  Quote: Simargl
                  more than Moscow) - what’s it for?

                  To that. it's all simple
                  To find out how much SB area is needed for the whole country
                  280 in proportion to 56 (1)
                  X is proportional to 1000 (2)
                  no one forbids me to divide (2) into (1)
                  getting
                  X / 280 = 1000/56
                  X = (1000/56) * 280
                  1. bk0010 27 December 2019 21: 51 New
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                    Before calculating the area, I recommend calculating the energy balance: how much energy was spent on creating a solar battery and how much it can theoretically produce in its lifetime. Several years ago, the battery consumed many times more energy than it could produce. So green energy was just a means of transferring emissions from Germany to China, it did not give any conservation of nature to the planet. I don’t know now.
                    1. opus 27 December 2019 22: 00 New
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                      Quote: bk0010
                      How now I do not know.

                      the same way, and even worse. Added more lithium production.
                      You do not agitate me against VME =, I’m an antagonist myself. It is better to explain to comrades
  • garri-lin 26 December 2019 11: 10 New
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    April 1 is a day of humor. And today is Black Humor Day? This is not black humor, even this is the hangman’s humor. Suicide bomber. War is one thing and habitat destruction is another. Although, from the point of view of the layman and the explicit representative of the Non-Golden Billion, such methods of war can be considered acceptable. Units start wars, which in those wars intend to survive at least. And after such large-scale hostilities there will be nowhere to survive.
  • opus 26 December 2019 11: 15 New
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    Quote: Dmitry Verkhoturov
    Such a radiological weapon is much simpler and cheaper than a nuclear charge, since it is much simpler in design. True, due to the very high radioactivity, special automatic equipment will be required to grind the uranium oxide extracted from the fuel elements, to equip it into cassettes and into a missile warhead.

    brrrr.
    read and it became hard.
    If Dmitry Verkhoturov = Verkhoturov Dmitry Nikolaevich, then everything
    "Grandma has arrived," already quite.
    Quote: Dmitry Verkhoturov
    Radiological weapons, in my opinion, are most applicable in a protracted nuclear war, and mainly to damage the military and economic potential of the enemy.

    To live, after such "application", Dmitry will be fun, with a twinkle, but not for very long.
    And the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord from heaven, and overthrew these cities, and this whole region, and all the inhabitants of these cities, and [all] the growth of the earth. Lotov’s wife looked behind him and became a pillar of salt. And Abraham got up early in the morning [and went] to the place where he stood before the Lord, and looked to Sodom and Gomorrah and to the whole expanse of the neighborhood and saw: behold, smoke rises from the earth, like smoke from a stove.

    We reach out, as humanity, for sure. (Sodom and Gomorrah are a little about the other, but the essence is the same)

    Quote: Dmitry Verkhoturov
    Upon reflection, I came to the following conclusion. .... It is enough to grind the end of the tube, turning it into shavings.

    As a thinker, thinker: nothing will come of it.
    9 mm tubing, 4 m in length can’t be punched “from the end”, I affirm / Turner-milling machine, as many as 2 categories, received a certificate in 1983 hi
    1. wehr 26 December 2019 14: 55 New
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      Do not forget that the tube inside is pressed with a substance that is not much inferior in density to lead (uranium oxide 10,8 g / cm3, lead - 11,8 g / cm3). That is, it, in fact, is a bar.
      Then, a fuel rod can be cut into pieces of such a length that it does not give oscillations when turning.
      1. opus 26 December 2019 15: 07 New
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        Quote: wehr
        Do not forget that the tube inside is pressed with a substance that is not much inferior in density to lead (uranium oxide 10,8 g / cm3, lead - 11,8 g / cm3). That is, it, in fact, is a bar.

        1.Do not forget
        But
        Quote: wehr (Dmitry)
        Uranium cylinders, ohfreed from the steel shell, will fall out into the receiver under the machine.

