Battle of Ginegate: personal victory of the future Emperor Maximilian I


The Battle of Grandson, 1476, The Chronicle of Diebold Schilling (Central Library, Lucerne)


Historical the battle. Battles of knights with knights or knights with infantry is always interesting. This is excitingly interesting, especially if we imagine how such battles took place. Imagine that you are holding a peak five meters long and push it to the ground with your foot. It is clear that you are not alone: ​​your comrades are in the same poses on the right and left. Knightly cavalry rushes - “lava” of people and horses, chained in iron. It’s one thing - the transitional era from chain mail to plate armor, when metal was practically not visible on the knights - blankets, gambizons, helmet-mounted lambrequins, but at the end of the XV the polished metal dominated the battlefield. And such "iron guys" on the "iron horses" will jump on you, and you need to stop them. The Japanese book “Monogotari Zobie” describes how an infantryman feels with a lance in his hands when he sticks it in the horse’s neck and what is required of him at that time ... “Like a giant pulls a lance out of your hands ...” - that’s the feeling. But you need to try to keep the peak, then pull it out of the fallen horse and try to stick it in the next! And the knights - they, too, are not the lamb in the slaughter, try to get into the breaks of the peak, prick you with their spears, chop with swords, there is a clink of iron and a neighing horse, and, of course, they still scream, scream out loud!


"Iron Hat" (chapel-de-fer) Approx. 1470-1480 Milan. Too many foot soldiers participating in the battle of Ginegat wore such “hats” on their heads (Vienna armory Ward)

That's about one of the battles “at the turning point” of the epochs - the battle of Ginegat on August 7, 1479 - the battle between the allied Habsburg and Dutch troops and the French army during the war for the Burgundian inheritance. And, I think, it will be very interesting for VO readers to get acquainted with how it happened, since we have already examined here the armor of Emperor Maximilian I, as well as his biography, learned about the war for the Burgundian inheritance, and now it would be logical to get acquainted with one from the battles of this era.

Battle of Ginegate: personal victory of the future Emperor Maximilian I
Battle of Arbedo (1422). Miniature from The Chronicles of Lucerne (1513) (Central Library, Lucerne)

In 1478, hostilities mainly went to the provinces in Picardy. The parties did not succeed, and as a result, on July 11, they concluded a ceasefire for a period of one year. Yes, yes, then they fought like that. Louis XI was very afraid of the intervention of the Holy Roman Empire in this conflict, and in order not to give a reason for it, he decided to withdraw his troops from Hainaut, and also promised to return Franche-Comté, which he failed to completely capture. However, he did not refuse the main thing, that is, the duchy of Burgundy, and in addition he also declared that he would continue to title Maria of Burgundy and Maximilian of Habsburg only as the Duchess and Duke of Austria, but no more.


A rare type of helmet is sallet or salad: “Sallet the lion's head” 1475–80. Italy. Steel, Copper, Gold, Glass, Textiles (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

At Franche-Comté, the truce, however, did not extend. And Louis XI thought, and decided that there was no point in returning this territory, and words, these are just words, and if so, then it should continue its conquest. And already in the spring of 1479, large French forces moved there. At the same time, in Picardy and Artois, both ordonance companies and also free arrows (“franc archers”) of Marshal Gier and seigneur de Corda. However, they did not have enough forces to conduct an offensive operation. Archduke Maximilian took advantage of this, who quickly gathered an army of 27 thousand people and on July 25 approached the city of Teruana. Apparently, he wanted to succeed in Picardy even before the reinforcements from Franche-Comté came to the aid of the local units.


Salad helmet 1480 Nuremberg (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

Teruana's city garrison was commanded by the lord de Saint-Andre. Under his command there were 400 “spears” and 1500 crossbow shooters — that is, sufficiently large forces. When the Imperials surrounded the city and began shelling, it was reported that the French army was coming to the rescue. Maximilian immediately convened a council of war, at which many of his commanders expressed doubt that their troops, consisting of Flemish militias, would be able to withstand the blow of French horse armor. However, the duke, who was also supported by his younger associates, nevertheless decided to give the French a battle. Heavy bombards were abandoned, and only light coolers were taken to participate in the field battle.


Helmet Salad. OK. 1485 Augsburg (Vienna Armory)

The French army, although inferior to the enemy in numbers, had a large number of heavy guns. Among them, the recently molded “Big Bourbonka” cooler was especially notable, that is, the French side had the advantage here. Their army took up positions between the hills, in a place that the locals called Ginegat. The army was commanded by the lieutenant general of King Louis XI, Philippe de Crevker, senor de Cord, a Burgundian by birth and a knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece.


