Military Review

Painting as a historical source. Palamedes' Sentries

102
Painting as a historical source. Palamedes' Sentries"A guardhouse with dogs." In the center is an officer in a tunic (a thin-skin caftan), who was worn under a cuirass, but who everyone else is, is very difficult to say. That is, maybe these are soldiers, they just look more like tramps basking around a fire. Rabble rabble, and those are present in all the paintings of the artist with "guardrooms." In the background, one character is changing shoes. In the paintings of Anthony Palamedes, this storyline is repeated with enviable constancy. Of weapons we see only a heavy cavalry sword on the floor on the right

This is all so familiar, and it seems: in a fairy tale, I,

And I am ready to exclaim with obsession: vade!
Have I met you, Rembrandtova Saskia?
Am I back in your age, Adrian van Ostade?
Valery Bryusov


Pictures tell. To begin with, the material “The pictures are telling. "The guard" the VO readers liked it, well, except for some, which is normal in principle, I also hate cabbage pies, although the Polish bigos, for example, I eat with great pleasure. And many wished that the theme of painting, as a historical source, be continued. At the same time, many exactly in their comments indicated that the epicity of the canvas or sculpture, for example, and its historical authenticity - things are often completely different. For example, “Motherland” on Mamaev Kurgan or “Alyosha” in Treptower Park in Berlin are epic works, but it would be strange and absurd to argue on their basis that in a critical situation, Soviet soldiers and their mothers took up swords! Therefore, let's not confuse God's gift with scrambled eggs, but turn to the paintings of the same Dutch who reflected on their canvases many battles of the Thirty Years and Eighty Years War involving many warriors in a variety of armor, and here they are, no doubt, are for us an important source of information about that time.

The last time we carefully examined in fact just one picture of Teniers the Younger “The Sentry”, which, however, gave us very valuable information about that time. But maybe, before turning directly to the battle canvases, we will look at other paintings painted at the same time and on the same subject, but by other painters? It turns out there is!

Here we must recall one good saying of ours that "bad examples are contagious." That is, if some kind of “theme” has “gone”, then imitators appear immediately or the author himself begins to replicate popular stories one after another.

One such “Dutch” was Anthony Palamedes (1601–1673), the Dutch artist of the Golden Age, who worked in various fields of painting. Anthony was an artist of genre painting, portraiture and still life, but he is best known for his paintings depicting musical or funny companies and soldiers of that time. Such works testify to his knowledge of contemporary genre paintings by artists of Harlem and Amsterdam, such as Dirk Hals, Peter Codde, Willem Duister and Hendrick Pot. He was born in the city of Delft, where he eventually became a representative of the famous Delft school.

Palamedes was born in the family of a semi-precious stone carver. He worked with jasper, porphyry and agate, and became a famous stone-cutting master. And so famous that he traveled to England to the court of the King of Scotland, Jacob. But then he had a younger brother, who was also called Palamedes, and the family had to return to Delft, where the brothers grew up.

Painting, according to some sources, Anthony Palamedes studied with Michel van Mirevelt. Others call him the mentor of the Amsterdam painter Hendrick Pot. His younger brother Palamedes also became an artist. However, Anthony had the chance to outlive his brother, who died only at the age of 31 in 1638. In 1621, Palamedes was admitted to the guild of artists of St. Luke, and then he was elected four times as its dean (in 1635, 1658, 1663 and 1672).

On March 30, 1630, Anthony married Anna van Hoorendijk, who for ten years, from 1632 to 1642, gave birth to six children: another Palamedes (1632), Leenbert (1634), Joost (1636), William (1638) and twins - William and Mary. But all the children, except the son of Palamedes, died either before or in 1646. The son of Anthony Palamedes, Palamedes Palamedes, inherited his father's profession and also became a painter.

Sale of paintings brought Palamedes a steady income. So, for example, he bought a house at the price of 3400 guilders. But then fortune he turned his back on him. His wife Anna died in 1651 and Palamedes in 1658 married a second time. But ... alas, unsuccessfully, about the same as a lumberjack in the 1938 movie "Cinderella". Troubles began at home, and with them - debts and financial difficulties. And it all ended with the fact that Palamedes left everything, left in 1670 in Amsterdam, and there he died in 1673.

And one of his themes just became ... yes, yes, do not be surprised - the theme of the "guardhouse". It is difficult to say how much he wrote the paintings of “The Sentry”, but it is absolutely certain that there are many of them. By the way, this is truly a godsend for scammers who know how to fake XNUMXth-century canvases. Although, on the other hand, the discovery of a previously unknown painting by Anthony Palamedes will cause such a stir that ... the "found" picture will be checked and verified, etched with acids, viewed with microscopes, and in the end it will come to the "atomic gun". It’s just that when a lot of paintings are written on one topic of one artist, there is always a chance to find some kind of accidentally forgotten and unknown.

Interestingly, the Palamedes ’guards are very similar. They have a central figure, which is almost always dressed in a suit of a rider of heavy cavalry, who, however, took off his armor, and is engaged in giving instructions to his comrades, playing the trumpet or just standing in thought. In contrast to Teniers' paintings, there are women in his canvases, including breastfeeding babies and, apparently, wandered to the soldiers in search of adventure or assistance, and even a dog. That is, in the guardrooms of that time of what and who just did not happen!

Well, now let's admire his canvases and see what exactly they can give for the study of military affairs of the 1640th century, and in the period 1650-XNUMX. because it was precisely at this time that his "guards" were dating.


“The Watch” 1647. (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam) Here the same officer, wearing a dandy hat with multi-colored feathers, gives some indication to the ordinary soldier who has just removed his cuirass. There was only one plateau on the armored officer. In his left hand - protazan, therefore, this officer from the infantry. Other soldiers in the background hang their armor on the wall. And this is clearly the foot soldiers, since in the hands of one of them is a bandelier


"Squad fees" in 1654. (Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow) The same officer in the yellow tunic, but now with a banner in his hand, makes the same gesture as in many other paintings


“Scene in the guard” And what do we see here? A “trumpeter in a yellow camisole”, a Negro servant (that is, they were already imported to Europe, and judging by the pose, they felt not at all humiliated here!), A violinist, dice players, and a dog gnawing a bone - all very vitally and in his own way, touching. Armor (double cuirasses) hanging on the wall from behind. (Private collection)


Another painting of 1654 and it still has the same guardhouse with a trumpeter in a yellow camisole (tunic) (Royal Baths, Warsaw)


Here the officer got up and blows the horn, and a woman with a child and all the other characters are watching him. The task of the trumpeter in the Dutch army was to notify all the soldiers in the guardroom that there was an order from the commander to pack up and leave


The flag on the hearth is red, and the camisole is already blue, obviously woolen, not leather. But you still can’t do without a woman with a baby ...


"In the guardroom." (Private collection) Here the officer in the cuirass is clearly tired and waiting for the servant to serve him. Of weapons - armor in the right corner. Behind him is a musketeer.


Another painting with a guardhouse in 1654 (Victoria and Albert Museum, London). Then the hatler removed his hat ...