        Did you yourself understand what you fantasized about?
        Can you (on the knee) estimate the outline of such a turning on a lathe?
        Did you grind the pipe, at least once stuffed or not stuffed, at least once on the turning yourself?
        Threat. and 4 m long and 9 mm in diameter, even a solid one you do not pierce “just like that”: holding it in a cartridge and centering from the other end
        2. Such a crap (turning the rod of a fuel rod, to destroy the body component), and even on a hot (in all sense) product, who will not be engaged. Your "uranium radioactive powder" will be more expensive than gold.
        I can tell you a whole technology to describe battery recycling (and there is something to drain and drain quickly) in 3 words:
        grind
        electrolyte drains
        -separate plastic, synthetics from metals
        - alkalize or oxidize, separating into Cu, Pb and so on
        ================================================== =======
        Threat. and your little idea

        Such a radiological weapon is much simpler and cheaper than a nuclear charge, since it is much simpler in design

        honestly, with a sweetheart, disgusting.
        True, I’m looking at the electorate like "Mitya No. 65"
        1. wehr 26 December 2019 19: 56 New
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          This is just envy. laughing
          1. opus 26 December 2019 21: 24 New
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            Quote: wehr
            This is just envy.

            good
  • Jurkovs 26 December 2019 11: 18 New
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    Something in the spirit of Sakharov with his underwater explosion off the coast.
    1. awdrgy 26 December 2019 11: 25 New
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      And the explosion is still more “humane”, although he himself was always ashamed of this
  • Sancho_SP 26 December 2019 11: 57 New
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    There is no logic.

    1. The use of dirty bombs is beyond the bounds of modern political decency.
    2. It makes no sense to use your spent nuclear fuel when you can immediately bomb nuclear power plants and mining repositories on enemy territory with the same result.
    3. Reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is now extremely difficult because it is necessary to guarantee the unconditional safety of all people involved in the procedure. If, according to wartime standards, the "allowable doses" are slightly changed, then the assemblies can be disassembled very quickly.
  • Undecim 26 December 2019 12: 47 New
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    The site’s policy regarding the quality of published materials is incomprehensible. Even in the sections "History" and "Armament", which theoretically implies the presence of history and information about weapons, an open delirium is published that has nothing in common with reality. Or the authors staged a competition - who will have the most “pounce” draft? Because if the authors of these opuses believe in what they are writing, then we already need to turn to specialized specialists.
    1. Fan-fan 26 December 2019 19: 08 New
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      People, you’re driving something wrong. And who until recently quietly discussed the cobalt charge for Poseidon here on the site, because the cobalt bomb will do the same - the inability to live and work in the infected territory of a decade.
  • Cheerock 26 December 2019 12: 48 New
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    Quote: opus
    How and where will we store this “breakthrough” of electricity at night, in rain and fog?

    No way. The experience of Germany suggests that the generation of electricity by panels and windmills fluctuates at a rate of 100% for a month. Lack of capacity during fluctuations is covered by thermal power plants, which are taxed by carbon taxes and operate on the verge of profitability.
    Threat. For December in Moscow there were, God forbid, three sunny days.
  • Operator 26 December 2019 13: 11 New
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    Plyusanul article for the question of the effectiveness of the use of radiological weapons. But the conclusion from the goal setting in TMV, as well as from the technology for the manufacture and disposal of fuel elements, is incorrect.

    First, the goals of nuclear strikes are:
    in a local nuclear conflict (for example, in the European theater of war without its expansion into the national territories of the USA and the Russian Federation) - the defeat of military facilities;
    in a global nuclear conflict (in addition to military facilities) - knocking out mobresource in settlements and radioactive contamination of rural areas and industrial zones for the inability to conduct business.