Such salads were most often worn by foot soldiers. OK. 1450 g. Weight 2984 g (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

The number of the French army was 1800 “copies” and 14000 “francs arsher”, although the data of different historians are slightly different. Archduke Maximilian built the Flemings in the form of an extended phalanx of great depth, exposing before it 500 hired English archers under the command of the knight Thomas Origan, who had fought for Karl the Bold, and as many as three thousand of his German arquebusiers. His heavily armed cavalry, which was numerically inferior to the French, he divided into several small units of 25 horsemen in each, so that they supported the infantry flanks. Among the riders of this cavalry there were many noble Flemish lords and those of the Burgundians who remained faithful to Mary and Maximilian.


Women and priests retrieve the corpses of Swabian soldiers immediately outside the city gates after the Battle of Triboltingen during the Swabian war. Thumbnail from the manuscript of Dibold Schilling the Younger. (Central Library, Lucerne)

Modern chronicles report that the duke addressed his soldiers with a sensual speech before the battle, in which he urged them to return everything taken away by the French and “restore justice”, to which his troops allegedly answered amicably: “So we will do it!” But here it should be noted that since the French plundered Flemish cities and villages, the Flemings were not particularly required to be brought to battle - they already hated the French with all their hearts.


Full Gothic armor of Emperor Maximilian I. Master Lorenz Colman from Augsburg. Around 1491 (Vienna Armory)

The battle began quite traditionally: the English archers who stood in front crossed themselves, kissed the ground - such was their strange custom, and started firing at the French with shouts: “St. George and Burgundy!” At the same time, they opened fire and light coolers, which turned out to be more effective, rather than the heavy cannons of the French.


French Crossbowman (Army Museum, Paris)

Seeing that his troops were suffering losses, Philippe de Krevkør sent a detachment of six hundred spears and part of the crossbowmen bypassing the enemy’s right flank. Flemish gendarmes came out to meet them, and at first they managed to repel their attack. But the numerical advantage of the French soon affected, and the second attack of the French was crowned with success: the Flemish cavalry was defeated, the guns of the Burgundians standing on the left flank were captured.


French gendarme of the late XV century (Museum of the Army, Paris)

After that, the remains of the Flemish cavalry fled, and the French gendarmes began to pursue them. Of course, this was a big mistake, but it was simply impossible to keep them from doing this, because everyone understood that for the noble riders, of whom there were many, it was possible to get a big ransom. And it is not surprising that then many representatives of the Burgundian nobility, who spoke on the side of Maximilian, were captured, and Philippe de Trizeni, dressed in gilded armor, and even decorated with diamonds, the French pursued right up to the city of Era, believing that they were chasing Maximilian himself .


Polex, approx. 1450 g. Weight 2466,4 g (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

The historian Philippe de Commin reports that not all the royal cavalry went off to pursue the retreating Flemings, but with it the commander and seigneur de Torsi, who was hardly worth doing this, had to continue to command the whole the army. Whatever it was, but it happened. As a result, the Flemish infantry on the left flank escaped complete defeat.


Typical Gothic armor of 1480. Salad helmet with a long headguard. Equipped with a visor with one continuous viewing gap. Has a forerunner - bevor. The chest armor is a cuirass, made of two parts, connected with a rivet, with V-shaped grooves in the center and horizontal grooves on both sides. Besagu - round, profiled. The sash is a “skirt” of four plates to protect the lower back and buttocks, which are connected by hinges, which gave this part a certain mobility. Sinks with fluted openers. Mittens with fingers and long cuffs with shells, also grooved. Polens with large corrugated wings. The greaves are smooth. Pointed toe sabatons are a reconstruction. Dimensions: total height - 1740 mm. Weight 18,16 kg. On the upper breast plate on the right side is the hallmark of an Innsbruck master, Klaus Wagner. Metallographic analysis showed the presence in the metal of characteristic microstructures of ferrite, perlite, as well as several large slag inclusions. Perlite is concentrated on the outer surface, although it partially mixes with ferrite deep in the metal plates. There is a clear concentration gradient of perlite near the surface, which indicates that the armor material is a low-carbon steel that has been annealed but not quenched (Royal Arsenal, Leeds, UK)

Meanwhile, in the center of the French franc, the Archers attacked the Flemish infantry, but they resisted very stubbornly, especially since more than two hundred dismounted nobles led by Prince Maximilian himself fought among them. There were about 11000 Flemings and the battle on this site took on a very fierce character. Moreover, Maximilian with a lance in his hands took a place in their row, which, of course, could not but inspire their enthusiasm. Bristling with peaks in the manner of the Swiss, they steadfastly held their defenses, while archers and arquebusiers showered the enemy with arrows and bullets. Ordonance companies of the French several times tried to break through their system in different places, but they did not succeed. The French could not oppose them. The fact is that they did not have their own Swiss, because shortly before that, the Swiss cantons announced that they were leaving the war. Louis XI was allowed to recruit only 6000 people, but they were all sent to Franche-Comté.