In the center of this canvas, which is called the “Pikemen Company Sentry”, is an officer with a protazan, next to which stands a second officer with a cane. A woman and a child are present. True, there is no drum that is found in many of his paintings. But the musket with the stand is perfectly depicted on the left by the wall. True, it’s not very possible to discern which lock he has - wheeled or wick

And this is far from all the “Caral rooms” that this Dutch artist wrote. But we now absolutely know now how the soldiers and junior officers in 1654 were dressed, which cuirasses, muskets were worn and which women and babies came to the “guardhouse” then.

To be continued ...
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Articles from this series:
Pictures tell. "The guard"
102 comments
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 January 2020 06: 43
    +9
    Vyacheslav Olegovich thanks for the illustration. I didn’t think that in my old age I would be looking at pictures with interest! hi
    Good day, Vlad!
    1. kalibr
      5 January 2020 13: 28
      +4
      Dear Vladislav! My metamorphosis is even funnier. As a child, looking at textbooks on the history of the Middle Ages piled up in the shed, I was terribly upset when I met black-and-white sketches of ancient warriors, miniatures, effigies, and, on the contrary, rejoiced when meeting reconstruction drawings. The "old man" seemed to me primitive and uninteresting. And so it was for a long time. I got into the taste only twenty years ago. And before that, everything was striving for reconstruction, they thought better ...
  2. Catfish
    Catfish 5 January 2020 07: 06
    +6
    Good morning friends! smile Vyacheslav Olegych is our lowest for "Karaulnya". hi
    Funny pictures, as Vlad said. However, in these Palamedes I was simply confused, although all his works are similar to each other.
  3. bubalik
    bubalik 5 January 2020 07: 48
    +3
    ,,, did not impress the pictures negative
    1. kalibr
      5 January 2020 08: 25
      +8
      Any archaeologist, Sergei, dreams of finding his "Priam's treasure", but he also understands that another shard or jaw with teeth is much more valuable for history. Because there is only gold and work, and there is also the possibility of dating and determining the haplogroup ... So it is here. The pictures themselves ... so-so, nothing special about them. And skill too. But. since they are dated, it is a "document of the era". At this time, books ceased to be illustrated with colored miniatures, unlike the era of the Middle Ages. Only engraving technique was used. So it is thanks to such serial painters that we have a visualization of that era, and in detail.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 5 January 2020 08: 56
        +5
        Alyosha in Treptower Park in Berlin Oyoyoy, it's a shame to confuse, not even a historian, a monument in Bulgaria with a monument to the "Soldier-Liberator" in Berlin!
        1. kalibr
          5 January 2020 11: 23
          +4
          I was there in Berlin this summer. I recorded on a tape recorder a very interesting story of the guide about how this monument was created, but here you go, "screwed up" and did not notice. The legacy of the past is visible, when they thought one thing, and the hand wrote another ...

          It will be necessary to write about it somehow with all the details. There will be no mistake.
      2. Krasnoyarsk
        Krasnoyarsk 5 January 2020 13: 01
        -1
        Quote: kalibr
        So thanks to these serial painters, we have the visualization of that era, and in more detail.

        I disagree with you. As with the author of the article. To study history from paintings by an artist is the same as from the novels of writers. A painting is not a photograph; it contains the "artist's vision", the flight of his imagination. It was not for nothing that the woman ended up in the guardroom, and even with the child.
        But if Mr. Shpakovsky studies history in this way, then who will forbid him? And ... a flag in his hands.
        1. kalibr
          5 January 2020 13: 24
          +5
          Iconography-based visualization is just one source of study, isn't it? And no one is making it absolute. But you don't mean to say that people painted something that was not around them? Everyday paintings differ from others in that they depict everyday life, and the more carefully, the better. Otherwise they would not have been ordered. And by the way, they also study history from novels. You just need to know how and be able to do it. For example, in my novel "Pareto's Law" in 1918 a vacuum cleaner operates ... But ... this is not an invention. And taken from the pre-revolutionary catalog. The same with the electric kettle - all this was, although it was a rarity. And the ticket price from St. Petersburg to Vyritsa was taken from the NIVA magazine for 1914.
          1. Krasnoyarsk
            Krasnoyarsk 5 January 2020 14: 10
            -1
            Quote: kalibr
            Iconography-based visualization is just one of the sources of study,

            Studying what?
            Quote: kalibr
            But you do not want to say that people painted something that was not around them?

            Of course no. But ... They drew their vision and drove reality to fit what they planned, or planned for them, to portray.
            Quote: kalibr
            And, by the way, they also study history from novels. You just need to know how and how to do it.

            I wrote - a flag in my hands.
            And by the way, I talked to a professional blacksmith and he confirmed my doubts that the "Carolingian empire" could not supply Russia with its swords. A few of these swords fell on Russia, maybe in the form of a trophy, maybe in the form of a gift, or in the form of a purchase.
            Here is a quote from his message: - "At the heart of the question: in the Middle Ages, the sword was extremely laborious, and, accordingly, an expensive craft. It cost like a herd of cows. In particular, due to the fact that iron-steel was extremely critical, and therefore, they required multiple reforging and annealing to clean the steel. IMHO, forging and thermalizing a sword should take at least a month of hard work of a blacksmith, hammer and apprentice at that time. And then - grinding-polishing-finishing, which in the absence of machine tools took more more time."
            Moreover, a good sword was forged from an ingot brought from India.
            That's why I consider your articles superficial and therefore not worthy of attention.
            Only no offense, I did not pursue such a goal.
            1. kalibr
              5 January 2020 15: 16
              +5
              Quote: Krasnoyarsk
              I talked to a professional blacksmith and he confirmed my doubts that the "Carolingian empire" could not supply Russia with its swords. A few of these swords fell on Russia, maybe in the form of a trophy, maybe in the form of a gift, or in the form of a purchase.

              I advise you only to talk with a professional archaeologist as well ...
              1. Krasnoyarsk
                Krasnoyarsk 5 January 2020 15: 29
                -2
                Quote: kalibr
                I advise you only to talk with a professional archaeologist as well ...

                Thanks for the advice. As soon as possible, I will do so.
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 January 2020 14: 22
          +3
          Quote: Krasnoyarsk
          Quote: kalibr
          So thanks to these serial painters, we have the visualization of that era, and in more detail.

          I do not agree with you. As with the author of the article.

          They smiled! Ok, let’s open your eyes - Shpakovsky V.O. = Vyacheslav Olegovich = Author of the article = Kaliningrad !!! smile
          To study history from paintings by an artist is the same as from the novels of writers. A painting is not a photograph; it contains the "artist's vision", the flight of his imagination. It was not for nothing that the woman ended up in the guardroom, and even with the child.

          And if this is the only thing that has come down to our time? For example, frescoes on the island of Centarino or Konos !!! The image of the ships on the first is an understanding of the essence of the Minoan civilization !!! Especially when compared with other surviving artifacts. For example graffiti of the Minoans' ships on Cannes rocks or the images of ships on the bronze blade of the sword !!! Heaven and earth!
          Or for example, drawings on the pyramids, scribbles of an ancient person and much more!
          A woman with a child in the guard! I would not be surprised that she ordered a picture for her husband, and the client’s desire is the Law! By the way, she could live with her husband (tower lieutenant) on the top floor of the building!
          But if Mr. Shpakovsky studies history in this way, then who will forbid him? And ... a flag in his hands.