    In the first case, short-range / medium-range missiles and tactical aviation with "pure" two-stage thermonuclear charges (in the air explosion of which only short-lived radioisotopes are released) can completely cope with the task.
    In the second case, the ICBMs with SLBMs and the Poseidons with the Petrels (SNF of the Russian Federation) equipped with "dirty" three-stage thermonuclear charges will be able to cope with the task (long-lived radioisotopes, fission products of the third stage, are emitted during a ground, surface, or air explosion).

    In addition, developed countries already have on their territory super-powerful objects of radiological contamination - namely, nuclear power reactors. Hit by thermonuclear warheads of even low power will cause nuclear explosions (rather than thermal explosions like in Chernobyl), each of which will be two orders of magnitude higher in power and radiological consequences of the Poseidon warhead.

    And in conclusion, the radioactive background of spent nuclear fuel is so strong that it will require the installation of multi-ton protection around the warheads of radiological weapons, after which they will not be lifted into the air by any of the existing carriers.
  • vadim dok 26 December 2019 13: 33 New
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    The author is simply a MAN! It was not worth VO to print this man-hateful article!
    1. Fan-fan 26 December 2019 19: 12 New
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      This is an enemy hateful article. Or maybe you think Hitler is a man?
  • Jurgens 26 December 2019 13: 50 New
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    It turns out that SNF can be processed, the boy came up with. Our ingenious. Nobody could, and Dmitry - once! - and the discovery makes again, scientific, in what.
    "Sprinkle" is generally a masterpiece. Catch up and sprinkle, right on your head. Well, as always, the "protracted" nuclear.
    Volgota, in a word.)
  • timokhin-aa 26 December 2019 14: 20 New
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    For the first time, there was a desire to stumble the cons of the article and the author. Well, how can one hit such cannibalism?

    In general, the appearance of such ideas in public space is an alarming sign.
    1. wehr 26 December 2019 14: 57 New
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      Why did you become such pacifists?
      1. timokhin-aa 26 December 2019 15: 04 New
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        All my life I have been and remain a consistent pacifist. If you kill, then painlessly and immediately, if you fight, then quickly, if you win, then with one blow, etc. Minimize losses and damage, ideally reduce them to zero.

        My favorite battle in history is standing on the Ugra River. Guess why?
        And yes, it is advisable to do everything without dead civilians.
        1. wehr 26 December 2019 15: 08 New
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          This works until you run into a consistent militarist. So the wars are lost.
          They are lost even before the beginning, at the concept stage.
          1. timokhin-aa 26 December 2019 15: 10 New
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            I, a militarist, will shoot him neatly, with your permission - for the sake of peace on earth. Without watering his entire street from a flamethrower. Accurately and accurately. One.

            This is my concept, I stand on it and will stand.
            1. wehr 26 December 2019 20: 28 New
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              This is nothing more than bravado. In addition, empty and stupid.
              1. timokhin-aa 26 December 2019 23: 40 New
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                No, this is a reality. Much more reality than a "protracted nuclear war", and the use of "dirty" bombs in it.
                1. wehr 27 December 2019 00: 23 New
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                  Well, have they already killed many? I would venture to suggest that not one.
                  So it turns out that your reality is not real at all.
                  1. timokhin-aa 27 December 2019 10: 48 New
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                    Count the militarized (at that point in time) societies that were able to survive the pressure from un-obsessed but rationally acting opponents. Nazi Germany was militaristic, as was Kaiser, for example. They lost. The USSR is mired in militarism in the end and where is it?
                    Now the United States is mired in militarism, and their militarism fails over and over in one country after another.

                    The purpose of the war is peace. War is coercion to another edition of the world by force, it is not just massacre, for the sake of massacre. And military force is an instrument whose parameters should correspond to the historical tasks of society. He who does not understand this is carried forward with his feet.
                    And militarism just does not give rise to such an understanding.
                    1. wehr 27 December 2019 14: 06 New
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                      It is very interesting to listen to the condemnation of militarism on the Internet, which militarists once invented for their militaristic purposes. laughing
    2. Mityay65 26 December 2019 15: 35 New
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      I don’t understand your opinion. All these ideas, including the craziest ones, need to be known and discussed. This is a safety issue first belay
      And just on the site of misanthropes for this a suitable place ... IMHO ..
      1. timokhin-aa 26 December 2019 15: 37 New
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        This idea is as old as the grave of Beria. Everything has already been studied and understood hundreds of times - dirty bombs have no military significance. And no variations of them - either.
        1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 16: 18 New
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          Quote: timokhin-aa
          an idea as old as the grave of Beria.