Halberd 1450. Switzerland. Weight 2550 g (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

Under a hail of arrows and bullets, the ordonance companies and free arrows gradually began to retreat, and Maximilian already ordered the pursuit, but here the garrison of Teruana undertook a sortie. However, instead of hitting the rear of the army of Maximilian, they rushed to rob the Flemish convoy, and in addition they also committed the ruthless massacre of the patients who were in the convoy, as well as women and children who prevented them from enriching themselves at someone else's expense.

The French tried to use their cannons to break up the Flemish ranks, but here the Count de Romon, who commanded the right flank of Maximilian, using the disorder that prevailed in them, went around their building and burst into the camp. Panic began, the French fled, so even their gendarmerie, which just at that time began to return from the chase, could not stop them. In addition, the riders returned to the battlefield in small groups, or even completely alone, and could not in any way organize a well-coordinated rebuff to the fleming Flemings.


Arme helmet, approx. 1460-1470 The helmet has the stigma of the Milanese gunsmiths of the Missaglia family. Height 30,5 cm. Weight 3603,2 g. Weight with a gorget and a foreskin 5406,3 g (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)


The coat of arms of the Piombini family on the visor of the helmet, which apparently belonged to this helmet

As a result, in this battle, which lasted from two o'clock in the afternoon until eight in the evening, Maximilian managed to win, although it came to him at a high price. Almost all the gendarmes of his cavalry were killed or captured. And in general, the Flemings lost more than the French. After the battle, Krevker quickly gathered his scattered troops. However, Louis XI took the defeat suffered as a real disaster. True, only because he considered that his courtiers had not told him the whole truth.

But then he ordered the victory to be announced in all his cities, although the Teruana garrison reprimanded through the Commander-in-Chief Count Krevkor that the battle would indeed have been won if they had hit the army of Maximilian and not robbed his convoy, and that the brutalities of the soldiers against civilians only result in the same atrocity. However, it was already positive that he condemned such actions, and then decided to begin peace negotiations with Maximilian and defeat him, if not by force of arms, then by diplomacy.


Klevets. It was a common weapon of riders in the XV-XVII centuries. since it allowed to pierce the armor of cuirassiers and reitars (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

And Maximilian did not have the strength to develop his success. He could not even take Teruana and, although the battlefield remained behind him, did not take further military action and even dismissed his troops. There is an assumption that his treasury was simply empty and he could not pay the troops necessary to capture Teruana.


Coase. A long blade on a spear shaft made it possible to strike and stabbing. Popular in the XNUMXth century infantry weapons. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

So the battle of Ginegat as a political event remained a "dummy", a massacre of people and horses, and no more. But from a military point of view, the use of it was great, since it clearly showed that no cavalry of the armored men was capable of breaking through a dense mass of infantry with peaks and halberds, which in addition was supported by numerous arrows. Well, the Dutch infantry, so successfully fighting the gendarmes at Ginegate, became the obvious forerunner of the Landsknecht infantry.


Another iron hat of the era of the battle of Ginegate. OK. 1475 g. Weight 2,920 kg (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)


To be continued ...
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  1. Olgovich 3 January 2020 07: 49 New
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    m "Sallet the lion's head"


    The original thing, though it’s not clear where he looked — through the small openings of the eyes of the “lion”? recourse

    This is probably not for battle ....

    PS Dear Vyacheslav Olegovich, Happy New Year! We look forward to his wonderful articles!
    1. kalibr 3 January 2020 09: 47 New
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      Dear Sergey! Thanks for the congratulation. In turn, I wish you all the best. As for the helmet ... This is a sallet. The man looked in the mouth of a lion!
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 3 January 2020 07: 56 New
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    Vyacheslav Olegovich thanks, sincerely pleased!
    I admit honestly I have never been interested in the life of Maximilian, so I have a sufficient knowledge gap. Now a little with your help we make up for it !!! good
  3. Korsar4 3 January 2020 09: 04 New
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    Thank. Two points are interesting - why did Maximilian give up heavy bombards? I did not believe that I could stand it?

    And the second is the persecution of the Flemings for the purpose of ransom. Subudey bagatura is not enough for them.