          It remains for you to advise a friend "drum on the neck" and go in the opposite direction. Be more tolerant!
          Regards, Kote!
          1. Krasnoyarsk
            Krasnoyarsk 5 January 2020 14: 46
            -1
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka

            They smiled! Ok, let’s open your eyes - Shpakovsky V.O. = Vyacheslav Olegovich = Author of the article = Kaliningrad !!!

            AND?????? Should I cross myself at this "opening", spit over my left shoulder, or ..?
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            The image of the ships on the first is an understanding of the essence of the Minoan civilization !!! Especially when compared with other surviving artifacts. For example graffiti of the Minoans' ships on Cannes rocks or the images of ships on the bronze blade of the sword !!! Heaven and earth!

            So you can "understand the ESSENCE" of modern civilization from children's images of a tank, and a bronze bust will be cast for you in your homeland.
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            Be more tolerant!

            Tolerant is how? Hide your personal attitude to the article? By the way, which I do not impose on you.
            With no less respect, Krasnoyarsk.
        3. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 5 January 2020 15: 21
          +6
          Quote: Krasnoyarsk
          A painting is not a photograph; it contains the "artist's vision", the flight of his imagination.

          And photos, in your opinion, are not staged, retouched, painted? And chroniclers and chroniclers write everything exceptionally conscientiously and "as it was", without trying to give their own assessment of events or explain to the reader the essence of what is happening ...
          Forgive me, but any, that is, absolutely any source of information about the past carries a lot of distortions, both objective and subjective. In law enforcement agencies there is even a proverb "lying as an eyewitness" and it does not carry a purely ironic content, but simply states a fact - even an eyewitness to events that happened, for example, an hour ago, intentionally or unintentionally, will certainly distort the events in their description. It's unavoidable.
          Even accounting documents, which, it would seem, are the top of reliability and objectivity, are often distorted, both intentionally and by oversight or sloppiness.
          In short, your "revelation" regarding the fact that the artist is not thinking something up for anyone, including the author of the article, is not a secret, and there was no need to announce it so pretentiously here. Think better about how to isolate objective, truthful and reliable information about the past from the available material, separating it from fiction and distortions.
          1. Krasnoyarsk
            Krasnoyarsk 5 January 2020 15: 45
            0
            Quote: Trilobite Master

            Do you think photographs are not staged, retouched, or painted?

            There are. I mean not staged. Almost all women are absent. tongue
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            Think better about how to extract objective, truthful and reliable information about the past from existing material, separating it from fiction and distortion.

            So you recommend this to the author of the article, what do I have to do with it?
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            In short, your "revelation" that the artist is conjecturing something

            I just expressed my opinion about the article. What is it that bothered you so much? What does alleged pathos have to do with it?
            If I understand correctly, is there something personal here? Did I offend you with something?
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 5 January 2020 16: 29
              +3
              Quote: Krasnoyarsk
              So you recommend this to the author of the article

              And the author understands everything perfectly, he does not need to explain such simple things. You wanted to say that paintings cannot serve as a source of historical knowledge? They can. With some caution, they can. Actually, about this and the article. And absolutely reliable sources that can be trusted without looking back do not exist in principle - I have personally tried to explain this to you. Unless in the future, recordings from street video cameras may become such ... But for this, time must still pass.
              Quote: Krasnoyarsk
              is there something personal here?

              Why do you think so? Do you really think that in order to express disagreement with your opinion, I must feel any personal hostility or resentment towards you? Of course not. However, your question led me to the idea that you yourself may have a personal dislike for the author of the article and, by publishing such comments, try to reduce personal scores with him, but just judge me based on your own experience. Have you thought about this?
              1. Krasnoyarsk
                Krasnoyarsk 5 January 2020 22: 46
                0
                Quote: Trilobite Master
                You wanted to say that paintings cannot serve as a source of historical knowledge? They can. With some caution, they can.

                Yes Yes. What color was the camisole worn .... what cut .... Do you call this historical knowledge gleaned from the contemplation of paintings by a poor artist?
                Quote: Trilobite Master
                Do you really think that in order to express disagreement with your opinion, I must feel some kind of personal dislike for you

                It is not at all a matter of your disagreement with my opinion, but of how you expressed this disagreement.
                Quote: Trilobite Master
                Have you thought about this?

                Sorry, but I do not know how to think about what is not.
                1. depressant
                  depressant 6 January 2020 08: 41
                  +2
                  I agree with the Trilobite Master.
                  So I saw with my own eyes Basayev in Abkhazia with his detachment - this is when the events there began. I saw it close. My attention was specifically paid to this figure. But they wouldn’t have paid it, it would have just seemed to be that, they say, for a strange person: a pale face, a beard of an unusual shape, a gloomy look, complete immersion in oneself, does not look like an Abkhaz. Yes, and others are also nearby - strange, partisan-looking and do not let go of weapons. Nine in the morning, and they burn a fire in the courtyard of the sanatorium, squatted him, and each seems to be on his own. I thought, and would be forgotten. Who at that time knew in Russia that someone Basayev in that war participated on the side of the Abkhazians together with the Russian army, while having some kind of unusual status? I mean the general public. Only very recently began to seep. And I already knew about Basayev. I am an eyewitness. I remember when I was already on the Russian side of the border, a rumor reached that the Russian military commanders did not pay Basayev for participating in the war, and Gamsakhurdia gave the money intended for his unit so that he could withdraw his army. And when Basayev arose as a media figure, I understood why ...
                  You see, like this - from the multitude of small, seemingly insignificant, fragmentary evidence of different people, a complete picture of being is formed. So is the painting. The pen described is complemented by the visual effects created by it.
                  As for the woman in the picture, I read that in those days the wife brought lunch on guard.
                  1. Krasnoyarsk
                    Krasnoyarsk 6 January 2020 10: 48
                    +1
                    Lyudmila Yakovlevna, just imagine - before the eyes of a man in 2120, the picture, and the picture shows: -
                    Quote: depressant
                    strange person: a pale face, a beard of an unusual shape, a gloomy look, complete immersion in oneself, does not look like an Abkhaz. Yes, and others are also nearby - strange, partisan-looking and do not let go of weapons.

                    and no explanatory note to the picture. This man, looking at the picture with his eyes, what historical knowledge did you get? Can he connect this picture with the history of the Georgian-Abkhaz war?
                    1. depressant
                      depressant 6 January 2020 11: 40
                      +1
                      Let's say there is such an artistic canvas "Basayev's squad at a halt". And it, the canvas, is as shown by me.
                      1. People in civilian clothes, adults, overgrown with beards. Moreover, they are habitually and confidently holding weapons, in general, not draftees. Consequently, either a militia, or partisans, or mercenaries.
                      2. People are relaxed, immersed in themselves, which means this is not a folk, local payment. They are usually agitated, talkative and at least worried. They make heroic plans like "Yes, we have them!", Talk among themselves, exchanging assumptions. So these are not militias.
                      3. People are sitting near the office building and as if waiting for a command from above. The partisans know the area well, they have their own command, they strive to take the most advantageous tactical places and in relaxed poses they will not wait for something. They will long be waiting for the enemy in their chosen positions, vigilantly peering into the terrain in front of them. And if by the fire, then in the forest among the rocks - so that they were not visible. So these are not partisans.
                      Conclusion. The picture shows mercenaries who do not know the terrain. They are waiting for directions from the military leadership.
                      By the way, they waited. Basayev’s detachment took Sukhumi.
                      1. Krasnoyarsk
                        Krasnoyarsk 6 January 2020 12: 12
                        0
                        Quote: depressant

                        Let's say there is such an artistic canvas "Basayev's squad at a halt"

                        No not like this. By analogy with "Karaulnya". just - "On a halt"
                        Quote: depressant

                        Conclusion. The picture shows mercenaries who do not know the terrain. They are waiting for directions from the military leadership.