          Do you know where the grave of Beria? Even if it exists, it is not at all old. sad
          Quote: timokhin-aa
          dirty bombs have no military significance.

          This is a statement. Slogan. Interested in arguments, as a rule.
          But in general I think that you are wrong. I believe that there are forces and regimes that are interested in radiological weapons.
          1. Operator 26 December 2019 16: 27 New
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            Quote: Mityai65
            there are forces and regimes that are interested in radiological weapons

            Okraintsy - they have a mriya: they don't give a shit in Europe and wind up to Canada.
            1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 17: 03 New
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              Yes, for us, these lads are of paramount interest, given that the topic of re-creating nuclear weapons, in one form or another, and missiles that "finish off Moscow" is actively discussed in the blogosphere and is in the focus of public attention.
              And those who are discussing this did not doubt for a minute the effectiveness of such weapons on the battlefield.
              Moreover, this weapon is seen as an effective deterrent.
          2. timokhin-aa 26 December 2019 18: 01 New
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            Do you know where the grave of Beria?


            No, but he was shot around the time when hotheads in the USSR thought about a dirty bomb. I recall that such ammunition in the USSR was in service, they were actively experimenting with, from which even before the beginning of the 60s a conclusion was drawn about their futility.
            1. Mityay65 26 December 2019 23: 25 New
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              I believe that if there was somewhere the grave of Beria, she would now enjoy a certain popularity and even worship. Moreover, growing from year to year.
              1. timokhin-aa 26 December 2019 23: 37 New
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                And so it is, just at some "training ground", common with other executed. No gravestones.
        2. bk0010 27 December 2019 22: 00 New
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          But why. If you do not as the author suggests (powder), but to dissolve the spent nuclear fuel in acid, you get a cheap analogue of the neutron bomb. Acid is needed in order for radioactive isotopes to infiltrate into the infected equipment, otherwise the RCBs will stoop, trash everything with their foam and deactivate all our efforts. It is necessary to spray acid from devices similar to those that were placed on the IL-2 to flood the enemy airfields with phosphorus. This (as well as the use of a neutron bomb) will complicate the use and maintenance of the affected equipment. Another thing is that if our aircraft reached the enemy’s equipment, it is easier and more reliable to use standard weapons: they kill more reliably, although they do not have such a demoralizing effect on the enemy .
    3. sergevl 26 December 2019 15: 45 New
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      The article is correct and interesting. It’s time to drive the pissed rags of radio phobes.
      And all sorts of "pacifists"
      Firstly, during a protracted nuclear war, ammunition and enrichment opportunities will end.
      Therefore, you have to fight with what remains. And there will be nuclear fuel in the shut down reactors and fuel assemblies in the storage pools.
      That is, it will most likely have to be removed manually, by the forces of mobilized soldiers. It is clear that the exposure will be high, it is quite possible that during the operation to pull out the fuel elements the soldier will receive a dose in the range of a couple of dozen sievert. In war as in war.