    However, chaos on the battlefields is not uncommon.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 3 January 2020 10: 52 New
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      Good morning!
      On the first question, I think because of the difficulty in transporting and equipping artillery positions! In fact, Maximilian had a siege artillery park. Considering that for breaks in stone walls with stone cores, monstrous calibers were necessary, then even deploying them towards the French field army would be problematic!
      On the other hand, mobile light artillery is much more efficient and maneuverable battlefield. But at the time of Maximilian there was completely no tactics for reconciling light weapons. Duke's serpentines and kulivrins were mounted on low heavy carriages. Small wheels which did not allow them to move around the battlefield. In those days, fire was fired along a flat trajectory; half a century remained before the practice of mounted fire! However, as before the universal granulation of gunpowder! All this led to the fact that the guns were abandoned.
      I think if Maximilian had not serpentines, but bastards on big wheels and high carriages, I think he would have fought back.
      But there was still a century before real field artillery !!!
      Second question. War is a continuation of politics, and politics is an advanced economy! Break the jackpot and jump into the ladies !!! I think this is true today!
      Regards, Vlad!
      1. Undecim 3 January 2020 15: 32 New
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        On the first question, I think because of the difficulty in transporting and equipping artillery positions!
        There is nothing to think about - you are absolutely right, there was no time to transport heavy artillery.
        To start with the term "bombard." In the narrow sense of a large-caliber siege weapon with a slight barrel elongation, it began to be used relatively recently. In historical sources, due to the lack of a unified standardization system, the term "bombardment" could refer to tools of the most diverse designs and sizes.
        As for the artillery of Emperor Maximilian I, a certain Bartholomaeus Freysleben, a contemporary of the emperor, composed the Book of Armaments of Emperor Maximilian I, which was illustrated by the imperial court painter Jörg Kölderer. The illustrations make it clear which bombers could be taken with them in 1476, and which were not very suitable for this.

        Such a system was hardly suitable for a field battle.
        1. Undecim 3 January 2020 15: 36 New
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          That too.
          1. Undecim 3 January 2020 15: 39 New
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            And such a thing.
            1. Undecim 3 January 2020 15: 52 New
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              Actually, an illustration depicting the Battle of Granson from the Berne Chronicle by Diebold Schilling the Elder confirms the above.
              1. Undecim 3 January 2020 16: 09 New
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                Engraving of Dürer from the Albertina Gallery in Vienna with the image of the Battle of Hranson.
                Artillery is also clearly shown.
            2. bubalik 3 January 2020 15: 58 New
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              ,
              And this is quite

              ,, interchangeable trunks recourse
            3. Kote Pan Kokhanka 3 January 2020 16: 36 New
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              Viktor Nikolaevich, I’m ready to argue with you a little! The third illustration that you have shown does not depict bombards, but snakes (hoses) small-caliber artillery of the German principalities! This is indicated by the presence of anterior axles (or eye) and grapes and primitive sights in the absence of dolphins. Guidance of such tools was carried out by lifting - turning the gun carriage! There is no wedge or screw yet. For field battles, these guns are of little use, due to the small caliber (about 2-3 pounds). Whether they shot shot with buckshot is a moot point, I think only with lead cores or stone (iron) shot. Let me remind you of cast iron for more than a century !!! Gunpowder is pulp !!! Only big wheels are progressive, but a century is still up to the normal carriage!
              The first Kurts (bastards) for field battles will appear at Maximilian after he wears the imperial crown. And then the real field artillery will appear at the Swedes in the 30 year war! Spaniards, French, Austrians will carry their basilisks for another two centuries! The first mass field artillery will appear in the time of Peter! It is she who will be the keys to our victories at Lesnoy and Poltava, and the Prut campaign will not let us lose! Although perhaps for this we should say thanks to Karl 12, who took the guns from us near Narva!
              Regards, Vlad!
              1. Undecim 3 January 2020 17: 00 New
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                Are you ready to argue about a specific illustration? Where does it say that it is a bombard? It is written "system".
                Or do you dispute the use of artillery in field battles of the last quarter of the XNUMXth century?
                1. Undecim 3 January 2020 17: 07 New
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                  As for the illustration, I agree, this would be more appropriate.
                  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 3 January 2020 21: 52 New
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                    Victor Nikolaevich! Why did you decide that I dispute the use of guns on the battlefield?
                    No, no! I say that when Maximilian was a duke, there was no proper field artillery. However, like other European countries !!!
                    The above-mentioned bastards (Kurts) will appear half a century later after the descriptions of the battle by Vyacheslav Olegovich!
                    They have dolphins (staples) on them, but there is no groove for the wedge, which made it possible to control the trunk in the vertical. Perhaps 1500-1520, it is unlikely that before.
                    Yours!
                    1. Undecim 4 January 2020 00: 03 New
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                      Yeah, I get the point of your question.
                      They have dolphins (staples) on them, but there is no groove for the wedge, which made it possible to control the trunk in the vertical.
                      In your opinion, a wedge is a detail without which the gun is still so-so, "shot".
                      But you can control the barrel vertically without a wedge, which was successfully done in the XNUMXth century, not only without a wedge, but also without pins.
                      Have you met the Burgundy carriage?