                        Yes, this conclusion can be reached. AND???
                        What military actions does the contemplator take her to? Afghanistan? Chechnya? Abkhazia? Or is it the Ishilovites in Syria, or maybe they are in Iraq?
                        What did this picture tell him from a historical point of view? The fact that people in those days wore beards? So they were worn at other times. What skillfully held weapons in their hands? So you won’t surprise anyone, it’s the duty of a man at all times and among all nations. Then what else? Zero. Emptiness.
                        As well as the famous painting "Hunters at Rest", what did she personally tell you from a historical point of view?
                      2. depressant
                        depressant 8 January 2020 00: 56
                        +1
                        Add unobtrusively the cypresses visible from around the corner of the building, a fan palm, a small bush of a blossoming oleander in the same place, and everything correlated with the appearance of people and weapons for a person who is at least a little familiar with history will fall into place.
                      3. Krasnoyarsk
                        Krasnoyarsk 8 January 2020 11: 05
                        +2
                        Quote: depressant
                        Add unobtrusively the cypresses visible from around the corner of the building, a fan palm, a small bush of a blossoming oleander in the same place, and everything correlated with the appearance of people and weapons for a person who is at least a little familiar with history will fall into place.

                        What a stubborn you are, well then let’s unobtrusively add - Basayev’s bandits on a halt before an operation on ... and so on with dates and a place of action.
                        In the 50-60-ies in the children's fairy tales produced were beautiful color illustrations for fairy tales. Why were they there? So that, looking at the picture, the child understands the essence of the tale? Not! And again, no!
                        A picture in order to develop the child's ability to imagine.
                        Quote: depressant
                        for a person who is at least a little familiar with history ...

                        ... a painting by any artist makes it possible, with a very small degree of truthfulness, to present the "atmosphere" of the scene depicted on the canvas. And from a scientific and historical point of view, it gives absolutely nothing. Rather, it does not add to what is already known, gleaned from archives, archaeological research and other sources.
  4. Korsar4
    Korsar4 5 January 2020 07: 56
    +6
    “The pipe blows, the canopy is thrown back,
    And somewhere saber ringing is heard ”(c).

    The topic is selected - and you follow it. Deserves respect.
  5. Hantengri
    Hantengri 5 January 2020 08: 02
    +4
    In the center of this canvas, which is called the "Pikemen Company Sentry", is an officer with a protazan, next to which stands a second officer with a cane ...

    Vyacheslav Olegovich, this is not protazan, it is a halberd.
    1. kalibr
      5 January 2020 08: 27
      +4
      Dear Igor! I will not argue. Must see. It's just that officers wore protazans as a sign of rank.
      I looked. No, Igor, it’s precisely protazan. What is the difference from halberds? The fact that the halberd had a piercing tip was an integral whole with an ax! There was a sleeve between the spear tip and the ax.
      1. Hantengri
        Hantengri 5 January 2020 09: 44
        +4
        Quote: kalibr
        What is the difference from halberds? The fact that the halberd had a piercing tip was an integral whole with an ax! There was a sleeve between the spear tip and the ax.


        10. “Bull tongue” is protazan. Switzerland. 1450-1550
        11. Protazan. Europe. Presumably XVI century.
        12. Protazan or espanton of Dutch work. Belonged to a Swedish officer in the battle of
        Lutzen 1632
        13. Swedish protazan with the coat of arms of King Gustav II Adolf. 1626
        14. Protazan of the palace guard of the Danish King Christian V. Around 1670
        15. Protazan from Piedmont, Italy. XVIII century
        16. Statisthanaya, protazan from Sri Lanka.
        (http://www.medieval-wars.com/armory/wpn_pikes.html#pikes_pikes)

        I was looking for the sleeve "between the spear tip and the ax-handle" and could not find it! laughing Hatchet too ...

        1. Halberd. Spain. XVI century A crescent-shaped blade is often found on Spanish halberds.
        2. Halberd made in Arbug, Sweden, in the second half of the XVI century. Slotted blade and beak, 3.
        the tip is unusually long.
        3. Sergeant halberd. England. The end of the XVIII century. On the blade there is an inscription: "3rd Guards Regiment." AT 5.
        The British Army wore a halberd as a sign of military rank until 1792, when it began to be replaced by
        espantone.
        4. Halberd-gizarma. Italy. Around 1510. This sample has the features of both weapons.
        5. Saber halberd. Switzerland or Germany. Around 1650. An unusual type of weapon.
        6. The hammer of the infantryman. This kind of polearm is sometimes called the "crow's beak" or
        "Lucerne hammer." Europe. C. 1550
        7. Combination of hammer and ax. Presumably France. 1400-1450
        8. The ax. Presumably France. Around 1470. Designed for foot combat in the tournament.
        Has a disk-shaped guard for protecting hands.
        9. The ax with a hammer. Presumably Switzerland. XVI c

        NN 1 and 2 for some reason are very similar to the piercing-cutting contraption, from the picture.
        1. kalibr
          5 January 2020 11: 05
          +7
          I know this book, where the pictures come from. And yes, apparently, judging by it, it's a halberd. Although ... well, in any way I do not agree with this. Always with classic halberds, the lance tip is forged along with the ax and is not even always symmetrical with respect to the pole. Apparently the genesis of this contraption went further than I read about it ha ha. Thanks for the evidence supplement. That would be all written like that ...
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 5 January 2020 13: 34
            +8
            Best European pole arms in terms of classification and periodization are presented at Bashford.

            It is immediately evident that in the picture a halberd is typical for that time.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 January 2020 14: 24
              +6
              Viktor Nikolaevich, you got ahead of me - yes, in the illustration of Vyacheslav Olegovich halberd !!!
  6. svp67
    svp67 5 January 2020 08: 39
    +6
    Interesting. A kind of "chronicle of the life of a single guardhouse"
    THANK YOU VERY MUCH TO THE AUTHOR. Indeed, here it is HISTORY, captured on canvas
    Negro servant (that is, they were already imported into Europe then, and judging by the pose, they felt themselves not at all humiliated here!)
    Yeah, especially considering, for example, the life path of the Hannibal dynasty, in Russia. Suppose this happened a little later, but not by much.
  7. kalibr
    5 January 2020 08: 49
    +7
    Quote: svp67
    Yeah, especially considering, for example, the life path of the Hannibal dynasty, in Russia. Suppose this happened a little later, but not by much.