      Therefore, the question is that such works should involve looters, deserters, traitors and other agents of Soros convicted to death. Atomic penal battalion, so to speak. Now about motivation, those who refuse should be tortured in the most monstrous ways. To not even have thoughts to refuse.
      1. sergevl 26 December 2019 15: 58 New
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        As an option, it is possible to torture and execute relatives of TVELs involved in pulling out. That there was no cowardice and desertion. Further turning work. It will only be necessary to bring to the NPP a couple of hundred lathes taken from the destroyed plants, they can even not be deactivated.
        Next, you need to find workers for the machine tools, conduct their training, as an option, taking relatives hostage. And sharpen the tubes forward. The background near the machine will be around 10 sievers per hour, that is, the change will be around 10 20 minutes. Then dump the worked workers into an empty working pool so that they do not suffer. Next, you need to ensure the transportation of powder in trucks in trucks.
        The powder can really be warmed up, that is, some kind of cooling is needed. But these are trifles, we will put one-time workers to water from a watering can.
        1. sergevl 26 December 2019 16: 03 New
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          Now the question is with delivery. This is a question for the author, how to deliver self-heating powder to the territory of the enemy. Alternatively, use conventional explosives and a remotely controlled civilian aircraft. Arrived exploded over the target.
          1. Fan-fan 26 December 2019 19: 17 New
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            No need to troll, there is an automatic production, which is already used in the creation of these same fuel elements, and in the production of nuclear warheads.
            1. sergevl 26 December 2019 20: 02 New
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              During a nuclear war, the production of fuel elements and nuclear warheads will be subjected to nuclear strikes.
              Therefore, it will have the old fashioned handles. If at the same time 10 will have to be donated for victory. A person, or 000 or even a million, no one will doubt it. Everything as they say for the front, everything for victory. Look at the heroes of K-100, they welded up the reactor with electrodes, and you, like muscular young ladies, got wet, they say they should do machines. No, not automatic machines, I stood behind the machine and sharpened the tvzl while you can stand on your feet. You just need to be a hero and not a network whiner. And be prepared for the Feat.
              1. VALERIK_097 2 January 2020 00: 27 New
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                This is a fiction, no one was welding anything to the reactor, all the work on the “makeshift” for feeding the reactor was carried out in the pumping room, where the water from the PC was really knee-deep.
  • ss-n-22 26 December 2019 14: 41 New
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    In Skipersokm Canal, 16 (St. Petersburg) and the islands of Ladoga in the mid-50s of the last century, they had already played enough in BRV.
    Already found out - the meaning of zero. In general, for such plans it is necessary to determine for life in Durkee. Power regimes will change, and conflicts between elites will forever occur. Let's not poison the remnants of the environment just because someone did not share the oil.
    1. timokhin-aa 26 December 2019 15: 05 New
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      In general, for such plans you need to determine for life in Durkee