                      This is from the arsenal of Karl the Bold. Even the “fender of the first shot” is fixed on the carriage.
                      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 January 2020 11: 10 New
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                        Viktor Nikolaevich, this is more real, but the Brunghud mount is only suitable for small-caliber guns. Just for those that you indicated in the third illustration. A transitional carriage appeared for the events described, and they refused the deck into which the gun was inserted. For guidance of the trunk used anterior axles. But the carriage with manual guidance shown in the illustration. The servant took the handles of the carriage pointed him at the enemy and shot.
                        In my understanding, a field gun should possess the following qualities.
                        1. Large caliber with low weight, means a short barrel. Which in turn should be equipped with rear axles, dolphins and grapes.
                        2. Easy carriage on big wheels. In the front, it should be composite - allowing the trunk to swing in a vertical position (without a deck) and be fixed with a wedge.
                        3. The carriage must have levers for moving weapons in a horizontal plane.
                        4. The presence of a charging box (front) .for maneuver on the battlefield.
                        Maximilian in the battle in question had exactly half the necessary qualities in his guns. Having them at least three-quarters, he would have fought off the French at the beginning of the battle. By the way. The French, having successfully started the battle with their artillery, were not able in 8 hours of the battle to drag their basilisks to the infantry of Maximilian. If they had at least what the duke had, it is not yet known who celebrated the victory!
                        Yours!
                        R.S. WikNick, after all, you are our walking encyclopedia !!! hi
    2. Phil77 3 January 2020 13: 06 New
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      Quote: Korsar4
      chaos on the battlefield is not uncommon.

      And if you go into philosophy? The battle is part of the war, the war is the inability / unwillingness / of the politicians to agree. So? The chaos rules the world? And if you look at the current political bombond, there is simply no place for surprise.
      1. Korsar4 3 January 2020 13: 49 New
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        In my opinion, there are two theories: someone's will and chaos. So the version of chaos has a right to exist.

        The same "Amber Chronicles" did not appear by chance.
        1. Phil77 3 January 2020 14: 21 New
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          A. Allow me to inquire, which one is rolling now ??
          1. Korsar4 3 January 2020 17: 27 New
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            Probably, one cannot say which prevails. It's just that people are trying from different points of view to see what happens.

            And the model is driven by the growth of humanity, consumption, emissions, discharges.

            But it is unlikely that many imagine - where are we all, and in what direction is going.

            Although any aphorisms themselves suggest themselves in the spirit of Lieutenant Rzhevsky.
        2. Phil77 3 January 2020 14: 55 New
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          Well, Zhelyazny fantasized a lot of things. We live in the real world with you. But recently, not all all wright with him. Alas.
        3. 3x3zsave 3 January 2020 17: 37 New
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          And for me at Zhelyazny, only "Night on a Lonely October" sunk.
        4. 3x3zsave 3 January 2020 18: 03 New
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          This is if we accept, as an axiom, that chaos is a thing in itself, in other words, he is his own. And if chaos is a manifestation of someone’s will?
          1. bubalik 3 January 2020 18: 08 New
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            And if chaos is a manifestation of someone’s will?
            ,,, controlled chaos what
            1. 3x3zsave 3 January 2020 18: 23 New
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              On the one hand - yes, if we talk about humanity. On the other hand, not a single creed gives an answer: what happened before the advent of the Light?
        5. voyaka uh 4 January 2020 02: 22 New
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          There is a third theory: evolutionary.
          The chaotic use of will by poking.
          Or so:
          chaos is created from continuous collisions of will.
          But at the same time, weapons are constantly being improved.
          Technological progress is being made out of chaos.
  4. bubalik 3 January 2020 09: 48 New
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    ,,, all, salute!
    Helmet Salad. OK. 1485 Augsburg
    ,, Has anyone tried this on? How is the review in it?
    1. Phil77 3 January 2020 10: 16 New
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      Hello, hello, hello !!!! In my childhood I had * salvo *, then * Jofa *. And this certainly wasn’t !!!! laughing
    2. Phil77 3 January 2020 10: 31 New
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      But seriously, the visibility in such a helmet is minimal. At the level of the slot. Face protection? Yes, normal. Survey? Not really ....
      1. bubalik 3 January 2020 15: 31 New
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        ,,, Seryoga, you want royal slippers repeat
        1. bubalik 3 January 2020 15: 34 New
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          ,,, or chariot winked
          1. Phil77 3 January 2020 15: 49 New
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            Yeah! And the tax on this miracle of the world ????? Pharaoh ?????
            1. bubalik 3 January 2020 15: 53 New
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              Aha! A tax
              ,, how many horses are there laughing


              I went to the exhibition today good
              1. 3x3zsave 3 January 2020 17: 27 New
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                Horses - two, and small.
              2. bubalik 3 January 2020 22: 05 New
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                ,,, "eared" liked.
                standard codu
        2. Phil77 3 January 2020 15: 35 New
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          Oh well! Why do I need them? I bought in the * Five * for 250. But already, yes, they landed! laughing No problem, buy new ones!
          1. Mordvin 3 3 January 2020 15: 37 New
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            Quote: Phil77
            I'm in the * Five * for 250 bought. But already, yes, looted!