    Dear Sergey! And you pay attention to his pose. Neither shyness nor humiliation ... sitting on a chair next to the white gentlemen, and even put up a leg. The mentality of this race is very correctly noticed.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 5 January 2020 09: 45
      +4
      That's where the roots of the notorious tolerance come from, and we have blamed everything on liberals. laughing
    2. Serg koma
      Serg koma 5 January 2020 09: 58
      +5
      Quote: kalibr
      Neither shyness nor humiliation ... sitting on a chair next to the white gentlemen, and even put up a leg.

      There were just servants, and there were servants of toys / wonders. From this, the price for them was completely different, and the attitude towards them. Remember the jesters used in literature more than once, with high-ranking persons, who were sometimes allowed more than noble nobles.
      1. kalibr
        5 January 2020 11: 07
        +5
        Quote: Serg Koma
        There were just servants, and there were servants of toys / wonders. From this, the price for them was completely different, and the attitude towards them. Remember the jesters used in literature more than once, with high-ranking persons, who were sometimes allowed more than noble nobles.

        Unfortunately, we will never know whether this is the case or not. We see only what we see.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 5 January 2020 14: 00
          +3
          Unfortunately, we will never know whether this is the case or not. We see only what we see.
          There is a book Black Africans in Renaissance Europe (Black Africans in Renaissance Europe) by Thomas F. Earle and Kate JP Lowe. There, a very detailed discussion of countries addresses this issue.
          As for Holland, it was one of the last to abolish slavery, in 1863. So you shouldn't be jealous of the then "tolerance".
    3. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 6 January 2020 00: 35
      0
      Quote: kalibr
      sitting on a chair next to the white gentlemen, and even put up a leg.

      If you look closely at other paintings by the artist, you will find that many of the characters in his paintings "stick out their feet" in the same way. So, the "exposed leg" does not say anything. Further, the artist has lived his whole life ..., let's say - not in the capital, so his "guardhouse" is not in the Louvre and not in the Bastille and the negro as "toys / curiosities" as "Serg Koma" put it there could not. Therefore, a servant. An interesting question is - whose servant? Violinist? Trumpeter? Dice player? Or a dog gnawing on a bone? Who could a servant afford to sit in the presence of a standing master? Only the servant of the dog. Therefore; either it is not a servant, or it is a figment of the sick imagination of the artist. A sitting servant with a standing master is not tolerance, as the "Sea Cat" suggests, this is a manifestation of impudent disrespect for the owner. And I strongly doubt that anyone could allow such a thing both from the side of the servants and from the side of the owners. Success in the study of history as a science.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 6 January 2020 03: 11
        0
        A sitting servant with a standing master is not tolerance, as the "Sea Cat" suggests, it is a manifestation of impudent disrespect for the owner.

        It was just a joke on my part, and by no means an assumption. And I noticed that you really like clinging to words, this is an ugly occupation, it painfully resembles one little respected character who is constantly banned by admins. hi
        1. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 6 January 2020 10: 25
          +3
          Quote: Sea Cat
          It was just a joke on my part, and by no means an assumption.

          Well, I'm sorry that I ordered your words in my own way. But I in no way wanted to offend you. It’s just that I considered various options by whom character of the picture in the image of a black man.
          And, as we were told by "Undecim", Palamedes worked in the days of slavery in Holland and therefore the Negro is a RAB, and could not sit in the presence of white masters. Therefore, we can conclude that the character in the image of a Negro is a figment of the artist's sick imagination or an unsuccessful joke, or maybe even a successful one, if you know who ordered the artist this picture and his attitude to slavery.
          Yes, and with him, with this black man. I am more interested in what historical knowledge we enriched by contemplating the paintings of Palamedes? After all, the theme is stated -
          Painting as a historical source.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 January 2020 11: 31
            +1
            Well, I believe that any artistic canvas contains information about the era during which it was created. For example, I was delighted with men's trousers with "ruffles", or whatever it is correct to call this piece of jewelry for women's underwear. laughing
            As for the Negro, he could have been brought in for contrast with white-skinned gentlemen, as later painters often did, placing a dark slave, or even a more openly naked man of black color next to a naked white-skinned lady. hi
            1. Krasnoyarsk
              Krasnoyarsk 6 January 2020 11: 35
              0
              Quote: Sea Cat
              For example, I was delighted with men's trousers with "ruffles", or what is the correct name for this piece of jewelry for women's underwear.

              We have different concepts about historical science. hi
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 6 January 2020 11: 37
                +1
                I did not insist on the contrary. request
          2. kalibr
            6 January 2020 13: 52
            0
            Quote: Krasnoyarsk
            Slave, and could not sit in the presence of white masters.

            How do you know that? Sourse of information? They were all kinds of slaves, and the attitude towards them was also different. Some could not, but some ... could much. This is not straightforward. Life is not a chess cell, it is full of halftones.
            1. Krasnoyarsk
              Krasnoyarsk 6 January 2020 14: 23
              +3
              Quote: kalibr
              How do you know that? Sourse of information?

              And you, the poor, do not know this? From many different sources. Long ago in the United States canceled signs "For whites only"? And this is in a country that officially fought against slavery.
              At all times, there were generally accepted norms of behavior. And regarding slaves too. Alone with the slave, the master could even allow the slave ......... But in a public place he adhered to generally accepted norms and would not allow the slave to sit, and the slave was not accustomed to this.
              Of course, you can talk to me about chess cells for a long time, but you yourself understand that all this is empty.
  8. Undecim
    Undecim 5 January 2020 11: 36
    +9
    Sale of paintings brought Palamedes a stable income.
    Interestingly, the Palamedes ’guards are very similar.
    Two proposals that fully characterize the work of Antoni Palamedas: the same plot motifs, interiors, musical instruments, characters, costumes. A person wrote profitable stories that had stable demand under the template. Although in terms of information about how to dress in Europe in the XVII century - quite.
    In terms of "militarism" his brother Palamedes Palamedes, who was a battle painter and as an artist, more talented than his brother, is much more interesting.

    Cavalryman in battle. Museum of Lower Saxony.
    1. kalibr
      5 January 2020 13: 15
      +7
      About brother will be in the following materials.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 January 2020 14: 35
        +7
        Guys, I’ll smile a little at you! We went with my wife to choose a tapestry in the living room. We look, choose, discuss, and then the seller issues a “pearl” - “how do you feel about the genre of painting“ life is good ”? My wife and I swam ... and an enterprising merchant began to lay out tapestry paintings with yachts, jeeps, villas and naked aunts !!! So demand creates supply! Someone puts his soul into the landscape, and who gets rich on nesting dolls (well, or portrait of your BMW in front, do not want)?
        Regards, Vlad!
        1. bubalik
          bubalik 5 January 2020 18: 15
          +2
          ,,, so what did you choose? wink laughing
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 January 2020 18: 31
            +3
            Nothing Sergey! Went with his wife to Upper Sergi, there are self-taught. Bought the landscape of a familiar place. Let not tapestry and canvas, but fiberboard, but somehow sincerely and simply. Only the baguette needs to be replaced; all hands do not reach.
      2. Krasnoyarsk
        Krasnoyarsk 6 January 2020 00: 43
        0
        Quote: kalibr
        About brother will be in the following materials.