      Plus
      1. sergevl 26 December 2019 20: 08 New
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        Minus one. In a war, especially in a nuclear war, heroes are needed, not minusers. Up to that, if there were no machines left, the bomb was stored, grab the TVEL with your hands like a spear and stab them with enemies.
        1. timokhin-aa 26 December 2019 20: 23 New
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          Then shoot tablets from a fuel rod with a slingshot. Grab it and shoot it.
          1. sergevl 26 December 2019 22: 05 New
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            Not bad idea. The main thing is that anger towards enemies be. By the way, the lead shell of the shell will reduce exposure, and inside into explosives
            Cram pills.
  • tolancop 26 December 2019 15: 25 New
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    The ends of the author do not converge. He suggests that the nuclear conflict will be protracted and the hostilities will continue after the parties send all the “gifts” to the side of the enemy. After which, in the author’s opinion, the opponents will have significant production potential, which the author intends to neutralize with radiological weapons in order to “preserve” nuclear warheads, so to speak, for a rainy day .... The author does not seem to recall the carriers for radiological warheads, apparently assuming that their stock is unlimited. The topic further develops and the author comes to the conclusion that the "dirty bomb" is very phonetic and that measures are required to protect personnel during storage and maintenance. And at the same time I came to the conclusion that the carriers of "dirty" bombs (finally remembered !!) are better to do mine-based. Yeah. The idea that launching mines are among the priority goals, apparently did not visit his head.
    Further. TVEL disassembly technology. According to the author, it is advisable to use automated metal-cutting equipment due to the high radioactivity of the workpieces. It is logical .. The fact that automated equipment requires periodic maintenance, repair, etc. stays off screen. Robots will be serviced and repaired .....
    And the author left one more question behind the scenes .... States go to gigantic costs associated with the development, manufacture, storage and maintenance of nuclear weapons. Just?. No. I am sure that ALL options were calculated. And it seems that according to the results of the analysis, competent people on different continents came to the conclusion that sheepskin isn’t worth it and that radiological weapons are more dangerous for themselves than for the enemy.
    1. sergevl 26 December 2019 17: 52 New
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      A type of nuclear weapon is so advanced)
      Nobody used it at the same time. Another scam.
    2. wehr 26 December 2019 20: 04 New
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      If you consider all issues, you get a monograph.
      Yes, this is a machine and a protective box for it of a special design, providing for the possibility of its large-block disassembly. Installation and change of a cutter with the help of the manipulator installed inside. Oil through the oil supply system. Well and so on. This is not an easy task, but technically feasible.
  • Dmitry Leontiev 26 December 2019 21: 30 New
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    The author seems to be concerned that in a nuclear war somewhere there will remain territories not sufficiently affected by radioactive contamination — and wants to take all possible measures to rectify this situation — so that everything is guaranteed to be bent on this planet. The author, do not worry: thousands of nuclear bombs that exploded almost simultaneously will emit so much radiation into the atmosphere of both hemispheres that you are guaranteed to be satisfied: those whose territory is not covered by direct attacks will be envied by those who fell under them and died immediately or during a short time: breathing contaminated air, drinking contaminated water and watching how one's own insides gradually fail is a dubious joy. If you do not fall into the zone of direct defeat, then you will find yourself among them - and you will be able to check out all these effects that you are dreaming of here.
    And the expression "protracted nuclear war" is something funny and absurd. The world nuclear powder keg if it explodes, then all at once.
    1. sergevl 26 December 2019 22: 08 New
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      This is rubbish like a nuclear winter. The radiation is not taken from anywhere, it is from our land, and there it is much more than stand out from a nuclear war. In Hiroshima, in the epicenter of residential buildings, and all do not care about radiation. Just the soldiers crushed here on the topwar. They go to a nuclear attack, they sit on the phones as glued.
      1. Dmitry Leontiev 28 December 2019 01: 51 New
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        In Hiroshima, the bomb was 13 kt. And she was alone. Moreover, a huge number of people died from radiation sickness there. And if thousands of warheads of 150-300 kilotons explode, the radiation background will be such that everything will glow. And all this will rise into the upper atmosphere and spread everywhere. Little will not seem to anyone there - even in those territories where there were no explosions.
        1. sergevl 28 December 2019 02: 21 New
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          Hiroshima died because most of the city was built in the form of wooden structures covered with paper. Well, they ate drank decay products.
          The same iodine xenon that shines so much, quickly decays and then does not affect anything.
          The same Polesskaya Belarus and Ukraine, if they had been evacuated at least a month immediately after the Chernobyl accident, would have given an order of magnitude lower thyroid cancer.
          Most of the warheads will go to military facilities of missile silos, command centers, cruise missile batteries, airfields, ports, radar, anti-aircraft batteries, etc.
          Part of the ships will go to sea, part of the troops deployed in the field ...
          Even an elementary calculation, for example, 10 barrels of 000 kt each, will be shot down, air defense about a part will explode in the taiga and at least, even if cities are covered, villages will remain. For example, there are not enough warheads for each village in the European part, but what about Siberia or the Far East?
          The same problem with the United States that killing a population by the square nest method, for example, 10000 bch at the rate of one unit per km square, is only a square of 100 per 100 km. A square of 1000 per 1000 km is already 100 square meters. Km per 1 warhead, i.e. 10 per 10 km. In the bch.
          If you take 3300 km to 3000 km, then it is 9 million square kilometers, 900 square meters. Km per 1 bch.