            I don’t understand ... What did I buy?
            1. Phil77 3 January 2020 15: 40 New
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              Volodya! Hello! With NG, Friends! Yes, Seryoga-buddy offers me slippers of the king! And I’m going to refuse: the king-king, and me?
              1. Mordvin 3 3 January 2020 15: 44 New
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                Quote: Phil77
                And I’m going to refuse: Tsar-Tsar,

                No, well, was there three tape recorders? laughing
                1. Phil77 3 January 2020 15: 52 New
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                  Ha! Ha! Ha! He laughed heartily! Gaid is forever / the last tapes do not count !!!! /. laughing laughing laughing
  5. 3x3zsave 3 January 2020 10: 30 New
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    Thanks for the article, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    I should add that perhaps the first successful experience of using a tight infantry system against heavily armed cavalry was the battle of Legnano (1176). In fairness, it should be noted that knightly armor at that time was much simpler.
  6. Undecim 3 January 2020 12: 09 New
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    A little technical clarification.
    Arme helmet, approx. 1460-1470 The helmet has the stigma of the Milanese gunsmiths of the Missaglia family.

    The helmet does not have the stigma of the Missaglia family. On the helmet there are traces of the stigma of the Brescia arms workshops in the form of Latin letters IA. Unfortunately, I did not find photos where it was clearly visible.
    The brand of the Missaglia family in the form of the letters MO under the crown and two letters M under the cross below is visible on the chin (in the photo is highlighted in a square).

    Rondelle - a round disc that protects the chin straps on the back of the head, made later, approximately XVIII - XIX century.
    That is, on the armet helmet made in Brescia from about 1460 to 1470, a chin was installed, made in Milan in the Missaglia workshop around 1450, and the coat of arms of the customer, the Piombini family, was engraved on the helmet and chin and the stigma of the Missaglia family was restored on the chin.
    And the rondelle was made later instead of the lost one.
    1. Undecim 3 January 2020 14: 50 New
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      And one more clarification.
      Metallographic analysis showed the presence in the metal of characteristic microstructures of ferrite, perlite, as well as several large slag inclusions. Perlite is concentrated on the outer surface, although it partially mixes with ferrite deep in the metal plates. There is a clear concentration gradient of perlite near the surface, which indicates that the material of the armor is low-carbon steel, which has been annealed, but not quenched.
      Metallographic analysis shows that the steel has undergone normalization. Normalization differs from annealing in that the product is not cooled in the furnace, but in air, so cooling is faster. As a result, steel acquires a ferrite-pearlite, homogeneous, fine-grained structure, toughness and ductility increase, machinability improves, internal stresses and hardening obtained during manufacture are eliminated.
      As for the carbon content, it is determined by the ratio of ferrite and perlite. The higher the carbon concentration, the smaller the area in the field of view of the microstructure will be ferrite and the larger - perlite. Thus, the thesis that low-carbon steel is doubtful. Armor steel is most likely medium carbon (0,25 - 0,6% carbon)
      Accelerated cooling in air leads to decomposition of austenite at lower
      temperatures, which increases dispersion and increases the amount of perlite. This increases the strength and hardness of normalized steel by 10-15% compared with annealed.
      1. Phil77 3 January 2020 15: 08 New
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        Well, what can I say? Scientific, academic! Analysis. Victor Nikolaevich! I note that the steel that went to build * Titanic * and * Olympic * was the same. That did not allow one to go right up to 1937, and * brother * drown when known circumstances. No? I will call it this: operating conditions!
    2. 3x3zsave 3 January 2020 17: 45 New
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      "instead of the lost."
      Probably, one of the owners of the helmet "yawned" a blow to the back of the head. Fracture of the base of the skull. Quick and easy death
  7. Catfish 3 January 2020 15: 37 New
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    Dear friends, I wish everyone a Happy New Year! Vyacheslav Olegich separately for this gift to us all!
    He set the pluses for everyone, for more there is simply no strength. )))
    1. kalibr 3 January 2020 15: 43 New
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      Dear Konstantin! Thanks for the congratulation. From myself I’ll add to all the CATS and cat lovers there will soon be an article ... on a military-historical theme ... with a beautiful cat!
      1. Phil77 3 January 2020 15: 56 New
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        Thank you Vyacheslav Olegovich !!!! Although I am not Marine, and not Kote. But I also consider myself a cat! hi
        1. Catfish 3 January 2020 16: 10 New
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          Seryoga, hello! drinks
          Why do you need to be sea, you have a hockey kitten. smile
          "Real men play hockey!
          A coward does not play hockey! "(C). good
          1. Phil77 3 January 2020 16: 21 New
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            Oh, Bone! It has long been !!! But, belly, thank God, I don’t wear it! Well, a little bit. drinks
            1. 3x3zsave 3 January 2020 17: 53 New
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              Sergei! hi And I, unfortunately, wear. request 89 vs 75 (3 years ago). Either you need to eat less, or move more ...
      2. Catfish 3 January 2020 16: 07 New
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        Vyacheslav, truly respected! I look forward to. Hopefully finally the cats will be appreciated. smile
        1. Phil77 3 January 2020 16: 32 New
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          Yes, yes, yes! They deserve it! And by the way, I don’t remember the name of the cat that the British picked up from * the German * sunk by them. During the war.
          1. Catfish 3 January 2020 16: 58 New
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            No, Serge, I don’t remember. I don’t remember this story at all.
            1. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 01 New
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              And I found it! Name-Sam. A ship registered - * Bismarck *. Color-black-and-white. Subsequent service - destroyer * Kozak * WWII of Great Britain.
              1. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 02 New
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                The battleship was sunk, but the cat escaped !!!!!
                1. Catfish 3 January 2020 17: 04 New
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                  For the first time I hear, by golly. Lucky cat. smile
                  1. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 08 New
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                    And there’s an interesting story in general, he sailed for several hours on the wreck of the ship and only then. ACCIDENTALLY! It was discovered by sailors from the destroyer. Well, they named * Sam *
                    1. bubalik 3 January 2020 17: 37 New
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                      ,,, yeah, the "happy cat" wassat
                      assigned the name * Sam *
                      ,, formerly named Oscar at Bismarck ,,
                      discovered by sailors from the destroyer
                      HMS Cossack - drowned a few months later, but the cat survived.
                      He became the ship cat HMS Ark Royal, which was torpedoed and sunk in November of that year. belay recourse,,, but the cat survived again laughing
                      1. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 43 New
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                        And by the way, Sergey! Why is the name of the ship so strange for the British Navy?
                      2. bubalik 3 January 2020 17: 45 New
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                        0
                        And by the way, Sergey! Why is it so strange for British