        So about your brother or about historical science, which you learn by contemplating the paintings of brothers?
        I do not want to talk about my brother, I am waiting for revelations about historical knowledge that you gleaned from these "sources"
        1. kalibr
          6 January 2020 13: 49
          0
          I think it’s clear that this is about the paintings of this artist’s brother.
          1. Krasnoyarsk
            Krasnoyarsk 6 January 2020 14: 09
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            I think it’s clear that this is about the paintings of this artist’s brother.

            But what about the application for "Painting as a Historical Source."
            I wonder how the paintings of both brothers enriched your knowledge in historical science. And I can see the pictures without you, it’s enough to type any artist in the search engine.
  9. KVU-NSVD
    KVU-NSVD 5 January 2020 12: 13
    +3
    and what women and babies then came to the "guardhouse".
    The charter of the internal and guard service then was evidently absent or was interpreted very freely ... right now, girls and do not understand who is in the guardhouse - this is nonsense, although of course there are dodgers under the leadership of familiar drunken drunken nachkars - junior "officers"
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 January 2020 14: 41
      +5
      About times, about morals !!! The lieutenant could in the light and live in this guard - a floor above! And with the family, and you're talking about the charter !!! I think his wife also controlled the missus, ate the guard was in the gate tower, and even at the market !!!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 5 January 2020 18: 03
        +5
        On the floor above, most likely the guardhouse was located. Lieutenant, in those days, not a title, but a very, very enviable position, worthy of a noble and respected person. And what you, Vlad, are describing is the fate of the Soviet "letekha" "Kushki will not be sent further, they will not give less platoon" laughing
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 January 2020 18: 41
          +4
          So they describe the guardhouse not of the royal musketeers or the order-bearing companies of the Duke of Burgundy, but of the city guard! Especially in Zealand or Holland. At burghers everything was simpler and more mercantile.
          Anton, in his time, read about their illustrious admirals. Already a tear was knocked out by their mercantile attitude towards the navy and army! And then the city guard.
          On the other hand, there are more lieutenants than captains. Therefore, the demand for the work of the author was stable !!!
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 5 January 2020 18: 45
            +2
            ,,, this is what what the paintings depict the customers themselves request
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 January 2020 18: 47
              +3
              I don’t think so! More likely a shirroteb. For example, writing sets made of stone. They differ only in fittings and stars. Demand is ongoing.
              1. bubalik
                bubalik 5 January 2020 18: 50
                +4
                More likely a shirroteb.
                stop why would a simple layman, in fact, hang a portrait in his house of an unknown police officer or policeman (guard)belay
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 5 January 2020 19: 45
                  +5
                  Let's go, Sergei, to any modern Russian clerical leadership. What's hanging in the "red corner" ??? Maybe the Crucifixion, or the Virgin Mary, well, to the extreme, Nikola the saint ???? No, there is a parsuna hanging there, reflecting the face of a simple KGB colonel.
                  1. bubalik
                    bubalik 5 January 2020 19: 47
                    +3
                    ,,, most likely a portrait of the king and hanged, and not a simple lieutenant from the guardhouse.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 5 January 2020 20: 08
                      +2
                      At the end of the XNUMXs, I repeatedly visited the public places of my beloved city. In those days, the icon of "Equal-to-the-Apostles" Valentine was often present next to the Clear Sun icon. Why not a lieutenant with a colonel?
                    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 January 2020 20: 30
                      +5
                      Sentry! They hung on the wall of the house, just those who reached the peak of a career, well, or those who succeeded in crushing such a successful wife! From here on the canvases are children, women and araps !!!
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 5 January 2020 18: 52
            +4
            Wait a minute: "ordinance", not "order-bearing" laughing Happenes...
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 January 2020 20: 27
              +4
              Paws clumsy Buddy!
              Regarding the icons, especially the Matrons of Moscow, metropolitan officials (finders) suffer. How many of these have I experienced through horror. A set of at least such a monstrosity: the icon of the Matrona of Moscow, a portrait of Putin and a photograph of the finder with the one in power (Putin, Medvedev or, in the worst case, the general)!
              Oh, how I loved to mock them, when the icon was hung on the western or bad wall, or on the same level with Putin !!!
              He led the last fool to holy relics and drove him to the country-worshiping monastery of Platonida Raskolnitsy near Shunut. Already 7 km in winter in five directions one way! And he shawled, the Orthodox also brought the holy water from the spring!
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 5 January 2020 20: 58
                +3
                Vlad, buddy! If I did not understand the seriousness of your situation, I would propose new reprisals to the higher authorities and downstream performers every week.
  10. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 5 January 2020 14: 57
    +1
    Personally, I liked the article, as well as the previous one of this series.
    Firstly, if it were not for the author, I would hardly have ever learned about the existence of such a "serial artist", whose work led me to certain thoughts. Actually, his creations personally remind me of pancakes on Shrovetide - I ate one and you can judge the taste of everyone else. The paintings are all somewhat different, but so insignificantly that it is enough to have one in the collection in order to have a completely comprehensive idea of ​​the master's work as a whole. As the commentators have already noted above, this is a typical hack. The author, apparently, made a bunch of sketches from one nature (and, perhaps, and even probably, used someone else's sketches, of which there were a limited number) and simply stamped his next "pancakes" from these sketches, hence such a deplorable monotony topics.
    Secondly, I like to consider paintings as a source of historical knowledge, and not as a work of art. I don’t like and don’t understand painting at all, but then there’s such an interest right away ... smile In short, thanks to the author for personally increasing my cultural level. smile
    Although, personally, it seems to me that for the story it would be much more valuable than sketches rather than full-weight canvases, where the author’s fiction is probably much more.
    An interesting task is to determine where exactly in the picture is the naked fiction, where is the embellishment of reality, and where is the "naked truth".
    And do not tell me that this is impossible.
    It is enough to get carried away by the topic, analyze a certain number of paintings by various artists in a certain time range, read the chronicles and memoirs of contemporaries, as well as fiction of that time, study the architecture and layout of buildings that were used as guards and preserved to this day (there are certainly such). Then you can highlight the signs or details of the images that are available for all paintings without exception, available only to the majority, as well as occurring in isolated cases, compare them with the available information in chronicles and memoirs, make a discount on the religiosity of the worldview of all authors and consumers of their work, take into account the general political realities of the era (who fought with whom and for what at that time), and also take into account information from the author’s personal biography - where he was at that time, what financial situation he had, who ordered Rtina etc.
    In short, it is possible. smile
    Who will take, colleagues? smile
    1. kalibr
      5 January 2020 15: 10
      +6
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      It is enough to get carried away by the topic, analyze a certain number of paintings by various artists in a certain time range, read the chronicles and memoirs of contemporaries, as well as fiction of that time, study the architecture and layout of buildings that were used as guards and preserved to this day (there are certainly such). Then you can highlight the signs or details of the images that are available for all paintings without exception, available only to the majority, as well as occurring in isolated cases, compare them with the available information in chronicles and memoirs, make a discount on the religiosity of the worldview of all authors and consumers of their work, take into account the general political realities of the era (who fought with whom and for what at that time), and also take into account information from the author’s personal biography - where he was at that time, what financial situation he had, who ordered Rtina etc.