          And yet, all my neighbors chopped off heroin, and from childhood they rode a tram, and those who didn’t chopped swollen completely.

          This is the real problem, not your virtual bombs.
          All 70 80 years were afraid of a nuclear war, and we are dying of burning vodka, hawthorn, heroin with tramal, and other tops.
          1. wehr 28 December 2019 13: 34 New
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            10 thousand is a very generous calculation. Now about a thousand on both sides are ready for launch.

            In general, yes, there are many cities and places that are devastated today as if a nuclear war had already occurred there. Favorite children's entertainment is to climb the ruins of enterprises.
            1. sergevl 2 January 2020 01: 59 New
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              By the way, in Chernobyl, all the metal was cut into a second metal. Gas cutters. But there is more pollution than that from nuclear bombs.
              Something tells me that in the epicenters of nuclear war there will be a paradise for broomstick collectors))))
              1. wehr 2 January 2020 02: 44 New
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                In Chernobyl, they generally perlied a forehead on a ray. So why be surprised.
                1. sergevl 2 January 2020 16: 56 New
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                  Who is the lane? Metalworkers? These trample on the beam only for pollen and stainless steel. )
                  And they cut out all the black metal. Back to 2013. Do not believe me, go check.
                  1. wehr 2 January 2020 17: 59 New
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                    Yes, a bit of everything, and the liquidators, nor the scrap metal workers. Just like some kind of insanity.
          2. Dmitry Leontiev 11 January 2020 06: 51 New
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            Nuclear winter, in fact, does not even depend on radiation, but on the mass of ash ejected into the upper atmosphere. There it will rise so much that the sun will disappear. That is, hunger and abnormal colds are guaranteed. And radiation will not go anywhere either - it will settle on everything. In any case, you will not envy surviving humanity. Even where depleted uranium shells were used, cancer mortality increased many times over.
      2. VALERIK_097 2 January 2020 00: 38 New
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        I do not agree, there is a rational grain in the article, as it does not sound terrible. But not everyone cares about radiation (profession costs).
  • db1967 27 December 2019 04: 25 New
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    What is this article about ???
    NPPs are the priority goals of nuclear uranium. This time.
    Extracted from the fuel rods will have to be enriched. TWO.
    In connection with the withdrawal of the United States from the treaty on the "decoupling" of weapons-grade plutonium - in Russia now there is such an overabundance ... This is three.
  • Svetlana 27 December 2019 14: 05 New
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    sergev: all do not care about radiation.
    Dmitry Verkhoturov: A ton of SNF, just recovered from the reactor, gives a radiation level of up to 1000 sievert per hour, that is, a lethal dose of 5 sievert runs in just 20 seconds.
    But the fuel just extracted gives off so much heat that it heats up to a temperature of more than 500 ° C, starts to glow with a crimson light, melts and becomes liquid. It must be cooled in order to deliver to the target using regular delivery vehicles. In addition, it is very phonetic. Pilots, sailors, rocket launchers will not survive a long neighborhood with spent nuclear fuel without heavy radiation protection. There is a better way - use the beta-active carbon isotope C14. It is easy to obtain in nuclear reactors from an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate NH4NO3, pumped through the active zone by the reaction 14N (n, p) 14C. A 100 kg carbon-14 ingot produces only 350W of heat. This ingot is easy to cool, its beta radiation is easily shielded with aluminum foil. Now in the entire atmosphere of the Earth contains only 840 kg of C14. To spray an additional 840 kg of C14 in the atmosphere, a 1 Kt explosion is sufficient, in which C14 partially settles on the ground, partially burns in the Earth's atmosphere with the formation of beta-active carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is built into the food chain with the growth of plants, then with breathing and food it enters the human body. If it enters the lungs, C14 will cause lung cancer and death in a year.
    1. wehr 27 December 2019 14: 31 New
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      If beta radiation is so easy to shield, then the adversary will do the same. Therefore, hard scales are needed, from which it is difficult to defend oneself.
      Warming up presents a particular danger to the reactor, since a steam-zirconium reaction can begin, which threatens the evolution of hydrogen and the explosion of the reactor. For intermediate storage and warheads, heating is not so dangerous, although it requires cooling, of course.
      Uranium oxide does not melt at 500 degrees.
      Before the equipment in the warhead, the uranium lies in a protected intermediate storage, then the rocket prepares for launch, the staff hides in a radiation shelter, remotely controlled arm puts the warhead on the rocket and launches. It is not so difficult to isolate personnel from radiation.
    2. VALERIK_097 2 January 2020 00: 41 New
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      ))) Svetlana, well, it's generally tin.
  • UFO
    UFO 27 December 2019 14: 12 New
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    Sadists already live in Hell, as Chikatilo confused reality with their sick fantasies. It makes no difference to them that they are waving a bat on the road, that a dirty bomb. Holy Warriors always have peace and love in their hearts.
  • Svetlana 27 December 2019 15: 33 New
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    Quote: wehr
    If beta radiation is so easy to shield, then the adversary will do the same.