                        Cossack?
                      3. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 46 New
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                        Yes yes exactly!
                      4. bubalik 3 January 2020 17: 50 New
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                        request It is named after the Cossacks - the ethnosocial cultural group of the Russian and Ukrainian steppes.,,, who in the admiralty of His Highness made a decision what
                        maybe Victor Nick knows?
                      5. Catfish 3 January 2020 19: 04 New
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                        Winnie the Pooh, of course. laughing All noted Sir Winston's very peculiar humor.
                      6. Undecim 4 January 2020 00: 48 New
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                        This name appeared in the British fleet in 1805 - a 22-gun ship of rank 6, laid down as Pandour in 1805, but renamed; launched in 1806; disassembled in 1816.
                        After that, there were six more ships with the same name, four were built, the construction of one was canceled and one was taken as a trophy in 1854 (Vityaz) and renamed.
                        The last was the destroyer built in 1944.
                        It is difficult to find out the author of the idea today. In Britain there is The HMS Cossack Association, you can send them a request, maybe they know.
                        By the way, in US Navy there were also two ships with the same name.
                      7. bubalik 4 January 2020 07: 41 New
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                        hi interesting thanks yes
        2. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 10 New
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          So now who is Sea Cat? laughing laughing laughing
          1. Catfish 3 January 2020 17: 16 New
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            Of course, I have more than two thousand underwater watches. request laughing
            1. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 18 New
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              Quote: Sea Cat
              Of course, I have more than two thousand underwater watches.

              Super Sea Cat !!! laughing drinks
            2. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 29 New
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              And then the story is even cooler! The destroyer was also sunk, the cat was saved again! And ??? He was on board the aircraft carrier ..... * Ark Royal *! Which too ... yes! But he was saved again !! Well, how is it here don't remember * Unsinkable Molly * from the Titanic ?!
            3. Catfish 3 January 2020 17: 51 New
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              Seryeg, “Ark Royal”, is this, if I’m not mistaken, the work of the Guggenberger? But I don’t remember about the destroyer.
            4. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 54 New
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              U-81. Was he captain on her?
            5. Catfish 3 January 2020 18: 01 New
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              Yes, this is his boat. I already began to forget a little, I used to remember all the time.
            6. Phil77 3 January 2020 18: 04 New
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              Frets, I went for a replenishment! Sorry if that. Temporarily unavailable. laughing
            7. Catfish 3 January 2020 18: 12 New
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              In my refrigerator, if that ... smile
            8. bubalik 3 January 2020 18: 29 New
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              ,,, cake with a seagull wink
            9. Catfish 3 January 2020 18: 30 New
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              ,, cake with gull


              Sir, what are you talking about?
            10. bubalik 3 January 2020 18: 35 New
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              ,,, well, to whom what drinks
            11. Phil77 3 January 2020 18: 51 New
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              No, Serge! We’ll note it too! Until when? The answer is obvious-23, yes, yes! It is February !!!!
      3. Phil77 3 January 2020 18: 49 New
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        Go far, friend! How are you with the snow?
      4. Catfish 3 January 2020 19: 05 New
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        It fell a little, but it flows from the roofs. Some kind of winter ... liberal. laughing
  8. bubalik 3 January 2020 19: 07 New
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    I have more than two thousand underwater watches
    belay may I ask? recourse
  • Undecim 3 January 2020 17: 27 New
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    The story of “Unsinkable Sam”, having survived three ships, causes great doubts if only because in different photos there are different cats.