      Scary with smart people. One thing I can say. But ... anything is possible. "And everything is available, eh ma, now for our mind!"
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 5 January 2020 15: 54
        +6
        Quote: kalibr
        But ... anything is possible

        And not much is required for this, right?
        Just a bit of time (well, let it be a year), during which someone will feed you and your family, finance trips to art galleries, including their stores, sponsor purchases of relevant catalogs ... And what about the output? A rather boring science-like work in a scientific journal that several thousand people would read and appreciate, two dozen of which would later refer to it when writing another such boring work. laughing
        About Harry Potter or Night Watch, writing is much more profitable. Or, for example, about the Predatory Toilet.
        It’s me, Vyacheslav Olegovich, in the previous commentary a little bit. No one here needs such research, as I have described. And first of all, the site does not need them. After reading such a study, most commentators will think something like "well nafik, too smart" and with their comments, out of harm's way, will not climb. And to the site - pay the author money, but there is no exhaust, no comments, no clicks - what's the point?
        In short, all of you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, are doing the right thing. There is recognition, there is criticism, there is discussion, controversy. It does not make sense to sharply improve the quality of research - you will scare away visitors and commentators.
        1. kalibr
          5 January 2020 17: 40
          +6
          That's why I wrote that it’s scary with smart people ...
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 5 January 2020 18: 40
          +4
          "It makes no sense to drastically improve the quality of research - you will scare away visitors, commentators."
          But Vashchenko did not scare away!
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 5 January 2020 19: 55
            +6
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            But Vashchenko did not scare away!

            Vashchenko had a burning topic, forever young and relevant - the origin of the Slavs.
            There will always be enough gophers in this field, and everyone will be an agronomist. But his articles about Byzantium did not go that way. At the same time, Edward rarely writes.
            In general, much rests on the ratio of time to money. Those who need money simply do not have time to write for VO. request
            Personally, for example, it takes me about 10 - 12 thousand characters to write a text for six hours, sometimes less, sometimes more - almost a full day. If you get sick and have time, there is an opportunity to write something, well, even the New Year holidays - that’s how I got Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. Or some idea asks outside, requires implementation - then you take a weekend and work on it, as I wrote articles about reducing political accounts between princes. Otherwise, a teaspoon and a bunch of started, but unfinished projects turn out in an hour.
            And it's easy to write about "Creeping Macaroni" or "Vacuum cleaner-absorber of reality". No more difficult than creating theories like "Cicero - Jeanne dArc", as it was here with me or "Cleopatra - Prophetic Oleg", like Fomenko.
            1. bubalik
              bubalik 5 January 2020 20: 07
              +2
              ,
              origin of the Slavs.

              ,, win-win story yes
              and most importantly, a lot of historians appear in the comments laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 5 January 2020 21: 11
                +3
                But I know that all the Slavs came from the Sami, and to hell with me convince! And most importantly, I live well with this heavy burden of secret knowledge !!!
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 5 January 2020 20: 40
              +2
              Well, as it were, I’ll be offended by Edward ... am Articles about Byzantium came in, but with difficulty, because of the academic style of presentation. What were the readers, indicated to the author. AND!!! A miracle happened! The author worked on himself and realized the readiness of the audience. You try to make such claims to Shpakovsky. Do you know what will sound in response? "If you don’t need us, you don’t bother us !!!"
              And it will be right !!! Because how to chew on something at a more elementary level than Vyacheslav Olegovich does (even if he does "mow" at times), this is the lot of the followers of Maria Montessori.
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 January 2020 21: 30
                +6
                Anton plus Our Authors is that it is possible to conduct a dialogue with them! Alas, there are few of them, but they form the basis of the site, especially on the branch of history!
                It is sad that there are VOs and not our Authors, from whom, apart from pulling an owl on the globe, there is nothing to read! Having no basic knowledge and abilities of methodological and systematic research of the issue, fill this vacuum with rudeness or an administrative resource. I will not go over to personality, but? But there is a but!
                In essence, it is necessary to return the system of minuses to articles, or at least write down the names of the Authors in the table of contents!
                Regards, Vlad!
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 5 January 2020 22: 06
                  +4
                  I want to repent, Vlad! I sometimes read Skomorokhov, I am a sinner. True, recently his materials are most similar to "Windows ROSTA"
            3. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 5 January 2020 22: 00
              +5
              "Vacuum cleaner - reality absorber"
              Cool title of the novel !!!
              I propose a prologue.
              "Our kitten was also at first afraid of the vacuum cleaner. And then, nothing ... Sucked in ..."
              I already see the crying Stephen King !!!
              1. bubalik
                bubalik 5 January 2020 22: 18
                +3
                ,,, Dean Kunz is also not bad.
                ... And then, nothing ... I got involved ... "

                And horror and awe seized me, and shook all my bones.
                (C)
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 5 January 2020 22: 38
                  +3
                  Kuntsa read something, I don’t remember ... But in general I am more on different fiction.
                  So, for fun:
                  "Says S. King:
                  I meet a new neighbor on the street ...
                  -Hi, I know you! You are the one who writes about all sorts of horror stories. You know, I don't like your stories at all! None! This is the case "The Shawshank Redemption", there she knows everything so ...
                  -Mam, I wrote this book too ...
                  Since then she has not greeted me "
        3. Korsar4
          Korsar4 5 January 2020 23: 43
          +3
          Like Barney's guard from "Hannibal Lecter" who decided to see all of Vermeer's paintings.
        4. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 6 January 2020 14: 43
          +4
          Quote: Trilobite Master

          No one here needs such research, as I described. And first of all, the site does not need them. After reading such a study, most commentators will think something

          Excuse me, have you already had the "research"? On a historical topic, as stated in the title of the article? Or - again I missed something?
          If the article had a title - "On the work of the artist Palamedes" with an analysis of his daub, then I would have no complaints about the author. But the article - "Painting as a HISTORICAL SOURCE" interested me in earnest. But I never got any revelations from the author about how this source added to the knowledge base in the field of the author's historical knowledge. Without waiting for these revelations, I involuntarily asked myself - what purpose did the author pursue in showing us his creation? And I came to certain conclusions, which I will keep silent, not wanting to offend the author.
    2. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 5 January 2020 15: 17
      +4
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      The paintings are all somewhat different, but so insignificant that it is enough to have one in the collection to have a completely comprehensive picture of the work of the master as a whole. As the commentators noted above are typical hack-work.

      Or maybe this filmstrip is ...
    3. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 5 January 2020 17: 43
      +5
      Uhhhhhh ... I would have taken, but! Similar work pulls things into three doctoral ones. Attention, the question is: who is the person with the secondary special (yes, sometimes I remember that I am also a certified auto mechanic laughing ) will protect them? And what is the profit ???
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 5 January 2020 18: 47
        +4
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        And what is the profit?