    Beta radiation of carbon-14 is easy to shield if it is in a compact form of a blank, not sprayed. Carbon-14 atomized onto atoms cannot be shielded when it enters a person. But you will not separately screen each atom of beets or cabbage in borsch, and vegetables are also made of carbon.
    1. wehr 27 December 2019 15: 56 New
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      This question, I think, is worth considering. I have not yet come to any definite opinion.
  • Svetlana 27 December 2019 15: 38 New
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    Quote: UFO
    Holy Warriors always have peace and love in their hearts.

    This we have already passed - Got mit uns on the plaque of the belt of holy warriors under the march of Schwarzbraun ist die Haselnuss. But this peace and love in the soul lead to Dachau and Auschwitz
  • 16112014nk 27 December 2019 16: 57 New
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    And if you first start sprinkling SNF powder on the head of the author? fool
  • UFO
    UFO 27 December 2019 17: 53 New
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    Quote: Svetlana
    But this peace and love in the soul lead to Dachau and Auschwitz

    This peace and love in the soul led the Russian warrior monks to self-sacrifice on the Kulikovo field "for their own friends" with the blessing of St. Seraphim of Sarov. Perverts come to Dachau and Auschwitz.
    1. sergevl 28 December 2019 02: 29 New
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      It will be necessary for the monks to pull the fuel rods out of the reactor with their bare hands, and they will self-sacrifice.
      If the shahid’s belts need to be worn heavily under polonium robes, they will blow themselves up in enemy positions.
      And the attack will go bayonet instead of a bayonet, the fuel rods will put freshly removed from the reactors manually.
      In the meantime, instead of polonium tram, and instead of a fuel rod insulin. Instead of the commander, the huckster, instead of the NATO troops, overtook, and instead of the warheads, bookmarks.
  • jakkola-ng 28 December 2019 15: 14 New
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    The author is clearly a hater. That he simply would not offer to blow up the Earth?
  • A man with a capital letter 4 January 2020 11: 31 New
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    Somehow it was disgusting to read ..
  • Jager 4 January 2020 12: 27 New
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    The author is misanthrope and cannibal.
    All this is as old as the world, radiological weapons were tested back in the 50s and recognized as not effective. One single warhead in a nuclear power plant is enough to turn half of Russia or Europe into a lifeless desert.
  • Dmitry Leontiev 11 January 2020 07: 04 New
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    What an idiotic site - some comments can be added, minus, and some cannot. That the site is ugly, that the authors are degenerates.
  • 1970mk 10 March 2020 13: 13 New
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    Some kind of fantastic-theoretical nonsense on the topic of "how to kill someone" .... You can’t say more ... About the "protracted nuclear war" it is better to keep silent altogether.