    One such.
    1. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 32 New
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      Well, that you are Viktor Nikolayevich! Just like that, but into our gentle cat’s soul?! Well, cruel you, right! laughing
    2. Undecim 3 January 2020 17: 34 New
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      And the second is striped. I will not write further. It seems that Vyacheslav Olegovich has prepared an article on this subject.
      1. Catfish 3 January 2020 17: 38 New
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        Vic hi , after three maritime disasters, either blacken or streak. Poor animal. drinks
      2. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 50 New
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        Konstantin! Excuse me, but I insist that these are our brothers! Mustachioed, tailed, but with a soul !!!!!
      3. Catfish 3 January 2020 17: 53 New
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        Why apologize, I myself am from this breed, and we are all brothers.
    3. Undecim 3 January 2020 17: 54 New
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      Sorry, technical error. In the second photo - this is the cat Kiddo from the airship "America". "Striped version" of "unsinkable Sam" from the museum in Greenwich I can not find. But it was.
    4. Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 57 New
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      Well, in general, it is the black and white color * of the marine creature * that appears everywhere.
    5. Undecim 3 January 2020 18: 16 New
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      Yes, I agree. But this photo has just become the primary source of doubt.

      He is an English sailor Gavin Noble, who survived three shipwrecks. In the descriptions, the question appears - what kind of cat is nearby, since it is logical to assume that the same unsinkable Sam is nearby.
    6. Undecim 3 January 2020 18: 20 New
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      By the way, I also found a pastel portrait of a cat from the Maritime Museum in Greenwich. It is also black and white on it.
    7. Phil77 3 January 2020 18: 43 New
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      Viktor Nikolaevich! The most famous photograph of this sea traveler against the background of ship's guns. And it is there that he is black and white.
    8. Phil77 3 January 2020 18: 44 New
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      Is this a version? Just a version.
    9. Catfish 3 January 2020 19: 08 New
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      Or maybe it's just a favorite “Barsik” unsinkable Noble?
  • Phil77 3 January 2020 17: 38 New
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    Aha-ha! Intrigued! But I insist on a black and white coat color!
  • kalibr 3 January 2020 19: 58 New
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    No, he is a striped protective coat with a yellowish fluffy belly! Handsome man!
  • kalibr 3 January 2020 18: 59 New
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    No, dear Victor Nikolaevich! There was an article about cat Sam from a gunboat in the magazine Secrets of the twentieth century. I don’t want to take it from there ... The material about which I am speaking is purely visual, but is related to military history.
  • kalibr 3 January 2020 18: 57 New
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    See for yourself! I think the administration will post these two materials tomorrow or the day after tomorrow ...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 January 2020 13: 49 New
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      Moderators with a cat lured! Where is the article about the cat, the cat in the studio !!! In the morning I’m watching, but the cat is dumb !!! crying
  • NF68 3 January 2020 17: 45 New
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    Interesting article.
  • CTABEP 4 January 2020 10: 28 New
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    Hmm, it was not shameful for the prince to fight in the ranks of the infantry near the commoners, risking his life with them. Interesting gentleman of course, many thanks for the article.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 January 2020 13: 46 New
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      Good afternoon! Still, the personal prowess of sovereigns is worth a lot. Take for example our Dmitry Donskoy and Peter I. The last worthy of respect from the Romanovs will be probably Konstantin Pavlovich, who took a personal part in the Swiss campaign of Suvorov! By that time, the first heir to the Russian throne after the Tsarevich.
      1. CTABEP 4 January 2020 17: 08 New
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        Yes, it is one thing to send hundreds of thousands to death from the heat of an armchair - and it’s quite another to go on a campaign with them (albeit in more comfortable conditions) and to stand in one formation in battle. It was not the fact itself that surprised me more that in those days, the nobles still paid for their privileges with blood shed in battles, and the fact that the prince fought on foot was still in my understanding as it was somehow not at all about the status for the future Emperor SRI. However, here is such an interesting fact, one more plus piggy bank of this epic personality.
  • sivuch 4 January 2020 17: 49 New
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    That battle-worthy infantry is able to stop the knightly cavalry, if it is not supported by archers / crossbowmen, was known even before Ginnegat. Something similar happened under Haver - there Philip the Good barely survived. But the French were about two hundred years old - from du Haecklen to Gaston de Foix, there were very few talented commanders