        That’s the point ... It’s easier to write about Carnivorous Socks, superethnos or Anunaki. In this case:
        Firstly, it all depends on the author’s imagination, a minimum of knowledge is required from him.
        Secondly, in this case a minimum of knowledge is required from the reader, which significantly expands the consumer base of such "creativity".
        You can increase the volume of "creativity", hire literary "blacks" and, accordingly, have a "profit".
        Otherwise, there is no "profit", and without it there is no incentive to creativity. Vicious circle.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 5 January 2020 19: 12
          +5
          Writing about "predatory socks" is by no means easier ... Well, if you want to be read.
      2. kalibr
        5 January 2020 19: 17
        +6
        No, the topic is quite narrow, and most importantly, it can be dealt with through the Internet. And you can do it, Anton. But here is a lot of priceless time ... and what for? That's for sure!!!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 5 January 2020 19: 35
          +5
          You see, Vyacheslav Olegovich, the main thing here is in the verb! For "writing" is not in a "trend" these days, you need to "shoot". You correctly noted the framework for the perception of reality by modern generations, however, in my opinion, the changes in the perception of external information are much more global.
          1. kalibr
            5 January 2020 21: 23
            +2
            No, Anton, you just need to buy two of my books - "Technologies of Public Opinion Management" and "Internet Journalism and Internet Advertising". At the level of general erudition and your own intellect, you already know all this, but ... what has been written will help structure your knowledge, establish itself in them, and it is important to know that "I am not wandering in the dark." And there are also interesting tasks for self-education, and books to read, and films to watch. And there is just about modern information and how it works. But this ... so ... there are people who like to develop themselves, but I don't know if you are one of them or not. I try to foresee everything ... Because otherwise they are not worth buying or reading.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 5 January 2020 21: 45
              +2
              Vyacheslav Olegovich, I will definitely buy and read!
              In the material on generations x, y, z, you describe their external signs and physical manifestations, without naming reasons for differences from previous generations.
              On the subject of "self-development" ... Well, fig knows, Vyacheslav Olegovich, how did you manage to survive in Soviet times with such spontaneity !!! ????
    4. Undecim
      Undecim 5 January 2020 20: 24
      +5
      Although, personally, it seems to me that for a story it would be much more valuable than sketches, rather than full-weight canvases.
    5. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 6 January 2020 14: 54
      +2
      Quote: Trilobite Master

      It is enough to get carried away by the topic, analyze a certain number of paintings by various artists in a certain time range, read the chronicles and memoirs of contemporaries, as well as fiction of that time, study the architecture and layout of buildings that were used as guards and preserved to this day (there are certainly such). Then you can highlight the signs or details of the images that are available for all paintings without exception, available only to the majority, as well as occurring in isolated cases, compare them with the available information in chronicles and memoirs, make a discount on the religiosity of the worldview of all authors and consumers of their work, take into account the general political realities of the era (who fought with whom and for what at that time), and also take into account information from the author’s personal biography - where he was at that time, what financial situation he had, who ordered Rtina etc.

      When you study all this, analyze it, believe me, you will no longer need the "canvases" of Pelamedes to understand the historical moment of that time. Because they do not carry any information about the historical moment of that time.
  11. Looking for
    Looking for 5 January 2020 15: 42
    -4
    our rifle everywhere has ripened. In terms of scoring goals with all nonsense Shpakovsky ahead of the rest of the planet.
    1. kalibr
      5 January 2020 15: 44
      +4
      Exactly, Alexander, exactly. "Not a day without a line ..."
  12. Aleks2000
    Aleks2000 5 January 2020 16: 30
    +2
    Good article. Thank.
  13. kalibr
    5 January 2020 22: 13
    +4
    [quote = 3x3zsave] Well, FIG knows, Vyacheslav Olegovich, how did you manage to survive in Soviet times with such directness !!! ????
    Good question and there is time to answer it. First, I always believed that I was a little higher than others. Not all, not in everything, it's understandable, but many in many ways, so someone else's shit just didn't stick to me like water to a goose. Secondly, I always tried to do only what I liked and did well. I could force myself to do the right thing and do it well. But I always tried to avoid that. And if I had to, I could tell myself that I like it. So it was with the history of the CPSU, so it was with ... a lot of things. But "like" dominated. Thirdly, I never climbed into the bosses, even when offered. I could not stand ours: swing and ... swear, and ... if he swore, then beat, if swore then ... it is necessary - he went straight to the party committee and said this and that. And, of course, I had a family, a strong rear, the Exupery commandment. I did everything for the family, the family - everything for me. And I also tried to follow the commandment - everything to friends, law to enemies. In working with publishers, I always handed in manuscripts on time. I never told editors - "I am a writer, I wrote this, and you ...". I was told to throw out a chapter and a half. Not a question - at least two! Therefore, everything worked out. Editors in publishers love must-haves and not only editors. I always remembered: Why others will respect you if you do not respect yourself. This is an excellent armor for cases of unpleasant communication. He gave 20 lectures a month for workers and peasants, quite sincerely, with a sparkle in his eyes, and every month he conducted television programs for children from 1980 to 1990. That's how he survived, Anton, he didn't even notice how ...
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 5 January 2020 23: 53
      +3
      Vyacheslav Olegovich, the question was ironic. Perhaps you did not notice, but with all your courtesy, you manage, by walking, to insult people very deeply. Do not insult, insult is an outbreak, a burst of hatred or anger, insult is a deeper feeling. This is not about me, because to myself I am more ironic than the surrounding reality to me.
      1. kalibr
        6 January 2020 07: 58
        +1
        Like this! I wanted the best, but it turned out as always. However, I did not want to offend anyone. I would like to give an exhaustive and precise answer to your question. With a sense of humor - I wrote about this, but not to repeat it every time, I'm not very good at it. Even bad. So if I offended someone, especially "casually", I ask you to forgive me. It was completely unintentional. I can't even imagine who my answer could deeply offend. I wrote the truth, the way I see it.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 6 January 2020 08: 11
          +1
          Full of you, Vyacheslav Olegovich! Offend me - it is very necessary to try!
          Simply, I have repeatedly observed similar situations with your participation in the framework of this forum, in which your opponents, less thick-skinned than me, were offended to the core. For example, Alexey Bogomazov "parusnik".
          As for me, here you are undoubtedly right - I do not have a system education oh!
          1. kalibr
            6 January 2020 08: 56
            +1
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            For example, Alexey Bogomazov "parusnik".

            Here you are right, of course. I love, sinful, biting phrases and folk sayings and often use them. And ... I wrote to him "folk" - "are you drunk or stupid." I was thinking about something ... my brain and slipped in - "don't think about it, here's a ready-made phrase." But it was not necessary! Well, what happened was ...
    2. Lekov L
      Lekov L 6 January 2020 00: 34
      +3
      Vyacheslav Olegovich!
      Iron Man!
      Health, good luck and new articles!
      Respectfully.. hi